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1.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(2): 540-550, 2020 Jan 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31523826

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Root-shoot ratio plays an important role in mulching effects on increases in maize kernel dry weight and grain yield. RESULTS: We examined the effects of plastic film mulching with fertigation on soil nitrate, soil Olsen-P, aboveground and belowground growth, grain filling, and yield of maize. The 2-year research was conducted in a field with a subsoil sand layer (FSS) and in a field without a subsoil sand layer (FNS) in the Hetao Irrigation District, northwest China. Treatments included two levels of plastic film mulching (FM, fully mulched; PM, partially mulched with a cover ratio of 60%), and a non-mulched (NM) control. Mulching methods significantly increased soil NO3 -N concentrations (SNCs) in the main root zone in FSS, but not in FNS. Mulching significantly increased root length density in the 0-40 cm soil layer. Mulching increased brace roots emergence by 20.2% under full, and by 9.9% under partial mulching, accelerating soil phosphorus use in the surface soil layer. Mulching increased grain yield in spring maize via enhancing base stem diameter, leaf area, and relative chlorophyll content, decreased the ratio of surface root area to leaf area, and improved kernel dry weight increase. CONCLUSIONS: A high proportion of base fertilizer to total fertilizer input resulted in nutrient deficiency during reproductive stage in fertigated maize, therefore, applying a portion of base fertilizer after the maize elongation stage is recommended for a further yield increase of mulched fertigated maize. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produção Agrícola/métodos , Raízes de Plantas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , China , Produção Agrícola/instrumentação , Fertilizantes/análise , Nitratos/análise , Nitratos/metabolismo , Nutrientes/análise , Nutrientes/metabolismo , Raízes de Plantas/metabolismo , Plásticos/análise , Solo/química , Água/análise , Água/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
2.
Sci Total Environ ; 698: 134010, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505337

RESUMO

The use of fertilizers as addition inputs in agricultural systems can increase the yield of wheat and maize, while also stimulating the emission of carbon dioxide from soil that the main man-made greenhouse gas. Our objectives focused on the impact of different types of synthetic fertilizers and water quality. The purposes were to determine the feasibility of using wasted water for irrigation and to relate CO2 fluxes to the yield of maize and wheat, as well as to select the best fertilizer type with low CO2 emission and high yield. The experiment consisted of a double factors test focusing on four forms of fertilizer (urea, amine and slow release fertilizer) and the quality of water (reclaimed water and underground water). The results showed that the reclaimed water was not significant on the CO2 discharge rate, the maize-wheat yield or the soil properties in 2014 or 2015; however, the CO2 emission increased slightly in 2015. Focusing on fertilizer treatments, the reclaimed water & amine fertilizer treatment (CAF) that had higher cumulative CO2 emissions was 32.75 t·ha-1 in 2014 and 33.86 t·ha-1 in 2015. According to the ratio CO2/Y, the slow released fertilizer that reduces CO2 emissions and keeps the yield high is the preferred choice.


Assuntos
Poluentes Atmosféricos/análise , Dióxido de Carbono/análise , Fertilizantes , Triticum , Qualidade da Água , Zea mays , Agricultura , China
3.
Food Chem ; 308: 125675, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31654978

RESUMO

The effects of starch origin on water migration and starch transformation were investigated using one- and two-dimensional Time-domain NMR (TD-NMR) methods. The quantification of T1 and especially of T2 relaxation times during thermal treatment enabled their interpretation relative to the sorption, gelatinization and retrogradation phenomena of starches in the presence of water, in a level close to that used for bread making (50%, wet basis). Comparison between native wheat, waxy corn and potato starches made possible to link relaxation variations to starch structure and properties as crystallinity, granule size, polymorphism, amylopectin content and water-binding capacity all along heating, cooling and storage processes.


Assuntos
Solanum tuberosum/química , Amido/química , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Gelatina/química , Imagem por Ressonância Magnética , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Água/química
4.
Food Chem ; 308: 125696, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655482

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEA) is a fungal contaminant widely found in grains. In cereal samples, trace zearalenone was extracted and enriched using magnetic-surfaced pseudo molecularly imprinted polymers (SPMIPs) and detected. SPMIPs were prepared with Fe3O4 as the magnetic core, modified halloysites nanotubes as supporting materials, and selective imprinted polymers as shells. Vinyl was modified on the surface of halloysites nanotube. SPMIPs were synthesized with pseudo templates. SPMIPs as the adsorbent of dispersed-solid phase extraction (µ-SPE) were used to purify and enrich ZEA from maize samples. After optimized, the pretreatment method was evaluated. The linearity of the method was ranged within 10-200 ng mL-1. LOD and LOQ were 2.5 ng mL-1 and 8 ng mL-1 respectively. The ZEA spiking recoveries in maize samples ranged within 74.95-88.41% were with good RSDs lower than 4.25%. The developed method was successful applied in maize, oat, and wheat sample treatments and compared.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Grão Comestível/química , Impressão Molecular/métodos , Polímeros/química , Triticum/química , Zea mays/química , Zearalenona/química , Adsorção , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Magnetismo , Extração em Fase Sólida/métodos
5.
Food Chem ; 306: 125589, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31606629

RESUMO

The combined effects of plasma-activated water (PAW) and heat-moisture treatments (HMT) on the structure, physicochemical properties and in vitro digestibility of waxy (WMS) and normal maize starches (NMS) were investigated. X-ray diffraction results revealed that the relative crystallinity of starches treated with PAW-HMT increased without crystalline type transition compared to DW-HMT. Through the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy, the short-range order of starches treated with PAW-HMT was improved. Differential scanning calorimetry analysis shown that PAW-HMT increased gelatinization temperatures for NMS while decreasing gelatinization temperatures for WMS. The solubility of starches treated with PAW-HMT was higher than that of DW-HMT while the swelling power decreased. Importantly, the resistant starch (RS) content of starches treated by PAW-HMT increased compared to the starches treated by DW-HMT or native starch. This study provides a novel green method to modify the structure, lower starch digestibility and improve the RS content of starch.


Assuntos
Amido/química , Ceras/química , Zea mays/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Temperatura Alta , Solubilidade , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Água/química , Difração de Raios X
6.
Food Chem ; 307: 125546, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639580

RESUMO

Zearalenone (ZEN) is one of the most widely distributed harmful mycotoxins produced by Fusarium species, especially deposited in corn oil. In this study, we systematically tracked the changes of ZEN in the refining of corn oil, and especially during neutralization process. An alkali neutralization process could remove certain amounts of ZEN that was much more than that of others refining steps. In a mimicking condition, ZEN contents decreased continuously and significantly with increasing neutralization temperature. However, when returned to neutral, recoverable ZEN decreased with increasing temperature, which confirmed more degradation of ZEN at high temperature. HPLC-Q/TOF MS and NMR evidence showed that non-reversible hydrolyzate followed decarboxylation was observed in a high-temperature alkali neutralization condition. The results may serve as the scientific basis for the elimination of zearalenone in refined vegetable oils, and provide clues to understanding the oil-safety aspects of elimination of zearalenone.


Assuntos
Óleo de Milho/química , Zea mays/química , Zearalenona/isolamento & purificação , Álcalis
7.
Food Chem ; 308: 125577, 2020 Mar 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31669942

RESUMO

Leveraging phenolic complexation to optimize starch functionality and digestibility is restrained by the obscurity of their physicochemical nature and molecular basis. To define starch-phenolic complexes under hydrothermal treatments, maize amylopectin and potato starch were complexed with caffeic acid, ferulic acid and gallic acid. Starch hydrothermal stability and digestibility were measured by differential scanning calorimeter and Englyst's method, respectively. While monosaccharide compositions and glycosidic linkages were analyzed by GC-MS, hydrodynamic radius and proton magnetic resonance of gelatinized complexes were measured by dynamic light scattering and NMR respectively. Compared with native starches, starch-phenolic complexes were not chemically modified and had modestly lower estimated glycemic indexes and significantly lower gelatinization temperatures (p < 0.05). Starch-phenolic complexes also had significantly lower levels of phenolic proton intensities and hydrodynamic radii relative to the control starch-phenolic mixtures (p < 0.05). These results suggested that phenolics may complex with starch through non-covalent CH-π bonds along α-(1 → 4) glycosidic chains.


Assuntos
Amido/química , Zea mays/química , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Gelatina/química , Hidrodinâmica , Fenóis/química
8.
Food Chem ; 307: 125525, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639577

RESUMO

This study investigated effects of different concentrations of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) on carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline content in germinated maize kernels. MeJA treatment promoted carotenoids accumulation, radical scavenging activity and proline accumulation, while salicyl hydroxamic acid (SHAM) reduced carotenoids accumulation. There was a significant increase of 42.5% in lutein content when treated with 0.5 µM MeJA. Furthermore, the transcriptional expression of seven carotenogenic genes were explored by MeJA and SHAM. The results showed that 0.5 µM MeJA significantly increased the gene expression levels of PSY, PDS, ZDS, LCYB, LCYE, BCH1, CYP97C, and their transcript levels, which were strongly associated with carotenoids content. Treatment of MeJA affected the carotenoids biosynthesis gene and led to the accumulation of carotenoids. These new findings would help to develop innovative approach for enrichment of lutein in germinated maize kernels for further development of functional food materials.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Carotenoides/metabolismo , Ciclopentanos/farmacologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/efeitos dos fármacos , Oxilipinas/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Carotenoides/análise , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Germinação , Luteína/análise , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Prolina/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 307: 125526, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31648172

RESUMO

Effective management of mycotoxins rely on stringent regulation and routine surveillance of food/feed commodities via efficient analysis, hence the continuous need for improved methods. The present study developed, optimized and validated a modified pressurized hot water extraction (PHWE) method for the simultaneous extraction of multi-mycotoxins from maize and subsequent quantification on LC-MS/MS. The PHWE system was modified using ethanol (EtOH) as a cosolvent, while a numerical modelling approach, the central composite design (CCD), was adopted for the optimization of the extraction conditions. Using the optimized method, it was possible to effectively extract and quantify 15 different mycotoxins from maize in a single step with satisfactory linearities (0.986-0.999), recoveries (14-124%) and other associated method validation parameters. Further efficacious application of the method to real samples re-affirmed the prospects of PHWE as a suitable, cost-effective and greener alternative to traditional methods of mycotoxin extraction.


Assuntos
Micotoxinas/análise , Água/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Temperatura Alta , Limite de Detecção , Micotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Pressão , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Int J Phytoremediation ; 22(1): 52-61, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31353932

RESUMO

Chromium (Cr) contamination in farmlands has become a serious environmental concern due to the excessive use of industrial wastewater as an irrigation source. Therefore, some important measures need to be taken for reducing its mobility in a soil profile. A pot study was conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of sugarcane bagasse derived biochar and acidified manure on Cr mobility and its uptake by maize plant. Results showed that the application of biochar and acidified manure significantly changed soil pH, improved crop growth and as well as reduce the antioxidant response of maize in Cr contaminated soil. The concentration of bioavailable (AB-DTPA) extractable Cr in soil decreased with the addition of co-use of biochar (3%) and acidified manure (5%) by 36% relative to control. The maximum reduction in superoxidase dismutase (SOD), peroxidase dismutase (POD), and catalase activity assay (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase activity (APX) was occurred by 41%, 51%, 20%, and 55%, respectively when biochar (3%) amended with the combination of acidified manure in Cr contaminated soil. Among all the amendments, biochar at 3% application combination with acidified manure (B2 + AMS) offered significantly minimize Cr mobility (Cr-III (44%) and Cr-VI (22%)) and thereby reduce its uptake by maize plant.


Assuntos
Esterco , Poluentes do Solo , Biodegradação Ambiental , Carvão Vegetal , Cromo , Solo , Zea mays
11.
Food Chem ; 305: 125441, 2020 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31494499

RESUMO

Samples of granular corn starch were treated with 1,4-α-glucan branching enzyme (GBE) for 20 h using three different methods. These GBE modification methods all increased glycosidic linkage ratio, cyclic glucan content, and proportion of short chains while reducing weight mean molecular weight. The in vitro digestion rates of the modified starches were suppressed. Among these methods, a novel two-stage modification method comprising a 10-h GBE treatment, gelatinization, and a second 10-h GBE treatment, produced samples with the lowest in vitro digestibility. The rapidly digestible starch content was 34.2% lower than that of the control and 18.0% lower than that of the product of one-stage modification with the same duration. Fine structure characterization showed that more cluster structures were proved during the two-stage modification. This two-stage method suppressed the digestibility of corn starch and increased the substrate concentration, showing great potential for the industrial processing of slowly-digestible starchy foods.


Assuntos
Enzima Ramificadora de 1,4-alfa-Glucana/metabolismo , Amido/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Glucanos/análise , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Peso Molecular , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização e Dessorção a Laser Assistida por Matriz
12.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 258-267, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31512250

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Composite gels were individually prepared from 20 g kg-1 myofibrillar protein (MP) imbedded with typical native starch (potato, tapioca, rice or corn starch) in 0.6 mol L-1 NaCl at pH 6.2. The gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and microstructure of the obtained myofibrillar protein-starch composite gels were evaluated. RESULTS: Tapioca starch improved (P < 0.05) gel strength and water holding capacity of MP composite gel at 80 °C. Rheological properties of MP-starch composites differed significantly with the addition of different types of native starch. Additionally, the promoting effect of starch on the storage modulus of the composite gels positively correlated with the gelatinization properties of different typical starch. Environmental scanning electron microscopy showed that the filling effect of starch on the composite gel was related to the pasting temperature and particle size of typical starch, with almost no particles forming at 80 °C. Moreover, the addition of starch changed the relaxation peak area and increased the relaxation time in nuclear magnetic resonance tests, which suggested that starch could improve the water holding capacity of MP-starch composite gels. CONCLUSION: Different typical native starch has varied impacts on the gel strength, water holding capacity, rheological properties and microstructure of MP gels, indicating the potential and feasibility of these typical native starches as an addition agent to modify the textural properties in comminuted meat products. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Produtos da Carne/análise , Proteínas Musculares/química , Miofibrilas/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Amido/química , Animais , Aditivos Alimentares/química , Géis/química , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Manihot/química , Oryza/química , Reologia , Solanum tuberosum/química , Suínos , Zea mays/química
13.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122282, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31678703

RESUMO

Liquid fraction of digestate (LFD) was used to pretreat corn stover to enhance the biomethane production of anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) with cattle manure. The effects of LFD concentration and water content (WC) for pretreatment on co-digestion performance and microbial community structure were investigated in a batch system. Results showed that the cumulative biomethane yield (CBY) for co-digestion was improved by 16.85%-41.78% compared with the control. The highest biomethane yield of 238.25 mL g VS-1 was obtained at 85% WC for pretreatment and a 5 M LFD concentration, and this yield was 41.78% higher than that in the control. The LFD pretreatment enriched the dominant bacterial phyla (Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes), but had little influence on the prevalent archaeal genus (Euryarchaeota). This study demonstrated that LFD pretreatment can greatly enhance the biomethane yield of co-digestion of corn stover and cattle manure under optimal parameters.


Assuntos
Esterco , Microbiota , Anaerobiose , Animais , Biocombustíveis , Reatores Biológicos , Bovinos , Digestão , Metano , Zea mays
14.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122347, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704602

RESUMO

In this study, hyper-butanol producing Clostridium tyrobutyricum Δcat1::adhE2 was used for butanol production from paper mill sludge (PMS) and corn steep liquor (CSL). Our results demonstrated that CSL can not only serve as a cheap nitrogen source, but also provide lactic acid that can be assimilated by C. tyrobutyricum for enhanced butanol production. Through a separate hydrolysis and fermentation, 16.5 g/L butanol with a yield of 0.26 g/g was obtained from PMS hydrolysates supplemented with 5% CSL. Further, a separate repeated hydrolysis was conducted to improve PMS hydrolysis rate and enhance sugar yield. Fermentation using hydrolysates from such process also generated high-level butanol with high yield. Our results suggested an innovative bioprocess for efficient biobutanol production from low-value waste streams.


Assuntos
Clostridium tyrobutyricum , 1-Butanol , Butanóis , Clostridium , Fermentação , Esgotos , Zea mays
15.
Bioresour Technol ; 296: 122336, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31704603

RESUMO

Bauhinia variegate flower (BVF) was supposed to improve silage fermentation due to its abundant active components. Thus, corn stalk and stylo were ensiled with addition of 0, 5% or 10% BVF, and then ensiling characteristics, protein fraction and bacterial community were analyzed after 60-day fermentation. The contents of butyric acid (2.9 vs not detected, 13.2 vs 3.0 g/kg DM in corn stalk and stylo silage, respectively), ammonia-N (100.2 vs 83.2, 110.8 vs 61.9 g/kg total N) and free amino acid (35.6 vs 16.5, 35.0 vs 16.4 g/kg total N) were decreased in 10% BVF treated silages. The bacterial diversity was increased, where the relative abundance of Enterobacter or Clostridium decreased and that of lactic acid producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus, Weissella or Enterococcus increased. It is suggested that BVF could be used to improve fermentation quality and nutrient preservation of high-moisture corn stalk and stylo silage.


Assuntos
Bauhinia , Silagem , Bactérias , Fermentação , Flores , Proteólise , Características de Residência , Zea mays
16.
J Environ Manage ; 254: 109830, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31733477

RESUMO

This study aims to enhance hydrolysis and anaerobic digestion of corn cob (CC) by using food waste (FW) pretreatment. FW, which tends to be acidification in fermentation, was applied in this process as an acid-like agent to accelerate lignocellulose hydrolysis, aiming to promote methane yield in further digestion process. The effect of FW pretreatment on pH, soluble chemical oxygen demand (SCOD), volatile fatty acids (VFAs), cellulose/hemicellulose contents and cellulose crystallinity are specially focused. FW:CC = 1:3 based on volatile solid (VS) was found to be the optimal mixing ratio in pretreatment and its hydrolysis efficiency was 28% higher than the control group. An increase of 13.2% in cellulose reduction and a decrease of 6.7% in cellulose crystallinity was achieved at this ratio. Supplementation of FW increased VFA concentrations in slurry mixture that directly change the activities of enzymes and microorganisms. In the stage of methane production, the digester A3 (FW:CC = 1:6 based on VS) with higher hydrolysis efficiency presented the best performance in methane production with a specific methane yield of 401.6 mL/g·VS, due to the recovery of the pH in this digester to the optimal pH range for methanogens' metabolism (pH 6.3-7.2). Kinetics studies of cellulose/hemicellulose degradation indicated that the pretreatment of FW could improve the degradation of cellulose. Three-dimensional excitation emission matrix (3DEEM) results further confirmed that FW play an important role in lignocellulose hydrolysis. In addition, variations of lignocellulosic textures during the pretreatment were also cleared by using field emission-scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) analysis.


Assuntos
Alimentos , Eliminação de Resíduos , Anaerobiose , Reatores Biológicos , Hidrólise , Lignina , Metano , Zea mays
17.
Bioresour Technol ; 298: 122577, 2020 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31846853

RESUMO

The mechanisms associated with the biomethane metabolism through the synergistic biodegradation of both coal and corn straw were explored to improve the utilization rate of corn straw. This applies to the filling of the goaf with corn straw and the production of biomethane using indigenous bacteria in the mine water with coal. The results showed that new macromolecular substances (e.g., Tetracosane and Pentacosane) were produced on the third day. A lower coal rank leads to a lower biodegradation rate of low-molecular-weight substances (e.g., butyric acid and valeric acid). Under the addition of coal samples, the biodegradation rate of cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin in corn straw could reached up to 29.82%, 35.79% and 6.16%, respectively. The addition of corn straw promoted the complementary advantages of archaeal genera (such as Methanosarina and Methanospirillum) and decreased the adverse bacterial genera (such as Desulfovibrio and Pseudomonas) in the fermentation system of single coal.


Assuntos
Carvão Mineral , Zea mays , Biodegradação Ambiental , Lignina , Metano
18.
Chemosphere ; 238: 124710, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31545216

RESUMO

The purpose of study was to examine the residual effects of two types of biochar amendments, two phosphorus (P) fertilizer levels, phosphorus solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungs (AMF) on plant growth, nutrients absorption and root architecture of Zea mays L. in texturally different soils. Biochar signficantly increased nutrients absorption and plant biomass production with P-fertilization and microbial inoculantion. Texturally different soils enhanced the plant biomass and nutrients absorption in their independent capacity on addition of biochar, microbial inoculants and P-fertilization. It was shown that mycorrhizal inoculation had positive influence on plant root and shoot biomass in both soils irrespective to the biochar type used. Root colonization was notably increased in biochar + mycorrhizae (B + M) inocultaed plants. It was shown that mycorrhizal inoculation had positive influence on nutrients absorption by plant roots and it had high content of P, potassium, calcium and magnesium in plants at all biochar and P levels. Without P fertilization, biochar amendments significantly promoted shoot P content and root colonization. The P application significantly influenced soil microbial activity in terms of nutrient concentration and plant growth. Root attributes were significantly inclined by microbial inoculation. Residual effects of biochar and P significantly enhanced the nutreints absorption and maize plant growth. Thus, we concluded that residual biochar and P fertilizer showed positive effects on nutrients absorption and maize plant growth promotion in differently textured soils. Microbial inoculants further stimulated the plant biomass production and nutrients absorption due to effective root colonization.


Assuntos
Bactérias/metabolismo , Carvão Vegetal/farmacologia , Fungos/metabolismo , Fósforo/farmacologia , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Inoculantes Agrícolas , Biomassa , Fertilizantes/análise , Micorrizas/efeitos dos fármacos , Nutrientes , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Raízes de Plantas/química , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Solo/classificação , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zea mays/metabolismo
19.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 40(12): 5524-5530, 2019 Dec 08.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31854625

RESUMO

The selenium in the soil of Enshi, Hubei Province, is very rich, but there is also a certain degree of cadmium pollution risk. To scientifically utilize selenium-rich resources, a typical high-selenium and high-cadmium area in Shashi Township, Enshi City was selected as the research object. Combined with the corn cadmium selenium absorption model, a land safety zoning method was proposed. Comparing the health effects of selenium with the results of land safety zoning, it was found that the antagonism of selenium on cadmium can reduce the area of strict control of agricultural areas, and improve land use efficiency. Combined with the characteristics of cadmium and selenium in various crops in the study area, it is recommended for priority protection areas and safe-use areas to vigorously develop selenium-enriched agricultural products, and grow corn and tea in the structural adjustment area.


Assuntos
Agricultura , Cádmio , Selênio , Solo , Zea mays
20.
Zootaxa ; 4604(3): zootaxa.4604.3.3, 2019 May 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717177

RESUMO

Every year the area of transgenic maize planting in Brazil expands, however, our knowledge of the fauna of herbivorous insects associated with this genetically modified crop is restricted. In this work we report for the first time the occurrence of Leucania rawlinsi Adams, 2001 and L. senescens (Möschler, 1890) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Brazil with larvae feeding on Bt and non-Bt maize silk, as well as their braconid and tachinid larval parasitoids. In order to facilitate the specific identification of these species in future studies, redescriptions of adults including high resolution images are provided. In addition, spatiotemporal distribution data of both species are presented based on systematic surveys at 13 localities in Brazil and the examination of material deposited in several scientific collections. The results are presented and discussed to contribute to the evaluation of the complex of species associated with agricultural systems that include grass crops, especially maize, including Bt varieties.


Assuntos
Mariposas , Zea mays , Animais , Proteínas de Bactérias , Brasil , Produtos Agrícolas , Endotoxinas , Proteínas Hemolisinas , Larva , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas
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