Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 1.408
Filtrar
1.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249479, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33822785

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The novel Coronavirus disease (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), in Africa is characterised by a more substantial proportion of asymptomatic (or mildly symptomatic) individuals thought to be playing a role in the spread of the infection. The exact proportion and degree of infectiousness of asymptomatic individuals remains unclear. Studies however indicate that their management is crucial for control of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. METHODOLOGY: We developed a simplified deterministic susceptible-exposed-infectious-removed (SEIR) mathematical model to assess the effect of active isolation of SARS-CoV-2 infected but asymptomatic individuals through blanket testing for control of the outbreak in Lusaka Province of Zambia. Here we modelled two scenarios; (1) assuming asymptomatic individuals comprised 70% of all COVID-19 cases and (2) asymptomatic individuals comprised only 50% of the cases. For contrast, the model was assessed first under the assumption that asymptomatic individuals are equally as infectious as symptomatic individuals and then secondly, and more likely, assuming asymptomatic individuals are only half as infectious as symptomatic individuals. RESULTS: For the model assuming 70% asymptomatic cases, a minimum sustained daily blanket testing rate of ≥ 7911 tests/100000 population was sufficient to control the outbreak if asymptomatic individuals are only half as infectious while if equal infectiousness was assumed then a testing rate of ≥ 10028 tests/ 100000 population would be required. For 50% asymptomatic, minimum blanket testing rates of ≥ 4540 tests/ 100000 population was sufficient to control the outbreak at both assumed levels of infectiousness for asymptomatic individuals relative to symptomatic individuals. DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION: Our model predicts that active isolation of COVID-19 cases, including asymptomatic individuals, through blanket testing can be used as a possible measure for the control of the SARS-Cov-2 transmission in Lusaka, Zambia, but it would come at a high cost.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Modelos Biológicos , Humanos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
2.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(14): e25236, 2021 Apr 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33832083

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is a constellation of factors including hypertension, abdominal obesity, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance that separately and together significantly increase risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and diabetes. In sub-Saharan Africa, with a substantial burden of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and increasing prevalence of CVD and diabetes, there is a paucity of epidemiological data on demographic, laboratory, and clinical characteristics associated with MetS among people with HIV (people with human [PWH]). Therefore, this study aimed to determine the burden and factors influencing MetS in antiretroviral therapy (ART)-experienced individuals in Zambia.We collected cross-sectional demographic, lifestyle, anthropometric, clinical, and laboratory data in a cohort of ART-experienced (on ART for ≥6 months) adults in 24 urban HIV treatment clinics of Zambia between August, 2016 and May, 2020. MetS was defined as having ≥3 of the following characteristics: low high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (<1.0 mmol/L for men, <1.3 for women), elevated waist circumference (≥94 cm for men, ≥80 cm for women), elevated triglycerides (≥1.7 mmol/L), elevated fasting blood glucose (≥5.6 mmol/L), and elevated blood pressure (BP) (systolic BP ≥130 or diastolic BP ≥85 mm Hg). Virological failure (VF) was defined as HIV viral load ≥1000 copies/mL. The following statistical methods were used: Chi-square test, Wilcoxon rank-sum test, and multivariable logistic regression.Among 1108 participants, the median age (interquartile range [IQR]) was 41 years (34, 49); 666 (60.1%) were females. The prevalence of MetS was 26.3% (95% confidence interval [CI] 23.9-29.1). Age (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 1.07; 95% CI 1.04-1.11), female sex (OR 3.02; 95% CI 1.55-5.91), VF (OR 1.98; 95% CI 1.01-3.87), dolutegravir (DTG)-based regimen (OR 2.10; 95% CI 1.05-4.20), hip-circumference (OR 1.03; 95% CI 1.01-1.05), T-lymphocyte count (OR 2.23; 95% CI 1.44-3.43), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) (OR 1.14; 95% CI 1.01-1.29), and fasting insulin (OR 1.02; 95% CI 1.01-1.04) were significantly associated with MetS.Metabolic syndrome was highly prevalent among HIV+ adults receiving ART in Zambia and associated with demographic, clinical, anthropometric, and inflammatory characteristics. The association between MetS and dolutegravir requires further investigation, as does elucidation of the impact of MetS on ART outcomes in sub-Saharan African PWH.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Síndrome Metabólica/epidemiologia , Adulto , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Masculino , Síndrome Metabólica/diagnóstico , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(10): 342-345, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33705366

RESUMO

The World Health Organization and national guidelines recommend HIV testing and counseling at tuberculosis (TB) clinics for all patients, regardless of TB diagnosis (1). Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (PHIA) survey data for 2015-2016 in Malawi, Zambia, and Zimbabwe were analyzed to assess HIV screening at TB clinics among persons who had positive HIV test results in the survey. The analysis was stratified by history of TB diagnosis* (presumptive versus confirmed†), awareness§ of HIV-positive status, antiretroviral therapy (ART)¶ status, and viral load suppression among HIV-positive adults, by history of TB clinic visit. The percentage of adults who reported having ever visited a TB clinic ranged from 4.7% to 9.7%. Among all TB clinic attendees, the percentage who reported that they had received HIV testing during a TB clinic visit ranged from 48.0% to 62.1% across the three countries. Among adults who received a positive HIV test result during PHIA and who did not receive a test for HIV at a previous TB clinic visit, 29.4% (Malawi), 21.9% (Zambia), and 16.2% (Zimbabwe) reported that they did not know their HIV status at the time of the TB clinic visit. These findings represent missed opportunities for HIV screening and linkage to HIV care. In all three countries, viral load suppression rates were significantly higher among those who reported ever visiting a TB clinic than among those who had not (p<0.001). National programs could strengthen HIV screening at TB clinics and leverage them as entry points into the HIV diagnosis and treatment cascade (i.e., testing, initiation of treatment, and viral load suppression).


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Instalações de Saúde , Programas de Rastreamento/estatística & dados numéricos , Tuberculose/terapia , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Malaui/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
4.
BMJ ; 372: n334, 2021 02 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33597166

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To directly measure the fatal impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (covid-19) in an urban African population. DESIGN: Prospective systematic postmortem surveillance study. SETTING: Zambia's largest tertiary care referral hospital. PARTICIPANTS: Deceased people of all ages at the University Teaching Hospital morgue in Lusaka, Zambia, enrolled within 48 hours of death. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Postmortem nasopharyngeal swabs were tested via reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Deaths were stratified by covis-19 status, location, age, sex, and underlying risk factors. RESULTS: 372 participants were enrolled between June and September 2020; PCR results were available for 364 (97.8%). SARS-CoV-2 was detected in 58/364 (15.9%) according to the recommended cycle threshold value of <40 and in 70/364 (19.2%) when expanded to any level of PCR detection. The median age at death among people with a positive test for SARS-CoV-2 was 48 (interquartile range 36-72) years, and 69% (n=48) were male. Most deaths in people with covid-19 (51/70; 73%) occurred in the community; none had been tested for SARS-CoV-2 before death. Among the 19/70 people who died in hospital, six were tested before death. Among the 52/70 people with data on symptoms, 44/52 had typical symptoms of covid-19 (cough, fever, shortness of breath), of whom only five were tested before death. Covid-19 was identified in seven children, only one of whom had been tested before death. The proportion of deaths with covid-19 increased with age, but 76% (n=53) of people who died were aged under 60 years. The five most common comorbidities among people who died with covid-19 were tuberculosis (22; 31%), hypertension (19; 27%), HIV/AIDS (16; 23%), alcohol misuse (12; 17%), and diabetes (9; 13%). CONCLUSIONS: Contrary to expectations, deaths with covid-19 were common in Lusaka. Most occurred in the community, where testing capacity is lacking. However, few people who died at facilities were tested, despite presenting with typical symptoms of covid-19. Therefore, cases of covid-19 were under-reported because testing was rarely done not because covid-19 was rare. If these data are generalizable, the impact of covid-19 in Africa has been vastly underestimated.


Assuntos
/mortalidade , /isolamento & purificação , Adulto , Distribuição por Idade , Fatores Etários , Idoso , Autopsia , /virologia , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Nasofaringe/virologia , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fatores Sexuais , População Urbana/estatística & dados numéricos , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
5.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(8): 280-282, 2021 Feb 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33630820

RESUMO

The first laboratory-confirmed cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), the illness caused by SARS-CoV-2, in Zambia were detected in March 2020 (1). Beginning in July, the number of confirmed cases began to increase rapidly, first peaking during July-August, and then declining in September and October (Figure). After 3 months of relatively low case counts, COVID-19 cases began rapidly rising throughout the country in mid-December. On December 18, 2020, South Africa published the genome of a SARS-CoV-2 variant strain with several mutations that affect the spike protein (2). The variant included a mutation (N501Y) associated with increased transmissibility.†,§ SARS-CoV-2 lineages with this mutation have rapidly expanded geographically.¶,** The variant strain (PANGO [Phylogenetic Assignment of Named Global Outbreak] lineage B.1.351††) was first detected in the Eastern Cape Province of South Africa from specimens collected in early August, spread within South Africa, and appears to have displaced the majority of other SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in that country (2). As of January 10, 2021, eight countries had reported cases with the B.1.351 variant. In Zambia, the average number of daily confirmed COVID-19 cases increased 16-fold, from 44 cases during December 1-10 to 700 during January 1-10, after detection of the B.1.351 variant in specimens collected during December 16-23. Zambia is a southern African country that shares substantial commerce and tourism linkages with South Africa, which might have contributed to the transmission of the B.1.351 variant between the two countries.


Assuntos
/diagnóstico , /genética , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
6.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 21(1): 98, 2021 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33516183

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: This study estimated the prevalence of curable sexually transmitted and reproductive tract infections (STIs/RTIs) among pregnant women attending antenatal care (ANC) in rural Zambia, evaluated the effectiveness of syndromic management of STIs/RTIs versus reference-standard laboratory diagnoses, and identified determinants of curable STIs/RTIs during pregnancy. METHODS: A total of 1086 pregnant women were enrolled at ANC booking, socio-demographic information and biological samples were collected, and the provision of syndromic management based care was documented. The Piot-Fransen model was used to evaluate the effectiveness of syndromic management versus etiological testing, and univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to identify determinants of STIs/RTIs. RESULTS: Participants had a mean age of 25.6 years and a mean gestational age of 22.0 weeks. Of 1084 women, 700 had at least one STI/RTI (64.6%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 61.7, 67.4). Only 10.2% of infected women received any treatment for a curable STI/RTI (excluding syphilis). Treatment was given to 0 of 56 women with chlamydia (prevalence 5.2%; 95% CI, 4.0, 6.6), 14.7% of participants with gonorrhoea (prevalence 3.1%; 95% CI, 2.2, 4.4), 7.8% of trichomoniasis positives (prevalence 24.8%; 95% CI, 22.3, 27.5) and 7.5% of women with bacterial vaginosis (prevalence 48.7%; 95% CI, 45.2, 51.2). An estimated 7.1% (95% CI, 5.6, 8.7) of participants had syphilis and received treatment. Women < 20 years old were more likely (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] = 5.01; 95% CI: 1.23, 19.44) to have gonorrhoea compared to women ≥30. The odds of trichomoniasis infection were highest among primigravidae (aOR = 2.40; 95% CI: 1.69, 3.40), decreasing with each subsequent pregnancy. Women 20 to 29 years old were more likely to be diagnosed with bacterial vaginosis compared to women ≥30 (aOR = 1.58; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.10). Women aged 20 to 29 and ≥ 30 years had higher odds of infection with syphilis, aOR = 3.96; 95% CI: 1.40, 11.20 and aOR = 3.29; 95% CI: 1.11, 9.74 respectively, compared to women under 20. CONCLUSIONS: Curable STIs/RTIs were common and the majority of cases were undetected and untreated. Alternative approaches are urgently needed in the ANC setting in rural Zambia.


Assuntos
Coinfecção/epidemiologia , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , Infecções do Sistema Genital/epidemiologia , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/epidemiologia , Adulto , Coinfecção/diagnóstico , Coinfecção/parasitologia , Estudos Transversais , Feminino , Gonorreia/diagnóstico , Gonorreia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Análise Multivariada , Gravidez , Cuidado Pré-Natal , Prevalência , Infecções do Sistema Genital/diagnóstico , Infecções do Sistema Genital/parasitologia , População Rural , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/diagnóstico , Doenças Sexualmente Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Fatores Socioeconômicos , Sífilis/epidemiologia , Tricomoníase/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/epidemiologia , Vaginose Bacteriana/parasitologia , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
7.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 5, 2021 Jan 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33413680

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The pandemic of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has caused substantial disruptions to health services in the low and middle-income countries with a high burden of other diseases, such as malaria in sub-Saharan Africa. The aim of this study is to assess the impact of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. METHODS: We present a data-driven method to quantify the extent to which the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as various non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs), could lead to the change of malaria transmission potential in 2020. First, we adopt a particle Markov Chain Monte Carlo method to estimate epidemiological parameters in each country by fitting the time series of the cumulative number of reported COVID-19 cases. Then, we simulate the epidemic dynamics of COVID-19 under two groups of NPIs: (1) contact restriction and social distancing, and (2) early identification and isolation of cases. Based on the simulated epidemic curves, we quantify the impact of COVID-19 epidemic and NPIs on the distribution of insecticide-treated nets (ITNs). Finally, by treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020, we evaluate the negative effects of COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential based on the notion of vectorial capacity. RESULTS: We conduct case studies in four malaria-endemic countries, Ethiopia, Nigeria, Tanzania, and Zambia, in Africa. The epidemiological parameters (i.e., the basic reproduction number [Formula: see text] and the duration of infection [Formula: see text]) of COVID-19 in each country are estimated as follows: Ethiopia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Nigeria ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), Tanzania ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), and Zambia ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]). Based on the estimated epidemiological parameters, the epidemic curves simulated under various NPIs indicated that the earlier the interventions are implemented, the better the epidemic is controlled. Moreover, the effect of combined NPIs is better than contact restriction and social distancing only. By treating the total number of ITNs available in each country in 2020 as a baseline, our results show that even with stringent NPIs, malaria transmission potential will remain higher than expected in the second half of 2020. CONCLUSIONS: By quantifying the impact of various NPI response to the COVID-19 pandemic on malaria transmission potential, this study provides a way to jointly address the syndemic between COVID-19 and malaria in malaria-endemic countries in Africa. The results suggest that the early intervention of COVID-19 can effectively reduce the scale of the epidemic and mitigate its impact on malaria transmission potential.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Malária/epidemiologia , Malária/terapia , /transmissão , Etiópia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Malária/transmissão , Cadeias de Markov , Nigéria/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Sindemia , Tanzânia/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 118, 2021 Jan 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33499820

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Early infant diagnosis of HIV infection is challenging in sub-Saharan Africa, particularly in rural areas, leading to delays in diagnosis and treatment. Use of a point-of-care test would overcome many challenges. This study evaluated the validity of a novel point-of-care p24 antigen detection test (LYNX) in rural and urban settings in southern Zambia. METHODS: Two studies were conducted: a cross-sectional study from 2014 to 2015 at Macha Hospital (LYNX Hospital study) and a longitudinal study from 2016 to 2018 at 12 health facilities in Southern Province, Zambia (NSEBA study). In both studies, children attending the facilities for early infant diagnosis were enrolled and a blood sample was collected for routine testing at the central lab and immediate on-site testing with the LYNX test. The performance of the LYNX test was measured in comparison to nucleic acid-based testing at the central lab. RESULTS: In the LYNX Hospital study, 210 tests were performed at a median age of 23.5 weeks (IQR: 8.9, 29.0). The sensitivity and specificity of the test were 70.0 and 100.0%, respectively. In the NSEBA study, 2608 tests were performed, including 1305 at birth and 1222 on children ≥4 weeks of age. For samples tested at birth, sensitivity was 13.6% (95% CI: 2.9, 34.9) and specificity was 99.6% (95% CI: 99.1, 99.9). While specificity was high for all ages, sensitivity increased with age and was higher for participants tested at ≥4 weeks of age (80.6%; 95% CI: 67.4, 93.7). Children with positive nucleic acid tests were more likely to be negative by the LYNX test if their mother received antiretroviral therapy during pregnancy (60.7% vs. 24.2%; p = 004). CONCLUSIONS: Considering the high specificity and moderate sensitivity that increased with age, the LYNX test could be of value for early infant diagnosis for infants ≥4 weeks of age, particularly in rural areas where centralized testing leads to long delays. Point-of-care tests with moderate sensitivity and high specificity that are affordable, easy-to-use, and easily implemented and maintained should be developed to expand access to testing and deliver same-day results to infants in areas where it is not feasible to implement nucleic acid-based point-of-care assays.


Assuntos
Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/análise , Infecções por HIV/diagnóstico , Testes Imediatos , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos Transversais , Testes Diagnósticos de Rotina , Diagnóstico Precoce , Estudos de Viabilidade , Feminino , Proteína do Núcleo p24 do HIV/sangue , Infecções por HIV/congênito , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Infecções por HIV/transmissão , Humanos , Testes Imunológicos , Ciência da Implementação , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Transmissão Vertical de Doença Infecciosa , Estudos Longitudinais , Masculino , Triagem Neonatal/métodos , Sistemas Automatizados de Assistência Junto ao Leito , Gravidez , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/tratamento farmacológico , Complicações Infecciosas na Gravidez/epidemiologia , População Rural , Sensibilidade e Especificidade , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
9.
Arch Virol ; 166(3): 915-919, 2021 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33475831

RESUMO

Tick-borne pathogens are an emerging public health threat worldwide. However, information on tick-borne viruses is scanty in sub-Saharan Africa. Here, by RT-PCR, 363 ticks (Amblyomma, Hyalomma and Rhipicephalus) in the Namwala and Livingstone districts of Zambia were screened for tick-borne phleboviruses (TBPVs). TBPVs (L gene) were detected in 19 (5.2%) Rhipicephalus ticks in Namwala. All the detected TBPVs were Shibuyunji viruses. Phylogenetically, they were closely related to American dog tick phlebovirus. This study highlights the possible role of Rhipicephalus ticks as the main host of Shibuyunji virus and suggests that these viruses may be present outside the area where they were initially discovered.


Assuntos
/virologia , Febre por Flebótomos/epidemiologia , Phlebovirus/isolamento & purificação , Rhipicephalus/virologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Animais , Variação Genética/genética , Febre por Flebótomos/transmissão , Febre por Flebótomos/virologia , Phlebovirus/genética , Filogenia , Prevalência , Análise de Sequência de DNA , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/virologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
10.
Am J Clin Nutr ; 113(3): 665-674, 2021 03 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33471057

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Children discharged from hospital following management of complicated severe acute malnutrition (SAM) have a high risk of mortality, especially HIV-positive children. Few studies have examined mortality in the antiretroviral therapy (ART) era. OBJECTIVES: Our objectives were to ascertain 52-wk mortality in children discharged from hospital for management of complicated SAM, and to identify independent predictors of mortality. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted in children enrolled from 3 hospitals in Zambia and Zimbabwe between July 2016 and March 2018. The primary outcome was mortality at 52 wk. Univariable and multivariable Cox regression models were used to identify independent risk factors for death, and to investigate whether HIV modifies these associations. RESULTS: Of 745 children, median age at enrolment was 17.4 mo (IQR: 12.8, 22.1 mo), 21.7% were HIV-positive, and 64.4% had edema. Seventy children (9.4%; 95% CI: 7.4, 11.7%) died and 26 exited during hospitalization; 649 were followed postdischarge. At discharge, 43.9% had ongoing SAM and only 50.8% of HIV-positive children were receiving ART. Vital status was ascertained for 604 (93.1%), of whom 55 (9.1%; 95% CI: 6.9, 11.7%) died at median 16.6 wk (IQR: 9.4, 21.9 wk). Overall, 20.0% (95% CI: 13.5, 27.9%) and 5.6% (95% CI: 3.8, 7.9%) of HIV-positive and HIV-negative children, respectively, died [adjusted hazard ratio (aHR): 3.83; 95% CI: 2.15, 6.82]. Additional independent risk factors for mortality were ongoing SAM (aHR: 2.28; 95% CI: 1.22, 4.25), cerebral palsy (aHR: 5.60; 95% CI: 2.72, 11.50) and nonedematous SAM (aHR: 2.23; 95% CI: 1.24, 4.01), with no evidence of interaction with HIV status. CONCLUSIONS: HIV-positive children have an almost 4-fold higher mortality than HIV-negative children in the year following hospitalization for complicated SAM. A better understanding of causes of death, an improved continuum of care for HIV and SAM, and targeted interventions to improve convalescence are needed.


Assuntos
Assistência ao Convalescente , Alta do Paciente , Desnutrição Aguda Grave/mortalidade , Fármacos Anti-HIV/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/complicações , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por HIV/mortalidade , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Estudos Prospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Zâmbia/epidemiologia , Zimbábue/epidemiologia
11.
Afr J AIDS Res ; 19(4): 296-303, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33337978

RESUMO

HIV-incidence studies are used to identify at-risk populations for HIV-prevention trials and interventions, but loss to follow-up (LTFU) can bias results if participants who remain differ from those who drop out. We investigated the incidence of and factors associated with LTFU among Zambian female sex workers (FSWs) in an HIV-incidence cohort from 2012 to 2017. Enrolled participants returned at month one, month three and quarterly thereafter. FSWs were considered LTFU if they missed six consecutive months, or if their last visit was six months before the study end date. Of 420 FSWs, 139 (33%) were LTFU at a rate of 15.7 per 100 person years. In multivariable analysis, LTFU was greater for FSWs who never used alcohol, began sex work above the age of consent, and had a lower volume of new clients. Our study appeared to retain FSWs in most need of HIV-prevention services offered at follow-up.


Assuntos
Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Perda de Seguimento , Profissionais do Sexo/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Seguimentos , Infecções por HIV/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Incidência , Fatores de Risco , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244310, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33378372

RESUMO

Although strong evidence exists about the effectiveness of basic childbirth services in reducing maternal and newborn mortality, these services are not provided in every childbirth, even those at health facilities. The WHO Safe Childbirth Checklist (SCC) was developed as a job aide to remind health workers of evidenced-based practices to be provided at specific points in the childbirth process. The Zambian government requested context-specific evidence on the feasibility and outcomes associated with introducing the checklist and related mentorship. A study was conducted on use of the SCC in four facilities in Nchelenge District of Zambia. Observations of childbirth services were conducted just before and six months after the introduction of the intervention. Observers used a structured tool to record adherence to essential services indicated on the checklist. The primary outcome of interest was the change in the average proportion of essential childbirth practices completed. Feedback questionnaires were administered to health workers before and six months after the intervention. At baseline and endline, 108 and 148 pause points were observed, respectively. There was an increase from 57% to 76% of tasks performed (p = 0.04). Considering only these cases where necessary supplies were available, health workers completed 60% of associated tasks at baseline compared to 84% at endline (p<0.01). Some tasks, such as taking an infant's temperature and hand washing, were never or rarely performed at baseline. Feedback from the health workers indicated that nearly all health workers agreed or strongly agreed with positive statements about the intervention. The performance of health workers in Zambia in completing essential practices in childbirth was low at baseline but improvements were observed with the introduction of the SCC and mentorship. Our results suggest that such interventions could improve quality of care for facility-based childbirth. However, national-level commitment to ensuring availability of trained staff and supplies is essential for success. Trial registration Clinical Trials.gov (NCT03263182) Registered August 28, 2017 This study adheres to CONSORT guidelines.


Assuntos
Lista de Checagem/métodos , Fidelidade a Diretrizes/estatística & dados numéricos , Educação Pré-Natal/métodos , Adulto , Lista de Checagem/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/normas , Parto Obstétrico/estatística & dados numéricos , Parto Obstétrico/tendências , Feminino , Instalações de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Pessoal de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , Serviços de Saúde Materna/normas , Serviços de Saúde Materna/estatística & dados numéricos , Serviços de Saúde Materna/tendências , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Parto/psicologia , Gravidez , Melhoria de Qualidade , Inquéritos e Questionários , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
13.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(42): 1547-1548, 2020 Oct 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33090982

RESUMO

Zambia is a landlocked, lower-middle income country in southern Africa, with a population of 17 million (1). The first known cases of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Zambia occurred in a married couple who had traveled to France and were subject to port-of-entry surveillance and subsequent remote monitoring of travelers with a history of international travel for 14 days after arrival. They were identified as having suspected cases on March 18, 2020, and tested for COVID-19 after developing respiratory symptoms during the 14-day monitoring period. In March 2020, the Zambia National Public Health Institute (ZNPHI) defined a suspected case of COVID-19 as 1) an acute respiratory illness in a person with a history of international travel during the 14 days preceding symptom onset; or 2) acute respiratory illness in a person with a history of contact with a person with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 in the 14 days preceding symptom onset; or 3) severe acute respiratory illness requiring hospitalization; or 4) being a household or close contact of a patient with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19. This definition was adapted from World Health Organization (WHO) interim guidance issued March 20, 2020, on global surveillance for COVID-19 (2) to also include asymptomatic contacts of persons with confirmed COVID-19. Persons with suspected COVID-19 were identified through various mechanisms, including port-of-entry surveillance, contact tracing, health care worker (HCW) testing, facility-based inpatient screening, community-based screening, and calls from the public into a national hotline administered by the Disaster Management and Mitigation Unit and ZNPHI. Port-of-entry surveillance included an arrival screen consisting of a temperature scan, report of symptoms during the preceding 14 days, and collection of a history of travel and contact with persons with confirmed COVID-19 in the 14 days before arrival in Zambia, followed by daily remote telephone monitoring for 14 days. Travelers were tested for SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, if they were symptomatic upon arrival or developed symptoms during the 14-day monitoring period. Persons with suspected COVID-19 were tested as soon as possible after evaluation for respiratory symptoms or within 7 days of last known exposure (i.e., travel or contact with a confirmed case). All COVID-19 diagnoses were confirmed using real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) testing (SARS-CoV-2 Nucleic Acid Detection Kit, Maccura) of nasopharyngeal specimens; all patients with confirmed COVID-19 were admitted into institutional isolation at the time of laboratory confirmation, which was generally within 36 hours. COVID-19 patients were deemed recovered and released from isolation after two consecutive PCR-negative test results ≥24 hours apart. A Ministry of Health memorandum was released on April 13, 2020, mandating testing in public facilities of 1) all persons admitted to medical and pediatric wards regardless of symptoms; 2) all patients being admitted to surgical and obstetric wards, regardless of symptoms; 3) any outpatient with fever, cough, or shortness of breath; and 4) any facility or community death in a person with respiratory symptoms, and 5) biweekly screening of all HCWs in isolation centers and health facilities where persons with COVID-19 had been evaluated. This report describes the first 100 COVID-19 cases reported in Zambia, during March 18-April 28, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Busca de Comunicante , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pandemias , Doença Relacionada a Viagens , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
15.
BMC Infect Dis ; 20(1): 760, 2020 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33059620

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A more stringent QuantiFERON-TB Gold In-Tube (QFT) conversion (from negative to positive) definition has been proposed to allow more definite detection of recent tuberculosis (TB) infection. We explored alternative conversion definitions to assist the interpretation of serial QFT results and estimate incidence of TB infection in a large cohort study. METHODS: We used QFT serial results from TB household contacts aged ≥15 years, collected at baseline and during two follow-up visits (2006-2011) as part of a cohort study in 24 communities in Zambia and South Africa (SA). Conversion rates using the manufacturers' definition (interferon-gamma (IFN-g) < 0.35 to ≥0.35, 'def1') were compared with stricter definitions (IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥0.7 IU/ml, 'def2'; IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥1.05 IU/ml, 'def3'; IFN-g < 0.2 to ≥1.4 IU/ml, 'def4'). Poisson regression was used for analysis. RESULTS: One thousand three hundred sixty-five individuals in Zambia and 822 in SA had QFT results available. Among HIV-negative individuals, the QFT conversion rate was 27.4 per 100 person-years (CI:22.9-32.6) using def1, 19.0 using def2 (CI:15.2-23.7), 14.7 using def3 (CI:11.5-18.8), and 12.0 using def4 (CI:9.2-15.7). Relative differences across def1-def4 were similar in Zambia and SA. Using def1, conversion was less likely if HIV positive not on antiretroviral treatment compared to HIV negative (aRR = 0.7, 95%CI = 0.4-0.9), in analysis including both countries. The same direction of associations were found using def 2-4. CONCLUSION: High conversion rates were found even with the strictest definition, indicating high incidence of TB infection among household contacts of TB patients in these communities. The trade-off between sensitivity and specificity using different thresholds of QFT conversion remains unknown due to the absence of a reference standard. However, we identified boundaries within which an appropriate definition might fall, and our strictest definition plausibly has high specificity.


Assuntos
Testes de Liberação de Interferon-gama/métodos , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Estudos de Coortes , Busca de Comunicante , Características da Família , Soropositividade para HIV , Humanos , Incidência , Prevalência , África do Sul/epidemiologia , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
16.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0237931, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32911494

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: We conducted an implementation science study to increase TB case detection through a combination of interventions at health facility and community levels. We determined the impact of the study in terms of additional cases detected and notification rate and compared the yield of bacteriologically confirmed TB of facility based and community based case finding. METHODOLOGY: Over a period of 18 months, similar case finding activities were conducted at George health facility in Lusaka Zambia and its catchment community, an informal peri-urban settlement. Activities included awareness and demand creation activities, TB screening with digital chest x-ray or symptom screening, sputum evaluation using geneXpert MTB/RIF, TB diagnosis and linkage to treatment. RESULTS: A total of 18,194 individuals were screened of which 9,846 (54.1%) were screened at the facility and 8,348 (45.9%) were screened in the community. The total number of TB cases diagnosed during the intervention period were 1,026, compared to 759 in the pre-intervention period; an additional 267 TB cases were diagnosed. Of the 563 bacteriologically confirmed TB cases diagnosed under the study, 515/563 (91.5%) and 48/563 (8.5%) were identified at the facility and in the community respectively (P<0.0001). The TB notification rate increased from 246 per 100,000 population pre-intervention to 395 per 100,000 population in the last year of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Facility active case finding was more effective in detecting TB cases than community active case finding. Strengthening health systems to appropriately identify and evaluate patients for TB needs to be optimised in high burden settings. At a minimum, provider initiated TB symptom screening with completion of the TB screening and diagnostic cascade should be provided at the health facility in high burden settings. Community screening needs to be systematic and targeted at high risk groups and communities with access barriers.


Assuntos
Efeitos Psicossociais da Doença , Instalações de Saúde , Características de Residência , Tuberculose/diagnóstico , Tuberculose/epidemiologia , Adulto , Assistência à Saúde , Feminino , Geografia , Humanos , Masculino , Tuberculose/classificação , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
17.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(39): e22415, 2020 Sep 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32991474

RESUMO

Kaposi sarcoma (KS) is an AIDS-defining angioproliferative malignancy associated with high morbidity and mortality. Most KS patients in regions with high incidence such as sub-Saharan Africa present late with advanced stage disease. Admitted KS patients have high mortality rates. Factors associated with mortality of admitted KS patients are poorly defined.We conducted a retrospective file review to ascertain reasons for admission and identify factors associated with mortality of admitted HIV-associated (epidemic) KS patients in Zambia. Baseline study variables were collected, and patients were retrospectively followed from admission to time of discharge or death.Mortality rate for admitted epidemic KS patients was high at 20%. The most common reasons for admission included advanced KS disease, severe anemia, respiratory tract infections, and sepsis. The majority (48%) of admitted patients had advanced clinical stage with visceral involvement on admission. Clinical predictors of mortality on univariate analysis included visceral KS [odds ratio (OR) = 13.74; 95% confidence interval (95% CI) = 1.68-113; P = 0.02), fever (OR = 26; 95% CI = 4.85-139; P = .001), and sepsis (OR = 35.56; 95% CI = 6.05-209; P = .001). Baseline hemoglobin levels (5.6 vs 8.2 g/dL; P = .001) and baseline platelet counts (63 x 10^9/L vs 205 x 10^9/L; P = .01) were significantly lower in mortalities vs discharges. Baseline white cell counts were higher in mortalities vs discharges (13.78 x 10^9/L vs 5.58 x 10^9/L; P = .01), and HIV-1 viral loads at the time of admission were higher in mortalities vs discharges (47,607 vs 40 copies/µL; P = .02). However, only sepsis (or signs and symptoms of sepsis) were independently associated with mortality after controlling for confounders.In conclusion, common reasons for admission of epidemic KS patients include advanced disease, severe anemia, respiratory tract infections, and signs and symptoms of sepsis. Signs and symptoms of sepsis are independent predictors of mortality in these patients.


Assuntos
Infecções Oportunistas Relacionadas com a AIDS/mortalidade , Sarcoma de Kaposi/mortalidade , Adulto , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Admissão do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
18.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 69(31): 1039-1043, 2020 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759917

RESUMO

Within Zambia, a landlocked country in southern-central Africa, the highest prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is in Lusaka Province (population 3.2 million), where approximately 340,000 persons are estimated to be infected (1). The 2016 Zambia Population-based HIV Impact Assessment (ZAMPHIA) estimated the adult HIV prevalence in Lusaka Province to be 15.7%, with a 62.7% viral load suppression rate (HIV-1 RNA <1,000 copies/mL) (2). ZAMPHIA results highlighted remaining treatment gaps in Zambia overall and by subpopulation. In January 2018, Zambia launched the Lusaka Province HIV Treatment Surge (Surge project) to increase enrollment of persons with HIV infection onto antiretroviral therapy (ART). The Zambia Ministry of Health (MoH), CDC, and partners analyzed the U.S. President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief (PEPFAR) Monitoring and Evaluation Reporting data set to assess the effectiveness of the first 18 months of the Surge project (January 2018-June 2019). During this period, approximately 100,000 persons with positive test results for HIV began ART. These new ART clients were more likely to be persons aged 15-24 years. In addition, the number of persons with documented viral load suppression doubled from 66,109 to 134,046. Lessons learned from the Surge project, including collaborative leadership, efforts to improve facility-level performance, and innovative strategies to disseminate successful practices, could increase HIV treatment rates in other high-prevalence settings.


Assuntos
Antirretrovirais/uso terapêutico , Infecções por HIV/tratamento farmacológico , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Carga Viral/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
19.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008337, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32663222

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Given the potentially causal association of female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) with HIV-1 infection, improved diagnostics are urgently needed to scale-up FGS surveillance. The BILHIV (bilharzia and HIV) study assessed the performance of home-based self-collection methods (cervical and vaginal swabs) compared to cervicovaginal lavage (CVL) for the detection of Schistosoma DNA by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). METHODS: Between January and August 2018, a consecutive series of female participants from the Population-Cohort of the previous HIV prevention trial HPTN 071 (PopART), resident in Livingstone, Zambia were invited to take part in BILHIV if they were 18-31 years old, non-pregnant and sexually active. Genital self-collected swabs and a urine specimen were obtained and a questionnaire completed at home visits. CVL was obtained at clinic follow-up. RESULTS: 603 women self-collected genital swabs. Of these, 527 women had CVL performed by a mid-wife during clinic follow-up. Schistosoma DNA was more frequently detected in genital self-collected specimens (24/603, 4.0%) compared to CVL (14/527, 2.7%). Overall, 5.0% (30/603) women had female genital schistosomiasis, defined as a positive PCR by any genital sampling method (cervical swab PCR, vaginal swab PCR, or CVL PCR) and 95% (573/603) did not have a positive genital PCR. The sensitivity of any positive genital self-collected swab against CVL was 57.1% (95% CI 28.9-82.3%), specificity 97.3% (95.5-98.5%). In a subset of participants with active schistosome infection, determined by detectable urine Circulating Anodic Antigen (CAA) (15.1%, 91/601), positive PCR (4.3%, 26/601), or positive microscopy (5.5%, 33/603), the sensitivity of any positive self-collected specimen against CVL was 88.9% (51.8-99.7%). CONCLUSIONS: Genital self-sampling increased the overall number of PCR-based FGS diagnoses in a field setting, compared with CVL. Home-based sampling may represent a scalable alternative method for FGS community-based diagnosis in endemic resource limited settings.


Assuntos
Colo do Útero/parasitologia , Schistosoma/isolamento & purificação , Esquistossomose/parasitologia , Manejo de Espécimes/métodos , Irrigação Terapêutica/métodos , Vagina/parasitologia , Adulto , Animais , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Infecções por HIV/virologia , Humanos , Schistosoma/genética , Esquistossomose/diagnóstico , Esquistossomose/epidemiologia , Autoexame , Adulto Jovem , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(2_Suppl): 28-36, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32618242

RESUMO

From 2014 to 2016, a community-randomized controlled trial in Southern Province, Zambia, compared mass drug administration (MDA) and focal MDA (fMDA) with the standard of care. Acceptability of the intervention was assessed quantitatively using closed-ended and Likert scale-based questions posed during three household surveys conducted from April to May in 2014, 2015, and 2016 in 40 health catchments that implemented MDA and fMDA and 20 catchments that served as trial controls. In 2014 and 2015, 47 households per catchment were selected, targeting 1,880 households in MDA and fMDA trial arms; in 2016, 55 households per catchment were selected for a target of 2,200 households in MDA and fMDA trial arms. Concurrently, 27 focus group discussions and 23 in-depth interviews with 248 participants were conducted on reasons for testing and treatment refusal, reasons for nonadherence, and community perception of the MDA campaign. Results demonstrated that the MDA campaign was highly accepted with more than 99% of respondents stating that they would take treatment if positive for malaria. High acceptability at baseline could be associated with test-and-treat campaigns recently conducted in the study area. There was a large increase in the acceptability of prophylactic treatment if negative for malaria from the baseline to follow-up survey for adults and children, from 62% to 96% for each. This likely resulted from an intensive community-wide sensitization program that occurred before the first treatment round at each household during community health worker visits.


Assuntos
Artemisininas/administração & dosagem , Atitude Frente a Saúde , Malária Falciparum/prevenção & controle , Administração Massiva de Medicamentos , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde , Quinolinas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Artemisininas/uso terapêutico , Erradicação de Doenças/métodos , Quimioterapia Combinada , Feminino , Grupos Focais , Humanos , Malária Falciparum/diagnóstico , Malária Falciparum/tratamento farmacológico , Malária Falciparum/epidemiologia , Masculino , Adesão à Medicação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/psicologia , Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Quinolinas/uso terapêutico , Zâmbia/epidemiologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA
...