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1.
PLoS One ; 18(1): e0280224, 2023.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36634078

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Side-effects of medications cause xerostomia. There have been cases where a medication has been discontinued owing to its severe side-effects. Therefore, the xerostomia must be treated to ensure that the primary disease is managed effectively. This study analyzed the actual status of patients with medication-induced xerostomia and investigates factors associated with its improvement. METHODS: This study assessed 490 patients diagnosed with medication-induced xerostomia who had an unstimulated salivary flow of ≤0.1 mL/min and received treatment for xerostomia at a xerostomia clinic. Patient age, sex, medical history, medications used, disease duration of xerostomia, and psychological disorders were recorded. The anticholinergic burden was assessed using the Anticholinergic Cognitive Burden scale. The unstimulated salivary flow was measured by the spitting method. According to their symptoms and diagnoses, the patients were introduced to oral lubricants, instructed on how to perform massage, and prescribed Japanese herbal medicines, and sialogogues. Factors associated with the subjective improvement of xerostomia and objective changes in the salivary flow rate were recorded at six months. RESULTS: Xerostomia improved in 338 patients (75.3%). The improvement rate was significantly lower in patients with psychiatric disorders (63.6%) (P = 0.009). The improvement rate decreased as more anticholinergics were used (P = 0.018). However, xerostomia improved in approximately 60% of patients receiving three or more anticholinergics. The unstimulated salivary flow increased significantly more in patients who reported an improvement of xerostomia (0.033±0.053 mL/min) than in those who reported no improvement (0.013±0.02 mL/min) (P = 0.025). CONCLUSION: Xerostomia treatment improved oral dryness in 75.3% of patients receiving xerogenic medications in this study. If xerostomia due to side-effects of medications can be improved by treatment, it will greatly contribute to the quality of life of patients with xerogenic medications and may reduce the number of patients who discontinue medications.


Assuntos
Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos , Xerostomia , Humanos , Qualidade de Vida , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Efeitos Colaterais e Reações Adversas Relacionados a Medicamentos/complicações , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Saliva
2.
Curr Oncol ; 30(1): 1000-1009, 2023 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36661725

RESUMO

(1) Background: Prophylactic percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) maintained nutritional status and improved survival of patients with locally advanced nasopharyngeal carcinoma (LA-NPC). However, the role of PEG in patients' quality of life (QoL) is still controversial. We aimed to investigate the effect of PEG on the QoL of patients with LA-NPC without progression. (2) Methods: Patients with LA-NPC between 1 June 2010 and 30 June 2014 in Fujian Cancer Hospital were divided into PEG and non-PEG groups. The QoL Questionnaire core 30 (QLQ-C30), incidence of adverse effects, weight, and xerostomia recovery were compared between the two groups of patients without progression as of 30 June 2020. (3) Results: No statistically significant difference in the scores of each QLQ-C30 scale between the two groups (p > 0.05). The incidence of xerostomia was higher in the PEG group than in the non-PEG group (p = 0.044), but the association was not seen after adjusting for gender, age, T, and N stage (OR: 0.902, 95%CI: 0.485-1.680). No significant difference in the incidence of other adverse effects as well as in weight and dry mouth recovery (p > 0.05). (4) Conclusion: PEG seems not to have a detrimental effect on long-term Qol, including the self-reported swallowing function of NPC patients without progressive disease.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas , Xerostomia , Humanos , Carcinoma Nasofaríngeo , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Gastrostomia/efeitos adversos , Xerostomia/etiologia , Neoplasias Nasofaríngeas/terapia
3.
J Dent ; 129: 104390, 2023 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36526085

RESUMO

AIM: To investigate the association between 11 oral conditions and oral health related quality of life (OHRQoL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: This cross-sectional study used a multistage sampling strategy to draw a representative sample of adults aged ≥35 years living in Porto Alegre, Brazil. OHRQoL was assessed using OHIP-14. Oral examinations were conducted to assess gingivitis, dental calculus, tooth loss, gingival recession (GR), dentine hypersensitivity (DHS), dental caries (DFT), dental erosion, and non-carious cervical lesions (NCCL). Questionnaires recorded the following self-reported oral variables: xerostomia, halitosis, and perceived need for dental treatment. Structural Equation Models were used to assess the associations adjusting to demographic and behavioral variables. RESULTS: 1022 individuals were analyzed. The overall OHIP mean equaled 9.2 ± 9.7 points. Xerostomia [coefficient (coef)=0.10], halitosis (coef=0.28), DFT (coef=0.16), and DHS (coef=0.19) were significantly and directly associated with negative impacts of OHIP-14. GR was significantly and indirectly associated with poor OHRQoL due to higher DHS. Perceived need for dental treatment was significantly and directly associated with higher OHIP-14 (coef=0,40). CONCLUSIONS: Poor OHRQoL was observed in a sample of Brazilian adults and old people. Five important oral conditions were associated to poor OHRQoL. Tooth loss, gingivitis, calculus, dental erosion and NCCL did not associate with OHRQoL. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Poorer oral health related quality of life is observed in a Brazilian urban area compared to other parts of the world. Xerostomia, halitosis, dental caries, gingival recession, and dentine hypersensitivity may be targeted to improve oral health and consequently oral health related quality of life.


Assuntos
Cárie Dentária , Sensibilidade da Dentina , Retração Gengival , Gengivite , Halitose , Doenças da Boca , Perda de Dente , Xerostomia , Adulto , Humanos , Cárie Dentária/epidemiologia , Brasil/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Qualidade de Vida , Doenças da Boca/epidemiologia , Saúde Bucal , Gengivite/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Inquéritos e Questionários
4.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 548, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36457091

RESUMO

AIMS & BACKGROUND: Pilocarpine is an accepted treatment for xerostomia, but limited research has been conducted on the oral, topical form. The present study aimed to compare the effects of 1 and 2% pilocarpine mouthwash on xerostomic participants. METHODS: In this double-blind clinical trial study, 48 subjects with xerostomia were randomly divided into three groups to measure the effects of 1 and 2% pilocarpine and placebo mouthwashes on saliva levels. The amount of saliva in the 1st and 14th days was measured at 0, 45, 60, and 75 mins, while participants used their mouthwash three times a day for 14 days. On the 1st and 14th days, they filled out the information forms on xerostomia and the medicine's side effects before and after the intervention. RESULTS: On the 1st day, the mean salivary flow at 45, 60, and 75 mins in the 2 and 1% pilocarpine mouthwash were significantly higher than in the placebo mouthwash group (p < 0.05). On the 14th day, the mean salivary flow time at 45 mins in the 2% pilocarpine mouthwash group was significantly higher than in the placebo mouthwash group (p = 0.007). Furthermore, the mean salivary flow at 60 and 75 mins in the 2% (p < 0.001) and 1% pilocarpine mouthwash (p = 0.028) was significantly higher than in the placebo group. Moreover, the salivary flow in the 2% pilocarpine mouthwash group was significantly higher than the 1% pilocarpine mouthwash (p < 0.05) during these two times. No side effects were observed in any of the subjects. CONCLUSIONS: The study showed that 5 ml of 2 and 1% pilocarpine mouthwash for 2 weeks increased salivary flow in xerostomic participants compared to placebo without any side effects.


Assuntos
Pilocarpina , Xerostomia , Humanos , Pilocarpina/uso terapêutico , Antissépticos Bucais/uso terapêutico , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Saliva
5.
J Cancer Res Ther ; 18(Supplement): S165-S169, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36510959

RESUMO

Objectives: To cross-culturally adapt and determine reliability and validity of the Hindi version of the Summated Xerostomia Inventory (SXI-H). Background: Xerostomia is common among older individuals and patients with head and neck radiation or autoimmune diseases, and it can affect their oral as well as systemic quality of life. To assess the perception of this condition, SXI-H can be used. Materials and Methods: This was a multi-centric cross-sectional observational study of volunteers suffering from hypo-salivation in three tertiary care cancer hospitals in Delhi, India. The English version of Summated Xerostomia Inventory (SXI-5) was translated into Hindi according to standard guidelines and field tested. The Hindi version of SXI-5 (SXI-H) was tested on 120 patients with xerostomia. All the participants signed the informed consent form before being interviewed with SXI-H. Thirty participants were interviewed again after 15 days. A global question was asked for criteria validity. Data were analyzed through IBM SPSSTM Statistics for windows version 24. Significance was set at P ≤ 0.05. Results: Overall SXI-H score of sample was 11.48 ± 2.29. Cronbach's α value was 0.81. The correlation between the SXI-H summary score and the standard question was 0.79 (95% CI 0.65-0.74). It was found that the intra-class correlation coefficient value for the test-retest reliability was 0.90 and scores for individual question ranged from 0.41 to 0.76. Conclusion: The SXI-H demonstrated excellent psychometric properties and can be considered a valid tool for assessing xerostomia in a dry mouth patient.


Assuntos
Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço , Xerostomia , Humanos , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Qualidade de Vida , Inquéritos e Questionários , Estudos Transversais , Xerostomia/diagnóstico , Xerostomia/etiologia , Neoplasias de Cabeça e Pescoço/radioterapia
6.
Mar Drugs ; 20(12)2022 Nov 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36547876

RESUMO

Post-menopausal dry mouth or xerostomia is caused by reduced salivary secretion. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of echinochrome A (Ech A) in alleviating submandibular gland dysfunctions in ovariectomized rats that mimic menopause. Female rats that were eight-weeks-old were randomly divided into SHAM-6, -12; OVX-6, -12; and ECH-6, -12 groups (consisting of 6- and 12-weeks post-sham-operated, ovariectomized, and Ech A-treated ovariectomized rats, respectively). The ECH groups had lower body weight than OVX but similar food intake and estradiol or estrogen receptor ß expression. However, the ECH groups had lower mRNA expression of sterol-regulatory element binding protein-1c (Srebp-1c), acetyl-CoA carboxylase (Acc), fatty acid synthase (Fasn), cluster of differentiation 36 (Cd36), and lipid vacuole deposition than OVX mice. Moreover, reactive oxygen species (ROS), malondialdehyde (MDA), and iron accumulation were lower in the ECH than in the OVX groups. Fibrosis markers, transforming growth factor ß (Tgf-ßI and Tgf-ßII mRNA) increased in the OVX than SHAM groups but decreased in the ECH groups. Aquaporin (Aqp-1 and Aqp-5 mRNA) and mucin expressions were downregulated in the OVX groups but improved with Ech A. In addition, Ech A prevented post-menopausal salivary gland dysfunction by inhibiting lipogenesis and ferroptosis. These findings suggest Ech A as an effective remedy for treating menopausal dry mouth.


Assuntos
Estrogênios , Xerostomia , Animais , Feminino , Camundongos , Ratos , Estradiol , Estrogênios/farmacologia , Ovariectomia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , RNA Mensageiro , Glândula Submandibular
7.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 982, 2022 12 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36536323

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study investigated the association between xerostomia and health risk behaviours, general and oral health and quality of life. METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving 800 adults over 65 years of age residing in Spain using a computer-assisted telephone questionnaire. The severity of xerostomia was assessed through the Xerostomia Inventory (XI). Both univariate and adjusted multinomial logistic regression were used to determine the risk (OR) of xerostomia. RESULTS: The sample comprised of 492 females (61.5%) and 308 males, with a mean age of 73.7 ± 5.8 years. Some, 30.7% had xerostomia: 25.6% mild, 4.8% moderate and 0.3% severe, the majority being female (34.8% vs 24%; p = 0.003). The mean XI was 24.6 ± 6.3 (95% CI 19.2-24.8) for those with poor health, whereas it was 17.4 ± 6.3 (95%CI 16.1-18.6) in those reporting very good health (p < 0.001). This difference was also observed in terms of oral health, with the XI mean recorded as 14.7 ± 10.7 for very poor oral health and 6.4 ± 5.4 for those with very good health (p = 0.002). Logistic regression showed that the highest OR for xerostomia was observed among adults with poor general health (2.81; 95%CI 1.8-4.3; p < 0.001) and for adjusted model the OR was still significant (2.18; 95%CI 1.4-3.4; p = 0.001). Those who needed help with household chores had 2.16 higher OR (95%CI 1.4-3.4; p = 0.001) and 1.69 (95%CI 1.1-2.7; p = 0.03) in the adjusted model. Females had a higher risk of suffering from xerostomia than males. CONCLUSION: The strong association between xerostomia and the general and oral health status of older adults justifies the need for early assessment and regular follow-up.


Assuntos
Saúde Bucal , Xerostomia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , Qualidade de Vida , Estudos Transversais , Comportamentos de Risco à Saúde , Inquéritos e Questionários , Percepção
8.
BMC Pharmacol Toxicol ; 23(1): 94, 2022 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36539885

RESUMO

PURPOSE: The aim of this work was to investigate the association between anticholinergic burden or anticholinergic drug use and xerostomia and/or xerophtalmia in elderly through a systematic review of the published literature. METHODS: A search was carried out in 3 databases (CINAHL, Embase and Pubmed). Studies conducted in people ≥65 years of age, who took anticholinergic medications, and measured the association between the anticholinergic burden or the use of these medications with the prevalence of xerostomia and / or xerophthalmia, published up to August 2022, were selected. Studies published in languages other than Spanish and/or English were excluded. RESULTS: One thousand two hundred eleven articles were identified, 10 were selected for this review: six cross-sectional studies, two cohorts, one case-control and one randomized controlled clinical trial. A total of 3535 patients included in the different studies were studied. The most used scales were the Anticholinergic Drug Scale (ADS) and the Anticholinergic Risk Scale (ARS). Four articles studied the relationship between the use of anticholinergic medication and the prevalence of xerostomia and / or xerophthalmia, finding a positive relationship with xerostomia in all of them. Another 6 measured the relationship between anticholinergic burden and xerostomia and / or xerophthalmia. Four found a positive relationship between anticholinergic burden and xerostomia and/or xerophthalmia. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest a clear relationship between the use of anticholinergic drugs or anticholinergic burden and the presence of xerostomia. This relationship was less conclusive in the case of xerophthalmia.


Assuntos
Xeroftalmia , Xerostomia , Humanos , Idoso , Antagonistas Colinérgicos/efeitos adversos , Xeroftalmia/tratamento farmacológico , Estudos Transversais , Xerostomia/induzido quimicamente , Xerostomia/epidemiologia , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Prevalência , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
9.
BMC Palliat Care ; 21(1): 226, 2022 Dec 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36550454

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Psychosocial interventions are rapidly emerging in palliative care. However, randomized trials often fail to provide evidence for their effectiveness with regard to patient-reported outcomes. Stress biomarkers could complement self-report data, but little is known about their feasibility, acceptance, and interpretability. METHODS: Therefore, we designed a randomized crossover trial in which 42 patients in a palliative care unit participated in both a brief mindfulness intervention (MI) and a resting state control condition (CC) on two consecutive afternoons. On each day, we collected four saliva samples in 20-min intervals using Salivettes© to determine salivary cortisol (sCort) and alpha-amylase (sAA) concentration levels. At all measurement points, self-rated well-being and stress as well as cardiovascular markers were assessed. Baseline measurements further included self-rated quality of life and clinician-rated functional status. RESULTS: 78.6% of the patients provided the maximum number of 8 saliva samples and 62.2% reported no subjective difficulties with the sampling procedures. 66.6% (sCort) and 69.6% (sAA) of all possible samples were finally included in the analysis. Xerostomia and nausea were the main reasons for missing data. Higher sCort levels were associated with higher heart rate and lower quality of life, functional status, and heart rate variability. Corticosteroid and sedative medication as well as time since last meal were identified as potential confounders. Regarding reactivity to the MI, we found an overall decrease in sCort levels over time (b = -.03, p = .01), but this effect did not differ significantly between the study conditions (b = .03, p = .21). sAA levels were higher in men than in women. Trajectories over time did not significantly differ between the two conditions (b = -.02, p = .80) and associations with other stress and health-related constructs were weak. CONCLUSIONS: Findings indicate that sCort might serve as a psychobiological outcome in future palliative care trials. However, future research should refine the exact measurement and conceptualization strategies for sCort in palliative care research. High attrition rates should be expected in patients with xerostomia or nausea. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registered at the German Clinical Trials Registry (DRKS00013135) at 04/12/2017.


Assuntos
Xerostomia , alfa-Amilases , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , alfa-Amilases/análise , Cuidados Paliativos , Hidrocortisona/análise , Qualidade de Vida , Saliva/química , Estresse Psicológico/psicologia
10.
Enferm Intensiva (Engl Ed) ; 33(4): 225-232, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36494157

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients using endotracheal tubes are at high risk of oral health status dysfunction due to impaired natural airway defence, oral flora composition changes and protective substances of the teeth, medication causing xerostomia. Oral care has not been enough to manage oral mucosal dryness, so an additional topical agent is needed to protect oral mucosa to maintain oral health. Honey is one of the recommended topical agents. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to identify the effect of oral care with honey as topical agents on the oral health status of patients using endotracheal tube in the Intensive Care Unit. METHODS: This was an experimental study with a randomized pretest and posttest design. The sample was adult intubated patients, consisting of 36 patients. The data were analysed using the parametric test, and dependent and independent t-test. RESULTS: The oral health score in the control group was found to be pre & post mean score11.94 and 13.28 (p=.004) respectively, while in the intervention group 11.89 and 8.33 (p<.001). Mean differences in both groups were 4.95 (p<.001) and the BOAS subscale differences were seen on the lips, gums & mucosa, and tongue (p<.05). CONCLUSION: Oral care with honey as a topical agent can improve the oral health status of intubated patients on the lips, gum, mucosa, and tongue subscale. Therefore, honey as an additional topical agent can be a moisturizer to maintain the oral mucosa for intubated patients in the Intensive Care Unit. Furthermore, good mucosal health will help prevent the infection and colonization of microorganisms.


Assuntos
Mel , Xerostomia , Adulto , Humanos , Saúde Bucal , Higiene Bucal , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Intubação Intratraqueal/efeitos adversos , Xerostomia/etiologia
11.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1039811, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439237

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in the widespread use of N95 respirators and surgical masks, with anecdotal reports among healthcare providers and the public of xerostomia, halitosis, and gingivitis, a consortium of symptoms colloquially termed "mask mouth". However, this has not been scientifically verified. The aim of this study was to assess changes in salivary flow rate, gingival health status and oral microbiome associated with prolonged mask use. A total of 25 dental students (mean age = 26.36 ± 1.58) were included in the study and evaluated at three time points: T1, at the end of at least 2 months of full-day mask wear (7.26 ± 1.56 hours/day); T2, at the end of a period of minimal mask use (1.13 ± 1.13 hours/day); and T3, at the end of 2-3 weeks of resuming full-day mask wear (6.93 ± 1.80 hours/day). Unstimulated whole saliva (UWS) flow rate, xerostomia (on a quantitative scale of 10), gingival index (GI) and plaque index (PI) were assessed at each time point. The salivary microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Overall, UWS flow rates were normal (mean of 0.679 ml/min) and xerostomia, PI and GI scores were low (Mean of 3.11, 0.33 and 0.69, respectively) with no significant differences as a result of prolonged mask wearing. Similarly, there were no significant microbial changes at a false discovery rate (FDR) ≤ 0.05. However, some trends were identified using a nominal p-value cut-off of ≤ 0.01, namely Gemella sanguinis, Streptococcus sp. Oral taxon 066 and Oral taxon 058 were associated with prolonged mask wear. Trends were also seen by gender, race and age, for example an increase in P. gingivalis and P. intermedia with age. In conclusion, we found no evidence that prolonged mask wear adversely affects oral health. The findings support that the oral microbiome of healthy individuals is resilient.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Microbiota , Xerostomia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adulto , Projetos Piloto , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , Pandemias , Nível de Saúde
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 101(45): e31361, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36397388

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Paxlovid has shown the potential decreasing the hospitalization rate of mild or moderate coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and death in few of clinical trials, and is expected to the most promising medicine targeting Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SRAS-COV-2). However, there are no enough evidences to show it effectiveness for all patients with SARS-COV-2, especially among elderly patients and newest Omicron variant. PATIENT CONCERNS AND DIAGNOSIS: A 79 year's old female patient was admitted to hospital because of the moderate COVID-19 caused by the Omicron variant BA2.0. He presented the initial syndromes including Xerostomia, cough and fever. Chest computed tomography (CT) scanning at admission showed the exudation lesions on lung. The laboratory examination revealed that there are increased C-reactive protein (CRP), Ferritin and erythrocytesedimentationrate (ESR) and decreased white blood cells. INTERVENTIONS: The oral Paxlovid (Nirmatrelvir/Ritonavir) was administrated on second day after admission. OUTCOMES: The syndromes of Xerostomia, cough and fever was improved on third day after use of Paxlovid. The levels of CRP, ESR and counts of white blood cells returned the normal after three days of admission. The chest CT scanned on the third and sixth day after Paxlovid used showed the absorption of lesions. The examination of SARS-COVS viral nucleic acid turned negative at fifth day of admission. LESSONS: As a result, we would consider that Paxlovid is a suitable oral drug for elderly patients with SARS-COV2 even Omicron variant, it's benefit to improve patient's symptom and signs and can prevents COVID-19 with the high-risk factors from severe disease, although it didn't shorten the time for viral nucleic acid to turn negative.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Idoso , SARS-CoV-2 , Tosse/etiologia , RNA Viral , Febre/etiologia
13.
BMC Oral Health ; 22(1): 513, 2022 11 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36402969

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Oral diseases are features of COVID-19 infection. There is, however, little known about oral diseases associated with COVID-19 in adolescents and young adults (AYA). Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess oral lesions' association with COVID-19 infection in AYA; and to identify if sex and age will modify these associations. METHODOLOGY: Data was collected for this cross-sectional study between August 2020 and January 2021 from 11-to-23 years old participants in 43-countries using an electronic validated questionnaire developed in five languages. Data collected included information on the dependent variables (the presence of oral conditions- gingival inflammation, dry mouth, change in taste and oral ulcers), independent variable (COVID-19 infection) and confounders (age, sex, history of medical problems and parents' educational level). Multilevel binary logistic regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: Complete data were available for 7164 AYA, with 7.5% reporting a history of COVID-19 infection. A significantly higher percentage of participants with a history of COVID-19 infection than those without COVID-19 infection reported having dry mouth (10.6% vs 7.3%, AOR = 1.31) and taste changes (11.1% vs 2.7%, AOR = 4.11). There was a significant effect modification in the association between COVID-19 infection and the presence of dry mouth and change in taste by age and sex (P = 0.02 and < 0.001). CONCLUSION: COVID-19 infection was associated with dry mouth and change in taste among AYA and the strength of this association differed by age and sex. These oral conditions may help serve as an index for suspicion of COVID-19 infection in AYA.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Xerostomia , Humanos , Adulto Jovem , Adolescente , Criança , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Inquéritos e Questionários , Escolaridade
14.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 19387, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371504

RESUMO

The aim of this cross-sectional study was to objectively assess the salivary flow rate and composition and periodontal inflammation in obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) patients. The subjects, who underwent whole-night polysomnography or polygraphy, were referred for saliva sampling and periodontal examination. According to the severity of OSA based on the Apnoea Hypopnea Index (AHI) value, the subjects were classified into groups: no OSA (AHI < 5; N = 17), mild to moderate OSA (AHI 5-29.9; N = 109), and severe OSA (AHI > 30; N = 79). Salivary flow rate, pH, salivary electrolytes, and cortisol were measured from collected saliva samples. Periodontal examination included assessment of the number of teeth, dental plaque, bleeding on probing and periodontal measurements: gingival recession, probing pocket depth, clinical attachment level (CAL) and periodontal inflamed surface area (PISA) score. There were no significant differences in salivary flow rate, salivary pH, salivary electrolyte concentrations or electrolyte ratios among the groups classified according to the severity of OSA. However, subjects without OSA had higher salivary cortisol concentrations than OSA groups (p < 0.001). Increased plaque scores were associated with a higher AHI (r = 0.26; p = 0.003). According to the salivary flow rate, subjects with hyposalivation and reduced salivation had higher concentrations of salivary electrolytes and lower salivary pH than subjects with normal salivation. Subjects with hyposalivation had an increased Mg/PO4 ratio (p < 0.001) and a reduced Ca/Mg ratio (p < 0.001). Furthermore, subjects with severe OSA tended to have higher CALs and plaque volumes. In conclusion, under pathological conditions, such as OSA, multiple interactions might impact salivary flow and electrolyte composition. Complex interrelationships might affect the integrity of oral health, especially considering OSA severity, inflammation, concomitant diseases and medications.


Assuntos
Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono , Xerostomia , Humanos , Hidrocortisona , Estudos Transversais , Apneia Obstrutiva do Sono/complicações , Inflamação/complicações
15.
Clin J Oncol Nurs ; 26(6): 636-642, 2022 Nov 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36413721

RESUMO

BACKGROUND:  For patients receiving chemotherapy, various oral care therapies are used to treat oral mucositis, but the use of black mulberry extract as an effective treatment has not been widely studied.
. OBJECTIVES:  This study examined whether black mulberry extract is an effective treatment for oral mucositis, dry mouth, and weight gain compared to sodium bicarbonate in patients with cancer.
. METHODS:  The control group (N = 20) received sodium bicarbonate, and the intervention group (N = 20) received black mulberry extract. Mucositis and weight gain were evaluated on days 1, 7, and 15 after oral care application.
. FINDINGS:  For both groups, mean scores indicated a statistically significant decrease in mucositis and dry mouth at all three time points. Mean scores were significantly lower in the intervention group on days 7 and 15. At all three time points, increases in weight were statistically significant for the intervention group but not for the control group. Increased weight gain in the intervention group was statistically significant when comparing the two groups on days 7 and 15.


Assuntos
Morus , Mucosite , Neoplasias , Estomatite , Xerostomia , Humanos , Bicarbonato de Sódio/uso terapêutico , Estomatite/induzido quimicamente , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias/tratamento farmacológico , Xerostomia/tratamento farmacológico , Aumento de Peso , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico
16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36360656

RESUMO

The purpose of this article was to evaluate reported oral and mucosal complaints among seniors residing in institutionalized 24-h care of the Municipal Center for Older and Dependent People (MHCOD) and the 3-month rehabilitation program of the Daily Medical Care House (DMCH). We evaluated the feasibility of using the dental mirror slidding test to assess dry mouth of seniors. Patients underwent a questionnaire, and clinical examination. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain, Fox's questionnaire and Challacombe's scale with Clinical Oral Dryness Score to assess dryness of the mouth, dental mirror slidding test to assess buccal mucosal resistance. Dryness, mucosal burning, impaired taste, food intake are symptoms associated with seniors, and their frequency does not depend on the type of care. The incidence of mucosal burning (Mdn = 4.0, IQR = 4.75, p = 0.032) and difficulty in using dental prosthetics (Mdn = 3.0, IQR = 4.00, p = 0.010) increase with the length of stay at MHCOD. Seniors are at risk of side effects of polypharmacy, which cause dryness (p = 0.036), complaints of lack of saliva (p = 0.009) and taste disorders (p = 0.041. Seniors with higher levels of dry mouth are more likely to exhibit mucosal burning (p = 0.026) and difficulty in taking food (p = 0.037). The implementation of the dental mirror slidding test in the scope of the primary care of geriatric examination should be discussed.


Assuntos
Xerostomia , Humanos , Idoso , Saliva , Mucosa Bucal , Inquéritos e Questionários
17.
JAMA Netw Open ; 5(11): e2241538, 2022 11 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367724

RESUMO

Importance: Patients with oropharyngeal carcinoma (OPC) treated with radiotherapy often experience substantial toxic effects, even with modern techniques such as intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). Intensity-modulated proton therapy (IMPT) has a potential advantage over IMRT due to reduced dose to the surrounding organs at risk; however, data are scarce given the limited availability and use of IMPT. Objective: To compare toxic effects and oncologic outcomes among patients with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic OPC treated with IMPT vs IMRT with or without chemotherapy. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study included patients aged 18 years or older with newly diagnosed nonmetastatic OPC who received curative-intent radiotherapy with IMPT or IMRT at a single-institution tertiary academic cancer center from January 1, 2018, to December 31, 2021, with follow-up through December 31, 2021. Exposures: IMPT or IMRT with or without chemotherapy. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcomes were the incidence of acute and chronic (present after ≥6 months) treatment-related adverse events (AEs) and oncologic outcomes, including locoregional recurrence (LRR), progression-free survival (PFS), and overall survival (OS). Fisher exact tests and χ2 tests were used to evaluate associations between toxic effects and treatment modality (IMPT vs IMRT), and the Kaplan-Meier method was used to compare LRR, PFS, and OS between the 2 groups. Results: The study included 292 patients with OPC (272 [93%] with human papillomavirus [HPV]-p16-positive tumors); 254 (87%) were men, 38 (13%) were women, and the median age was 64 years (IQR, 58-71 years). Fifty-eight patients (20%) were treated with IMPT, and 234 (80%) were treated with IMRT. Median follow-up was 26 months (IQR, 17-36 months). Most patients (283 [97%]) received a dose to the primary tumor of 70 Gy. Fifty-seven of the patients treated with IMPT (98%) and 215 of those treated with IMRT (92%) had HPV-p16-positive disease. There were no significant differences in 3-year OS (97% IMPT vs 91% IMRT; P = .18), PFS (82% IMPT vs 85% IMRT; P = .62), or LRR (5% IMPT vs 4% IMRT; P = .59). The incidence of acute toxic effects was significantly higher for IMRT compared with IMPT for oral pain of grade 2 or greater (42 [72%] IMPT vs 217 [93%] IMRT; P < .001), xerostomia of grade 2 or greater (12 [21%] IMPT vs 68 [29%] IMRT; P < .001), dysgeusia of grade 2 or greater (16 [28%] IMPT vs 134 [57%] IMRT; P < .001), grade 3 dysphagia (4 [7%] IMPT vs 29 [12%] IMRT; P < .001), mucositis of grade 3 or greater (10 [53%] IMPT vs 13 [70%] IMRT; P = .003), nausea of grade 2 or greater (0 [0%] IMPT vs 18 [8%] IMRT; P = .04), and weight loss of grade 2 or greater (22 [37%] IMPT vs 138 [59%] IMRT; P < .001). There were no significant differences in chronic toxic effects of grade 3 or greater, although there was a significant difference for chronic xerostomia of grade 2 or greater (6 IMPT [11%] vs 22 IMRT [10%]; P < .001). Four patients receiving IMRT (2%) vs 0 receiving IMPT had a percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy tube for longer than 6 months. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, curative-intent radiotherapy with IMPT for nonmetastatic OPC was associated with a significantly reduced acute toxicity burden compared with IMRT, with few chronic toxic effects and favorable oncologic outcomes, including locoregional recurrence of only 5% at 2 years. Prospective randomized clinical trials comparing these 2 technologies and of patient-reported outcomes are warranted.


Assuntos
Carcinoma , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas , Infecções por Papillomavirus , Terapia com Prótons , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada , Xerostomia , Masculino , Humanos , Feminino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia de Intensidade Modulada/métodos , Terapia com Prótons/efeitos adversos , Terapia com Prótons/métodos , Dosagem Radioterapêutica , Estudos Retrospectivos , Estudos Prospectivos , Infecções por Papillomavirus/complicações , Recidiva Local de Neoplasia/etiologia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/radioterapia , Neoplasias Orofaríngeas/patologia , Xerostomia/etiologia
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1039599, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36439107

RESUMO

Objective: To verify the effect of triamcinolone acetonide (TA) and major salivary glands saline irrigation on relieving xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients. Methods: The enrolled 49 SS patients were randomly assigned to the control group (no irrigation, n=16), saline group (irrigation with saline, n=17) and TA group (irrigation with TA, n=16). Fourteen cases of each group were treated differently but received the same examinations. The examinations include unstimulated whole saliva flow (UWS), chewing-stimulated whole saliva flow (SWS), citric acid-stimulated parotid flow (SPF), Clinical Oral Dryness Score (CODS), Xerostomia Inventory (XI) and EULAR SS Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI) of 1 week before irrigation (T0) and 1 week(T1), 8 weeks (T8), 16 weeks (T16) and 24 weeks (T24) after major salivary irrigation. Results: Each group had 14 cases with completed follow-ups. Both TA and saline irrigation of major salivary glands resulted in higher SWS and SPF of T8, T16 and than those at T0. ESSPRI (oral dryness domain) of T8, T16 and T24 were significantly lower than that at T0, respectively (P < 0.05). SWS and SPF of T8, T16 and T24 in the saline group were significantly higher than in the control group (P< 0.05). XI and ESSPRI (oral dress domain) of T8, T16 and T24 in the saline group were significantly lower than those in the control group, respectively (P< 0.05). SWS and SPF of T16 and T24 in the TA group were significantly higher than in the control group (P< 0.05). All cases with completed follow-up in TA and saline groups were divided into responders and non-responders. Compared with responders, the UWS, SWS, SPF and CODS of T0 in non-responders were significantly increased (P<0.05). Compared with responders, the XI and ESSPRI of T0 in non-responders were significantly decreased (P<0.05). Conclusion: The irrigation of major salivary glands by TA and saline relieve xerostomia in SS patients. Patients with non-severe xerostomia (responders) have better relief after irrigation than patients with severe xerostomia (non-responders). Clinical Trial Registration: www.chictr.org.cn, identifier (ChiCTR210052314).


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Xerostomia , Humanos , Síndrome de Sjogren/complicações , Síndrome de Sjogren/terapia , Xerostomia/etiologia , Xerostomia/terapia , Glândulas Salivares , Saliva , Glândula Parótida
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361554

RESUMO

Sjögren's syndrome is one of the most prevalent autoimmune diseases after rheumatoid arthritis, with a preference for middle age, and is characterised by exocrine glandular involvement leading to xerostomia and xerophthalmia. It can have systemic implications with vascular, neurological, renal, and pulmonary involvement, and in some cases, it may evolve to non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. For a long time, B- and T-lymphocytes have been the focus of research and have been considered key players in Sjögren's syndrome pathogenesis and evolution. With the development of new technologies, including omics, more insights have been found on the different signalling pathways that lead to inflammation and activation of the immune system. New evidence indicates that a third actor linking innate and adaptive immunity plays a leading role in the Sjögren's syndrome play: the monocyte. This review summarises the recent insights from transcriptomic, proteomic, and epigenetic studies that help us to understand more about the Sjögren's syndrome pathophysiology and redefine the involvement of monocytes in this disease.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Xeroftalmia , Xerostomia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Humanos , Monócitos/patologia , Proteômica , Xerostomia/etiologia
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Oct 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361787

RESUMO

Interleukin-22 (IL-22) affects epithelial tissue function and integrity in a context-dependent manner. IL-22 levels are elevated in salivary glands of Sjögren's syndrome (SS) patients, but its role in the pathogenesis of this disease remains unclear. The objective of this study is to elucidate the impact of IL-22 on salivary gland tissue integrity and function in murine models. We showed that IL-22 levels in sera and salivary glands increased progressively in female non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice, accompanying the development of SS. Administration of IL-22 to the submandibular glands of NOD mice prior to the disease onset reduced salivary secretion and induced caspase-3 activation in salivary gland tissues, which were accompanied by alterations in multiple genes controlling tissue integrity and inflammation. Similarly, IL-22 administration to submandibular glands of C57BL/6 mice also induced hyposalivation and caspase-3 activation, whereas blockade of endogenous IL-22 in C57BL/6 mice treated with anti-CD3 antibody mitigated hyposalivation and caspase-3 activation. Finally, IL-22 treatment reduced the number of viable C57BL/6 mouse submandibular gland epithelial cells cultured in vitro, indicating a direct impact of this cytokine on these cells. We conclude that IL-22 exerts a detrimental impact on salivary gland tissues.


Assuntos
Síndrome de Sjogren , Xerostomia , Camundongos , Feminino , Animais , Camundongos Endogâmicos NOD , Caspase 3 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Glândulas Salivares , Xerostomia/patologia
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