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1.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(12)2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34203831

RESUMO

Technology has been promoting a great transformation in farming. The introduction of robotics; the use of sensors in the field; and the advances in computer vision; allow new systems to be developed to assist processes, such as phenotyping, of crop's life cycle monitoring. This work presents, which we believe to be the first time, a system capable of generating 3D models of non-rigid corn plants, which can be used as a tool in the phenotyping process. The system is composed by two modules: an terrestrial acquisition module and a processing module. The terrestrial acquisition module is composed by a robot, equipped with an RGB-D camera and three sets of temperature, humidity, and luminosity sensors, that collects data in the field. The processing module conducts the non-rigid 3D plants reconstruction and merges the sensor data into these models. The work presented here also shows a novel technique for background removal in depth images, as well as efficient techniques for processing these images and the sensor data. Experiments have shown that from the models generated and the data collected, plant structural measurements can be performed accurately and the plant's environment can be mapped, allowing the plant's health to be evaluated and providing greater crop efficiency.


Assuntos
Imageamento Tridimensional , Robótica , Agricultura , Fazendas , Zea mays
2.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(11)2021 Jun 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34204099

RESUMO

In site-specific management, rapid and accurate identification of crop stress at a large scale is critical. Radiometric ground-based data and satellite imaging with advanced spatial and spectral resolution allow for a deeper understanding of crop stress and the level of stress in a given area. This research aimed to assess the potential of radiometric ground-based data and high-resolution QuickBird satellite imagery to determine the leaf area index (LAI), biomass fresh weight (BFW) and chlorophyll meter (Chlm) of maize across well-irrigated, water stress and salinity stress areas in the Nile Delta of Egypt. Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and multiple linear regression (MLR) were evaluated to estimate the three measured traits based on vegetation spectral indices (vegetation-SRIs) derived from these methods and their combination. Maize field visits were conducted during the summer seasons from 28 to 30 July 2007 to collect ground reference data concurrent with the acquisition of radiometric ground-based measurements and QuickBird satellite imagery. The results showed that the majority of vegetation-SRIs extracted from radiometric ground-based data and high-resolution satellite images were more effective in estimating LAI, BFW, and Chlm. In general, the vegetation-SRIs of radiometric ground-based data showed higher R2 with measured traits compared to the vegetation-SRIs extracted from high-resolution satellite imagery. The coefficient of determination (R2) of the significant relationships between vegetation-SRIs of both methods and three measured traits varied from 0.64 to 0.89. For example, with QuickBird high-resolution satellite images, the relationships of the green normalized difference vegetation index (GNDVI) with LAI and BFW showed the highest R2 of 0.80 and 0.84, respectively. Overall, the ground-based vegetation-SRIs and the satellite-based indices were found to be in good agreement to assess the measured traits of maize. Both the calibration (Cal.) and validation (Val.) models of PLSR and MLR showed the highest performance in predicting the three measured traits based on the combination of vegetation-SRIs from radiometric ground-based data and high-resolution QuickBird satellite imagery. For example, validation (Val.) models of PLSR and MLR showed the highest performance in predicting the measured traits based on the combination of vegetation-SRIs from radiometric ground-based data and high-resolution QuickBird satellite imagery with R2 (0.91) of both methods for LAI, R2 (0.91-0.93) for BFW respectively, and R2 (0.82) of both methods for Chlm. The models of PLSR and MLR showed approximately the same performance in predicting the three measured traits and no clear difference was found between them and their combinations. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study showed that radiometric ground-based measurements and high spectral resolution remote-sensing imagery have the potential to offer necessary crop monitoring information across well-irrigated, water stress and salinity stress in regions suffering lack of freshwater resources.


Assuntos
Imagens de Satélites , Zea mays , Clorofila , Egito , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados
3.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208534

RESUMO

Endothelial cell dysfunction is considered to be one of the major causes of vascular complications in diabetes. Polyphenols are known as potent antioxidants that can contribute to the prevention of diabetes. Corn silk has been reported to contain polyphenols and has been used in folk medicine in China for the treatment of diabetes. The present study aims to investigate the potential protective role of the phenolic-rich fraction of corn silk (PRF) against injuries to vascular endothelial cells under high glucose conditions in vitro and in vivo. The protective effect of PRF from high glucose toxicity was investigated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). The protective effect of PRF was subsequently evaluated by using in vivo methods in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Results showed that the PRF significantly reduced the cytotoxicity of glucose by restoring cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. PRF was also able to prevent the histological changes in the aorta of STZ-induced diabetic rats. Results suggested that PRF might have a beneficial effect on diabetic patients and may help to prevent the development and progression of diabetic complications such as diabetic nephropathy and atherosclerosis.


Assuntos
Células Endoteliais/efeitos dos fármacos , Polifenóis/farmacologia , Zea mays/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , China , Citoproteção/efeitos dos fármacos , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Glucose/efeitos adversos , Glucose/farmacologia , Células Endoteliais da Veia Umbilical Humana/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Masculino , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Polifenóis/química , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Estreptozocina/farmacologia
4.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 221: 112456, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34198187

RESUMO

Biochar-derived water-extractable organic matter (WEOM) was obtained under low-temperature pyrolysis (300 °C) using corncob as raw material. WEOM may affect the mobility and bioavailability of soil heavy metals (HMs) through complexation when biochar was used for soil HM remediation. Herein, the characteristics of complexation between HMs (Cr(III) and Cu(II)) and biochar-derived WEOM were investigated by using spectroscopic techniques in conjunction with parallel factor (PARAFAC) analysis and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-COS). Six components were identified by PARAFAC modeling, in which protein-, fulvic- and humic-like components accounted for 48.86%, 25.63% and 25.51%, respectively. A nonlinear model was employed to determine the conditional stability constant (KM) and total ligand concentration (CL) of WEOM-HM complexes. The log KM values were in the range of 4.02-5.04 for WEOM-Cr(III) and 4.04-6.58 for WEOM-Cu(II). The 2D-COS in conjunction with log-transformed synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy (SFS) suggested that WEOM components were preferentially complexed with HMs in the following order: 433/270, 433/335, 496/270, 496/335, 370/335, 433/402, 496/402, 335/290, 402/290 for Cr(III), and 290/280, 390/280, 433/280, 496/280, 433/335, 496/335, 390/335, 433/420, 496/402, 335/290, 316/290 for Cu(II). The results of 2D-FTIR-COS suggested a preferential bonding of Cr(III) to the C-N group of alkyl, and Cu(II) to the CO group of alcohols, ethers and esters. Meanwhile, the CO group of ethers and the CN group of alkyl indicated preferential susceptibilities for the addition of Cr(III) and Cu(II) at different concentrations. In addition, protein-like components had remarkably higher total ligand concentration (CL) than fulvic- or humic-like components.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Cromo/química , Cobre/química , Benzopiranos/química , Substâncias Húmicas , Proteínas/química , Pirólise , Temperatura , Água/química , Zea mays
5.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34199464

RESUMO

The influence of salt stress on gene expression, promoter methylation, and enzymatic activity of the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of aconitase and fumarase has been investigated in maize (Zea mays L.) seedlings. The incubation of maize seedlings in 150-mM NaCl solution resulted in a several-fold increase of the mitochondrial activities of aconitase and fumarase that peaked at 6 h of NaCl treatment, while the cytosolic activity of aconitase and fumarase decreased. This corresponded to the decrease in promoter methylation of the genes Aco1 and Fum1 encoding the mitochondrial forms of these enzymes and the increase in promoter methylation of the genes Aco2 and Fum2 encoding the cytosolic forms. The pattern of expression of the genes encoding the mitochondrial forms of aconitase and fumarase corresponded to the profile of the increase of the stress marker gene ZmCOI6.1. It is concluded that the mitochondrial and cytosolic forms of aconitase and fumarase are regulated via the epigenetic mechanism of promoter methylation of their genes in the opposite ways in response to salt stress. The role of the mitochondrial isoforms of aconitase and fumarase in the elevation of respiration under salt stress is discussed.


Assuntos
Aconitato Hidratase/genética , Metilação de DNA/genética , Fumarato Hidratase/genética , Estresse Salino/genética , Citosol/enzimologia , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Mitocôndrias/enzimologia , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206810

RESUMO

Recently, crop breeders have widely adopted a new biotechnology-based process, termed Seed Production Technology (SPT), to produce hybrid varieties. The SPT does not produce nuclear male-sterile lines, and instead utilizes transgenic SPT maintainer lines to pollinate male-sterile plants for propagation of nuclear-recessive male-sterile lines. A late-stage pollen-specific promoter is an essential component of the pollen-inactivating cassette used by the SPT maintainers. While a number of plant pollen-specific promoters have been reported so far, their usefulness in SPT has remained limited. To increase the repertoire of pollen-specific promoters for the maize community, we conducted a comprehensive comparative analysis of transcriptome profiles of mature pollen and mature anthers against other tissue types. We found that maize pollen has much less expressed genes (>1 FPKM) than other tissue types, but the pollen grain has a large set of distinct genes, called pollen-specific genes, which are exclusively or much higher (100 folds) expressed in pollen than other tissue types. Utilizing transcript abundance and correlation coefficient analysis, 1215 mature pollen-specific (MPS) genes and 1009 mature anther-specific (MAS) genes were identified in B73 transcriptome. These two gene sets had similar GO term and KEGG pathway enrichment patterns, indicating that their members share similar functions in the maize reproductive process. Of the genes, 623 were shared between the two sets, called mature anther- and pollen-specific (MAPS) genes, which represent the late-stage pollen-specific genes of the maize genome. Functional annotation analysis of MAPS showed that 447 MAPS genes (71.7% of MAPS) belonged to genes encoding pollen allergen protein. Their 2-kb promoters were analyzed for cis-element enrichment and six well-known pollen-specific cis-elements (AGAAA, TCCACCA, TGTGGTT, [TA]AAAG, AAATGA, and TTTCT) were found highly enriched in the promoters of MAPS. Interestingly, JA-responsive cis-element GCC box (GCCGCC) and ABA-responsive cis-element-coupling element1 (ABRE-CE1, CCACC) were also found enriched in the MAPS promoters, indicating that JA and ABA signaling likely regulate pollen-specific MAPS expression. This study describes a robust and straightforward pipeline to discover pollen-specific promotes from publicly available data while providing maize breeders and the maize industry a number of late-stage (mature) pollen-specific promoters for use in SPT for hybrid breeding and seed production.


Assuntos
Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Melhoramento Vegetal/métodos , Pólen/genética , Transcriptoma , Zea mays/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Infertilidade das Plantas/genética , Pólen/metabolismo , Regiões Promotoras Genéticas , Sementes/genética , Sementes/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo
7.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jun 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34206281

RESUMO

A rapid and nondestructive method is greatly important for the classification of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) concentration of single maize kernel to satisfy the ever-growing needs of consumers for food safety. A novel method for classification of AFB1 concentration of single maize kernel was developed on the basis of the near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging (1100-2000 nm). Four groups of AFB1 samples with different concentrations (10, 20, 50, and 100 ppb) and one group of control samples were prepared, which were preprocessed with Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing and first derivative (FD) algorithms for their raw NIR spectra. A key wavelength selection method, combining the variance and order of average spectral intensity, was proposed on the basis of pretreated spectra. Moreover, principal component analysis (PCA) was conducted to reduce the dimensionality of hyperspectral data. Finally, a classification model for AFB1 concentrations was developed through linear discriminant analysis (LDA), combined with five key wavelengths and the first three PCs. The results show that the proposed method achieved an ideal performance for classifying AFB1 concentrations in a single maize kernel with overall accuracy, with an F1-score and Kappa values of 95.56%, 0.9554, and 0.9444, respectively, as well as the test accuracy yield of 88.67% for independent validation samples. The combinations of variance and order of average spectral intensity can be used for key wavelength selection which, combined with PCA, can achieve an ideal dimensionality reduction effect for model development. The findings of this study have positive significance for the classification of AFB1 concentration of maize kernels.


Assuntos
Aflatoxina B1 , Zea mays , Aflatoxina B1/análise , Análise Discriminante , Imageamento Hiperespectral , Espectroscopia de Luz Próxima ao Infravermelho
8.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 307, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193031

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Maize rough dwarf disease (MRDD), a widespread disease caused by four pathogenic viruses, severely reduces maize yield and grain quality. Resistance against MRDD is a complex trait that controlled by many quantitative trait loci (QTL) and easily influenced by environmental conditions. So far, many studies have reported numbers of resistant QTL, however, only one QTL have been cloned, so it is especially important to map and clone more genes that confer resistance to MRDD. RESULTS: In the study, a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) qMrdd2, which confers resistance to MRDD, was identified and fine mapped. qMrdd2, located on chromosome 2, was consistently identified in a 15-Mb interval between the simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers D184 and D1600 by using a recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from a cross between resistant ("80007") and susceptible ("80044") inbred lines. Using a recombinant-derived progeny test strategy, qMrdd2 was delineated to an interval of 577 kb flanked by markers N31 and N42. We further demonstrated that qMrdd2 is an incompletely dominant resistance locus for MRDD that reduced the disease severity index by 20.4%. CONCLUSIONS: A major resistance QTL (qMrdd2) have been identified and successfully refined into 577 kb region. This locus will be valuable for improving maize variety resistance to MRDD via marker-assisted selection (MAS).


Assuntos
Resistência à Doença/genética , Doenças das Plantas/genética , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Locos de Características Quantitativas/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/virologia , Análise de Variância , Ligação Genética , Endogamia , Modelos Genéticos , Fenótipo , Mapeamento Físico do Cromossomo
9.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 305, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34193036

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Natural variations derived from both evolutionary selection and genetic recombination, presume to have important functions to respond to various abiotic stresses, which could be used to improve drought tolerance via genomic selection. RESULTS: In the present study, the NAC-encoding gene of ZmNAC080308 was cloned and sequenced in 199 inbred lines in maize. Phylogenetic analysis showed that ZmNAC080308 is closely clusteredinto the same group with other well-known NAC genes responding to improve drought tolerance. In total, 86 SNPs and 47 InDels were identified in the generic region of ZmNAC080308, 19 of these variations were associated with GY (grain yield) in different environments. Nine variations in the 5'-UTR region of ZmNAC080308 are closely linked, they might regulate the gene expression and respond to improve GY under drought condition via Sp1-mediated transactivation. Two haplotypes (Hap1 and Hap2) identified in the, 5'-UTR region using the nine variations, and Hap2 containing insertion variants, exhibited 15.47 % higher GY under drought stress condition. Further, a functional marker was developed to predict the drought stress tolerance in a US maize inbred line panel. Lines carrying Hap2 exhibited > 10 % higher GY than those carrying Hap1 under drought stress condition. In Arabidopsis, overexpression ZmNAC080308 enhanced drought tolerance. CONCLUSIONS: ZmNAC080308 is an important gene responding to drought tolerance, a functional marker is developed for improving maize drought tolerance by selecting this gene.


Assuntos
Secas , Variação Genética , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Sementes/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Estresse Fisiológico/genética , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/fisiologia , Regiões 5' não Traduzidas/genética , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Arabidopsis/genética , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Marcadores Genéticos , Genótipo , Desequilíbrio de Ligação/genética , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/química , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único/genética , Plântula/metabolismo , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Fatores de Transcrição/genética , Fatores de Transcrição/metabolismo
10.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 309, 2021 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210268

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) is involved in the regulation of a wide range of biological processes. In Arabidopsis, it has been well-known that SnRK2s are the central components of the ABA signaling pathway that control the balance between plant growth and stress response, but the functions of ZmSnRK2 in maize are rarely reported. Therefore, the study of ZmSnRK2 is of great importance to understand the ABA signaling pathways in maize. RESULTS: In this study, 14 ZmSnRK2 genes were identified in the latest version of maize genome database. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that ZmSnRK2s are divided into three subclasses based on their diversity of C-terminal domains. The exon-intron structures, phylogenetic, synteny and collinearity analysis indicated that SnRK2s, especially the subclass III of SnRK2, are evolutionally conserved in maize, rice and Arabidopsis. Subcellular localization showed that ZmSnRK2 proteins are localized in the nucleus and cytoplasm. The RNA-Seq datasets and qRT-PCR analysis showed that ZmSnRK2 genes exhibit spatial and temporal expression patterns during the growth and development of different maize tissues, and the transcript levels of some ZmSnRK2 genes in kernel are significantly induced by ABA and sucrose treatment. In addition, we found that ZmSnRK2.10, which belongs to subclass III, is highly expressed in kernel and activated by ABA. Overexpression of ZmSnRK2.10 partially rescued the ABA-insensitive phenotype of snrk2.2/2.3 double and snrk2.2/2.3/2.6 triple mutants and led to delaying plant flowering in Arabidopsis. CONCLUSION: The SnRK2 gene family exhibits a high evolutionary conservation and has expanded with whole-genome duplication events in plants. The ZmSnRK2s expanded in maize with whole-genome and segmental duplication, not tandem duplication. The expression pattern analysis of ZmSnRK2s in maize offers important information to study their functions. Study of the functions of ZmSnRK.10 in Arabidopsis suggests that the ABA-dependent members of SnRK2s are evolutionarily conserved in plants. Our study elucidated the structure and evolution of SnRK2 genes in plants and provided a basis for the functional study of ZmSnRK2s protein in maize.


Assuntos
Ácido Abscísico/metabolismo , Genes de Plantas , Transdução de Sinais , Zea mays/genética , Zea mays/metabolismo , Arabidopsis/genética , Sequência de Bases , Núcleo Celular/metabolismo , Cromossomos de Plantas/genética , Evolução Molecular , Duplicação Gênica , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Mutação/genética , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Frações Subcelulares/metabolismo , Sintenia/genética
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 53(3): 390, 2021 Jul 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34219200

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of substituting sweet potato flour for ground corn in rations fed to lactating dairy on milk yield and composition, blood metabolites, and feeding behavior. Twenty lactating Holstein cows from 30 to 60 days postpartum were randomly assigned to one of two groups (n = 10 each) and used in a cross-over design trial with two treatments: a standard concentrate with ground corn as an energy source or experimental concentrate with sweet potato flour (SPF) replacing all of the ground corn. Each of the 35-day periods consisted of 14 days for adaptation to diet and 21 days for data and sample collection. Milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and feeding behavior were evaluated daily throughout the trial. Milk samples were collected weekly and blood samples were collected every 3 days. Milk was analyzed for fat, protein, lactose, and total solid constituents. Blood was analyzed for glucose, non-esterified fatty acid (NEFA), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein (TP), albumin, and urea concentrations. Milk yield (P = 0.62) and composition (fat: P = 0.71; protein: P = 0.12; lactose: P = 0.82; total solids: P = 0.56) were not affected by dietary treatments. There were no differences between treatments in DMI or meal frequency, but total eating time (P = 0.001), feeding time (P = 0.001), and meal duration (P = 0.001) was higher for control compared with SPF. However, feeding rate (P = 0.001) and serum urea concentration (P = 0.001) were higher for SPF compared with control. No differences were observed in serum metabolites and enzymes measured among treatments. The results of this trial indicate that SPF can be substituted for ground corn without impairing the performance, feeding behavior, and metabolism in dairy cows.


Assuntos
Ipomoea batatas , Zea mays , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Bovinos , Dieta , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Farinha , Lactação , Leite , Rúmen
12.
J Environ Sci (China) ; 106: 116-123, 2021 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34210427

RESUMO

Nowadays, iron ions as a ubiquitous heavy metal pollutant are gradually concerned and the convenient and quick removal of excessive iron ions in groundwater has become a major challenge for the safety of drinking water. In this study, boron-doped biochar (B-BC) was successfully prepared at various preparation conditions with the addition of boric acid. The as-prepared material has a more developed pore structure and a larger specific surface area (up to 897.97 m²/g). A series of characterization results shows that boric acid effectively activates biochar, and boron atoms are successfully doped on biochar. Compared with the ratio of raw materials, the pyrolysis temperature has a greater influence on the amount of boron doping. Based on Langmuir model, the maximum adsorption capacity of 800B-BC1:2 at 25 °C, 40 °C, 55 °C are 50.02 mg/g, 95.09 mg/g, 132.78 mg/g, respectively. Pseudo-second-order kinetic model can better describe the adsorption process, the adsorption process is mainly chemical adsorption. Chemical complexation, ions exchange, and co-precipitation may be the main mechanisms for Fe2+ removal.


Assuntos
Poluentes Químicos da Água , Zea mays , Adsorção , Boro , Carvão Vegetal , Cinética , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise
13.
Nutrients ; 13(5)2021 May 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066330

RESUMO

Consumption of fructose has been associated with a higher risk of developing obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS). The aim of this study was to examine the long-term effects of fructose compared to starch from high-amylose maize starch (HiMaize) at ad libitum feeding in a juvenile Göttingen Minipig model with 20% of the diet provided as fructose as a high-risk diet (HR, n = 15) and 20% as HiMaize as a lower-risk control diet (LR, n = 15). The intake of metabolizable energy was on average similar (p = 0.11) among diets despite increased levels of the satiety hormone PYY measured in plasma (p = 0.0005) of the LR pigs. However, after over 20 weeks of ad libitum feeding, no difference between diets was observed in daily weight gain (p = 0.103), and a difference in BW was observed only at the end of the experiment. The ad libitum feeding promoted an obese phenotype over time in both groups with increased plasma levels of glucose (p = 0.005), fructosamine (p < 0.001), insulin (p = 0.03), and HOMA-IR (p = 0.02), whereas the clinical markers of dyslipidemia were unaffected. When compared to the LR diet, fructose did not accelerate the progression of MetS associated parameters and largely failed to change markers that indicate a stimulated de novo lipogenesis.


Assuntos
Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/efeitos adversos , Ingestão de Energia/fisiologia , Frutose/administração & dosagem , Síndrome Metabólica/etiologia , Obesidade/etiologia , Animais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Dieta da Carga de Carboidratos/métodos , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Dislipidemias/sangue , Metabolismo Energético/fisiologia , Amido/administração & dosagem , Suínos , Porco Miniatura , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays
14.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 May 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34072515

RESUMO

Today, agricultural productivity is essential to meet the needs of a growing population, and is also a key tool in coping with climate change. Innovative plant breeding technologies such as molecular markers, phenotyping, genotyping, the CRISPR/Cas method and next-generation sequencing can help agriculture meet the challenges of the 21st century more effectively. Therefore, the aim of the research was to identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and SilicoDArT markers related to select morphological features determining the yield in maize. The plant material consisted of ninety-four inbred lines of maize of various origins. These lines were phenotyped under field conditions. A total of 14 morphological features was analyzed. The DArTseq method was chosen for genotyping because this technique reduces the complexity of the genome by restriction enzyme digestion. Subsequently, short fragment sequencing was used. The choice of a combination of restrictases allowed the isolation of highly informative low copy fragments of the genome. Thanks to this method, 90% of the obtained DArTseq markers are complementary to the unique sequences of the genome. All the observed features were normally distributed. Analysis of variance indicated that the main effect of lines was statistically significant (p < 0.001) for all 14 traits of study. Thanks to the DArTseq analysis with the use of next-generation sequencing (NGS) in the studied plant material, it was possible to identify 49,911 polymorphisms, of which 33,452 are SilicoDArT markers and the remaining 16,459 are SNP markers. Among those mentioned, two markers associated with four analyzed traits deserved special attention: SNP (4578734) and SilicoDArT (4778900). SNP marker 4578734 was associated with the following features: anthocyanin coloration of cob glumes, number of days from sowing to anthesis, number of days from sowing to silk emergence and anthocyanin coloration of internodes. SilicoDArT marker 4778900 was associated with the following features: number of days from sowing to anthesis, number of days from sowing to silk emergence, tassel: angle between the axis and lateral branches and plant height. Sequences with a length of 71 bp were used for physical mapping. The BLAST and EnsemblPlants databases were searched against the maize genome to identify the positions of both markers. Marker 4578734 was localized on chromosome 7, the closest gene was Zm00001d022467, approximately 55 Kb apart, encoding anthocyanidin 3-O-glucosyltransferase. Marker 4778900 was located on chromosome 7, at a distance of 45 Kb from the gene Zm00001d045261 encoding starch synthase I. The latter observation indicated that these flanking SilicoDArT and SNP markers were not in a state of linkage disequilibrium.


Assuntos
Mapeamento Cromossômico , Marcadores Genéticos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Característica Quantitativa Herdável , Zea mays/anatomia & histologia , Zea mays/genética , Genoma de Planta , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Endogamia , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Locos de Características Quantitativas
15.
GM Crops Food ; 12(1): 361-375, 2021 Jan 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34097556

RESUMO

Unintended effects of genetically modified (GM) crops may pose safety issues. Omics techniques provide researchers with useful tools to assess such unintended effects. Proteomics and metabolomics analyses were performed for three GM maize varieties, 2A-7, CC-2, and 2A-7×CC-2 stacked transgenic maize, and the corresponding non-GM parent Zheng58.Proteomics revealed 120, 271 and 135 maize differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) in the 2A-7/Zheng58, CC-2/Zheng58 and 2A-7×CC-2/Zheng58 comparisons, respectively. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analysis showed that most DEPs participated in metabolic pathways and the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite. Metabolomics revealed 179, 135 and 131 differentially accumulated metabolites (DAMs) in the 2A-7/Zheng58, CC-2/Zheng58 and 2A-7×CC-2/Zheng58 comparisons, respectively. Based on KEGG enrichment analysis, most DAMs are involved in the biosynthesis of secondary metabolite and metabolic pathways. According to integrated proteomics and metabolomics analysis, the introduction of exogenous EPSPS did not affect the expression levels of six other enzymes or the abundance of seven metabolites involved in the shikimic acid pathway in CC-2 and 2A-7×CC-2 seeds. Six co-DEPs annotated by integrated proteomics and metabolomics pathway analysis were further analyzed by qRT-PCR.This study successfully employed integrated proteomic and metabolomic technology to assess unintended changes in maize varieties. The results suggest that GM and gene stacking do not cause significantly unintended effects.


Assuntos
Proteômica , Zea mays , Metabolômica , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas , Sementes/genética , Zea mays/genética
16.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e243890, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34133491

RESUMO

Doru luteipes (Scudder, 1876) is an omnivorous predator that finds different food resources in the corn plant: eggs of Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith, 1797), uredospores of Puccinia polysora (Underw, 1897), and pollen. Knowing the survival and food preferences of this predator is essential to define its relevance as a biological control agent. We hypothesize that the foraging behavior and predatory capacity of D. luteipes may be affected when several food resources, especially eggs of S. frugiperda, uredospores of P. polysora, and pollen are concurrently in the same plant. The survival of D. luteipes in the nymph stage and their preference among food resources, often available in corn plants, were determined. To verify the survival of D. luteipes, newly hatched nymphs were fed exclusively with 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- a combination of uredospores + eggs, and 5- artificial diet (control). In another experiment, nymphs and adults of D. luteipes with 24 and 48 hours of fasting were individually released in the center of a container with four diets: 1- uredospores of P. polysora, 2- eggs of S. frugiperda, 3- corn pollen, 4- artificial diet, and maintained for 10 minutes, to evaluate the food choice and feeding time. The exclusive feeding with S. frugiperda eggs caused low nymph survival (8%), but the combination of P. polysora uredospores + S. frugiperda eggs allowed 58.3% survival. D. luteipes preferred feeding during the nighttime and the most significant proportions of choices by nymphs and adults were for pollen and diet, with adults spending more time eating pollen. These findings indicate that the trophic choices of D. luteipes are relevant to understand its contribution as an agent to control pest insects and fungal diseases in corn.


Assuntos
Insetos , Comportamento Predatório , Animais , Larva , Ninfa , Spodoptera , Zea mays
17.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34063101

RESUMO

Photosynthetic organisms commonly develop the strategy to keep the reaction center chlorophyll of photosystem I, P700, oxidized for preventing the generation of reactive oxygen species in excess light conditions. In photosynthesis of C4 plants, CO2 concentration is kept at higher levels around ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) by the cooperation of the mesophyll and bundle sheath cells, which enables them to assimilate CO2 at higher rates to survive under drought stress. However, the regulatory mechanism of photosynthetic electron transport for P700 oxidation is still poorly understood in C4 plants. Here, we assessed gas exchange, chlorophyll fluorescence, electrochromic shift, and near infrared absorbance in intact leaves of maize (a NADP-malic enzyme C4 subtype species) in comparison with mustard, a C3 plant. Instead of the alternative electron sink due to photorespiration in the C3 plant, photosynthetic linear electron flow was strongly suppressed between photosystems I and II, dependent on the difference of proton concentration across the thylakoid membrane (ΔpH) in response to the suppression of CO2 assimilation in maize. Linear relationships among CO2 assimilation rate, linear electron flow, P700 oxidation, ΔpH, and the oxidation rate of ferredoxin suggested that the increase of ΔpH for P700 oxidation was caused by the regulation of proton conductance of chloroplast ATP synthase but not by promoting cyclic electron flow. At the scale of intact leaves, the ratio of PSI to PSII was estimated almost 1:1 in both C3 and C4 plants. Overall, the photosynthetic electron transport was regulated for P700 oxidation in maize through the same strategies as in C3 plants only except for the capacity of photorespiration despite the structural and metabolic differences in photosynthesis between C3 and C4 plants.


Assuntos
Dióxido de Carbono/metabolismo , Fotossíntese , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Zea mays/metabolismo , Escuridão , Transporte de Elétrons , Ferredoxinas/metabolismo , Cinética , Modelos Biológicos , Oxirredução , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema I/metabolismo , Complexo de Proteína do Fotossistema II/metabolismo , Prótons , Teoria Quântica
18.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(10)2021 May 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065495

RESUMO

(1) Background: Blue light is important for the formation of maize stomata, but the signal network remains unclear. (2) Methods: We replaced red light with blue light in an experiment and provided a complementary regulatory network for the stomatal development of maize by using transcriptome and metabolomics analysis. (3) Results: Exposure to blue light led to 1296 differentially expressed genes and 419 differential metabolites. Transcriptome comparisons and correlation signaling network analysis detected 55 genes, and identified 6 genes that work in the regulation of the HY5 module and MAPK cascade, that interact with PTI1, COI1, MPK2, and MPK3, in response to the substitution of blue light in environmental adaptation and signaling transduction pathways. Metabolomics analysis showed that two genes involved in carotenoid biosynthesis and starch and sucrose metabolism participate in stomatal development. Their signaling sites located on the PHI1 and MPK2 sites of the MAPK cascade respond to blue light signaling. (4) Conclusions: Blue light remarkably changed the transcriptional signal transduction and metabolism of metabolites, and eight obtained genes worked in the HY5 module and MAPK cascade.


Assuntos
Redes Reguladoras de Genes/genética , Transcriptoma/genética , Zea mays/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas/genética , Luz , Metabolômica/métodos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
19.
Toxins (Basel) ; 13(5)2021 05 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34066367

RESUMO

Yellow Peach Moth (YPM), Conogethes punctiferalis (Guenée), is one of the most destructive maize pests in the Huang-Huai-Hai summer maize region of China. Transgenic Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) maize provides an effective means to control this insect pest in field trials. However, the establishment of Bt resistance to target pests is endangering the continued success of Bt crops. To use Bt maize against YPM, the baseline susceptibility of the local populations in the targeted areas needs to be verified. Diet-overlay bioassay results showed that all the fourteen YPM populations in China are highly susceptible to Cry1Ab. The LC50 values ranged from 0.35 to 2.38 ng/cm2 over the two years of the collection, and the difference between the most susceptible and most tolerant populations was sevenfold. The upper limit of the LC99 estimates of six pooled populations produced >99% larval mortality for representative eight populations collected in 2020 and was designated as diagnostic concentrations for monitoring susceptibility in YPM populations in China. Hence, we evaluated the laboratory selection of resistance in YPM to Cry1Ab using the diet-overlay bioassay method. Although the resistant ratio was generally low, YPM potentially could evolve resistance to Cry1Ab. The potential developmentof resistance by target pests points out the necessity to implement resistance management strategies for delaying the establishment of pest resistance to Bt crops.


Assuntos
Toxinas de Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Bacillus thuringiensis/genética , Endotoxinas/genética , Proteínas Hemolisinas/genética , Mariposas/fisiologia , Zea mays/genética , Animais , China , Produtos Agrícolas , Resistência a Inseticidas/genética , Larva/genética , Plantas Geneticamente Modificadas/genética
20.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(9)2021 May 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34065110

RESUMO

The fungal toxin fusicoccin (FC) induces rapid cell elongation, proton extrusion and plasma membrane hyperpolarization in maize coleoptile cells. Here, these three parameters were simultaneously measured using non-abraded and non-peeled segments with the incubation medium having access to their lumen. The dose-response curve for the FC-induced growth was sigmoidal shaped with the maximum at 10-6 M over 10 h. The amplitudes of the rapid growth and proton extrusion were significantly higher for FC than those for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The differences between the membrane potential changes that were observed in the presence of FC and IAA relate to the permanent membrane hyperpolarization for FC and transient hyperpolarization for IAA. It was also found that the lag times of the rapid growth, proton extrusion and membrane hyperpolarization were shorter for FC compared to IAA. At 30 °C, the biphasic kinetics of the IAA-induced growth rate could be changed into a monophasic (parabolic) one, which is characteristic for FC-induced rapid growth. It has been suggested that the rates of the initial phase of the FC- and IAA-induced growth involve two common mechanisms that consist of the proton pumps and potassium channels whose contribution to the action of both effectors on the rapid growth is different.


Assuntos
Cotilédone/efeitos dos fármacos , Cotilédone/fisiologia , Glicosídeos/farmacologia , Potenciais da Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , Desenvolvimento Vegetal/efeitos dos fármacos , Prótons , Zea mays/efeitos dos fármacos , Zea mays/fisiologia , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Cinética , Reguladores de Crescimento de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura
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