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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e243890, 2023. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1278548

RESUMO

Abstract Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Resumo Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) é um predador onívoro, que encontra na planta do milho diferentes recursos alimentares: ovos de Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredósporos de Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897) e pólen. Para definição da relevância desse predador como agente de controle biológico, conhecer a sobrevivência e preferência alimentar é essencial. Nós hipotetizamos que o comportamento de forrageamento e a capacidade de predação de D. luteipes podem ser afetados quando uma mesma planta oferece ovos, uredósporos e pólen, concomitantemente. A sobrevivência de D. luteipes na fase de ninfa e sua preferência entre os recursos alimentares, frequentemente disponíveis nas plantas de milho, foram determinados. Para verificar a sobrevivência de D. luteipes, ninfas recém eclodidas foram alimentadas exclusivamente com 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- combinação de uredósporos + ovos e 5- dieta artificial (controle). Em outro experimento, ninfas e adultos de D. luteipes com 24 e 48 horas de jejum foram liberadas individualmente, em recipientes contendo quatro dietas: 1- uredósporos de P. polysora, 2- ovos de S. frugiperda, 3- pólen de milho, 4- dieta artificial e mantidas durante 10 min, sendo avaliados a escolha pelo alimento e o tempo de alimentação. A alimentação exclusiva com ovos de S. frugiperda ocasionou baixa sobrevivência das ninfas (8%), porém a combinação de uredósporos de P. polysora + ovos de S. frugiperda possibilitou sobrevivência de 58,3%. D. luteipes preferiu se alimentar durante o período noturno e as maiores proporções de escolhas das ninfas e dos adultos ocorreram no pólen e na dieta, sendo que os adultos gastaram mais tempo se alimentando de pólen. Estas descobertas indicam que as escolhas tróficas de D. luteipes são relevantes para compreender sua contribuição como agente de controle de insetos-praga e doença fúngicas em milho.


Assuntos
Animais , Comportamento Predatório , Insetos , Spodoptera , Zea mays , Larva , Ninfa
4.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272311, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35921368

RESUMO

Western corn rootworm (WCR), Diabrotica virgifera virgifera, LeConte, is an insect pest that poses a significant threat to the productivity of modern agriculture, causing significant economic and crop losses. The development of genetically modified (GM) crops expressing one or more proteins that confer tolerance to specific insect pests, such as WCR, was a historic breakthrough in agricultural biotechnology and continues to serve as an invaluable tool in pest management. Despite this, evolving resistance to existing insect control proteins expressed in current generation GM crops requires continued identification of new proteins with distinct modes of action while retaining targeted insecticidal efficacy. GM crops expressing insecticidal proteins must undergo extensive safety assessments prior to commercialization to ensure that they pose no increased risk to the health of humans or other animals relative to their non-GM conventional counterparts. As part of these safety evaluations, a weight of evidence approach is utilized to assess the safety of the expressed insecticidal proteins to evaluate any potential risk in the context of dietary exposure. This study describes the food and feed safety assessment of Vpb4Da2, a new Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal protein that confers in planta tolerance to WCR. Vpb4Da2 exhibits structural and functional similarities to other insect control proteins expressed in commercialized GM crops. In addition, the lack of homology to known toxins or allergens, a lack of acute toxicity in mice, inactivation by conditions commonly experienced in the human gut or during cooking/food processing, and the extremely low expected dietary exposure to Vpb4Da2 provide a substantial weight of evidence to demonstrate that the Vpb4Da2 protein poses no indication of a risk to the health of humans or other animals.


Assuntos
Bacillus thuringiensis , Besouros , Inseticidas , Animais , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/metabolismo , Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis , Produtos Agrícolas/metabolismo , Endotoxinas/metabolismo , Humanos , Resistência a Inseticidas , Inseticidas/farmacologia , Larva , Camundongos , Controle Biológico de Vetores , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
5.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271269, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35917314

RESUMO

Fungal infection causes deterioration, discoloration, and loss of nutritional values of food products. The use of lactic acid bacteria has diverse applications in agriculture to combat pathogens and to improve the nutritional values of cereal grains. The current research evaluated the potential of Loigolactobacillus coryniformis BCH-4 against aflatoxins producing toxigenic Aspergillus flavus strain. The cell free supernatant (CFS) of Loig. coryniformis was used for the protection of Zea mays L. treated with A. flavus. No fungal growth was observed even after seven days. The FT-IR spectrum of untreated (T1: without any treatment) and treated maize grains (T2: MRS broth + A. flavus; T3: CFS + A. flavus) showed variations in peak intensities of functional group regions of lipids, proteins, and carbohydrates. Total phenolics, flavonoid contents, and antioxidant activity of T3 were significantly improved in comparison with T1 and T2. Aflatoxins were not found in T3 while observed in T2 (AFB1 and AFB2 = 487 and 16 ng/g each). HPLC analysis of CFS showed the presence of chlorogenic acid, p-coumaric acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, salicylic acid, and benzoic acid. The presence of these acids in the CFS of Loig. coryniformis cumulatively increased the antioxidant contents and activity of T3 treated maize grains. Besides, CFS of Loig. coryniformis was passed through various treatments (heat, neutral pH, proteolytic enzymes and catalase), to observe its stability. It suggested that the inhibitory potential of CFS against A. flavus was due to the presence of organic acids, proteinaceous compounds and hydrogen peroxide. Conclusively, Loig. coryniformis BCH-4 could be used as a good bioprotecting agent for Zea mays L. by improving its nutritional and antioxidant contents.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas , Síndrome de Fadiga Crônica , Aflatoxinas/análise , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Aspergillus flavus/metabolismo , Lactobacillus , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Zea mays/metabolismo
6.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4498, 2022 Aug 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922428

RESUMO

Unilateral cross incompatibility (UCI) occurs between popcorn and dent corn, and represents a critical step towards speciation. It has been reported that ZmGa1P, encoding a pectin methylesterase (PME), is a male determinant of the Ga1 locus. However, the female determinant and the genetic relationship between male and female determinants at this locus are unclear. Here, we report three different types, a total of seven linked genes underlying the Ga1 locus, which control UCI phenotype by independently affecting pollen tube growth in both antagonistic and synergistic manners. These include five pollen-expressed PME genes (ZmGa1Ps-m), a silk-expressed PME gene (ZmPME3), and another silk-expressed gene (ZmPRP3), encoding a pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins. ZmGa1Ps-m confer pollen compatibility. Presence of ZmPME3 causes silk to reject incompatible pollen. ZmPRP3 promotes incompatibility pollen tube growth and thereby breaks the blocking effect of ZmPME3. In addition, evolutionary genomics analyses suggest that the divergence of the Ga1 locus existed before maize domestication and continued during breeding improvement. The knowledge gained here deepen our understanding of the complex regulation of cross incompatibility.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas , Zea mays , Células Germinativas Vegetais/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Polinização , Autoincompatibilidade em Angiospermas/genética , Seda/genética , Seda/metabolismo , Zea mays/genética
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13478, 2022 Aug 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35931693

RESUMO

Drought stress and the scarcity of nitrogen fertilizer are two of the important abiotic factors affecting maize growth. Bio-char can enhance the maize yield. Therefore, two field experiments were carried out in the 2 years (2019-2020) to study the effects of nitrogen fertilizer at three levels and four levels of bio-char on endogenous protective enzymes, dry matter accumulation, and yield of the maize 'Xianyu 335' under two different irrigation methods. A split-plot system in three replications was established to conduct the field trials. Two irrigation methods (Regular irrigation and Irregular irrigation) were in the main plots, three nitrogen fertilization levels (0, 150, 300 kg h-1 m2) were in sub-plots, and four bio-char levels (0, 8, 16, 24 t h-1 m-2) were in the sub-sub plots. Each sub-plot consisted of 9 rows with 5 m length and 0.6 m width, and each sub-plot area was 30 m2 in the 2 years. The results indicated that the irrigation methods, the nitrogen, and bio-char supply significantly affected the maize endogenous protective enzymes, dry matter accumulation, and yield in the 2 years. Under the same irrigation method, nitrogen fertilizer and bio-char significantly improved the endogenous protective enzyme activity, dry matter accumulation, and yield of maize compared to the treatment without nitrogen fertilizer and bio-char. The above characteristics improved with increased bio-char supply and nitrogen fertilization at 150 kg h-1 m-2. The treatment of C24N150 recorded the highest values for the parameters of maize endogenous protective enzymes activity, dry matter accumulation, and yield under different irrigation methods during the two harvest seasons.


Assuntos
Fertilizantes , Nitrogênio , Irrigação Agrícola/métodos , Agricultura/métodos , Biomassa , Carvão Vegetal , Água , Zea mays
8.
Anim Sci J ; 93(1): e13758, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932203

RESUMO

Oilseed cakes can partially replace corn or soy used in the diet without losing animal performance. The objective was to carry out a meta-analysis and principal component analysis to evaluate the effects of cakes on the intake and apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of dry matter (DM) and milk production and composition in lactating dairy cows. The data set used in the meta-analysis came from 51 studies published between 2009 and 2019, which resulted in 119 studies with 18 types of cakes evaluated in 1350 cows. Cows fed with cakes increased dry matter intake (DMI) by 0.366 kg d-1 (P < 0.001) and DMI as a function of the animal's body weight by 0.103% (P < 0.0001) compared with the diet without cake. The milk protein content decreased by 0.050% (P < 0.010). The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) (26%-%) and ether extract (EE) (3%-7%) of the cake diets did not affect ADCDM. Cakes with contents between 10% and 30% can replace corn or soy in the diet without affecting milk production, components (fat, protein, and lactose), and contents (fat and lactose), but it can reduce the milk protein content of milk.


Assuntos
Lactação , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Fibras na Dieta/metabolismo , Digestão , Feminino , Lactose , Proteínas do Leite/análise , Rúmen/metabolismo , Silagem/análise , Zea mays
9.
Database (Oxford) ; 20222022 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35932239

RESUMO

Recent focus on transcriptomic studies in food crops like rice, wheat and maize provide new opportunities to address issues related to agriculture and climate change. Re-analysis of such data available in public domain supplemented with annotations across molecular hierarchy can be of immense help to the plant research community, particularly co-expression networks representing transcriptionally coordinated genes that are often part of the same biological process. With this objective, we have developed NetREx, a Network-based Rice Expression Analysis Server, that hosts ranked co-expression networks of Oryza sativa using publicly available messenger RNA sequencing data across uniform experimental conditions. It provides a range of interactable data viewers and modules for analysing user-queried genes across different stress conditions (drought, flood, cold and osmosis) and hormonal treatments (abscisic and jasmonic acid) and tissues (root and shoot). Subnetworks of user-defined genes can be queried in pre-constructed tissue-specific networks, allowing users to view the fold change, module memberships, gene annotations and analysis of their neighbourhood genes and associated pathways. The web server also allows querying of orthologous genes from Arabidopsis, wheat, maize, barley and sorghum. Here, we demonstrate that NetREx can be used to identify novel candidate genes and tissue-specific interactions under stress conditions and can aid in the analysis and understanding of complex phenotypes linked to stress response in rice. Database URL: https://bioinf.iiit.ac.in/netrex/index.html.


Assuntos
Arabidopsis , Oryza , Arabidopsis/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Genes de Plantas , Oryza/genética , Oryza/metabolismo , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Triticum/genética , Zea mays/genética
10.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13435, 2022 Aug 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927281

RESUMO

Bt maize is being increasingly cultivated worldwide as the effects of climate change are increasing globally. Bt maize IE09S034 and its near-isogenic non-Bt maize Zong 31 were used to investigate whether climate change alters the effects of Bt maize on soil Collembola. Warming and drought conditions were simulated using open-top chambers (OTC), and their effects on soil Collembola were evaluated. We found that the maize type had no significant effect on Collembola; however, the abundance and diversity of Collembola were significantly higher in the OTC than outside at the seedling stage; they were significantly lower in the OTC at the heading and mature stages. The interactions of the maize type with the OTC had no effect on these parameters. Therefore, Bt maize had no significant effect on soil Collembola, and the effects of climate warming and drought on soil Collembola depended on the ambient climatic conditions. When the temperature was low, collembolan abundance and diversity were promoted by warming; however, when the temperature was high and the humidity was low, collembolan abundance and diversity were inhibited by warming and drought. The climate changes simulated by the OTC did not alter the effects of Bt maize on soil Collembola.


Assuntos
Artrópodes , Solo , Animais , Mudança Climática , Microbiologia do Solo , Zea mays/genética
11.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0271461, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951618

RESUMO

Corn ethanol production has been growing in Brazil in the last ten years, generating by-products to feedlot diets. This study evaluates the effects of the inclusion of low-fat corn wet distillers grains (LF-WDG) on feeding behavior, ruminal health, liver abscesses and blood parameters of F1 Angus-Nellore bulls feedlot finished. Our hypothesis is that evaluation of data from feeding behavior, rumen and liver health would help to explain animal performance. In this trail, one-hundred animals were fed for 129 days with diets containing amounts of 0 (control), 15, 30 and 45% of LF-WDG replacing corn grain and soybean meal. Evaluations of fluctuation of dry matter intake (DMI) were carried out. Additionally, feeding behavior data were assessed by monitoring (24-h period) the feeding, rumination, time spent eating (TSE), and time expended on other activities (resting and number of meals per day). Blood variables such as pH, bicarbonate, total CO2 content, and base excess in extracellular fluid (Beecf) were determined. After slaughter, rumen epithelium was classified according to the incidence of lesions (rumenitis) and abnormalities (papillae clumped), and samples were collected for morphology and histology evaluations. Moreover, livers were scored for severity of abscesses as follow: as unabscessed (0), one or two small abscesses (A-), two to four small active abscesses (A) or one or more large, active abscesses (A+). The DMI (kg/day) differed (P = 0.03) among treatments and there is a tendency of 15 and 30 LF-WDG (% DM) had lower %DMI fluctuation compared to 0 or 45%. The TSE increased linearly (P < 0.01) as the amounts of inclusion of LF-WDG increased. Moreover, neutral detergent fiber (NDF) intake, NDF consumption rate and NDF rumination efficiency increased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to LF-WDG feeding. The incidence of rumenitis tended (P = 0.08) to be greater at 45% LF-WDG, while keratin thickness decreased linearly in bulls fed LF-WDG (P < 0.01). The severity of liver abscesses (score A+) increased linearly (P = 0.02). Regarding blood parameters, only Beecf decreased linearly (P < 0.01) in response to LF-WDG feeding. Therefore, the hypothesis of the current study was confirmed. We previous reported that F1 Angus-Nellore bulls fed LF-WDG show greater weight gain (1.94 ± 0.09 kg/day) and final body weight (620 ± 18.8 kg) when compare to control (1.8 ± 0.09 kg/day and 602 ± 18.8 kg, respectively). Here, we conclude that inclusion of 15 to 30% LF-WDG in feedlot diets improved feeding behavior without impairing ruminal health and blood parameters, driving performance and weigh gain of crossbred bulls. However, bulls fed 45% LF-WDG had greater severity of liver abscesses.


Assuntos
Abscesso Hepático , Rúmen , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão/fisiologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Masculino , Rúmen/fisiologia , Zea mays/química
12.
Cells ; 11(15)2022 Jul 27.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954161

RESUMO

In plants, oxidative stress and metabolic reprogramming frequently induce male sterility, however our knowledge of the underlying molecular mechanism is far from complete. Here, a maize genic male-sterility (GMS) mutant (ms33-6038) with a loss-of-function of the ZmMs33 gene encoding glycerol-3-phosphate acyltransferase 6 (GPAT6) displayed severe deficiencies in the development of a four-layer anther wall and microspores and excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) content in anthers. In ms33-6038 anthers, transcriptome analysis identified thousands of differentially expressed genes that were functionally enriched in stress response and primary metabolism pathways. Further investigation revealed that 64 genes involved in ROS production, scavenging, and signaling were specifically changed in expression levels in ms33-6038 anthers compared to the other five investigated GMS lines. The severe oxidative stress triggered premature tapetal autophagy and metabolic reprogramming mediated mainly by the activated SnRK1-bZIP pathway, as well as the TOR and PP2AC pathways, proven by transcriptome analysis. Furthermore, 20 reported maize GMS genes were altered in expression levels in ms33-6038 anthers. The excessive oxidative stress and the metabolic reprogramming resulted in severe phenotypic deficiencies in ms33-6038 anthers. These findings enrich our understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which ROS and metabolic homeostasis impair anther and pollen development in plants.


Assuntos
Infertilidade , Zea mays , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen/genética , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio , Zea mays/genética
13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35954884

RESUMO

Water consumption and energy consumption are inevitable in grain production, but few studies have focused on the integrated assessment of these two indicators and their relationships. To address the research deficiency, taking the North China Plain (NCP) as a case study, this paper quantifies the changes in grain crop planting structure and the accompanying changes in irrigation water consumption (IWC) and energy consumption (EC) in the NCP. On this basis, the water-energy coupling index (CI) is constructed to analyze the water-energy coupling relationship in the context of grain crop planting structure change. The results revealed that the sown area of three of the four main grain crops in the NCP, namely winter wheat, summer maize, and rice, roughly increased in the south and decreased in the north, while the sown area of spring maize increased in most counties where it was planted in the NCP from 2000 to 2015. With the change of grain crop planting structure, IWC and EC of winter wheat in the NCP decreased by 19.87 × 106 m3 and 16.78 × 108 MJ, respectively, mainly distributed in the Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, while IWC and EC of other crops all increased. In terms of CI values, although that of spring maize increased, those of winter wheat, summer maize, and rice all decreased, and the overall CI values of grain production in the NCP decreased from 0.442 in 2000 to 0.438 in 2015, indicating that grain crop distribution has been optimized toward a less water- and energy-intensive and more sustainable layout in the NCP. This paper can add case and methodological support to the food-water-energy (FEW) nexus research and can also provide policy suggestions for regional crop optimization layout and conservation of both water and energy resources.


Assuntos
Oryza , Água , Agricultura/métodos , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Grão Comestível , Triticum , Zea mays
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Jul 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955541

RESUMO

Variation in flowering plays a major role in maize photoperiod adaptation during long-term domestication. It is of high value to investigate the genetic basis of maize flowering under a wide range of environmental conditions in order to overcome photoperiod sensitivity or enhance stress tolerance. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between Huangzaosi and Mo17, composed of 121 lines and genotyped by 8329 specifically developed markers, was field evaluated in two consecutive years under two planting densities (67,500 and 120,000 plants ha-1) and two water treatments (normal irrigation and drought stress at the flowering stage). The days to silking (DTS), days to anthesis (DTA), and anthesis to silking interval (ASI) were all evaluated. Within the RIL population, DTS and DTA expanded as planting density and water deficit increased. For DTA, DTS, ASI, and ASI-delay, a total of 22, 17, 21, and 11 QTLs were identified, respectively. More than two significant QTLs were identified in each of the nine chromosomal intervals. Under diverse conditions and locations, six QTLs (quantitative trait locus) for DTS and DTA were discovered in Chr. 8: 118.13-125.31 Mb. Three chromosome regions, Chr. 3: 196.14-199.89 Mb, Chr. 8: 169.02-172.46 Mb, and Chr. 9: 128.12-137.26 Mb, all had QTLs for ASI-delay under normal and stress conditions, suggesting their possible roles in stress tolerance enhancement. These QTL hotspots will promote early-maturing or multiple abiotic stress-tolerant maize breeding, as well as shed light on the development of maize varieties with a broad range of adaptations.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Fenótipo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Zea mays/genética
15.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(15)2022 Aug 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35955919

RESUMO

The ability of immature embryos to induce embryogenic callus (EC) is crucial for genetic transformation in maize, which is highly genotype-dependent. To dissect the genetic basis of maize EC induction, we conducted QTL mapping for four EC induction-related traits, the rate of embryogenic callus induction (REC), rate of shoot formation (RSF), length of shoot (LS), and diameter of callus (DC) under three environments by using an IBM Syn10 DH population derived from a cross of B73 and Mo17. These EC induction traits showed high broad-sense heritability (>80%), and significantly negative correlations were observed between REC and each of the other traits across multiple environments. A total of 41 QTLs for EC induction were identified, among which 13, 12, 10, and 6 QTLs were responsible for DC, RSF, LS, and REC, respectively. Among them, three major QTLs accounted for >10% of the phenotypic variation, including qLS1-1 (11.54%), qLS1-3 (10.68%), and qREC4-1 (11.45%). Based on the expression data of the 215 candidate genes located in these QTL intervals, we performed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA). A combined use of KEGG pathway enrichment and eigengene-based connectivity (KME) values identified the EC induction-associated module and four hub genes (Zm00001d028477, Zm00001d047896, Zm00001d034388, and Zm00001d022542). Gene-based association analyses validated that the variations in Zm00001d028477 and Zm00001d034388, which were involved in tryptophan biosynthesis and metabolism, respectively, significantly affected EC induction ability among different inbred lines. Our study brings novel insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms of EC induction and helps to promote marker-assisted selection of high-REC varieties in maize.


Assuntos
Locos de Características Quantitativas , Zea mays , Mapeamento Cromossômico , Genes de Plantas , Fenótipo , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo
16.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20200966, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35946745

RESUMO

This study evaluated the replacement of starch (ST; cracked corn) by neutral detergent-soluble fiber (NDSF; citrus pulp) and its effects on feed intake, performance, digestibility, carcass traits, and nitrogen balance of lambs. In Experiment 1, male lambs (n = 24, 19.1 ± 1.9 kg body weight [BW]) received: Starch (ST) = 250 g starch/kg dry matter (DM); ST/NDSF = 180 g starch/kg DM + 180 g NDSF/kg DM; or NDSF = 250 g NDSF/kg DM. After 84 d, animals were slaughtered and carcasses were evaluated. In Experiment 2, male lambs (n = 15, 23.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were used to assess digestibility and nitrogen balance. Final BW, average daily gain, gain to feed and feed intake decreased when animals were fed NDSF (P≤0.002), reflecting in lighter carcasses (P<0.0001). The NDSF decreased edible non-carcass components (P=0.0006), total usable products (P<0.0001), commercial cuts and intramuscular fat (P≤0.02). Except for NDSF and ST, the digestibility of nutrients was improved for NDSF diet (P≤0.04). The use of 250 g NDSF/kg DM as citrus pulp in finishing diets for lambs impairs performance, carcass, meat traits and nitrogen balance. However, the moderate replacement of corn by citrus pulp does not change productive variables.


Assuntos
Ração Animal , Amido , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Peso Corporal , Detergentes , Dieta/veterinária , Digestão , Masculino , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Carneiro Doméstico , Zea mays
17.
Biomed Res Int ; 2022: 3963850, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35924265

RESUMO

Selection of high yielding and stable maize hybrid requires effective method of evaluation. Multienvironment evaluation is a critical step in plant breeding programs that is aimed at selecting the ideal genotype in a wide range of environments. A method of evaluation that combines a variety parameter of stability could provide more accurate information to select the ideal genotype. The aims of the study were (i) to identify the effect of genotype, environment, and genotype × environment interactions (GEIs) on maize hybrid yields and (ii) to select and to compare maize hybrids that have high and stable yields in diverse environments in Sumatra Island based on combined analysis, selection index, and GGE biplot. The study was conducted in five different environments in Sumatra Island, Indonesia, using a randomized complete block design repeated three times. Data were estimated using combined variance analysis, parametric and nonparametric stability, sustainability index, and GGE biplot. The results showed that the genotype had a significant effect on maize hybrid yields with a contribution of 41.797%. The environment contributed to 24.314%, and GEIs contributed 33.889% of the total variation. E1 (Karo, South Sumatra; dry season) and E3 (Tanjung Bintang, Lampung; dry season) were identified as the most ideal environments (representative) for testing the hybrids for wider adaptability. The maize hybrid with high and stable yields can be selected based on combined stability analysis and sustainability index as well as GGE biplot. These three methods are effectively selected high yielding and stable genotypes when they are used together. The three maize hybrids, namely, MH2, MH8, and MH9, are recommended as high yielding and stable genotype candidates.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Zea mays , Genótipo , Indonésia , Zea mays/genética
18.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4136-4145, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971711

RESUMO

The lack of carbon sources severely inhibits denitrification in wastewater with a low C/N ratio. Corncob and rice straw were chosen as supplementary carbon sources to bring into the wetland system to supplement the carbon sources needed for denitrification, and the enhancing effects of the two carbon sources on nitrogen removal from the wetland were studied. The cumulative release of carbon was in the order of rice straw[(145.17±9.44) mg·g-1]>corncob[(57.41±5.04) mg·g-1] based on the 11-day pure water extraction and release experiment, whereas the cumulative release of nitrogen was in the order of rice straw[(2.31±0.09) mg·g-1]>corncob[(0.66±0.08) mg·g-1]. The average carbon/nitrogen ratios released and accumulated by corncob and rice straw during the observation period were 94.78 and 63.64, respectively. Corncob was more suited as an additional carbon source than rice straw. COD concentrations in the effluent from the corncob and straw constructed wetlands were found to be below 50 mg·L-1 for the 58-day pilot test of subsurface flow constructed wetlands, except on days 8 to 12. The NO3--N removal rates of the corncob-added built wetlands were 93%-99% over the observation period, with good denitrification performance. In comparison, the lowest NO3--N removal rate of the constructed wetland with the addition of rice straw was only 76.8% at the late stage of operation, and the denitrification rate dropped dramatically. The control group removal rates of NO3--N were only 76.2%-77.7%, indicating a clear lack of carbon sources. The accumulation of NO2--N was also induced by a lack of carbon supply. NO2--N effluent concentrations were 2.5-6 times and 6-26 times higher in the constructed wetlands with rice straw and the control groups, respectively, than those in the wetlands constructed with corncob. The addition of corncob resulted in a more substantial reduction in NO2--N content in the constructed wetland than the addition of rice straw (P<0.05). The TN removal rates of wetlands constructed with corncob and rice straw and the control group were 83.75%-93.49%, 76.59%-78.85%, and 67.85%-72.56%, respectively, with significant differences among the three (P<0.01). Finally, pretreatment with dilute alkali heating raised the cumulative carbon release of corncob to (93.73±17.49) mg·g-1 and the carbon/nitrogen ratio to 175.8, significantly improving the carbon release performance of corncob and demonstrating that it is a suitable source of extra carbon.


Assuntos
Oryza , Áreas Alagadas , Carbono , Desnitrificação , Nitrogênio , Dióxido de Nitrogênio , Eliminação de Resíduos Líquidos/métodos , Águas Residuárias , Zea mays
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4232-4252, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971720

RESUMO

The enrichment and translocation characteristics of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As by various parts of maize plants were investigated using field experiments in 22 maize varieties simultaneously under uncontaminated, low, middle, and serious heavy metal Cd, Pb, Zn, and As complex-contaminated farmland soil conditions. The relationship between the uptake of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As by maize plants and the morphological content of heavy metals in the soil was also discussed through principal component analysis and correlation analysis of the concentrations of eight heavy metals, including Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Cu, Ni, and Zn. The results showed that:① the distribution pattern of Cd and Zn contents in different parts of the maize plant was as follows:upper stalk>lower stalk>root>seed, the distribution pattern of Pb was As follows:root>lower stalk>upper stalk>seed, and the As distribution pattern was:root>upper stalk>lower stalk>seed. The different distribution patterns were closely related to the accumulation characteristics of the crop itself and the environmental activity of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As in the soil of the study area. ② There were significant differences in Cd and Pb accumulation among 22 maize cultivars due to their genetic background (P<0.05), which showed four trends:Cd and Pb compound high-accumulation varieties, single Cd or Pb low-accumulation varieties (low Cd and high Pb, low Pb and high Cd), and Cd and Pb compound low-accumulation varieties. Among them, the content of Cd in the grain of the three varieties exceeded the national food safety standard, and the content of Cd in the stem and leaf of 14 varieties exceeded the national food health standard. The Pb content in stems, leaves, and grains of all cultivars did not exceed the standard, but the Pb content in grains of some cultivars was close to the limit and had the risk of exceeding the standard. The content of As in the stem, leaf, and grain of different maize varieties was much lower than the standard limit value, showing a stable low-accumulation characteristic. The content of Zn in the stem and leaf of different maize varieties increased with the increase in the content of Zn in soil, but the content of Zn in grain remained within the threshold of normal plant growth. ③ Cd, Pb, Zn, and As in maize plants in the study area had a certain homology and were mainly affected by the excessive levels of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As pollutants in the soil. This showed that anthropogenic sources were brought about by mine extraction and tailings stockpiles, whereas Cu elements in maize plants were affected by certain anthropogenic pollution sources, though to a limited extent. Hg, Ni, and Cr in maize plants had a certain homology; this showed the natural source of soil parent material and weathering product accumulation. ④ The contents of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As elements in various parts of the corn plant, as well as the contents of Cr and Ni elements all had a very significant positive correlation (P<0.01). The transport mechanisms of Cd, Pb, Zn, and As elements in the plant may have a common. However, there was a synergistic effect in the migration from the root of the corn to the upper part of the ground, and the same was true for the elements of Cr and Ni. The elements of Hg and Cd, Pb, Zn, and As in the corn stems and leaves and Hg and Cd, Hg, As, Pb, Cr, Ni, and Zn in grains all showed certain antagonistic effects. ⑤ The comparison method simultaneously satisfied the following requirements:the contents of Cd, Pb, and As in stems and leaves did not exceed the national food hygiene standards, and the contents of Cd, Pb, and As in the grains did not exceed the national food safety standards. The cluster analysis of Cd, Pb, and As in grains was a low-accumulation group, and the enrichment and transport coefficients of Cd, Pb, and As in the stems and leaves and grains were low as the optimal conditions. C18 (Xianyu 335) could be selected as the optimal maize variety with low accumulation of Cd, Pb, and As and normal Zn content in grain, which is suitable for promoting and applying in the heavy metal complex-polluted farmland around industrial and mining enterprises in north China.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , China , Grão Comestível/química , Monitoramento Ambiental , Chumbo/análise , Mercúrio/análise , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zea mays , Zinco
20.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(8): 4379-4386, 2022 Aug 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35971734

RESUMO

Here, we investigated the effects of straw returning combined with biochar application on summer maize yield and soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions, based on a field location trial in the Guanzhong Plain from 2019 to 2020. The soil N2O emission rates were monitored using the static chamber-chromatography method. A comprehensive analysis of summer maize yields, soil N2O emissions, and soil labile nitrogen components was conducted to clarify the effects of straw returning combined with biochar application on improving soil fertility, increasing summer maize yield, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions. The three treatments were no straw returning (S0), straw returning (S), and straw returning combined with biochar application (SB). The results showed that the peak of N2O emissions from each treatment occurred 10 d after the straw return, and the rate of soil N2O emissions remained at a low level after 30 d of straw return. The rate of soil N2O emissions showed highly significant positive correlations (P<0.05) with ammonium nitrogen (NH4+-N), inorganic nitrogen (SIN), microbial nitrogen (MBN), and dissolved organic nitrogen (DON) contents. S significantly increased summer maize yield, cumulative N2O emissions, yield-scaled N2O intensity, and total nitrogen (TN) content by 7.4%-13%, 65.8%-132.2%, 54.6%-103%, and 27.8%-33%, respectively, compared to those in S0. Although the trend for SB to increase summer maize yield (2.5%-3.3%) compared to that in S was not significant (P>0.05), SB significantly reduced cumulative N2O emissions and yield-scaled N2O intensity by 24.0%-27.3% and 26.4%-29.2%, respectively, compared to that in S. SB significantly reduced the rate of soil N2O emissions by 45.1%-69.6% at the peak of N2O emissions compared to that in S. Biochar application mitigated soil N2O emissions induced by straw return and had a peak-shaving effect. SB significantly increased soil total N by 9.1%-12.2% compared to that in S. Combining summer maize yield, soil N2O emissions, and TN content, SB not only improved soil fertility and summer maize yield but also reduced yield-scaled N2O intensity, making it a suitable management practice that can be replicated to balance crop yield and environmental friendliness.


Assuntos
Solo , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Carvão Vegetal , China , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitrogênio/análise , Óxido Nitroso/análise , Solo/química , Triticum
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