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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 752: 141650, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32898797

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Vibrio parahaemolyticus is a major cause of seafood-borne illness. It is naturally prevalent in brackish waters and accumulates in shellfish. Vibriosis cases are rising globally, likely due to rising temperatures. OBJECTIVES: To identify associations between vibriosis in Washington State and pre-harvest environmental and V. parahaemolyticus genetic measurements sampled from shellfish. METHODS: Successful vibriosis traceback investigations were spatiotemporally matched to routine intertidal oyster (Crassostrea gigas) sampling events, which included measurements of temperature, salinity, and V. parahaemolyticus genetic targets (thermolabile hemolysin: tlh; thermostable direct hemolysin: tdh; thermostable direct-related hemolysin: trh). Unmatched sampling events were treated as controls. Associations were evaluated using logistic regression models. RESULTS: Systematic differences were observed across Washington harvesting zones. These included positive associations between the odds of vibriosis and all three genetic targets in South Puget Sound, with a large odds ratio (OR) = 13.0 (95% CI: 1.5, 115.0) for a 1-log10 increase in tdh when total bacterium abundance was low (tlh < 1 log10 MPN/g). A positive association also occurred for a 1 °C increase in tissue temperature OR = 1.20 (95% CI: 1.10, 1.30) while a negative association occurred for a similar increase in water temperature OR = 0.70 (95% CI: 0.59, 0.81). In contrast, the coastal bays displayed positive associations for water temperature OR = 2.16 (95% CI, 1.15, 4.05), and for a 1-log10 increase in the tdh:trh ratio OR = 5.85 (95% CI, 1.06, 32.26). DISCUSSION: The zonal variation in associations indicates unique pathogenic strain prominence, suggesting tdh+/trh+ strains in South Puget Sound, such as the O4:K12 serotype, and tdh+/trh- strains in the coastal bays. The temperature discrepancy between water and oyster tissue suggests that South Puget Sound pathogenic strains flourish with exposure to relatively warm air during low tide. These findings identify new ecological risk factors for vibriosis in Washington State that can be used in future prevention efforts.


Assuntos
Vibrioses , Vibrio parahaemolyticus , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Frutos do Mar , Vibrioses/epidemiologia , Washington/epidemiologia
2.
J Adolesc Health ; 67(5): 714-717, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33099414

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Young adults are at high risk for increases in loneliness and mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic. The present study examined increases in loneliness in a young adult sample, for whom increases were greater, and association with increases in depression and anxiety. METHOD: Data from 564 young adults (ages 22-29, 60.7% women) were collected in January 2020 (pre-pandemic) and April/May 2020 (during pandemic). RESULTS: Loneliness increased from January to April/May and changes in loneliness were greater for females, those with higher perceived social support in January, and those with greater concerns about the pandemic's social impacts. Depression (but not anxiety) increased during this time with changes in loneliness accounting for much of the increase in depression. CONCLUSIONS: Intervention strategies with young adults need to address loneliness and feelings of reduced social support during this time, especially for those who may have had greater disruption in their social lives.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/psicologia , Depressão/etiologia , Solidão/psicologia , Pneumonia Viral/psicologia , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Transtornos Mentais/etiologia , Saúde Mental , Pandemias , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Washington , Adulto Jovem
3.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0228762, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33001987

RESUMO

Single-centre studies examining the transgenerational inheritance of pathologies in rodents exposed to pesticides have not always taken important design and analysis issues into account. This paper examines these methodological and statistical issues in detail. Its particular focus is on the estimation of 'litter effects': the tendency for rodents within a litter to be more alike than rodents in different litters. Appropriate statistical models were fitted to published data from a series of widely reported studies carried out at Washington State University. These studies were amalgamated into a single dataset in order to estimate these litter effects and associated treatment effects. Litter effects varied by outcome and were often substantial. Consequently, the effective sample size was often substantially less than the number of observations with implications for the power of the studies. Moreover, the reported precision of the estimates of treatment effects was too low. These problems are exacerbated by unexplained missing data across generations. Researchers in the life sciences could be more cognisant of the guidelines established in medicine for reporting randomised controlled trials, particularly cluster randomised trials. More attention should be paid to the design and analysis of multi-generational rodent studies; their imperfections have important implications for assessments of the evidence relating to the risks of pesticides for public health.


Assuntos
Hereditariedade , Modelos Estatísticos , Projetos de Pesquisa/normas , Roedores , Estruturas Animais/efeitos dos fármacos , Estruturas Animais/patologia , Animais , Humanos , Modelos Animais , Praguicidas/efeitos adversos , Saúde Pública , Tamanho da Amostra , Washington
5.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0238510, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33035215

RESUMO

We examine how solitary confinement correlates with self-reported adverse physical health outcomes, and how such outcomes extend the understanding of the health disparities associated with incarceration. Using a mixed methods approach, we find that solitary confinement is associated not just with mental, but also with physical health problems. Given the disproportionate use of solitary among incarcerated people of color, these symptoms are most likely to affect those populations. Drawing from a random sample of prisoners (n = 106) in long-term solitary confinement in the Washington State Department of Corrections in 2017, we conducted semi-structured, in-depth interviews; Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) assessments; and systematic reviews of medical and disciplinary files for these subjects. We also conducted a paper survey of the entire long-term solitary confinement population (n = 225 respondents) and analyzed administrative data for the entire population of prisoners in the state in 2017 (n = 17,943). Results reflect qualitative content and descriptive statistical analysis. BPRS scores reflect clinically significant somatic concerns in 15% of sample. Objective specification of medical conditions is generally elusive, but that, itself, is a highly informative finding. Using subjective reports, we specify and analyze a range of physical symptoms experienced in solitary confinement: (1) skin irritations and weight fluctuation associated with the restrictive conditions of solitary confinement; (2) un-treated and mis-treated chronic conditions associated with the restrictive policies of solitary confinement; (3) musculoskeletal pain exacerbated by both restrictive conditions and policies. Administrative data analyses reveal disproportionate rates of racial/ethnic minorities in solitary confinement. This analysis raises the stakes for future studies to evaluate comparative prevalence of objective medical diagnoses and potential causal mechanisms for the physical symptoms specified here, and for understanding differential use of solitary confinement and its medically harmful sequelae.


Assuntos
Avaliação do Impacto na Saúde , Prisioneiros/psicologia , Isolamento Social/psicologia , Adulto , Doença Crônica , Disparidades nos Níveis de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Grupos Minoritários , Saúde das Minorias , Dor Musculoesquelética/etiologia , Prisões , Autorrelato , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington
6.
Zootaxa ; 4759(4): zootaxa.4759.4.11, 2020 Apr 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056901

RESUMO

Recent and fossil global scissurellids were monographed by Geiger (2012) and additional species were recently described from Brazil (Pimenta Geiger 2015). Here, we describe an additional fossil species from shallow water strata of the late Eocene Gries Ranch Formation in Lewis County, Washington State, USA.


Assuntos
Gastrópodes , Animais , Fósseis , Washington
7.
JAMA Netw Open ; 3(10): e2024191, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33026453

RESUMO

Importance: In late December 2019, an outbreak of a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in Wuhan, China. Data on the routes of transmission to Los Angeles, California, the US West Coast epicenter for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and subsequent community spread are limited. Objective: To determine the transmission routes of SARS-CoV-2 to Southern California and elucidate local community spread within the Los Angeles metropolitan area. Design, Setting, and Participants: This case series included 192 consecutive patients with reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) test results positive for SARS-CoV-2 who were evaluated at Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, from March 22 to April 15, 2020. Data analysis was performed from April to May 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes were sequenced. Los Angeles isolates were compared with genomes from global subsampling and from New York, New York; Washington state; and China to determine potential sources of viral dissemination. Demographic data and outcomes were collected. Results: The cohort included 192 patients (median [interquartile range] age, 59.5 [43-75] years; 110 [57.3%] men). The genetic characterization of SARS-CoV-2 isolates in the Los Angeles population pinpointed community transmission of 13 patients within a 3.81 km2 radius. Variation landscapes of this case series also revealed a cluster of 10 patients that contained 5 residents at a skilled nursing facility, 1 resident of a nearby skilled nursing facility, 3 health care workers, and a family member of a resident of one of the skilled nursing facilities. Person-to-person transmission was detected in a cluster of 5 patients who shared the same single-nucleotide variation in their SARS-CoV-2 genomes. High viral genomic diversity was identified: 20 Los Angeles isolates (15.0%) resembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes from Asia, while 109 Los Angeles isolates (82.0%) were similar to isolates originating from Europe. Analysis of other common respiratory viral pathogens did not reveal coinfection in the cohort. Conclusions and Relevance: These findings highlight the precision of detecting person-to-person transmission and accurate contact tracing directly through SARS-CoV-2 genome isolation and sequencing. Development and application of phylogenetic analyses from the Los Angeles population established connections between COVID-19 clusters locally and throughout the US.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral/genética , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Ásia , California/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Humanos , Los Angeles/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Cidade de Nova Iorque , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Proteínas não Estruturais Virais/genética , Washington
8.
BMJ Open ; 10(10): e041772, 2020 10 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33082198

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: Assess the impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic on service delivery by frontline healthcare providers in acute care medical and emergency department settings and identify strategies used to cope with pandemic-related physical and mental health demands. DESIGN: Rapid clinical ethnography of patient-provider encounters during an initial pandemic 'surge' conducted by a team of clinician-researchers using a structured protocol for qualitative data collection and analysis. SETTING: Level 1 trauma centre at Harborview Hospital in Seattle Washington in April 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Frontline clinical providers serving as participant observers during performance of their clinical duties recorded observations and summaries of conversations with other providers and patients. RESULTS: We identified four different kinds of impacts: procedural, provider, patient and overall. Each impact highlighted two or more levels of a socioecological model of services delivery: (1) the epidemiology of COVID-19, (2) outer setting, (3) inner or organisational setting and (4) individual patient and provider. Despite significant changes in procedures that included COVID-19 screening of all admitted patients, social distancing and use of personal protective equipment, as well as changes in patient and provider behaviour, the overall impact of the pandemic on the emergency department and acute care service delivery was minimal. This is attributed to having a smaller surge than expected, a quick response by the healthcare system to anticipated demands for service delivery and protection of patients and providers, adequate supplies and high provider morale. CONCLUSIONS: Although limited to one setting in one healthcare system in one community, the findings offer some important lessons for healthcare systems that have yet to be impacted as well as systems that have been more severely impacted. Each of the socioecological framework levels was found to impact service delivery to patients, and variations at each of these levels account for variations in that quality of care globally.


Assuntos
Atitude do Pessoal de Saúde , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Serviço Hospitalar de Emergência/estatística & dados numéricos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Centros de Traumatologia/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Washington/epidemiologia
10.
Emerg Med J ; 37(11): 707-713, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32958477

RESUMO

Rigorous assessment of occupational COVID-19 risk and personal protective equipment (PPE) use is not well-described. We evaluated 9-1-1 emergency medical services (EMS) encounters for patients with COVID-19 to assess occupational exposure, programmatic strategies to reduce exposure and PPE use. We conducted a retrospective cohort investigation of laboratory-confirmed patients with COVID-19 in King County, Washington, USA, who received 9-1-1 EMS responses from 14 February 2020 to 26 March 2020. We reviewed dispatch, EMS and public health surveillance records to evaluate the temporal relationship between exposure and programmatic changes to EMS operations designed to identify high-risk patients, protect the workforce and conserve PPE. There were 274 EMS encounters for 220 unique COVID-19 patients involving 700 unique EMS providers with 988 EMS person-encounters. Use of 'full' PPE including mask (surgical or N95), eye protection, gown and gloves (MEGG) was 67%. There were 151 person-exposures among 129 individuals, who required 981 quarantine days. Of the 700 EMS providers, 3 (0.4%) tested positive within 14 days of encounter, though these positive tests were not attributed to occupational exposure from inadequate PPE. Programmatic changes were associated with a temporal reduction in exposures. When stratified at the study encounters midpoint, 94% (142/151) of exposures occurred during the first 137 EMS encounters compared with 6% (9/151) during the second 137 EMS encounters (p<0.01). By the investigation's final week, EMS deployed MEGG PPE in 34% (3579/10 468) of all EMS person-encounters. Less than 0.5% of EMS providers experienced COVID-19 illness within 14 days of occupational encounter. Programmatic strategies were associated with a reduction in exposures, while achieving a measured use of PPE.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Serviços Médicos de Emergência/organização & administração , Exposição Ocupacional/prevenção & controle , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Equipamento de Proteção Individual , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Betacoronavirus , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pandemias , Quarentena , Estudos Retrospectivos , Medição de Risco , Washington/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238886, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32997674

RESUMO

In 2015, the Pacific marine heat wave, low river flows, and record high water temperatures in the Columbia River Basin contributed to a near-complete failure of the adult migration of endangered Snake River sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka, NOAA Fisheries 2016). These extreme weather events may become the new normal due to anthropogenic climate change, with catastrophic consequences for endangered species. Existing anthropogenic pressures may amplify vulnerability to climate change, but these potential synergies have rarely been quantified. We examined factors affecting survival of endangered sockeye (Oncorhynchus nerka) and threatened Chinook salmon (O. tshawytscha) as they migrated upstream through eight dams and reservoirs to spawning areas in the Snake River Basin. Our extensive database included histories of 17,279 individual fish that migrated since 2004. A comparison between conditions in 2015 and daily temperatures and flows in a regulated basin forced by output from global climate models showed that 2015 did have many characteristics of projected future mean conditions. To evaluate potential salmon responses, we modeled migration timing and apparent survival under historical and future climate scenarios (2040s). For Chinook salmon, adult survival from the first dam encountered to spawning grounds dropped by 4-15%, depending on the climate scenario. For sockeye, survival dropped by ~80% from their already low levels. Through sensitivity analyses, we observed that the adult sockeye migration would need to shift more than 2 weeks earlier than predicted to maintain survival rates typical of those seen during 2008-2017. Overall, the greater impacts of climate change on adult sockeye compared with adult Chinook salmon reflected differences in life history and environmental sensitivities, which were compounded for sockeye by larger effect sizes from other anthropogenic factors. Compared with Chinook, sockeye was more negatively affected by a history of juvenile transportation and by similar temperatures and flows. The largest changes in temperature and flow were projected to be upstream from the hydrosystem, where direct mitigation through hydrosystem management is not an option. Unfortunately, Snake River sockeye have likely lost much of their adaptive capacity with the loss of the wild population. Further work exploring habitat restoration or additional mitigation actions is urgently needed.


Assuntos
Migração Animal/fisiologia , Oncorhynchus/classificação , Migração Animal/classificação , Animais , Mudança Climática , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais , Espécies em Perigo de Extinção , Idaho , Oncorhynchus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oncorhynchus/fisiologia , Oregon , Rios , Washington
12.
Science ; 370(6516): 564-570, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32912998

RESUMO

Accurate understanding of the global spread of emerging viruses is critical for public health responses and for anticipating and preventing future outbreaks. Here we elucidate when, where, and how the earliest sustained severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) transmission networks became established in Europe and North America. Our results suggest that rapid early interventions successfully prevented early introductions of the virus from taking hold in Germany and the United States. Other, later introductions of the virus from China to both Italy and Washington state, United States, founded the earliest sustained European and North America transmission networks. Our analyses demonstrate the effectiveness of public health measures in preventing onward transmission and show that intensive testing and contact tracing could have prevented SARS-CoV-2 outbreaks from becoming established in these regions.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Viagem Aérea , China/epidemiologia , Simulação por Computador , Busca de Comunicante , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Evolução Molecular , Genoma Viral , Alemanha/epidemiologia , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Programas de Rastreamento , Mutação , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Washington/epidemiologia
13.
Science ; 370(6516): 571-575, 2020 10 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32913002

RESUMO

After its emergence in Wuhan, China, in late November or early December 2019, the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) virus rapidly spread globally. Genome sequencing of SARS-CoV-2 allows the reconstruction of its transmission history, although this is contingent on sampling. We analyzed 453 SARS-CoV-2 genomes collected between 20 February and 15 March 2020 from infected patients in Washington state in the United States. We find that most SARS-CoV-2 infections sampled during this time derive from a single introduction in late January or early February 2020, which subsequently spread locally before active community surveillance was implemented.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Genoma Viral , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Teorema de Bayes , Humanos , Funções Verossimilhança , Pandemias , Filogenia , Washington/epidemiologia
14.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0239198, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991602

RESUMO

We measured food availability and diet composition of juvenile salmonids over multiple years and seasons before and during the world's largest dam removal on the Elwha River, Washington State. We conducted these measurements over three sediment-impacted sections (the estuary and two sections of the river downstream of each dam) and compared these to data collected from mainstem tributaries not directly affected by the massive amount of sediment released from the reservoirs. We found that sediment impacts from dam removal significantly reduced invertebrate prey availability, but juvenile salmon adjusted their foraging so that the amount of energy in diets was similar before and during dam removal. This general pattern was seen in both river and estuary habitats, although the mechanisms driving the change and the response differed between habitats. In the estuary, the dietary shifts were related to changes in invertebrate assemblages following a hydrological transition from brackish to freshwater caused by sediment deposition at the river's mouth. The loss of brackish invertebrate species caused fish to increase piscivory and rely on new prey sources such as plankton. In the river, energy provided to fish by Ephemeroptera, Plecoptera, and Trichoptera taxa before dam removal was replaced first by terrestrial invertebrates, and then by sediment-tolerant taxa such as Chironomidae. The results of our study are consistent with many others that have shown sharp declines in invertebrate density during dam removal. Our study further shows how those changes can move through the food web and affect fish diet composition, selectivity, and energy availability. As we move further along the dam removal response trajectory, we hypothesize that food web complexity will continue to increase as annual sediment load now approaches natural background levels, anadromous fish have recolonized the majority of the watershed between and above the former dams, and revegetation and microhabitats continue to develop in the estuary.


Assuntos
Recuperação e Remediação Ambiental , Comportamento Alimentar , Cadeia Alimentar , Invertebrados/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Salmonidae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Biodiversidade , Estuários , Sedimentos Geológicos , Invertebrados/classificação , Rios , Washington
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 747: 141325, 2020 Dec 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32771792

RESUMO

This study evaluates the COVID-19 impacts on traffic-related air pollution, including ultrafine particles (UFPs), PM2.5, black carbon (BC), NO, NO2, NOx, and CO in a Northwestern US city. Hourly traffic, air pollutants, and meteorological data on/near a major freeway in the downtown of Seattle, Washington, were collected for five weeks before and ten weeks after the Washington Stay Home Order (SHO) was enacted, respectively (February 17-May 31, 2020). The pollutants between pre- and post-SHO periods were compared, and their differences were statistically tested. Besides, first-order multivariate autoregressive (MAR(1)) models were developed to reveal the impacts specific to the change of traffic due to the COVID-19 responses while controlling for meteorological conditions. Results indicate that compared with those in the post-SHO period, the median traffic volume and road occupancy decreased by 37% and 52%, respectively. As for pollutants, the median BC and PM2.5 levels significantly decreased by 25% and 33%, relatively, while NO, NO2, NOx, and CO decreased by 33%, 29%, 30%, and 17%, respectively. In contrast, neither size-resolved UFPs nor total UFPs showed significant changes between the two periods, although larger particles (≥115.5 nm) decreased by 4-29%. Additionally, significant differences were found in meteorological conditions between the two periods. Based on the MAR(1) models, controlling for meteorological conditions, the COVID-19 responses were associated with significant decreases in median levels of traffic-related pollutants including 11.5-154.0 nm particles (ranging from -3% [95% confidence interval (CI): -1%, -4%] to -12% [95% CI: -10%, -14%]), total UFPs (-7% [95% CI: -5%, -8%]), BC (-6% [95% CI: -5%, -7%]), PM2.5 (-2% [95% CI: -1%, -3%]), NO, NO2, NOx (ranging from -3% [95% CI: -2%, -4%] to -10% [95% CI: -18%, -12%]), and CO (-4% [95% CI, -3%, -5%]). These findings illustrate that the conclusion of the COVID-19 impacts on urban traffic-related air pollutant levels could be completely different in scenarios whether meteorology was adjusted for or not. Fully adjusting for meteorology, this study shows that the COVID-19 responses were associated with much more reductions in traffic-related UFPs than PM2.5 in the Seattle region, in contrast to the reverse trend from the direct empirical data comparison.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos , Poluição do Ar , Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Poluição do Ar/análise , Betacoronavirus , Cidades , Humanos , Material Particulado/análise , Emissões de Veículos/análise , Washington
16.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 158: 111287, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32753166

RESUMO

Forage fish are primary prey for seabirds, fish and marine mammals. Contaminant transfer and biomagnification of the toxic compounds measured in this study likely contribute to elevated levels in Puget Sound, Washington, salmon and killer whale tissues that could be sufficiently high to elicit adverse effects and hamper population recovery efforts. Polychlorinated biphenyls, polybrominated diphenyl ethers, chlorinated pesticides, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, alkylphenols, and chlorinated paraffins were detected in all Pacific sand lance tissue samples generally below available health effect levels. Residual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon tissue concentrations near a former creosote site suggest ongoing contaminant exposure. Biomagnification calculations suggest that concentrations of polychlorinated biphenyls in some forage fish could result in predator tissue concentrations exceeding effect levels. The emerging contaminants alkylphenols and chlorinated paraffins are first reported here in Puget Sound forage fish, and their frequent detection, high production volumes and endocrine-disrupting properties highlight the need for further study.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Clorados/análise , Praguicidas/análise , Bifenilos Policlorados/análise , Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Animais , Monitoramento Ambiental , Éteres Difenil Halogenados/análise , Washington
17.
Plast Reconstr Surg ; 146(2): 447-454, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32740604

RESUMO

Plastic surgeons have the unique perspective of working with all types of patients and care teams from almost all specialties in surgery and medicine, which creates unique challenges in times of distress. As the initial epicenter of coronavirus disease 2019 cases in the United States, the University of Washington program was required to rapidly develop strategies to deal with the escalating crisis. All aspects of the program were affected, including the need to triage the urgency of plastic surgery care, safe staffing of plastic surgery teams, and the role of plastic surgery in the greater hospital community. In addition, as a residency training program, limiting the impact of resident education and maintaining a sense of community and connection among members of the program developed into important considerations. The authors hope that the narrative of their experience will provide insight into the decisions made in the University of Washington health care system but also remind others that they are not alone in dealing with the challenges of this pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Controle de Infecções/normas , Internato e Residência/organização & administração , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Cirurgia Plástica/educação , Universidades/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/organização & administração , Centros Médicos Acadêmicos/normas , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Internato e Residência/normas , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Procedimentos Cirúrgicos Reconstrutivos/educação , Cirurgiões/educação , Cirurgiões/organização & administração , Universidades/normas , Washington , Recursos Humanos/organização & administração , Recursos Humanos/normas
18.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237695, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32790745

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Physical distancing and other COVID-19 pandemic mitigation strategies may have unintended consequences on a number of health behaviors and health outcomes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association between perceived change in physical activity or exercise and mental health outcomes over the short-term in response to COVID-19 mitigation strategies in a sample of adult twins. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of 3,971 identical and same-sex fraternal adult twins (909 pairs, 77% identical) from the community-based Washington State Twin Registry. Participants in this study completed an online survey examining the impact of COVID-19 mitigation on a number of health-related behaviors and outcomes, administered between March 26 and April 5, 2020. In the present study, the exposure was perceived change in physical activity or exercise. The outcomes were levels of perceived anxiety and stress. RESULTS: More twin pairs reported a decrease in physical activity levels (42%) than those reporting no change (31%) or increased physical activity levels (27%). A perceived decrease in physical activity or exercise was associated with higher stress and anxiety levels. However, the physical activity-stress relationship was confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors. On the other hand, the physical activity-anxiety relationship held after controlling for genetic and shared environmental factors, although it was no longer significant after further controlling for age and sex, with older twins more likely to report lower levels of anxiety and females more likely to report higher levels of anxiety. CONCLUSIONS: Strategies to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic may be impacting physical activity and mental health, with those experiencing a decrease in physical activity also having higher levels of stress and anxiety. These relationships are confounded by genetic and shared environmental factors, in the case of stress, and age and sex, in the case of anxiety.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Exercício Físico , Saúde Mental/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Quarentena , Gêmeos , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Ansiedade , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Fatores Sexuais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Washington/epidemiologia
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