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2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251410, 2024. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355887

RESUMO

Abstract Dietary habits of bandicoot rats (bandicota bengalensis) were investigated in the agricultural crops of the Pothwar Plateau, Pakistan by analysing stomach contents. The research activities were conducted in major field crops including wheat-groundnut and in the fallow lands during non-crop season at the field boundaries. The specimens were captured from the fields using kill/snap traps, and dissected to collect their stomach samples for laboratory analysis. Light microscopic slides of the plant material were recovered from stomach samples and the reference materials were collected from the field. Results revealed that the bandicoot rat predominantly fed upon cultivated crops during cropping season but consumed wild vegetation during non-cropping season. There was no significance difference between summer and winter diets. Most frequently consumed crop food items were wheat (Triticum aestivum; 28.57%), groundnut (Arachis hypogea; 11.26%), sorghum (Sorghum bicolor; 10.17%), chickpea (Cicer arietinum; 9.52%), maize (Zea mays; 6.49%), millet (Pennisetum glaucum; 5.84%), barley (Hordeum vulgare; 4.98%) and mustard (Brassica campestris; 4.98%). Among wild vegetation were consumed khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7.79%), baron dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7.36%) and Prickly flower (Achyranthes aspera; 3.03%). The study concludes that, in addition to consuming wheat and groundnut crops, the Lesser bandicoot rat also subsists on grasses, weeds, and some fodder crops, as important component of its diet in agro-ecosystem of the Pothwar Plateau.


Resumo Os hábitos alimentares de ratos bandicoot (Bandicota bengalensis) foram investigados nas plantações agrícolas do planalto de Pothwar, Paquistão, por meio da análise do conteúdo estomacal. As atividades da pesquisa foram conduzidas nas principais culturas de campo, incluindo trigo e amendoim, e em terras de pousio durante a estação não agrícola nos limites do campo. Os espécimes foram capturados dos campos usando armadilhas kill/snap e dissecados para coletar suas amostras de estômago para análise laboratorial. Lâminas de microscopia de luz do material vegetal foram recuperadas de amostras de estômago; os materiais de referência foram coletados no campo. Os resultados revelaram que o rato bandicoot alimentava-se predominantemente de culturas cultivadas durante a época de cultivo, mas consumia vegetação selvagem durante a época de não colheita. Não houve diferença significativa entre as dietas de verão e inverno. Os alimentos agrícolas mais frequentemente consumidos foram trigo (Triticum aestivum; 28,57%), amendoim (Arachis hypogea; 11,26%), sorgo (Sorghum bicolor; 10,17%), grão de bico (Cicer arietinum; 9,52%), milho (Zea mays; 6,49%), milheto (Pennisetum glaucum; 5,84%), cevada (Hordeum vulgare; 4,98%) e mostarda (Brassica campestris; 4,98%). Entre a vegetação silvestre foram consumidos khbal gha (Cynodon dactylon; 7,79%), barão dhab (Demostachya bipinnata; 7,36%) e flor espinhosa (Achyranthes aspera; 3,03%). O estudo conclui que, além de consumir culturas de trigo e amendoim, o rato bandicoot pequeno também subsiste de gramíneas, ervas daninhas e algumas culturas forrageiras, componentes importantes de sua dieta no agroecossistema do planalto de Pothwar.


Assuntos
Animais , Ecossistema , Murinae , Paquistão , Produtos Agrícolas , Zea mays , Comportamento Alimentar
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256799, 2024. tab, ilus
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360215

RESUMO

Southern corn leaf blight (SCLB) is one of the most important corn leaf diseases. Appropriate management strategies and the use of resistant cultivars allow disease control. Therefore, knowing the aspects related to the pathogen and the response of hosts makes it possible to design efficient strategies for selecting genotypes resistant to this disease. In this sense, the objective was to carry out the Bipolaris maydis isolate characterization, evaluating the pathogenicity in different popcorn lines and the symptoms generated in the host after inoculation. The isolate characterization consisted of the macromorphological evaluation of the colonies and the micromorphological evaluation of the conidia in the PDA medium. An experiment was carried out in a greenhouse to evaluate the pathogenicity of the isolate, using 20 inbred lines of popcorn in a randomized block design with four replicates. Inoculation was carried out by spraying leaves, with a suspension containing 1.0 x 104 conidia.ml-1 of the CF/UENF 501 isolate of B. maydis. An incidence assessment and three assessments of disease symptom severity were performed, with seven days intervals between evaluations. The morphological characterization data of the isolate were analyzed using descriptive statistics, and for disease severity, the linear regression model was applied the first-degree model. The variance analysis was performed for the linear and angular coefficients obtained for each treatment. When a difference was found, the Scott-Knott clustering algorithm at 5% significance was applied. The isolate had gray-green colonies, a cottony appearance, and an irregular shape. The lines L353, L354, and L624 show more resistance at the beginning and throughout the evaluations. The high virulence of the CF/UENF 501 isolate made it possible to differentiate the lines in terms of disease intensity and the pattern of symptoms presented.


Mancha-de-Bipolaris é uma das mais importantes doenças foliares do milho. Estratégias de manejo adequadas e o uso de cultivar resistente permitem o controle da doença, mas para tanto, conhecer os aspectos associados ao patógeno e a resposta do hospedeiro é necessário para traçar estratégias eficientes para seleção de genótipos resistentes a essa doença. Neste sentido, objetivou-se realizar a caracterização do isolado de Bipolaris maydis avaliando a patogenicidade em diferentes linhagens de milho-pipoca e os sintomas gerados no hospedeiro a partir da inoculação. A caracterização do isolado consistiu na avaliação macromorfológica das colônias e micromofológica dos conídios em meio nutritivo BDA. Para avaliação da patogenicidade do isolado foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação utilizando 20 linhagens endogâmicas de milho-pipoca, com delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. A inoculação foi realizada por meio de pulverização em folhas, com uma suspensão contendo 1,0 x 104 conídios.ml-1 do isolado CF/UENF 501 de B. maydis. Foi realizada uma avaliação de incidência e três avaliações de severidade dos sintomas da doença, com o intervalo de sete dias para cada avaliação. Os dados da caracterização morfológica do isolado foram analisados por meio da estatística descritiva e para severidade da doença foi aplicado o modelo de regressão linear de primeiro grau. Realizou-se a análise de variância para o coeficiente linear e angular obtido para cada tratamento e quando constatada diferença aplicou-se o agrupamento de médias de Scott-knott a 5% de significância. O isolado apresentou colônias com coloração cinza esverdeado, aspecto algodonoso e forma irregular. As linhagens L353 e L354 e L624 estão entre as linhagens que apresentaram maior resistência no inicio e ao longo das avaliações. A elevada virulência do isolado CF/UENF 501 possibilitou diferenciar as linhagens quanto a intensidade da doença, bem como o padrão dos sintomas apresentados.


Assuntos
Animais , Controle de Pragas , Zea mays , Genótipo
4.
Food Chem ; 434: 137433, 2024 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37741241

RESUMO

The effect of different corn starch (CS) concentrations on the gel formation of soybean isolate protein (SPI) was investigated. Moreover, the texture, rheological properties of the gel were determined, and the spatial structure and interactions of the composite gel system were analyzed. The composite system transitioned from liquid to solid-like with an increase in the CS concentration and did not backflow when inverted for 24 h. With the addition of CS, the gel strength, water holding capacity (WHC), G', and G'' increased significantly. The maximum was reached at 10 % starch concentration with gel strength of (228.96 ± 29.86) g and WHC of (98.93 ± 2.02)  %. According to low-field 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) results, CS has a high water absorption capacity, which improved the WHC. The scanning electron microscopy results revealed that composite gels with a high CS concentration had a more dense and small void network structure. According to the results of molecular force interaction, infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and free sulfhydryl group analysis, the added starch promoted the unfolding of SPI molecules, exposure of hydrophobic groups, transformation of free sulfhydryl groups into disulfide bonds, and hydrogen bond formation. Hydrophobic interactions, disulfide bonding, and hydrogen bonding function together to form the SPI-CS composite gel system. The study results provide the basis for applying soy protein and CS gels.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Soja , Amido , Amido/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Zea mays , Géis/química , Água/química , Dissulfetos , Reologia
5.
Food Chem ; 435: 137535, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37742464

RESUMO

The objective of study was to investigate the relationships between maize kernel properties and carotenoid release during simulated gastrointestinal digestion of 103 hybrids of dent type. Commercial maize hybrids significantly differed in kernel hardness, chemical composition and carotenoid profile. Across all hybrids, the amount of digestible individual carotenoids increased as follows: ß-carotene < α-cryptoxanthin < ß-cryptoxanthin < lutein < zeaxanthin. The amount of digested carotenoids correlated negatively with amylose content and amylose-to-amylopectin ratio, while it correlated positively with the content of neutral detergent fibres and amylopectin as well as the Stenvert index. However, the content of endosperm lipids could not be related to carotenoid digestibility. Findings clearly indicate that the carotenoid release from the kernel during digestion is related to specific physical and chemical properties, leading to a better understanding of the effects of kernel matrix structure on carotenoid digestibility in dent-type maize hybrids.


Assuntos
Amilopectina , Zea mays , Zea mays/química , Amilose , Carotenoides , Luteína , Zeaxantinas , Digestão
6.
Food Chem ; 435: 137457, 2024 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778257

RESUMO

Maize was spontaneously fermented and metaproteomic analysis was performed on the maize dough to investigate the profile of microbial communities. pH decreased (5.36, 4.44, and 4.42 after 24, 72, and 12 h), while lactic acid increased (0.03, 0.2, and 0.31 after 24, 72, and 120 h).The number of lactic acid bacteria (179 × 106 CFU/g) and mesophilic bacteria (213 × 106 CFU/g) was high. Based on metaproteomic analysis, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes phyla dominated the fermentation medium, and the Actinobacteria was associated with the matrix of maize during starch degradation. Fermentation parameters (pH, lactic acid and titratable sugar) were considered to be regulated during the first 24 h of the fermentation process for ensure the microbiological safety of maize dough. Assuming that metaproteomics as culture-free methods can be an excellent tool for find mechanisms for faster optimization of a new product, is indeed a good tool for investigating fermentative microbiota.


Assuntos
Bactérias , Zea mays , Zea mays/microbiologia , Fermentação , Bactérias/genética , Ácido Láctico , Microbiologia de Alimentos
7.
J Hazard Mater ; 461: 132727, 2024 01 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37813037

RESUMO

Intercropping heavy metal hyperaccumulators and low-accumulating cultivars is a promising strategy for remediating contaminated soils without impeding agricultural production. A field plot experiment was conducted to explore the effects of intercropping maize with Brassica juncea L. on the rhizosphere microecological properties, plant growth and cadmium (Cd) accumulation. The results showed that the Cd bioaccumulation amount per unit area (BCAarea) of the intercropping system was 12.9% lower than that of the Brassica juncea L. monoculture but 87.5% higher than that of the maize monoculture. The grain yield of maize was increased by 10.5% through intercropping, and the land equivalent ratio (LER) was greater than 1. Soil available Cd in intercropped maize was 13.4% lower than that in monoculture maize but was 12.7% higher in intercropped Brassica juncea L. than in monoculture Brassica juncea L. Intercropping significantly increased the contents of malic acid and citric acid in the rhizospheres of maize and Brassica juncea L. The dominant microorganisms were similar in all studied soils but were different in relative abundance between the intercropping and monoculture treatments. These findings suggest that intercropping maize with Brassica juncea L. could be a promising approach for phytoremediation without reducing crop yield in Cd-contaminated soil.


Assuntos
Cádmio , Poluentes do Solo , Cádmio/análise , Mostardeira , Rizosfera , Zea mays , Biodegradação Ambiental , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Solo
8.
Food Chem ; 437(Pt 2): 137899, 2024 Mar 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931454

RESUMO

In this study, corn films based on corn starch were fabricated through the casting method, and various plasticizers (namely, erythritol and d-mannitol) were incorporated. The study delved into the gelatinization and physicochemical characteristics of these corn starch-based films. Additionally, the impact of different ratios of plasticizers on reductive gelatinization was assessed using RVA analysis. The investigation also encompassed the effects of varying plasticizer ratios on starch granule expansion, amylose dissolution, and amylopectin melting. Interestingly, as the proportion of d-mannitol increased, there were gradual increases in film thickness, water content, and water contact angle, alongside decreases in water vapor permeability, crystallinity, and water solubility of the corn starch-based films. In essence, this research provides a fundamental basis for potential industrial applications of corn starch-based films.


Assuntos
Amido , Zea mays , Amido/química , Zea mays/química , Manitol , Eritritol , Plastificantes , Amilose/química
9.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 135: 669-680, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37778837

RESUMO

The co-occurrence of glyphosate (GLP) and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in contaminated water, soil, sediment and plants is a cause for concern due to potential threats to the ecosystem and human health. A major route of exposure is through contact with contaminated soil and consumption of crops containing GLP and AMPA residues. However, clay-based sorption strategies for mixtures of GLP and AMPA in soil, plants and garden produce have been very limited. In this study, in vitro soil and in vivo genetically modified corn models were used to establish the proof of concept that the inclusion of clay sorbents in contaminated soils will reduce the bioavailability of GLP and AMPA in soils and their adverse effects on plant growth. Effects of chemical concentration (1-10 mg/kg), sorbent dose (0.5%-3% in soil and 0.5%-1% in plants) and duration (up to 28 days) on sorption kinetics were studied. The time course results showed a continuous GLP degradation to AMPA. The inclusion of calcium montmorillonite (CM) and acid processed montmorillonite (APM) clays at all doses significantly and consistently reduced the bioavailability of both chemicals from soils to plant roots and leaves in a dose- and time-dependent manner without detectable dissociation. Plants treated with 0.5% and 1% APM inclusion showed the highest growth rate (p ≤ 0.05) and lowest chemical bioavailability with up to 76% reduction in roots and 57% reduction in leaves. Results indicated that montmorillonite clays could be added as soil supplements to reduce hazardous mixtures of GLP and AMPA in soils and plants.


Assuntos
Bentonita , Bioacumulação , Herbicidas , Organofosfonatos , Poluentes do Solo , Zea mays , Humanos , Bentonita/química , Argila/química , Ecossistema , Herbicidas/análise , Herbicidas/química , Herbicidas/farmacocinética , Solo/química , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Poluentes do Solo/farmacocinética , Zea mays/química , Zea mays/fisiologia , Organofosfonatos/análise , Organofosfonatos/química , Organofosfonatos/farmacocinética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/química , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/fisiologia , Bioacumulação/fisiologia
10.
Sci Total Environ ; 907: 167885, 2024 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37863232

RESUMO

Global climate change has accelerated the occurrence of agricultural drought events, which threaten food security. Therefore, improvements in the soil water retention capacity (WRC) and crop drought resistance are crucial for promoting the sustainability of the agricultural environment. In this study, we explored the effects of applying biochar and water-retaining agent (WRA) on soil WRC and crop drought resistance in a Fluvisols, along with their potential mechanisms. We applied two types of biochar (based on wheat and maize straw) and two WRAs (polyacrylamide and starch-grafted sodium acrylate) to Fluvisols with different textures, and then evaluated soil water retention and crop drought physiological resistance. The combined biochar and WRA treatment increased the WRC in both the sandy loam and clay loam Fluvisols. Biochar and WRA increased the relative content of soil hydrophilic functional groups. Compared with the control (CK), the combined application of biochar and WRA increased the field capacity, reduced soil water volatilization under drought conditions, and slowed water infiltration into the Fluvisols. The soil WRC was higher with the wheat straw biochar (WBC) treatment than with the maize straw biochar (MBC) treatment. It was also higher with polyacrylamide treatment than with the starch-grafted sodium acrylate treatment. The combined application of biochar and WRA improved crop drought physiological resistance by significantly increasing the maize seedling potassium (K) and soluble sugar contents, increasing antioxidant enzyme activity, and reducing the malondialdehyde (MDA) content. The results indicate that the application of biochar and WRA alleviated drought stress by increasing the soil WRC and improving crop drought resistance in Fluvisols.


Assuntos
Plântula , Solo , Zea mays , Resistência à Seca , Água , Carvão Vegetal , Antioxidantes , Acrilatos , Amido , Sódio
11.
Environ Res ; 240(Pt 1): 117489, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37890830

RESUMO

Microbially-driven alkaline neutralization in bauxite residue by functional microorganisms is a promising approach for the ecological rehabilitation on alkaline disposal areas. However, the alkali resistance and acid secretion mechanism of functional microorganisms are still unknown, which limits their application. Here, saline-alkaline resistance, acid production performance, and differentially expressed genes of Penicillium oxalicum (P. oxalicum, a functional fungus screened from a typical disposal area) were investigated and its bio-neutralization efficiency was evaluated. This fungus exhibited high tolerance to alkalinity (pH 12), and salinity (NaCl 2.0 M), and produced a large amount of oxalic acid to reduce the medium pH to 2.0. Transcriptome showed that alkali stress induced the overexpression of genes related to antioxidant and stress-resistant enzymes (GST, KatE) and glycolytic pathway rate-limiting enzymes (HK). The rate of glycolysis and other organic acid metabolism processes was increased with higher stress resistance of P. oxalicum. The integrated application of P. oxalicum and maize straw accelerated the dissolved organic carbon content and stabilized the leachate pH of bauxite residue at about 7.4. 3DEEM and BIOSEM analysis indicated that P. oxalicum maintained high activity in the residue leachate and continuously decomposed the maize straw for their metabolism. P. oxalicum showed strong alkaline resistance, biomass degradation capacity, and alkaline regulation potential, which should be beneficial for microbial-driven alkaline regulation in bauxite residue.


Assuntos
Óxido de Alumínio , Penicillium , Óxido de Alumínio/química , Zea mays , Ácido Oxálico , Álcalis
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167425, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37774877

RESUMO

Nutrient losses from agricultural ecosystems are increasingly threatening global environmental and human health. Although arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi have the potential to regulate soil nitrogen (N) loss by enhancing plant uptake and soil particle immobilization, the microbial mechanism behind such mycorrhizal effect is unknown. Herein, by conducting a simulated erosion experiment, we compared the effects of exogenous AM fungal inoculation (Funneliformis mosseae) on the gene abundances and enzyme activities of N-cycling processes, and associated such effect to N uptake and loss. The experiment was composed of combinations of two AM fungal treatments (control vs. AM fungal inoculation), two crops (maize vs. soybean) and two slopes of the plots (6° vs. 20°). The experimental plots subjected to natural rainfalls to simulate the erosion events. We showed that the effects of AM fungi were greater in the maize soils than in the soybean soils. In the maize soils, AM fungi increased the abundances of N-fixing (+81.1 %) and nitrifying genes (+200.7 %) and N cycling enzyme activity (+22.3 %). In the soybean soils, AM fungi increased the N-fixing gene abundance (+36.9 %) but decreased the abundance of nitrifying genes (-18.9 %). The abundance of N-fixing gene was positively correlated with N uptake but negatively correlated with N loss. Additionally, AM fungi enhanced the effects of mycorrhizal colonization and moisture but decreased the effects of nutrients on soil microbial metrics related to N-cycling processes. Therefore, AM fungal inoculation enhanced N uptake and reduced N loss by increasing N-fixing gene abundance, and that AM fungi should be preferably used for the low N environments or for the ecosystems highly limited by or competing for N.


Assuntos
Micorrizas , Humanos , Micorrizas/fisiologia , Ecossistema , Solo , Raízes de Plantas/microbiologia , Nitrogênio , Fungos/fisiologia , Zea mays/microbiologia , Microbiologia do Solo
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167508, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37788774

RESUMO

Corn cultivation potentially plays a vital role in the global mercury (Hg) biogeochemical cycle. Nevertheless, there have been limited studies quantifying the Hg mass flow during corn cultivation. This study focuses on Hg uptake by corn plants in China, integrating data from both sample collection and prior studies, resulting in 400 datasets. The findings reveal that the Hg in corn plants is mainly incorporated in leaves (45.5 %-47.5 %) and husks (14.5 %-15.7 %). Despite a decrease in total gaseous Hg (TGM) concentrations in the atmosphere over time, annual Hg uptake by corn cultivation in China has risen from 72.0 (ranging from 47.6 to 96.3) tons (2009-2014) to 84.3 (ranging from 51.9 to 109.6) tons (2015-2020) due to the increasing in corn kernel production. Spatial analysis demonstrates regional disparities in Hg uptake, primarily influenced by corn kernel production, TGM levels, and soil Hg content. Furthermore, temporal analysis reveals a shift in the fate of Hg in corn plants, which can be attributed to variations in corn straw treatment policy or methods. From 2009 to 2014, a substantial amount of absorbed Hg by corn plants was re-released into the atmosphere (48.9 %) due to corn residues burning, whereas, between 2015 and 2020, a greater proportion of Hg ended up accumulating in the soil (51.1 %) after the imposition of the straw burning ban in China. Prior to the ban (2009-2014), corn cultivation contributed approximately 7.7 tons of Hg input to soil annually, with a range from 1.7 to 13.5. However, following the ban (2015-2020), Hg input into the soil increased by approximately 4.5 times, reaching 34.5 (ranging from 17.5 to 52.6) tons per year. These findings emphasize the significant risks associated with soil Hg pollution caused by corn cultivation due to the straw burning ban.


Assuntos
Mercúrio , Poluentes do Solo , Mercúrio/análise , Zea mays , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Solo/química , China
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167597, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802336

RESUMO

With the development of the economy, the contradiction between population, resources, and the environment has become more and more prominent. How to make full use of limited cultivated land resources to increase food production while reducing damage to the environment is an important issue facing agricultural production. Maize plays an essential role in ensuring global food security. Furthermore, planting density is a key agronomic factor affecting maize yield. Although soil organic matter (SOM) is an important indicator of soil fertility. Whether there are different agronomic optimal planting densities of maize under varying SOM contents remains unknown. Furthermore, there is limited understanding on whether optimizing maize planting density based on SOM further improves grain yield and resource use efficiency. Therefore, this study investigates the influence of SOM and planting density on maize grain yield. We also determine the relationship between SOM and agronomic optimal planting density (AOPD) and compare the grain yield, economic benefits, and resource use efficiency of sowing under uniform conventional planting density (SUD) versus optimized planting density based on SOM (SOD). The results showed that AOPD and its corresponding yield increased linearly with the increase in SOM. Compared with SUD, the yield of the two experimental sites under SOD increased by 2.3 % and 5.5 %, respectively, and the economic benefits increased by 0.5 % and 4.9 %, respectively. The average energy use efficiency, energy mass productivity, and energy economic productivity of the two experimental sites under SOD were all higher than those of SUD. These results demonstrate that it is theoretically feasible to optimize maize planting density based on the spatial heterogeneity of SOM. SOD is a potentially sustainable maize production method that can fully utilize the resources of cultivated land to increase grain yield and economic benefits.


Assuntos
Solo , Zea mays , Agricultura/métodos , Grão Comestível
15.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 172: 110346, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37865015

RESUMO

In the present work, mild alkaline pretreatments using either sodium hydroxide (0.05 g/g corn fiber) or calcium hydroxide (lime) (0.05 g/g corn fiber) were optimized and compared with hydrothermolysis pretreatment to enhance bioproduction of succinic acid from hydrolyzed corn fiber. The concentration, yield, and productivity of succinic acid from sodium hydroxide corn fiber hydrolysate (SH-CFH) were 14.0 g/L, 0.63 g/g sugars, and 0.47 g/L*h, respectively, while the concentration, yield, and productivity of succinic acid from hydrothermolysis-pretreated corn fiber hydrolysate (H-CFH) were 30.2 g/L, 0.71 g/g sugars, and 1.01 g/L*h, respectively. Very little succinic acid production (<1 g/L) was observed from lime pretreated corn fiber hydrolysate (L-CFH). When SH-CFH was supplemented only with yeast extract, succinic acid concentration was enhanced to 15.2 g/L with a yield of 0.64 g/g sugars, and productivity of 0.51 g/L*h. In this study, succinic acid concentration and productivity from H-CFH both increased by 8.6% and an succinic acid yield from sugars increased 1.2 times when compared to succinic acid production from H-CFH in a previous study in our lab.


Assuntos
Actinobacillus , Ácido Succínico , Fermentação , Zea mays , Hidróxido de Sódio , Carboidratos , Açúcares
16.
Enzyme Microb Technol ; 172: 110347, 2024 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37931383

RESUMO

The transition from an economic model based on resource extraction to a more sustainable and circular economy requires the development of innovative methods to unlock the potential of raw materials such as lignocellulosic biomasses. Corn fiber differs from more traditional lignocellulosic biomasses due to its high starch content, which provides additional carbohydrates for fermentation-based biomanufacturing processes. Due to its unique chemical composition, this study focused on the development of a tailor made enzymatic cocktail for corn fiber saccharification into monosaccharides. Three commercially available hydrolytic enzymes (Cellic® CTec2, Pentopan® Mono BG, and Termamyl® 300 L) were combined to hydrolyze the polysaccharide structure of the three main carbohydrate fractions of corn fiber (cellulose, hemicellulose and starch, respectively). Prior to saccharification, corn fiber was submitted to a mild hydrothermal pretreatment (30 min at 100 °C). Then, two experimental designs were used to render an enzymatic cocktail capable of providing efficient release of monosaccharides. Using 60 FPU/g DM of Cellic® CTec2 and 4.62 U/g DM of Termamyl® 300 L, without addition of Pentopan® Mono BG, resulted in the highest efficiencies for glucose and xylose release (66% and 30%, respectively). While higher enzyme dosages could enhance the saccharification efficiency, adding more enzymes would have a more pronounced effect on the overall process costs rather than in increasing the efficiency for monosaccharides release. The results revealed that the recalcitrance of corn fiber poses a problem for its full enzymatic degradation. This fact combined with the unique chemical composition of this material, justify the need for developing a tailor made enzymatic cocktail for its degradation. However, attention should also be given to the pretreatment step to reduce even more the recalcitrance of corn fiber and improve the performance of the tailored cocktail, as a consequence.


Assuntos
Carboidratos , Zea mays , Fermentação , Hidrólise , Xilose , Amido
17.
Spectrochim Acta A Mol Biomol Spectrosc ; 306: 123628, 2024 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37950933

RESUMO

In this work, a bimetallic organic framework (Cu/UiO-66) based "turn on" fluorescent aptamer probe was designed for the high-efficiency detection of zearalenone (ZEN). In the probe, the 6-carboxyfluorescein-labeled aptamer (FAM-Apt) was used as the recognition element, and the electrostatic interaction, coordination effect, and photoinduced electron transfer effect between FAM-Apt and Cu/UiO-66 caused fluorescence quenching. When ZEN existed, FAM-Apt recognized ZEN specifically, causing FAM-Apt to separate from the surface of Cu/UiO-66 and recovery of fluorescence. Under the optimal conditions, the probe had a linear detection range of 0.5 ng/mL-60 ng/mL, and the detection limit was 0.048 ng/mL. The application potential of the probe was verified by real detection of various cereals and their products, with a standard recovery from 83.67 %-106.8 %. The development of this efficient, rapid, and sensitive ZEN detection method provides a new platform for the quality control of cereals and their products.


Assuntos
Aptâmeros de Nucleotídeos , Técnicas Biossensoriais , Zearalenona , Zearalenona/análise , Corantes Fluorescentes , Grão Comestível/química , Zea mays , Contaminação de Alimentos/análise , Ouro , Limite de Detecção , Técnicas Biossensoriais/métodos
18.
Food Chem ; 436: 137677, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37839121

RESUMO

Native starches usually have poor polyphenol-binding efficiency despite remarkable architectural structures. In this study, the interaction between cyandin-3-O-glucose (C3G) and three starches under high hydrostatic pressure was investigated. Pressure (200-550 MPa) was found to promote the binding rate of potato starch from 31.6% to 47.0% but reduced that of corn and pea starch to below 10% at 550 MPa. Microscopy results showed that pressurized corn and pea starch-C3G complexes partially or completely lost spatial structures, whereas potato starch-C3G complexes retained structural integrity. The former had decreased zeta potentials and increased particle sizes at 550 MPa, suggesting surface charges and specific surface area losses caused poor binding. Potato starch-C3G complexes, however, exhibited unchanged zeta potential and particle size but the strongest fluorescence at 200 MPa, indicating a positive binding shift from surface to interior. Overall, high hydrostatic pressure can regulate the interactions of native starches with anthocyanins via spatial structural changes.


Assuntos
Antocianinas , Amido , Amido/química , Pressão Hidrostática , Tamanho da Partícula , Zea mays/química
19.
Food Chem ; 436: 137718, 2024 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37844512

RESUMO

The effect of corn starch-fatty (CS-FA) complexes from varying carbon chain length and degree of unsaturation on the rheological and 3D printing properties of corn CS-FA complex gels. The CS-FA complexes with longer carbon chain lengths and lower saturation enhanced the ability of gels to bind water, promoting the formation of intermolecular hydrogen bonds. The CS-FA complexes inhibit retrogradation and increase the amount of bound water, thereby reducing the structural integrity and transforming the original skeleton structure into a flake-like structure. These changes in gel structure led to lower flow stress and storage modulus for CS-FA gels containing FAs with shorter carbon chain lengths and lower saturation, resulting in reduced "extrusion swelling" of the material and facilitating its extrusion. The decreased "extrusion swelling" of gel improved print line width and printing performance. The CS-FA complex gel-printed product with a 12-carbon chain FA has the greatest printing accuracy, thanks to its moderate G', flow stress, and viscosity. This study provides important information for the CS-FA complexes for the preparation of starch-based 3D printing materials.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos , Amido , Amido/química , Zea mays/metabolismo , Impressão Tridimensional , Géis , Água , Carbono
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 906: 167559, 2024 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-37802342

RESUMO

Increasingly frequent and severe droughts pose a growing threat to food security in China. However, our understanding of how different crops respond to multi-timescale drought under varying climatic conditions remains limited, hindering effective drought risk management. To address this knowledge gap, we applied spatial principal component analysis (SPCA) to unveil spatiotemporal patterns in annual yields of major grain crops (rice, wheat, maize) and cotton in response to multi-timescale drought, as indicated by the standardized precipitation evapotranspiration index (SPEI) across China. Subsequently, predictive discriminant analysis (PDA) was employed to identify the primary climatic factors driving these response patterns. The findings indicated that drought-induced interannual variability of crop yields were spatially and temporally heterogeneous, closely tied to the timescale used for drought assessment. Crop types displayed distinct responses to drought, evident in the variations of months and corresponding timescales for their strongest reactions. The initial three principal components, capturing over 65 % of drought-related yield variance, unveiled short- to medium-term patterns for rice, maize, and cotton, and long-term patterns for wheat. Specifically, rice was highly susceptible to drought on a 4-month timescale in September, wheat on a 6-month timescale in May, maize on a 3-month timescale in August, and cotton on a 3-month timescale in September. Moreover, the first three discriminant functions explaining over 90 % of the total variance, effectively distinguish spatiotemporal crop yield response patterns to drought. These patterns primarily stem from seasonal climatic averages, with water balance (precipitation minus potential evapotranspiration) and temperature being the most influential variables (p < 0.05). Interestingly, we observed a weak correlation between drought severity and crop yield in humid conditions, with responses tending to manifest over longer timescales. These findings enhance our comprehension of how drought timescales impact crop yields in China, providing valuable insights for the implementation of rational irrigation management strategies.


Assuntos
Secas , Oryza , Temperatura , Estações do Ano , Produtos Agrícolas , China , Triticum , Zea mays , Mudança Climática
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