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1.
Neuron ; 109(5): 743-745, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33662268

RESUMO

Willsey et al. dissect phenotypes associated with in vivo disruption of ten ASD-associated genes using a hypothesis-free, parallelized approach in Xenopus tropicalis. These studies continue to implicate cortical neurons in ASD pathogenesis and suggest a convergence on functions related to neurogenesis.


Assuntos
Transtorno Autístico , Animais , Estrogênios , Neurogênese/genética , Xenopus , Xenopus laevis
2.
Neuron ; 109(5): 788-804.e8, 2021 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33497602

RESUMO

Gene Ontology analyses of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) risk genes have repeatedly highlighted synaptic function and transcriptional regulation as key points of convergence. However, these analyses rely on incomplete knowledge of gene function across brain development. Here we leverage Xenopus tropicalis to study in vivo ten genes with the strongest statistical evidence for association with ASD. All genes are expressed in developing telencephalon at time points mapping to human mid-prenatal development, and mutations lead to an increase in the ratio of neural progenitor cells to maturing neurons, supporting previous in silico systems biological findings implicating cortical neurons in ASD vulnerability, but expanding the range of convergent functions to include neurogenesis. Systematic chemical screening identifies that estrogen, via Sonic hedgehog signaling, rescues this convergent phenotype in Xenopus and human models of brain development, suggesting a resilience factor that may mitigate a range of ASD genetic risks.


Assuntos
Transtorno do Espectro Autista/genética , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/fisiopatologia , Córtex Cerebral/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estrogênios/fisiologia , Neurogênese , Animais , Transtorno do Espectro Autista/patologia , Córtex Cerebral/efeitos dos fármacos , Córtex Cerebral/patologia , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Estrogênios/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento , Humanos , Masculino , Fatores de Risco , Transdução de Sinais , Xenopus
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 612, 2021 01 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33504787

RESUMO

The motile cilia of ependymal cells coordinate their beats to facilitate a forceful and directed flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Each cilium originates from a basal body with a basal foot protruding from one side. A uniform alignment of these basal feet is crucial for the coordination of ciliary beating. The process by which the basal foot originates from subdistal appendages of the basal body, however, is unresolved. Here, we show FGFR1 Oncogene Partner (FOP) is a useful marker for delineating the transformation of a circular, unpolarized subdistal appendage into a polarized structure with a basal foot. Ankyrin repeat and SAM domain-containing protein 1A (ANKS1A) interacts with FOP to assemble region I of the basal foot. Importantly, disruption of ANKS1A reduces the size of region I. This produces an unstable basal foot, which disrupts rotational polarity and the coordinated beating of cilia in young adult mice. ANKS1A deficiency also leads to severe degeneration of the basal foot in aged mice and the detachment of cilia from their basal bodies. This role of ANKS1A in the polarization of the basal foot is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrates. Thus, ANKS1A regulates FOP to build and maintain the polarity of subdistal appendages.


Assuntos
Cílios/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/deficiência , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Envelhecimento/patologia , Animais , Corpos Basais/metabolismo , Evolução Biológica , Cílios/ultraestrutura , Embrião não Mamífero/metabolismo , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Ligação Proteica , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Xenopus/embriologia , Xenopus/metabolismo
5.
Science ; 371(6527)2021 01 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33479123

RESUMO

Polycomb repressive complexes 1 and 2 (PRC1 and PRC2) cooperate to determine cell identity by epigenetic gene expression regulation. However, the mechanism of PRC2 recruitment by means of recognition of PRC1-mediated H2AK119ub1 remains poorly understood. Our PRC2 cryo-electron microscopy structure with cofactors JARID2 and AEBP2 bound to a H2AK119ub1-containing nucleosome reveals a bridge helix in EZH2 that connects the SET domain, H3 tail, and nucleosomal DNA. JARID2 and AEBP2 each interact with one ubiquitin and the H2A-H2B surface. JARID2 stimulates PRC2 through interactions with both the polycomb protein EED and the H2AK119-ubiquitin, whereas AEBP2 has an additional scaffolding role. The presence of these cofactors partially overcomes the inhibitory effect that H3K4me3 and H3K36me3 exert on core PRC2 (in the absence of cofactors). Our results support a key role for JARID2 and AEBP2 in the cross-talk between histone modifications and PRC2 activity.


Assuntos
Código das Histonas , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/metabolismo , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Animais , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Domínios PR-SET , Complexo Repressor Polycomb 2/química , Ubiquitina/metabolismo , Xenopus
6.
Sci Total Environ ; 753: 141940, 2021 Jan 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32890874

RESUMO

Environmental pollutants and especially endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are implicated as one of the drivers of the amphibian declines. To advance the understanding of the risks of EDCs to amphibians, methods to determine endocrine-linked adverse effects are needed. The aims were to 1) develop a partial life-cycle assay with the model frog Xenopus tropicalis to determine endocrine perturbation and adverse developmental effects, and 2) determine effects of propiconazole in this assay. Propiconazole is a pesticide with multiple endocrine modes of action in vitro. Its potential endocrine activity and adverse effects in amphibians remain to be elucidated. Tadpoles were exposed to 0, 33 and 384 µg propiconazole/L during critical developmental windows until completed metamorphosis. At metamorphosis, a sub-sample of animals was analysed for endpoints for disruption of estrogen/androgen (sex ratio, brain aromatase activity) and thyroid pathways (time to metamorphosis). The remaining individuals were kept unexposed for 2 months post-metamorphosis to analyze effects on sexual development including gonadal and Müllerian duct maturity and gametogenesis. At metamorphosis, brain aromatase activity was significantly increased in the high-dose group compared to control. In both propiconazole groups, an increased proportion of individuals reached metamorphosis faster than the mean time for controls, suggesting a stimulatory effect on the thyroid system. At 2 months post-metamorphosis, testis size, sperm and Müllerian duct maturity were reduced in the low-dose males, and the liver somatic index in males was increased in both propiconazole groups, compared with controls. In conclusion, our results show that propiconazole exposure caused endocrine perturbations and subsequent hepatic and reproductive effects evident at puberty, indicating persistent disruption of metabolism and male reproductive function. Our findings advance the development of methodology to determine endocrine and adverse effects of EDCs. Moreover, they increase the understanding of endocrine perturbations and consequent risk of adverse effects of azoles in amphibians.


Assuntos
Disruptores Endócrinos , Triazóis , Animais , Disruptores Endócrinos/toxicidade , Humanos , Larva , Masculino , Metamorfose Biológica , Reprodução , Triazóis/toxicidade , Xenopus
7.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2179: 257-274, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939726

RESUMO

The epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) converts coherent epithelial structures into single cells. EMT is a dynamic cellular process that is not systematically completed (not all EMTs lead to single cells) and reversible (cells can re-epithelialize). EMT is orchestrated at multiple levels from transcription, to posttranslational modifications, to protein turnover. It involves remodeling of polarity and adhesion and enhances migratory capabilities. During physiological events such as embryogenesis or wound healing EMT is used to initiate cell migration, but EMT can also occur in pathological settings. In particular, EMT has been linked to fibrosis and cancer. Neural crest (NC) cells, an embryonic stem cell population whose behavior recapitulates the main steps of carcinoma progression, are a great model to study EMT. In this chapter, we provide a fully detailed protocol to extract NC cells from Xenopus embryos and culture them to study the dynamics of cell-cell adhesion, cell motility, and dispersion.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal , Crista Neural/citologia , Cultura Primária de Células/métodos , Animais , Adesão Celular , Movimento Celular , Rastreamento de Células/instrumentação , Xenopus
8.
Methods Mol Biol ; 2179: 275-287, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939727

RESUMO

Mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) describes the ability of loosely associated migratory cells to form a more adherent sheet-like assembly of cells. MET is a conserved motif occurring throughout organogenesis and plays a key role in regeneration and cancer metastasis, and is the first step in producing induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs). To resolve fundamental biological questions about MET, its relation to epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, and to explore MET's role in tissue assembly and remodeling requires live models for MET that are amenable to experimentation. Many cases of clinically important MET are inferred since they occur deep with the body of the embryo or adult. We have developed a tractable model for MET, where cellular transitions can be directly observed under conditions where molecular, mechanical, and cellular contexts can be controlled experimentally. In this chapter, we introduce a 3-dimensional (3D) tissue model to study MET using Xenopus laevis embryonic mesenchymal cell aggregates.


Assuntos
Rastreamento de Células/métodos , Ectoderma/citologia , Imageamento Tridimensional/métodos , Mesoderma/citologia , Técnicas de Cultura de Tecidos/métodos , Animais , Movimento Celular , Células Epiteliais/citologia , Células Epiteliais/fisiologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/fisiologia , Xenopus
9.
Nature ; 585(7826): 563-568, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32939088

RESUMO

Neural crest cells (NCCs) are migratory, multipotent embryonic cells that are unique to vertebrates and form an array of clade-defining adult features. The evolution of NCCs has been linked to various genomic events, including the evolution of new gene-regulatory networks1,2, the de novo evolution of genes3 and the proliferation of paralogous genes during genome-wide duplication events4. However, conclusive functional evidence linking new and/or duplicated genes to NCC evolution is lacking. Endothelin ligands (Edns) and endothelin receptors (Ednrs) are unique to vertebrates3,5,6, and regulate multiple aspects of NCC development in jawed vertebrates7-10. Here, to test whether the evolution of Edn signalling was a driver of NCC evolution, we used CRISPR-Cas9 mutagenesis11 to disrupt edn, ednr and dlx genes in the sea lamprey, Petromyzon marinus. Lampreys are jawless fishes that last shared a common ancestor with modern jawed vertebrates around 500 million years ago12. Thus, comparisons between lampreys and gnathostomes can identify deeply conserved and evolutionarily flexible features of vertebrate development. Using the frog Xenopus laevis to expand gnathostome phylogenetic representation and facilitate side-by-side analyses, we identify ancient and lineage-specific roles for Edn signalling. These findings suggest that Edn signalling was activated in NCCs before duplication of the vertebrate genome. Then, after one or more genome-wide duplications in the vertebrate stem, paralogous Edn pathways functionally diverged, resulting in NCC subpopulations with different Edn signalling requirements. We posit that this new developmental modularity facilitated the independent evolution of NCC derivatives in stem vertebrates. Consistent with this, differences in Edn pathway targets are associated with differences in the oropharyngeal skeleton and autonomic nervous system of lampreys and modern gnathostomes. In summary, our work provides functional genetic evidence linking the origin and duplication of new vertebrate genes with the stepwise evolution of a defining vertebrate novelty.


Assuntos
Endotelinas/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Crista Neural/citologia , Petromyzon/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais , Xenopus/metabolismo , Animais , Desenvolvimento Ósseo , Osso e Ossos/citologia , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Linhagem da Célula , Endotelinas/genética , Feminino , Cabeça/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Coração/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ligantes , Masculino , Petromyzon/genética , Petromyzon/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Receptores de Endotelina/deficiência , Receptores de Endotelina/genética , Receptores de Endotelina/metabolismo , Xenopus/genética , Xenopus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
10.
Nature ; 586(7827): 151-155, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32968275

RESUMO

CpG methylation by de novo DNA methyltransferases (DNMTs) 3A and 3B is essential for mammalian development and differentiation and is frequently dysregulated in cancer1. These two DNMTs preferentially bind to nucleosomes, yet cannot methylate the DNA wrapped around the nucleosome core2, and they favour the methylation of linker DNA at positioned nucleosomes3,4. Here we present the cryo-electron microscopy structure of a ternary complex of catalytically competent DNMT3A2, the catalytically inactive accessory subunit DNMT3B3 and a nucleosome core particle flanked by linker DNA. The catalytic-like domain of the accessory DNMT3B3 binds to the acidic patch of the nucleosome core, which orients the binding of DNMT3A2 to the linker DNA. The steric constraints of this arrangement suggest that nucleosomal DNA must be moved relative to the nucleosome core for de novo methylation to occur.


Assuntos
Microscopia Crioeletrônica , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/química , DNA (Citosina-5-)-Metiltransferases/metabolismo , Nucleossomos/metabolismo , Animais , Biocatálise , Montagem e Desmontagem da Cromatina , DNA/química , DNA/metabolismo , Metilação de DNA , Histonas/química , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Nucleossomos/química , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Xenopus/genética
11.
Am J Hum Genet ; 107(4): 727-742, 2020 10 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32891193

RESUMO

Congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract (CAKUT) constitute one of the most frequent birth defects and represent the most common cause of chronic kidney disease in the first three decades of life. Despite the discovery of dozens of monogenic causes of CAKUT, most pathogenic pathways remain elusive. We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in 551 individuals with CAKUT and identified a heterozygous de novo stop-gain variant in ZMYM2 in two different families with CAKUT. Through collaboration, we identified in total 14 different heterozygous loss-of-function mutations in ZMYM2 in 15 unrelated families. Most mutations occurred de novo, indicating possible interference with reproductive function. Human disease features are replicated in X. tropicalis larvae with morpholino knockdowns, in which expression of truncated ZMYM2 proteins, based on individual mutations, failed to rescue renal and craniofacial defects. Moreover, heterozygous Zmym2-deficient mice recapitulated features of CAKUT with high penetrance. The ZMYM2 protein is a component of a transcriptional corepressor complex recently linked to the silencing of developmentally regulated endogenous retrovirus elements. Using protein-protein interaction assays, we show that ZMYM2 interacts with additional epigenetic silencing complexes, as well as confirming that it binds to FOXP1, a transcription factor that has also been linked to CAKUT. In summary, our findings establish that loss-of-function mutations of ZMYM2, and potentially that of other proteins in its interactome, as causes of human CAKUT, offering new routes for studying the pathogenesis of the disorder.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/genética , Mutação , Proteínas Repressoras/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Sistema Urinário/metabolismo , Anormalidades Urogenitais/genética , Proteínas de Anfíbios/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Anfíbios/genética , Proteínas de Anfíbios/metabolismo , Animais , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Proteínas de Ligação a DNA/metabolismo , Família , Feminino , Fatores de Transcrição Forkhead/metabolismo , Heterozigoto , Humanos , Lactente , Larva/genética , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Larva/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Morfolinos/genética , Morfolinos/metabolismo , Linhagem , Ligação Proteica , Proteínas Repressoras/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo , Sistema Urinário/anormalidades , Anormalidades Urogenitais/metabolismo , Anormalidades Urogenitais/patologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Exoma , Xenopus
12.
PLoS Genet ; 16(8): e1008967, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32813698

RESUMO

Dysregulation of ribosome production can lead to a number of developmental disorders called ribosomopathies. Despite the ubiquitous requirement for these cellular machines used in protein synthesis, ribosomopathies manifest in a tissue-specific manner, with many affecting the development of the face. Here we reveal yet another connection between craniofacial development and making ribosomes through the protein Paired Box 9 (PAX9). PAX9 functions as an RNA Polymerase II transcription factor to regulate the expression of proteins required for craniofacial and tooth development in humans. We now expand this function of PAX9 by demonstrating that PAX9 acts outside of the cell nucleolus to regulate the levels of proteins critical for building the small subunit of the ribosome. This function of PAX9 is conserved to the organism Xenopus tropicalis, an established model for human ribosomopathies. Depletion of pax9 leads to craniofacial defects due to abnormalities in neural crest development, a result consistent with that found for depletion of other ribosome biogenesis factors. This work highlights an unexpected layer of how the making of ribosomes is regulated in human cells and during embryonic development.


Assuntos
Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Fator de Transcrição PAX9/genética , Ribossomos/genética , Animais , Nucléolo Celular/genética , Deficiências do Desenvolvimento/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica no Desenvolvimento/genética , Humanos , Crista Neural/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Crista Neural/metabolismo , Crista Neural/patologia , Biossíntese de Proteínas/genética , RNA Polimerase II/genética , Ribossomos/patologia , Xenopus/genética , Xenopus/crescimento & desenvolvimento
13.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 4328, 2020 08 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32859919

RESUMO

The general anesthetic ketamine has been repurposed by physicians as an anti-depressant and by the public as a recreational drug. However, ketamine use can cause extensive pathological changes, including ketamine cystitis. The mechanisms of ketamine's anti-depressant and adverse effects remain poorly understood. Here we present evidence that ketamine is an effective L-type Ca2+ channel (Cav1.2) antagonist that directly inhibits calcium influx and smooth muscle contractility, leading to voiding dysfunction. Ketamine prevents Cav1.2-mediated induction of immediate early genes and transcription factors, and inactivation of Cav1.2 in smooth muscle mimics the ketamine cystitis phenotype. Our results demonstrate that ketamine inhibition of Cav1.2 signaling is an important pathway mediating ketamine cystitis. In contrast, Cav1.2 agonist Bay k8644 abrogates ketamine-induced smooth muscle dysfunction. Indeed, Cav1.2 activation by Bay k8644 decreases voiding frequency while increasing void volume, indicating Cav1.2 agonists might be effective drugs for treatment of bladder dysfunction.


Assuntos
Ketamina/efeitos adversos , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/efeitos dos fármacos , Canais de Cálcio Tipo L/genética , Proliferação de Células , Cistite/induzido quimicamente , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Humanos , Rim/efeitos dos fármacos , Rim/patologia , Camundongos , Camundongos Knockout , Músculo Liso/efeitos dos fármacos , Músculo Liso/metabolismo , Músculo Liso/patologia , Oócitos , Receptores de N-Metil-D-Aspartato/efeitos dos fármacos , Bexiga Urinária/patologia , Xenopus
14.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3752, 2020 07 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32719334

RESUMO

Glycinergic synapses play a central role in motor control and pain processing in the central nervous system. Glycine receptors (GlyRs) are key players in mediating fast inhibitory neurotransmission at these synapses. While previous high-resolution structures have provided insights into the molecular architecture of GlyR, several mechanistic questions pertaining to channel function are still unanswered. Here, we present Cryo-EM structures of the full-length GlyR protein complex reconstituted into lipid nanodiscs that are captured in the unliganded (closed), glycine-bound (open and desensitized), and allosteric modulator-bound conformations. A comparison of these states reveals global conformational changes underlying GlyR channel gating and modulation. The functional state assignments were validated by molecular dynamics simulations, and the observed permeation events are in agreement with the anion selectivity and conductance of GlyR. These studies provide the structural basis for gating, ion selectivity, and single-channel conductance properties of GlyR in a lipid environment.


Assuntos
Ativação do Canal Iônico , Lipídeos/química , Nanopartículas/química , Receptores da Glicina/metabolismo , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/metabolismo , Regulação Alostérica , Animais , Sítios de Ligação , Glicina/metabolismo , Simulação de Dinâmica Molecular , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Conformação Proteica , Receptores da Glicina/ultraestrutura , Xenopus , Proteínas de Peixe-Zebra/ultraestrutura
15.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(2): 143-155, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32616523

RESUMO

The two-pore domain potassium channel (K2P-channel) THIK-1 has several predicted protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation sites. In trying to elucidate whether THIK-1 is regulated via PKA, we expressed THIK-1 channels in a mammalian cell line (CHO cells) and used the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) as a pharmacological tool to induce activation of PKA. Using the whole-cell patch-clamp recording, we found that THIK-1 currents were inhibited by application of IBMX with an IC50 of 120 µM. Surprisingly, intracellular application of IBMX or of the second messenger cAMP via the patch pipette had no effect on THIK-1 currents. In contrast, extracellular application of IBMX produced a rapid and reversible inhibition of THIK-1. In patch-clamp experiments with outside-out patches, THIK-1 currents were also inhibited by extracellular application of IBMX. Expression of THIK-1 channels in Xenopus oocytes was used to compare wild-type channels with mutated channels. Mutation of the putative PKA phosphorylation sites did not change the inhibitory effect of IBMX on THIK-1 currents. Mutational analysis of all residues of the (extracellular) helical cap of THIK-1 showed that mutation of the arginine residue at position 92, which is in the linker between cap helix 2 and pore helix 1, markedly reduced the inhibitory effect of IBMX. This flexible linker region, which is unique for each K2P-channel subtype, may be a possible target of channel-specific blockers. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: The potassium channel THIK-1 is strongly expressed in the central nervous system. We studied the effect of 3-isobutyl-1-methyl-xanthine (IBMX) on THIK-1 currents. IBMX inhibits breakdown of cAMP and thus activates protein kinase A (PKA). Surprisingly, THIK-1 current was inhibited when IBMX was applied from the extracellular side of the membrane, but not from the intracellular side. Our results suggest that IBMX binds directly to the channel and that the inhibition of THIK-1 current was not related to activation of PKA.


Assuntos
1-Metil-3-Isobutilxantina/farmacologia , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/química , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/metabolismo , Animais , Arginina/genética , Sítios de Ligação/efeitos dos fármacos , Células CHO , Cricetulus , Proteínas Quinases Dependentes de AMP Cíclico/metabolismo , Humanos , Mutação , Técnicas de Patch-Clamp , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/antagonistas & inibidores , Canais de Potássio de Domínios Poros em Tandem/genética , Ratos , Xenopus
16.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 3491, 2020 07 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32661239

RESUMO

Sperm contributes genetic and epigenetic information to the embryo to efficiently support development. However, the mechanism underlying such developmental competence remains elusive. Here, we investigated whether all sperm cells have a common epigenetic configuration that primes transcriptional program for embryonic development. Using calibrated ChIP-seq, we show that remodelling of histones during spermiogenesis results in the retention of methylated histone H3 at the same genomic location in most sperm cell. This homogeneously methylated fraction of histone H3 in the sperm genome is maintained during early embryonic replication. Such methylated histone fraction resisting post-fertilisation reprogramming marks developmental genes whose expression is perturbed upon experimental reduction of histone methylation. A similar homogeneously methylated histone H3 fraction is detected in human sperm. Altogether, we uncover a conserved mechanism of paternal epigenetic information transmission to the embryo through the homogeneous retention of methylated histone in a sperm cells population.


Assuntos
Metilação de DNA/genética , Epigênese Genética/genética , Animais , Cromatina/genética , Cromatina/metabolismo , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/genética , Desenvolvimento Embrionário/fisiologia , Histonas/genética , Histonas/metabolismo , Masculino , Espermatogênese/genética , Espermatogênese/fisiologia , Xenopus
17.
Mol Pharmacol ; 98(4): 328-342, 2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32690626

RESUMO

Epibatidine is a potent analgetic agent with very high affinity for brain nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). We determined the activity profiles of three epibatidine derivatives, RTI-36, RTI-76, and RTI-102, which have affinity for brain nAChR equivalent to that of epibatidine but reduced analgetic activity. RNAs coding for nAChR monomeric subunits and/or concatamers were injected into Xenopus oocytes to obtain receptors of defined subunit composition and stoichiometry. The epibatidine analogs produced protracted activation of high sensitivity (HS) α4- and α2-containing receptors with the stoichiometry of 2alpha:3beta subunits but not low sensitivity (LS) receptors with the reverse ratio of alpha and beta subunits. Although not strongly activated by the epibatidine analogs, LS α4- and α2-containing receptors were potently desensitized by the epibatidine analogs. In general, the responses of α4(2)ß2(2)α5 and ß3α4ß2α6ß2 receptors were similar to those of the HS α4ß2 receptors. RTI-36, the analog closest in structure to epibatidine, was the most efficacious of the three compounds, also effectively activating α7 and α3ß4 receptors, albeit with lower potency and less desensitizing effect. Although not the most efficacious agonist, RTI-76 was the most potent desensitizer of α4- and α2-containing receptors. RTI-102, a strong partial agonist for HS α4ß2 receptors, was effectively an antagonist for LS α4ß2 receptors. Our results highlight the importance of subunit stoichiometry and the presence or absence of specific accessory subunits for determining the activity of these drugs on brain nAChR, affecting the interpretation of in vivo studies since in most cases these structural details are not known. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Epibatidine and related compounds are potent ligands for the high-affinity nicotine receptors of the brain, which are therapeutic targets and mediators of nicotine addiction. Far from being a homogeneous population, these receptors are diverse in subunit composition and vary in subunit stoichiometry. We show the importance of these structural details for drug activity profiles, which present a challenge for the interpretation of in vivo experiments since conventional methods, such as in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry, cannot illuminate these details.


Assuntos
Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/farmacologia , Agonistas Nicotínicos/farmacologia , Subunidades Proteicas/metabolismo , Piridinas/química , Receptores Nicotínicos/metabolismo , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Compostos Bicíclicos Heterocíclicos com Pontes/química , Humanos , Estrutura Molecular , Complexos Multiproteicos/metabolismo , Agonistas Nicotínicos/química , Subunidades Proteicas/genética , Receptores Nicotínicos/genética , Tropanos/química , Tropanos/farmacologia , Xenopus/genética
18.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C359-C370, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520610

RESUMO

SLC4A11 is the only member of the SLC4 family that transports protons rather than bicarbonate. SLC4A11 is expressed in corneal endothelial cells, and its mutation causes corneal endothelial dystrophy, although the mechanism of pathogenesis is unknown. We previously demonstrated that the magnitude of the H+ conductance (Gm) mediated by SLC4A11 is increased by rises in intracellular as well as extracellular pH (pHi and pHe). To better understand this feature and whether it is altered in disease, we studied the pH dependence of wild-type and mutant mouse Slc4a11 expressed in Xenopus oocytes. Using voltage-clamp circuitry in conjunction with a H+-selective microelectrode and a microinjector loaded with NaHCO3, we caused incremental rises in oocyte pHi and measured the effect on Gm. We find that the rise of Gm has a steeper pHi dependence at pHe =8.50 than at pHe =7.50. Data gathered at pHe =8.50 can be fit to the Hill equation enabling the calculation of a pK value that reports pHi dependence. We find that mutation of lysine residues that are close to the first transmembrane span (TM1) causes an alkaline shift in pK. Furthermore, two corneal-dystrophy-causing mutations close to the extracellular end of TM1, E399K and T401K (E368K and T370K in mouse), cause an acidic shift in pK, while a third mutation in the fourth intracellular loop, R804H (R774H in mouse), causes an alkaline shift in pK. This is the first description of determinants of SLC4A11 pH dependence and the first indication that a shift in pH dependence could modify disease expressivity in some cases of corneal dystrophy.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Ânions/genética , Transporte Biológico/genética , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/genética , Lisina/genética , Simportadores/genética , Animais , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/genética , Animais Geneticamente Modificados/metabolismo , Bicarbonatos/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/metabolismo , Distrofias Hereditárias da Córnea/patologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epitélio Posterior/metabolismo , Epitélio Posterior/patologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/genética , Células HEK293 , Humanos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Transporte de Íons/genética , Lisina/metabolismo , Camundongos , Mutação/genética , Oócitos/metabolismo , Oócitos/patologia , Sódio , Xenopus/genética
19.
Arch Biochem Biophys ; 689: 108436, 2020 08 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32492375

RESUMO

Hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels belong to the superfamily of voltage-gated potassium (Kv) and cyclic nucleotide-gated (CNG) channels. HCN channels contain the glycine-tyrosine-glycine (GYG) sequence that forms part of the selectivity filter, a similar structure than some potassium channels; however, they permeate both sodium and potassium, giving rise to an inward current. Yet a second amino acid sequence, leucine-cysteine-isoleucine (LCI), next to GYG, is well-preserved in all HCNs but not in the selective potassium channels. In this study we used site-directed mutagenesis and electrophysiology in frog oocytes to determine whether the LCI sequence affects the kinetics of HCN2 currents. Permeability and voltage dependence were evaluated, and we found a role of LCI in the gating mechanism combined with changes in ion permeability. The I residue resulted critical to this function.


Assuntos
Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/metabolismo , Proteínas de Xenopus/metabolismo , Xenopus/metabolismo , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/química , Canais Disparados por Nucleotídeos Cíclicos Ativados por Hiperpolarização/genética , Ativação do Canal Iônico , Potenciais da Membrana , Mutagênese Sítio-Dirigida , Oócitos/metabolismo , Permeabilidade , Potássio/metabolismo , Sódio/metabolismo , Xenopus/genética , Proteínas de Xenopus/química , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética
20.
Am J Physiol Cell Physiol ; 319(2): C371-C380, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32579473

RESUMO

Cation-coupled chloride cotransporters (CCC) play a role in modulating intracellular chloride concentration ([Cl-]i) and cell volume. Cell shrinkage and cell swelling are accompanied by an increase or decrease in [Cl-]i, respectively. Cell shrinkage and a decrease in [Cl-]i increase the activity of NKCCs (Na-K-Cl cotransporters: NKCC1, NKCC2, and Na-Cl) and inhibit the activity of KCCs (K-Cl cotransporters: KCC1 to KCC4), wheras cell swelling and an increase in [Cl-]i activate KCCs and inhibit NKCCs; thus, it is unlikely that the same kinase is responsible for both effects. WNK1 and WNK4 are chloride-sensitive kinases that modulate the activity of CCC in response to changes in [Cl-]i. Here, we showed that WNK3, another member of the serine-threonine kinase WNK family with known effects on CCC, is not sensitive to [Cl-]i but can be regulated by changes in extracellular tonicity. In contrast, WNK4 is highly sensitive to [Cl-]i but is not regulated by changes in cell volume. The activity of WNK3 toward NaCl cotransporter is not affected by eliminating the chloride-binding site of WNK3, further confirming that the kinase is not sensitive to chloride. Chimeric WNK3/WNK4 proteins were produced, and analysis of the chimeras suggests that sequences within the WNK's carboxy-terminal end may modulate the chloride affinity. We propose that WNK3 is a cell volume-sensitive kinase that translates changes in cell volume into phosphorylation of CCC.


Assuntos
Tamanho Celular , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/genética , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio/metabolismo , Proteínas de Xenopus/genética , Animais , Cloretos/química , Cloretos/metabolismo , Citoplasma/química , Citoplasma/metabolismo , Humanos , Oócitos/química , Oócitos/metabolismo , Fosforilação/genética , Proteínas Serina-Treonina Quinases/metabolismo , Simportadores de Cloreto de Sódio/química , Xenopus/genética , Xenopus/metabolismo , Proteínas de Xenopus/metabolismo , Xenopus laevis/genética , Xenopus laevis/metabolismo
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