Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 29.277
Filtrar
1.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122016, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473375

RESUMO

Pretreatment is a key step in the energy utilization of lignocellulosic biomass. Different types of pretreatments (ultrafine grinding pretreatment, alkaline hydroxide peroxide pretreatment, dilute acid pretreatment, and ammonia fiber expansion pretreatment) were conducted on corn stover. The lignocellulosic composition, microstructural parameters, and glucose yield of differently pretreated corn stover were characterized and compared. Then qualitative and quantitative correlation analyses of the parameters were carried out to explore the correlations among the composition, microstructure properties, and enzymatic hydrolysis efficacy of corn stover after different types of pretreatments and identify the main properties affecting enzymatic hydrolysis. Qualitative correlation analysis found that cellulose content, specific surface area, pore volume, enzyme-accessible pore volume, and surface area of cellulose had significant positive correlations with glucose yield. The results of quantitative correlation analysis were GY = 15.01 × cellulose content-339.05, GY = 13.06 × SSA + 172.35, GY = 7226.27 × PV + 129.14, GY = 8628.61 × EAPV + 125.61, and GY = 1.18 × SAC-287.21.


Assuntos
Celulose , Zea mays , Biomassa , Carboidratos , Hidrólise
2.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122065, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31479854

RESUMO

A solid acid catalyst SO42-/SnO2-Al2O3-CFA was synthesized based on industrial waste coal fly ash (CFA) as carrier and applied in the conversion of oxalic acid pretreated corn stover hydrolysate to produce furfural. Physical properties of the solid acid catalyst were characterized by SEM, FTIR, XRD, BET, EDAX, and NH3-TPD. Highly wrinkled structure of SO42-/SnO2-Al2O3-CFA could provide more specific surface area for the covalent linkage between SiO2 and SnO2. Factors influencing the efficacy of SO42-/SnO2-Al2O3-CFA were systematically explored. The highest furfural yield of 84.7% was reached in NH4Cl-toluene biphasic system at 180 °C for 30 min. The recyclability of SO42-/SnO2-Al2O3-CFA and toluene could be achieved for five batches with stable performance in transformation of xylose-rich corn stover hydrolysate. This study provided a novel solid acid catalyst with promising potential in the synthesis of furfural from corn stover.


Assuntos
Furaldeído , Zea mays , Carvão Mineral , Cinza de Carvão , Dióxido de Silício
3.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122075, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31491649

RESUMO

To enhance the humification process, Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium) was inoculated during different fermentation phases of the co-composting of maize straw and canola residue. The humification process was determined by evaluating cellulose and lignin contents and key enzyme activities during composting. Results showed that the cellulose and lignin degradation efficiency and humification degree of compost were significantly enhanced in the treatment that inoculated P. chrysosporium in the cooling period (T2). At the end of composting, compared with that in T1 (no inoculation), the content of cellulose and lignin in T2 decreased significantly by 40.00% and 64.30%, respectively, and compared with that in T1 and T3 (inoculation in the initial stage of composting) the content of humus in T2 increased significantly by 55.40% and 75.20%, respectively. This study confirms that inoculating P. chrysosporium during the cooling period promoted the degradation of cellulose and lignin, and therefore enhanced the compost humification.


Assuntos
Compostagem , Phanerochaete , Lignina , Solo , Zea mays
4.
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao ; 30(9): 3164-3174, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31529892

RESUMO

To achieve the goal of remediation while producing for farmland contaminated by Cd, maize and grain amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus) were planted on farmland contaminated by Cd in five different intercropping modes, including alternating wide-narrow-row of maize and single-row grain amaranth intercropped between wide rows (T1), alternating wide-narrow-row of maize and double-row grain amaranth intercropped between wide rows (T2), equidistant double-row maize and single-row grain amaranth intercropped between rows (T3), equidistant double-row maize and double-row grain amaranth intercropped between rows (T4), maize and grain amaranth intercropped with equal four rows (T5), while maize (CK1) and grain amaranth (CK2) single planted as control to explore the effects of different intercropping modes on growth and Cd accumulation of crops and hyper-accumulation plants (A. hypochondriacus). The results showed that: 1) Compared with mono-culture (CK1), grain yield of maize per plant showed an increasing trend in intercropping modes. The grain yield of maize in T1 increased by 10.5%, while that in T4 and T5 decreased by 6.3% and 5.4% respectively, and that in T2 or T3 did not change compared with monoculture of maize. The aboveground biomass per plant and yield per unit area of grain amaranth decreased by 69.5%-95.7% and 83.9%-96.9% in intercropping modes respectively compared with monoculture (CK2). 2) The Cd content of maize grain showed an increasing trend in intercropping modes compared with monoculture (CK1). The Cd content of grain amaranth showed a decreasing trend in intercropping modes compared with monoculture (CK2). 3) Compared with monoculture (CK2), the enrichment coefficient, transport coefficient, and effective transport coefficient of grain amaranth all showed an increasing trend in intercropping modes, while the aboveground Cd extraction amount per plant and per unit area of grain amaranth decreased by 40.4%-86.7% and 70.4%-88.9% in intercropping modes, respectively. The total amount of Cd extraction per unit area of maize and grain amaranth in intercropping modes was significantly higher than that in monoculture of maize and lower than that in monoculture of grain amaranth. 4) The content of available Cd in maize rhizosphere soil and the content of total/available Cd in grain amaranth rhizosphere soil both showed an increasing trend in intercropping modes compared with monoculture of both crop, but it had no significant effect on non-rhizosphere soil. In this study, T1 was beneficial to increase maize grain yield, while T5 was beneficial to maximize the Cd extraction amount of grain amaranth.


Assuntos
Amaranthus , Cádmio/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/metabolismo , Zea mays , Agricultura , Solo
5.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 122052, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31473038

RESUMO

This work studied the effects of ammonium carbonate pretreatment on biogas production during sequential anaerobic digestion. The results showed that the addition of ammonium bicarbonate (8%, w/w) obtained the highest biogas production of 14,690 mL with a yield of 222.6 mL g-1, which was 31% higher than that of un-pretreated (control experiment). Interestingly, the COD removal was increased by 100%. Furthermore, it was also helpful in stabilizing the pH of anaerobically digested corn stalk. Based on the results, the modified Gompertz equation fitted the cumulative biogas production curves very well, with high correlation coefficients (>0.994).


Assuntos
Metano , Zea mays , Anaerobiose , Bicarbonatos , Biocombustíveis
6.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 121962, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31449921

RESUMO

In this study, corn stalk (CS) was pretreated with furfural wastewater (FWW) for whole slurry anaerobic digestion (AD), which increased the degradability of CS components, changed the parameters in pretreatment slurry and improved the biochemical methane potential (BMP). The ultimate goal was to optimize the time and temperature for FWW pretreatment and evaluate whether FWW pretreatment is feasible from BMP and energy conversion. The results of path analysis suggested that lignocellulosic degradability (LD) was the main factor affecting methane production with the comprehensive decision of 0.7006. The highest BMP (166.34 mL/g VS) was achieved by the pretreatment at 35 °C for 6 days, which was 70.36% higher than that of control check (CK) (97.64 mL/g VS) and the optimal pretreatment condition was predicted at 40.69 °C for 6.49 days by response surface methodology (RSM). The net residual value (NRV) for the pretreatment of 35 °C and 6 days was the highest (0.6201), which was the most appropriate condition for AD in real application.


Assuntos
Águas Residuárias , Zea mays , Anaerobiose , Furaldeído , Metano
7.
Bioresour Technol ; 293: 122035, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31454731

RESUMO

This work studied the association between biomass types and MgO pretreatment using representative agricultural residues (corn stover, sorghum stalk, and wheat straw), energy crops (miscanthus, switchgrass, and big bluestem), and woody biomass (poplar). Differences in biomass chemical components (24.7-40.3% cellulose, 17.4-27.6% hemicellulose, 12.1-22.0% lignin, and 5.1-38.3% extractives) and the amount of acetic acid (1.9-5.3%) affected biomass structure and pretreatment severity. Optimal pretreatment temperature and time were 170 °C and 40 min for wheat straw and switchgrass; 180 °C and 30 min for miscanthus and poplar; and 180 °C and 40 min for corn stover, sorghum stalk, and big bluestem. Big bluestem and poplar have a larger amount of acetic acid and required more MgO loading (0.12 mol/L). Except for sorghum stalk (0.10 mol/L), the rest required less MgO loading (0.08 mol/L). Approximate MgO loading completely neutralized released acetic acid during pretreatment, reducing sugar degradation and eliminating inhibitor formation.


Assuntos
Lignina , Óxido de Magnésio , Biomassa , Hidrólise , Zea mays
8.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9789-9795, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31373816

RESUMO

Pulmonary fibrosis is a chronic lung disease characterized by abnormal accumulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM). Chronic damage of the alveolar epithelium leads to a process called "epithelial-mesenchymal transition" (EMT) and increases synthesis and deposition of ECM proteins. Therefore, inhibition of EMT might be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of pulmonary fibrosis. ß-Sitosterol is one of the most abundant phytosterols in the plant kingdom and the major constituent in corn silk, which is derived from the stigma and style of maize (Zea mays). In this study, we elucidated that ß-sitosterol inhibited transforming growth factor-ß1 (TGF-ß1)-induced EMT and consequently had an antifibrotic effect. ß-Sitosterol (1-10 µg/mL) significantly downregulated the TGF-ß1-induced fibrotic proteins, such as collagen, fibronectin, and α-smooth muscle actin in human alveolar epithelial cells (p < 0.01). After 24 h, relative wound density (RWD) was increased in TGF-ß1 treated group (82.16 ± 5.70) compare to the control group (64.63 ± 2.21), but RWD was decreased in ß-sitosterol cotreated group (10 µg/mL: 71.54 ± 7.39; 20 µg/mL: 65.69 ± 6.42). In addition, the changes of the TGF-ß1-induced morphological shape and protein expression of EMT markers, N-cadherin, vimentin, and E-cadherin, were significantly blocked by ß-sitosterol treatment (p < 0.01). The effects of ß-sitosterol on EMT were found to be associated with the TGF-ß1/Snail pathway, which is regulated by Smad and non-Smad signaling pathways. Taken together, these findings suggest that ß-sitosterol can be used to attenuate pulmonary fibrosis through suppression of EMT by inhibiting the TGF-ß1/Snail pathway.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais Alveolares/efeitos dos fármacos , Transição Epitelial-Mesenquimal/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Alvéolos Pulmonares/efeitos dos fármacos , Fibrose Pulmonar/fisiopatologia , Sitosteroides/farmacologia , Zea mays/química , Actinas/genética , Actinas/metabolismo , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/citologia , Células Epiteliais Alveolares/metabolismo , Caderinas/genética , Caderinas/metabolismo , Linhagem Celular , Fibronectinas/genética , Fibronectinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Extratos Vegetais/química , Alvéolos Pulmonares/metabolismo , Alvéolos Pulmonares/fisiopatologia , Fibrose Pulmonar/tratamento farmacológico , Fibrose Pulmonar/genética , Fibrose Pulmonar/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo
9.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9858-9867, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31389230

RESUMO

Farnesene is an important chemical platform for many industrial products, such as biofuels and polymers. We performed high-efficiency utilization of corncobs for ß-farnesene production by separate hydrolysis and fermentation with an optimized Escherichia coli strain. First, we developed a recycling strategy for both corncob pretreatment and cellulose hydrolysis, which saved great amounts of pretreatment reagents and presented a 96.83% cellulose conversion rate into glucose. However, the corncob hydrolysate strongly repressed cell growth and ß-farnesene production, being caused by high-concentrated citrate. Through expressing a heterologous ATP citrate lyase and screening for a suitable expression host, an optimized strain was constructed that produced ß-farnesene at 4.06 g/L after 48 h in a 5 L fermenter, representing an approximately 2.3-fold increase over the initial strain. Therefore, the proposed strategy about the recycling process and repression elimination was successful and suitable for the production of lignocellulosic-based ß-farnesene, which can be further studied to scale up for industrialization.


Assuntos
Escherichia coli/genética , Escherichia coli/metabolismo , Lignina/metabolismo , Sesquiterpenos/metabolismo , Fermentação , Glucose/metabolismo , Hidrólise , Engenharia Metabólica , Reciclagem , Resíduos/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/microbiologia
10.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(35): 9772-9781, 2019 Sep 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31398019

RESUMO

This study aims to investigate the response profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids on transcription and metabolic levels of sweet corn seedlings under temperature stress. The treated temperatures were set as 10 °C (low temperature, LT), 25 °C (control, CK), and 40 °C (high temperature, HT) for sweet corn seedlings. The gene expression profiles of vitamin E and carotenoids biosynthesis pathways were analyzed by real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), and the composition profiles were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Results showed that vitamin E gradually accumulated in response to LT stress but was limited by HT stress. The increase of carotenoids was suppressed by LT stress whereas HT stress promoted it. The existing results elaborated the interactive and competitive relationships of vitamin E and carotenoids in sweet corn seedlings to respond to extreme temperature stress at transcriptional and metabolic levels. The present study would improve sweet corn temperature resilience with integrative knowledge in the future.


Assuntos
Carotenoides/metabolismo , Vitamina E/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Carotenoides/análise , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plântula/química , Plântula/genética , Plântula/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Plântula/metabolismo , Estresse Fisiológico , Temperatura Ambiente , Vitamina E/análise , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
11.
J Environ Manage ; 248: 109311, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31466177

RESUMO

Atrazine is an herbicide that is applied in corn around the world and in sugarcane in Brazil. It is known to be hazardous for animals' health, mobile in the soil, and its analysis is considered expensive and onerous. Solute movement studies are essential to provide information about dangerous molecules movement, which can avoid contamination. While field investigations demand time and financial resources, numerical models are an alternative to describe water and solute distribution in the soil profile. Thus, the objective of this work was to use HYDRUS 2-D model for simulations of atrazine movement in containers packed with tropical soil cultivated with corn and to compare simulated and observed data through statistical parameters. The research was carried out in a greenhouse during 116 days after planting. Atrazine was analyzed in the soil solution at three different depths to validate HYDRUS-2D. Simulations were carried out using hydraulic properties fitted directly to measured retention data and parameters for corn growing and atmospheric characteristics. The mixed procedure analysis indicated that there are differences in atrazine concentration among depths and along time. In general, atrazine concentration is higher at shallow depths and right after application. However, it is possible to find atrazine in deeper soil layers, which might be a concern regarding contamination. RMSE, Willmott and Pearson coefficients indicated a favorable capacity of the model to simulate atrazine concentration on corn cultivation. HYDRUS-2D is a reliable tool to obtain trends in atrazine movement under these experiment's conditions. The uptake parameters, the crop root growth and distribution parameters depend on further specific studies to better describe the relationship between the plant and atrazine and meteorological parameters need to be updated.


Assuntos
Atrazina , Herbicidas , Poluentes do Solo , Animais , Brasil , Solo , Zea mays
12.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 346, 2019 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31391002

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The safety assessment and control of stacked transgenic crops is increasingly important due to continuous crop development and is urgently needed in China. The genetic stability of foreign genes and unintended effects are the primary problems encountered in safety assessment. Omics techniques are useful for addressing these problems. The stacked transgenic maize variety 12-5 × IE034, which has insect-resistant and glyphosate-tolerant traits, was developed via a breeding stack using 12-5 and IE034 as parents. Using 12-5 × IE034, its parents (12-5 and IE034), and different maize varieties as materials, we performed proteomic profiling, molecular characterization and a genetic stability analysis. RESULTS: Our results showed that the copy number of foreign genes in 12-5 × IE034 is identical to that of its parents 12-5 and IE034. Foreign genes can be stably inherited over different generations. Proteomic profiling analysis found no newly expressed proteins in 12-5 × IE034, and the differences in protein expression between 12 and 5 × IE034 and its parents were within the range of variation of conventional maize varieties. The expression levels of key enzymes participating in the shikimic acid pathway which is related to glyphosate tolerance of 12-5 × IE034 were not significantly different from those of its parents or five conventional maize varieties, which indicated that without selective pressure by glyphosate, the introduced EPSPS synthase is not has a pronounced impact on the synthesis of aromatic amino acids in maize. CONCLUSIONS: Stacked-trait development via conventional breeding did not have an impact on the genetic stability of T-DNA, and the impact of stacked breeding on the maize proteome was less significant than that of genotypic differences. The results of this study provide a theoretical basis for the development of a safety assessment approach for stacked-trait transgenic crops in China.


Assuntos
Variação Genética , Melhoramento Vegetal , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Zea mays/genética , China , Inocuidade dos Alimentos , Dosagem de Genes , Instabilidade Genômica , Análise de Perigos e Pontos Críticos de Controle , Proteômica
13.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 351, 2019 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31412785

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Rubisco activase (RCA) regulates the activity of Rubisco and is a key enzyme of photosynthesis. RCA expression was widely reported to affect plant photosynthesis and crop yield, but the molecular basis of natural variation in RCA expression in a wide range of maize materials has not been fully elucidated. RESULTS: In this study, correlation analysis in approximately 200 maize inbred lines revealed a significantly positive correlation between the expression of maize RCA gene ZmRCAß and grain yield. A genome-wide association study revealed both cis-expression quantitative trait loci (cis-eQTLs) and trans-eQTLs underlying the expression of ZmRCAß, with the latter playing a more important role. Further allele mining and genetic transformation analysis showed that a 2-bp insertion and a 14-bp insertion in the promoter of ZmRCAß conferred increased gene expression. Because rice is reported to have higher RCA gene expression than does maize, we subsequently compared the genetic factors underlying RCA gene expression between maize and rice. The promoter activity of the rice RCA gene was shown to be stronger than that of the maize RCA gene, suggesting that replacing the maize RCA gene promoter with that of the rice RCA gene would improve the expression of RCA in maize. CONCLUSION: Our results revealed two DNA polymorphisms regulating maize RCA gene ZmRCAß expression, and the RCA gene promoter activity of rice was stronger than that of maize. This work increased understanding of the genetic mechanism that underlies RCA gene expression and identify new targets for both genetic engineering and selection for maize yield improvement.


Assuntos
Oryza/genética , Fotossíntese/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Oryza/metabolismo , Oryza/fisiologia , Folhas de Planta , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/fisiologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Locos de Características Quantitativas , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase , Zea mays/metabolismo , Zea mays/fisiologia
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 291: 121931, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31382093

RESUMO

This work deals with the development of an improved process for xylitol production from corn cob hydrolysate by biotechnological routes emphasizing the detoxification of corncob acid hydrolysate. The acid hydrolysate obtained by acid hydrolysis of corn cob was concentrated and detoxified by activated charcoal, membrane process and ion exchange resin process. The resultant partially purified corncob hydrolysate was used in fermentation. The fermentation of acid hydrolysate containing 56.5 g/L xylose was carried out in a 14 L fermenter at pH 4.5 for 48 h with 150 rpm stirring rate at 30 °C. A xylitol yield of 62% was achieved from the partially purified acid hydrolysate medium during fermentation using Candida tropicalis MTCC 6192. The purity of xylitol was increased to 92-94% upon downstream processing of carbonation, subsequently ion exchange process and activated charcoal.


Assuntos
Xilitol , Zea mays , Candida tropicalis , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Xilose
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 292: 121915, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31386943

RESUMO

This work studied preparation of rice husk-based solid acid and its application for efficient hydrolysis and saccharification of corncob. Rice husk-based solid acid (RH-SO3H) was prepared by one-step carbonization and sulfonation method. Analysis demonstrated that RH-SO3H exhibited aromatic carbon sheets structure bearing -SO3H, -COOH and -OH groups. The RH-SO3H was then used to hydrolyse and saccharify corncob. Compared with solid acids made from activated carbon and microcrystalline cellulose, the RH-SO3H showed the highest catalytic efficiency with the maximum reducing sugar yield of 486.53 mg/g and xylose of 253.03 mg/g, which was twice and five times higher than that of control, respectively. Its high efficiency was attributed to -OH and -COOH groups functioned synergistically with -SO3H to hydrolyse lignocellulose by adsorbing ß-1,4-glucan in corncob. This study provides a green and effective utilization technology of lignocellulosic biomass.


Assuntos
Oryza , Ácidos , Hidrólise , Xilose , Zea mays
16.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 126, 2019 Jul 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31363938

RESUMO

Isolation and identification of temperature tolerant phosphate solubilizing bacteria (TTPSB) and their use as microbial fertilizers was the main goal of the study. In this study, TTPSB were isolated from soil samples treated for 16 h at 55 °C. Their phosphate solubilizing activity was either evaluated in solid media by forming a clear zone (halo) or in liquid media by quantification of the soluble phosphate in the growth medium. Five colonies (RPS4, RPS6, RPS7, RPS8 and RPS9) were identified to be able to form a halo and two of the isolates (RPS9 and RPS7) tolerated a temperature of 55 °C. With tricalcium phosphate (TCP) as the sole P-source, the phosphate solubilizing capacity of RPS9 and RPS7 was determined to be 563.8 and 324.1 mg P L-1 in liquid Sperber medium, respectively. Both bacterial isolates were identified as Pantoea agglomerans by molecular and biochemical characterization. To be used as a microbial fertilizer a carrier system for the temperature tolerant bacteria consisting of rock phosphate, sulfur and bagasse was used. It could be established that the bacterial cell counts of the microbial fertilizers were acceptable for application after storage for 4 months at 28 °C. In a greenhouse experiment using pot cultures, inoculation of maize (S.C.704) with the microbial fertilizers in an autoclaved soil resulted in a significant effect on total fresh and dry weight of the plant root and shoot as well as on the P content of the root and shoot. The effects observed with RPS9 as a component of the microbial fertilizer on plant growth and P nutrition was comparable with the addition of 50% of recommended triple superphosphate (TSP) dose. Using temperature tolerant bacteria in microbial fertilizers will overcome limitations in production and storage of the microbial fertilizers and contribute to a environmentally-friendly agriculture. The temperature tolerant P. agglomerans strain RPS9 was shown to be effective as part of a microbial fertilizer in supporting the growth and P uptake in maize.


Assuntos
Agricultura/métodos , Fosfatos de Cálcio/metabolismo , Pantoea/isolamento & purificação , Pantoea/metabolismo , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Técnicas Bacteriológicas , Biotransformação , Fosfatos de Cálcio/química , Meios de Cultura/química , Temperatura Alta , Pantoea/classificação , Pantoea/efeitos da radiação , Solubilidade , Zea mays/microbiologia
17.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 334, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370799

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Parasitic plants engage in a complex molecular dialog with potential host plants to identify a host and overcome host defenses to initiate development of the parasitic feeding organ, the haustorium, invade host tissues, and withdraw water and nutrients. While one of two critical signaling events in the parasitic plant life cycle (germination via stimulant chemicals) has been relatively well-studied, the signaling event that triggers haustorium formation remains elusive. Elucidation of this poorly understood molecular dialogue will shed light on plant-plant communication, parasitic plant physiology, and the evolution of parasitism in plants. RESULTS: Here we present an experimental framework that develops easily quantifiable contrasts for the facultative generalist parasitic plant, Triphysaria, as it feeds across a broad range of diverse flowering plants. The contrasts, including variable parasite growth form and mortality when grown with different hosts, suggest a dynamic and host-dependent molecular dialogue between the parasite and host. Finally, by comparing transcriptome datasets from attached versus unattached parasites we gain insight into some of the physiological processes that are altered during parasitic behavior including shifts in photosynthesis-related and stress response genes. CONCLUSIONS: This work sheds light on Triphysaria's parasitic life habit and is an important step towards understanding the mechanisms of haustorium initiation factor perception, a unique form of plant-plant communication.


Assuntos
Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Magnoliopsida/parasitologia , Orobanchaceae/fisiologia , Arabidopsis/parasitologia , Magnoliopsida/fisiologia , Medicago/parasitologia , Oryza/parasitologia , Solanum/parasitologia , Zea mays/parasitologia
18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 19(1): 335, 2019 Aug 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31370805

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Drought is a serious causal factor of reduced crop yields than any other abiotic stresses. As one of the most widely distributed crops, maize plants frequently suffer from drought stress, which causes great losses in the final kernel yield. Drought stress response in plants showed tissue- and developmental stage-specific characteristics. RESULTS: In this study, the ears at the V9 stage, kernels and ear leaf at the 5DAP (days after pollination) stage of maize were used for morphological, physiological and comparative transcriptomics analysis to understand the different features of "sink" or "source" organs and the effects on kernel yield under drought stress conditions. The ABA-, NAC-mediate signaling pathway, osmotic protective substance synthesis and protein folding response were identified as common drought stress response in the three organs. Tissue-specific drought stress responses and the regulators were identified, they were highly correlated with growth, physiological adaptation and yield loss under drought stress. For ears, drought stress inhibited ear elongation, led to the abnormal differentiation of the paired spikelet, and auxin signaling involved in the regulation of cell division and growth and primordium development changes. In the kernels, reduced kernel size caused by drought stress was observed, and the obvious differences of auxin, BR and cytokine signaling transduction appeared, which indicated the modification in carbohydrate metabolism, cell differentiation and growth retardation. For the ear leaf, dramatically and synergistically reduced the expression of photosynthesis genes were observed when suffered from drought stress, the ABA- and NAC- mediate signaling pathway played important roles in the regulation of photosynthesis. CONCLUSIONS: Transcriptomic changes caused by drought were highly correlated with developmental and physiological adaptation, which was closely related to the final yield of maize, and a sketch of tissue- and developmental stage-specific responses to drought stress in maize was drafted.


Assuntos
Zea mays/fisiologia , Produção Agrícola , Desidratação , Grão Comestível/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Grão Comestível/fisiologia , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/fisiologia , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Folhas de Planta/fisiologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 35(8): 129, 2019 Aug 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376017

RESUMO

Metal whole-cell biosensors (WCBs) have been reported as very useful tools to detect and quantify the presence of bioavailable fractions of certain metals in water and soil samples. In the current work, two bacterial WCBs able to report Cr(VI) presence and plants growing on Cr(VI)-enriched soil/medium were used to assess the potential transfer of this metal to organisms of higher trophic levels, and the risk of transfer to the food chain. To do it, the functionality of the WCBs within tissues of inoculated plants in contact with Cr(VI)-contaminated soil and water was studied in vitro and in a controlled greenhouse environment. One WCB was the previously described Ochrobactrum tritici pCHRGFP2 and the second, Nitrospirillum amazonense pCHRGFP2, is a newly engineered naturally-occurring endophytic microorganism. Three rice varieties (IAC 4440, BRS 6 CHUÍ, IRGA 425) and one maize variety (1060) were tested as hosts and subjected to Cr(VI) treatments (25 µM), with different results obtained. Inoculation of each WCB into plants exposed to Cr(VI) showed GFP expression within plant tissues. WCBs penetrated the root tissues and later colonized the shoots and leaves. In general, a higher fluorescence signal was detected in roots, together with a higher Cr content and denser WCB colonization. Best fluorescence intensities per plant biomass of shoots were obtained for plant host IRGA 425. Therefore, by analyzing colonized tissues, both WCBs allowed the detection of Cr(VI) contamination in soils and its transfer to plants commonly used in crops for human diet.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos , Cromo/análise , Ochrobactrum/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/química , Rhodospirillaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/química , Disponibilidade Biológica , Engenharia Metabólica , Microscopia de Fluorescência , Ochrobactrum/genética , Ochrobactrum/metabolismo , Oryza/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Oryza/microbiologia , Rhodospirillaceae/genética , Rhodospirillaceae/metabolismo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/microbiologia
20.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(33): 9210-9219, 2019 Aug 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390203

RESUMO

The insecticidal and antifeedant activities of five 7-chloro-4-(1H-1,2,3-triazol-1-yl)quinoline derivatives were evaluated against the maize armyworm, Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith). These hybrids were prepared through a copper-catalyzed azide alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC, known as a click reaction) and displayed larvicidal properties with LD50 values below 3 mg/g insect, and triazolyl-quinoline hybrid 6 showed an LD50 of 0.65 mg/g insect, making it 2-fold less potent than methomyl, which was used as a reference insecticide (LD50 = 0.34 mg/g insect). Compound 4 was the most active antifeedant derivative (CE50 = 162.1 µg/mL) with a good antifeedant index (56-79%) at concentrations of 250-1000 µg/mL. Additionally, triazolyl-quinoline hybrids 4-8 exhibited weak inhibitory activity against commercial acetylcholinesterase from Electrophorus electricus (electric-eel AChE) (IC50 = 27.7 µg/mL) as well as low anti-ChE activity on S. frugiperda larvae homogenate (IC50 = 68.4 µg/mL). Finally, molecular docking simulations suggested that hybrid 7 binds to the catalytic active site (CAS) of this enzyme and around the rim of the enzyme cavity, acting as a mixed (competitive and noncompetitive) inhibitor like methomyl. Triazolyl-quinolines 4-6 and 8 inhibit AChE by binding over the perimeter of the enzyme cavity, functioning as noncompetitive inhibitors. The results described in this work can help to identify lead triazole structures from click chemistry for the development of insecticide and deterrent products against S. frugiperda and related insect pests.


Assuntos
Inseticidas/síntese química , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva/efeitos dos fármacos , Quinolinas/química , Quinolinas/farmacologia , Spodoptera/efeitos dos fármacos , Acetilcolinesterase/química , Acetilcolinesterase/metabolismo , Animais , Inibidores da Colinesterase/síntese química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/química , Inibidores da Colinesterase/farmacologia , Química Click , Simulação por Computador , Proteínas de Insetos/antagonistas & inibidores , Proteínas de Insetos/química , Proteínas de Insetos/metabolismo , Inseticidas/química , Larva/enzimologia , Larva/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Doenças das Plantas/parasitologia , Spodoptera/enzimologia , Spodoptera/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/parasitologia
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA