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1.
Clin Lab ; 68(1)2022 Jan 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35023669

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Identification of validated peripheral biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease, leading to an early diagnosis of the disease, would be valuable for predicting progression and targeted therapeutics. In this regard, serum levels of GADA, ZnT8A, Zn, vitamin D, and leukocyte expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene were investigated in Alzheimer's patients and control group. METHODS: Serum levels of GADA, ZnT8A, Zn, and vitamin D and leukocyte expression of the BDNF gene were evaluated in 40 AD patients and 40 control cases. The diagnostic value of investigated factors was examined with the receiver operating characteristic (ROC). RESULTS: The results showed significant differences of p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0006 between AD patients and control individuals in GADA, Zn, and ZnT8A serum levels, respectively. No significant difference was observed in the serum concentration of vitamin D between AD patients and control cases (p = 0.2993). The expression level of the BDNF gene in AD patients was different from control cases, but it was not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Moreover, ROC curve analysis disclosed a diagnostic potency for serum levels of GADA, Zn, and ZnT8A for AD with an area under the ROC curve of > 0.7 (p < 0.0001, p < 0.0001, and p = 0.0007, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrated the higher serum levels of GADA and ZnT8A and lower serum concentrations of Zn in the patient group. Therefore, these parameters can be discussed as possibly diagnostic in AD cases.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Glutamato Descarboxilase/sangue , Transportador 8 de Zinco/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/sangue , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Autoanticorpos , Biomarcadores/sangue , Humanos
2.
Nutrients ; 14(2)2022 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35057415

RESUMO

Background & Aims: Previous results from observational, interventional studies and in vitro experiments suggest that certain micronutrients possess anti-viral and immunomodulatory activities. In particular, it has been hypothesized that zinc, selenium, copper and vitamin K1 have strong potential for prophylaxis and treatment of COVID-19. We aimed to test whether genetically predicted Zn, Se, Cu or vitamin K1 levels have a causal effect on COVID-19 related outcomes, including risk of infection, hospitalization and critical illness. Methods: We employed a two-sample Mendelian Randomization (MR) analysis. Our genetic variants derived from European-ancestry GWAS reflected circulating levels of Zn, Cu, Se in red blood cells as well as Se and vitamin K1 in serum/plasma. For the COVID-19 outcome GWAS, we used infection, hospitalization or critical illness. Our inverse-variance weighted (IVW) MR analysis was complemented by sensitivity analyses including a more liberal selection of variants at a genome-wide sub-significant threshold, MR-Egger and weighted median/mode tests. Results: Circulating micronutrient levels show limited evidence of association with COVID-19 infection, with the odds ratio [OR] ranging from 0.97 (95% CI: 0.87-1.08, p-value = 0.55) for zinc to 1.07 (95% CI: 1.00-1.14, p-value = 0.06)-i.e., no beneficial effect for copper was observed per 1 SD increase in exposure. Similarly minimal evidence was obtained for the hospitalization and critical illness outcomes with OR from 0.98 (95% CI: 0.87-1.09, p-value = 0.66) for vitamin K1 to 1.07 (95% CI: 0.88-1.29, p-value = 0.49) for copper, and from 0.93 (95% CI: 0.72-1.19, p-value = 0.55) for vitamin K1 to 1.21 (95% CI: 0.79-1.86, p-value = 0.39) for zinc, respectively. Conclusions: This study does not provide evidence that supplementation with zinc, selenium, copper or vitamin K1 can prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection, critical illness or hospitalization for COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/genética , Cobre/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Vitamina K 1/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Estudos de Coortes , Feminino , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Razão de Chances , Gravidez , SARS-CoV-2 , Adulto Jovem
3.
Biometals ; 35(1): 125-145, 2022 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34993712

RESUMO

The role of micronutrient deficiency in the pathogenesis of COVID-19 has been reviewed in the literature; however, the data are limited and conflicting. This study investigated the association between the status of essential metals, vitamins, and antioxidant enzyme activities in COVID-19 patients and disease severity. We recruited 155 patients, who were grouped into four classes based on the Adults guideline for the Management of Coronavirus Disease 2019 at King Faisal Specialist & Research Centre (KFSH&RC): asymptomatic (N = 16), mild (N = 49), moderate (N = 68), and severe (N = 22). We measured serum levels of copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), selenium (Se), vitamin D3, vitamin A, vitamin E, total antioxidant capacity, and superoxide dismutase (SOD). Among the patients, 30%, 25%, 37%, and 68% were deficient in Se (< 70.08 µg/L), Zn (< 0.693 µg/mL), vitamin A (< 0.343 µg/mL), and vitamin D3 (< 20.05 µg/L), respectively, and SOD activity was low. Among the patients, 28% had elevated Cu levels (> 1.401 µg/mL, KFSH&RC upper reference limit). Multiple regression analysis revealed an 18% decrease in Se levels in patients with severe symptoms, which increased to 30% after adjusting the model for inflammatory markers. Regardless of inflammation, Se was independently associated with COVID-19 severity. In contrast, a 50% increase in Cu levels was associated with disease severity only after adjusting for C-reactive protein, reflecting its possible inflammatory and pro-oxidant role in COVID-19 pathogenesis. We noted an imbalance in the ratio between Cu and Zn, with ~ 83% of patients having a Cu/Zn ratio > 1, which is an indicator of inflammation. Cu-to-Zn ratio increased to 45% in patients with mild symptoms and 34%-36% in patients with moderate symptoms compared to asymptomatic patients. These relationships were only obtained when one of the laboratory parameters (lymphocyte or monocyte) or inflammatory markers (neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio) was included in the regression model. These findings suggest that Cu/Zn might further exacerbate inflammation in COVID-19 patients and might be synergistically associated with disease severity. A 23% decrease in vitamin A was seen in patients with severe symptoms, which disappeared after adjusting for inflammatory markers. This finding may highlight the potential role of inflammation in mediating the relationship between COVID-19 severity and vitamin A levels. Despite our patients' low status of Zn, vitamin D3, and antioxidant enzyme (SOD), there is no evidence of their role in COVID-19 progression. Our findings reinforce that deficiency or excess of certain micronutrients plays a role in the pathogenesis of COVID-19. More studies are required to support our results.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , Cobre/sangue , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidade , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Doenças Assintomáticas , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , COVID-19/imunologia , COVID-19/patologia , COVID-19/virologia , Contagem de Células , Colecalciferol/sangue , Humanos , Linfócitos/imunologia , Linfócitos/virologia , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monócitos/imunologia , Monócitos/virologia , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Neutrófilos/virologia , Análise de Regressão , SARS-CoV-2/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Superóxido Dismutase/sangue , Vitamina A/sangue , Vitamina E/sangue
5.
J Nutr Biochem ; 101: 108927, 2022 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34843931

RESUMO

Zinc homeostasis is primarily maintained by zinc transporters that regulate zinc uptake and efflux in the small intestine; however, the relative contribution of the many zinc transporters identified (Slc39a1-14, Slc30a1-10) to dietary zinc absorption and utilization remains unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the expression of Slc39a1-14 and Slc30a1-10 in the small intestine and their relative contribution to dietary zinc absorption in mice. Five-week-old male C57BL/6J mice were fed modified AIN-93G diets containing <1, 30, or 100ppm zinc (n=15 mice/diet). Following 1 week of feeding, mice were given an oral gavage containing 67Zn and liver and plasma isotope appearance was determined 6-h later by ICP-MS. Expression of Slc39a1-14 and Slc30a1-10 was determined in mucosa from duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Plasma and liver total zinc concentrations were not different after one week of feeding (P>.05). Liver and plasma appearance of 67Zn was greater in mice fed <1ppm compared to the 30ppm (P<.0001) and 100ppm (P<.0001) zinc diets. With the exception of Slc39a2, Slc39a12, Slc30a3, and Slc30a8, the remaining zinc transporters were expressed across all diets and intestinal segments. Expression of Slc39a4, Slc39a11, and Slc30a6 changed with diet (Pdiet<.05 for all); expression of Slc39a5, Slc39a7, Slc39a11, Slc39a14, Slc30a1, Slc30a2, Slc30a4, Slc30a5, Slc30a7, and Slc30a10 changed by intestinal segment (Psegment<.05 for all). Slc39a4 was the only transporter positively associated with liver (r2=0.316, P<.001) and plasma (r2=0.189, P<.01) 67Zn appearance. Although most zinc transporters are expressed in the small intestine, intestinal Slc39a4 predicts fractional zinc absorption and utilization in young mice.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Zinco/metabolismo , Animais , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Dieta , Duodeno/metabolismo , Expressão Gênica , Homeostase , Íleo/metabolismo , Absorção Intestinal , Jejuno/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Zinco/sangue
6.
Int J Hematol ; 115(1): 87-95, 2022 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34669153

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: We investigated whether a decrease in the serum zinc level (SZL) among patients with sepsis admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU) was related to sepsis-induced coagulopathy. METHODS: All patients (≥20 years) with a diagnosis of sepsis defined by Sepsis-3 criteria, presenting to the ICU between June 2016 and July 2017, were enrolled. Demographic characteristics and the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) and Japanese Association of Acute Medicine (JAAM) disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) scores were recorded. Blood samples were collected upon admission and analyzed for SZL. RESULTS: One hundred patients with sepsis (median age, 70 years) were enrolled. Patients with SOFA scores ≥8 had a significantly lower SZL compared to those with SOFA scores <8 (p < 0.001). The SZL in the DIC group (JAAM DIC score ≥4) was significantly lower than that in the non-DIC group (JAAM DIC score <4) (p < 0.001). Analysis of receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves for prediction of sepsis-induced DIC based on SZL in patients with sepsis showed a cut-off value of 25 µg/dL for zinc level and a sensitivity of 63% and a specificity of 72% with AUC of 0.7 (p = 0.0065). CONCLUSION: We observed that SZL reflects organ failure, particularly coagulopathy, in patients with sepsis.


Assuntos
Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/diagnóstico , Coagulação Intravascular Disseminada/etiologia , Sepse/complicações , Sepse/diagnóstico , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Biomarcadores/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Curva ROC , Sensibilidade e Especificidade
7.
Neurotoxicology ; 88: 124-133, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34793781

RESUMO

Reward motivation is a complex umbrella term encompassing the cognitions, emotions, and behaviors involved in the activation, execution, and persistence of goal-directed behavior. Altered reward motivation in children is characteristic of many neurodevelopmental and psychiatric disorders. Previously difficult to operationalize, the Progressive Ratio (PR) task has been widely used to assess reward motivation in animal and human studies, including children. Because the neural circuitry supporting reward motivation starts developing during pregnancy, and is sensitive to disruption by environmental toxicants, including metals, the goal of this study was to examine the association between prenatal concentrations of a mixture of neurotoxic metals and reward motivation in children. We measured reward motivation by administering a PR test to 373 children ages 6-8 years enrolled in the Programming Research in Obesity, Growth, Environment and Social Stressors (PROGRESS) Study in Mexico City. Children were asked to press a response lever for a token reward; one press on the response lever was required to earn the first token and each subsequent token required an additional 10 lever presses. Maternal blood concentrations of lead, manganese, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, and selenium were measured using inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of pregnancy. We performed generalized Weighted Quantile Sum (gWQS) regression analyses to examine associations between the prenatal metal mixture and reward motivation; adjusting for child sex, birthweight and age; and maternal IQ, education, and socioeconomic status. The prenatal metal mixture was significantly associated with higher motivation as indicated by more lever presses (ß = 0.02, p < 0.001) and a shorter time between receiving the reinforcer and the first press (ß = 0.23, p = 0.01), and between subsequent presses (ß = 0.07, p = 0.005). Contributions of different metals to this association differed by trimester and child sex. These findings suggest that children with increased exposure to metal during the 2nd and 3rd trimesters of gestation demonstrate increased reward motivation, which may reflect a tendency to perseverate or hypersensitivity to positive reinforcement.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados/sangue , Motivação/efeitos dos fármacos , Efeitos Tardios da Exposição Pré-Natal/induzido quimicamente , Recompensa , Arsênio/sangue , Peso ao Nascer/efeitos dos fármacos , Cádmio/sangue , Criança , Feminino , Humanos , Chumbo/sangue , Masculino , Manganês/sangue , Testes de Estado Mental e Demência , Metais Pesados/efeitos adversos , Gravidez/sangue , Selênio/sangue , Zinco/sangue
8.
Am J Epidemiol ; 191(1): 85-92, 2022 01 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34132328

RESUMO

Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) has been associated with copper and zinc imbalance and a zinc-deficient diet. Mendelian randomization was used in this study to evaluate if genetically determined copper and zinc levels play a causal role in the development of IBS. Three single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs; rs1175550, rs2769264, and rs2769270) associated with erythrocyte copper levels, and 3 SNPs associated with erythrocyte zinc levels (rs11638477, rs1532423, and rs2120019) in the Australian Twin Study (1993-1996 and 2001-2005) were used as instrumental variables for levels of these metals. The association of these SNPs with IBS was tested using summary statistics computed from data on 340,331 individuals from the UK Biobank, 5,548 of whom had IBS (2006-2010). Genetically predicted high serum copper levels were associated with a lower risk of IBS (odds ratio = 0.89; 95% confidence interval: 0.80, 0.98). Genetically predicted, high serum zinc levels were nonsignificantly associated with a higher risk of IBS (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval: 0.95, 1.18). Sensitivity analysis did not suggest the presence of pleiotropy. These results suggest that high erythrocyte copper levels may be protective against IBS development. Targeting higher levels, therefore, may provide an avenue to reduce the likelihood of IBS development in high-risk individuals.


Assuntos
Cobre/sangue , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/sangue , Síndrome do Intestino Irritável/genética , Zinco/sangue , Austrália , Humanos , Análise da Randomização Mendeliana , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único
10.
J Med Virol ; 94(1): 141-146, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34406674

RESUMO

Due to the known anti-inflammatory and antiviral effects of zinc, 25(OH)D, and vitamin B12, in this study, we explored the association between serum levels of these micronutrients in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients at the time of admission and the clinical outcomes. This study was carried out on 293 patients with COVID-19, who were hospitalized at Imam Hassan hospital (Bojnourd, Iran). We collected demographic data, clinical characteristics, values of serum biochemical parameters in the first week of admission, and clinical outcomes from electronic medical records. We also measured serum levels of zinc, 25(OH)D, and vitamin B12 within 3 days of admission. Of the 293 hospitalized, the median age was 53 years, and 147 (50.17%) were female. Thirty-seven patients (12.62%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), and forty-two (14.32%) died. We found that the serum levels of zinc, vitamin B12, and 25(OH)D were lower in patients who died than those who were admitted to ICU or non-ICU and survived; however, these differences were not statistically significant for vitamin B12 and 25(OH)D (p > 0.05). The serum concentrations of zinc, vitamin B12, and 25(OH)D at the time of admission did not affect the length of hospital stay in patients with COVID-19. In general, it seems that serum levels of 25(OH)D, vitamin B12, and especially zinc at the time of admission can affect clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients.


Assuntos
COVID-19/sangue , COVID-19/fisiopatologia , Vitamina B 12/sangue , Vitamina D/análogos & derivados , Vitamina D/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Feminino , Hospitalização , Humanos , Unidades de Terapia Intensiva , Tempo de Internação , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prognóstico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença
11.
Rejuvenation Res ; 25(1): 16-24, 2022 Feb.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34913745

RESUMO

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has no cure, mainly because of late diagnosis. Early diagnostic biomarkers are crucial. Phospholipases A2 (PLA2) are hydrolases with several functions in the brain, nevertheless their deregulation contributes to neurodegeneration. We evaluated platelet total PLA2 activity (ptotPLA2) in healthy elderly subjects (HE, n = 102), patients suffering from mild cognitive impairment (MCI, n = 90) and AD (n = 91). Platelets are considered "circulating neurons" and ptotPLA2 appears to mirror the cerebral activity. ptotPLA2 of the three cohorts was similar, but in MCI the higher ptotPLA2 the worse the global cognitive status (Mini Mental State Examination score [MMSE]) and in AD the lower ptotPLA2 the more severe the pathology stage (Clinical Dementia Rating [CDR]). Accordingly, MCI with MMSE ≥26 overlapped HE, in MCI with MMSE <26 and in AD with CDR 1 ptotPLA2 increased, in AD with CDR 2 ptotPLA2 decreased. In MCI ptotPLA2 positively correlated with blood oxidation and inflammation, in AD it was the opposite. Finally, Discrimination Index (DI)-calculated multiplying ptotPLA2, oxidative level and Cu/Zn ratio (an inflammation parameter)-differentiated MCI patients who progressed to dementia in the following 24 months and AD patients with the worse pathology development. Summarizing, ptotPLA2 changes during MCI and AD progression, is linked, in opposite way, to oxidative/inflammatory status in MCI and AD and might help, when included in DI, to identify MCI converters to dementia and AD patients with the more severe prognosis. ptotPLA2 may have a diagnostic/prognostic value and be a potential therapeutic target.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Disfunção Cognitiva , Fosfolipases A2/metabolismo , Idoso , Doença de Alzheimer/diagnóstico , Doença de Alzheimer/patologia , Biomarcadores , Disfunção Cognitiva/diagnóstico , Disfunção Cognitiva/etiologia , Cobre/sangue , Progressão da Doença , Humanos , Estresse Oxidativo , Zinco/sangue
12.
Brain Behav ; 12(1): e2472, 2022 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34967503

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic psychiatric disorder characterized by recurrent mood episodes interspersed with euthymic periods. A growing number of studies have indicated that zinc plays an important role in coordinating immune responses, as well as being involved in synaptic transmission. In the current study, we set out to measure serum levels of zinc in a meticulously phenotyped cohort of 121 euthymic BD subjects and 30 matched controls. METHODS: Serum levels of zinc were measured by photometry. To assess the interplay between zinc levels and immune activation in BD, we measured serum levels of high-sensitive C-reactive protein (hsCRP) levels by immunoturbidimetric assay, and serum levels of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), chitinase 3-like protein 1 (YKL-40), and soluble cluster of differentiation 14 (sCD14) by electrochemiluminescence enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The baseline clinical diagnostic instrument for BD was the Affective Disorder Evaluation, and executive functioning was assessed by using the Delis-Kaplan Executive Function System. RESULTS: Controlling for potential confounding factors, BD patients displayed increased serum levels of zinc unrelated to hsCRP, MCP-1, YKL-40, and sCD14 levels. Serum levels of zinc did not associate with executive functioning or measurements of disease severity. DISCUSSION: This study suggests that the zinc homeostasis is disturbed in BD and that this dyshomeostasis is not related to ongoing mood symptoms or immune activation. Of note, serum levels were increased and hence do not support continuous zinc supplementation in BD.


Assuntos
Transtorno Bipolar , Zinco , Afeto , Transtorno Bipolar/metabolismo , Proteína C-Reativa , Função Executiva , Humanos , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/metabolismo
13.
Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand) ; 67(3): 168-171, 2021 Nov 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34933714

RESUMO

Pneumonia is currently one of the leading causes of death in children. Increased susceptibility to pneumonia may be due to their decreased immunity. One of the reasons for the decrease in immunity is zinc deficiency. In children with pneumonia, on the other hand, some cytokines are secreted, resulting in inflammation that spreads, persists, and makes treatment difficult for specialists. In this study, we investigated the serum zinc level in children with pneumonia and healthy children. Also, we tried to find its relationship with IL-18 mRNA expression as an inflammatory cytokine. For this purpose, serum zinc levels and IL-18 mRNA expression were evaluated in 120 children aged 3-60 months with pneumonia and 120 healthy children. After taking 2ml of blood from children and measuring serum zinc level, the level of the IL-18 mRNA was measured by real-time PCR. Total RNA was extracted by bioZOL™-G RNA Isolation Reagent kit. The primary cDNA was amplified by the extracted RNA, and in the next step, 2µl of cDNA were amplified by specific primers to measure IL-18 mRNA. The Beta-actin gene was also used as internal control and housekeeping gene. Results showed that the level of zinc in the patient group was 412.625±28.87?M and in the control group was 514.40±49.67?M. This difference was statistically significant (P=0.0053). Also, the expression of the IL-18 gene was increased in children with pneumonia, significantly (P=0.0015). Therefore, from the results, it can be deduced that children with zinc deficiency were at higher risk for a lung infection. Inflammatory cytokines such as IL-18 also were increased in these children. Hence, it can be concluded that zinc levels can reduce the expression of IL-18 mRNA and play an important role in the prevention and treatment of children with pneumonia.


Assuntos
Expressão Gênica , Interleucina-18/genética , Pneumonia/sangue , Pneumonia/genética , RNA Mensageiro/genética , Zinco/sangue , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Masculino , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase Via Transcriptase Reversa
14.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 24348, 2021 12 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934131

RESUMO

Thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm (TAAA) repair is related to a relevant morbidity and in-hospital mortality rate. In this retrospective observational single-center study including serum zinc levels of 33 patients we investigated the relationship between zinc and patients' outcome following TAAA repair. Six patients died during the hospital stay (18%). These patients showed significantly decreased zinc levels before the intervention (zinc levels before intervention: 60.09 µg/dl [survivors] vs. 45.92 µg/dl [non-survivors]). The post-interventional intensive care SOFA-score (Sepsis-related organ failure assessment) (at day 2) as well as the SAPS (Simplified Acute Physiology Score) (at day 2) showed higher score points in case of low pre-interventional zinc levels. No significant correlation between patient comorbidities and zinc level before intervention, except for peripheral arterial disease (PAD), which was significantly correlated to reduced baseline zinc levels, was observed. Septic shock, pneumonia and urinary tract infections were not associated to reduced zinc levels preoperatively as well as during therapy. Patients with adverse outcome after TAAA repair showed reduced pre-interventional zinc levels. We speculate that decreased zinc levels before intervention may be related to a poorer outcome because of poorer physical status as well as negatively altered perioperative inflammatory response.


Assuntos
Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/mortalidade , Biomarcadores/sangue , Implante de Prótese Vascular/mortalidade , Procedimentos Endovasculares/mortalidade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/diagnóstico , Medição de Risco/métodos , Zinco/sangue , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/sangue , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/patologia , Aneurisma da Aorta Torácica/cirurgia , Implante de Prótese Vascular/efeitos adversos , Procedimentos Endovasculares/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/sangue , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/etiologia , Complicações Pós-Operatórias/mortalidade , Prognóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Taxa de Sobrevida
15.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34835970

RESUMO

Zinc deficiency (ZnD) has adverse health consequences such as stunted growth. Since young children have an increased risk of developing ZnD, it is important to determine its prevalence and associated factors in this population. However, only a few studies have reported on ZnD prevalence in young children from Western high-income countries. This study evaluated ZnD prevalence and associated factors, including dietary Zn intake, in healthy 1-3-year-old children from Western European, high-income countries. ZnD was defined as serum Zn concentration <9.9 µmol/L. A total of 278 children were included with a median age of 1.7 years (Q1-Q3: 1.2-2.3). The median Zn concentration was 11.0 µmol/L (Q1-Q3: 9.0-12.2), and ZnD prevalence was 31.3%. No significant differences were observed in the socio-economic characteristics between children with and without ZnD. Dietary Zn intake was not associated with ZnD. ZnD is common in healthy 1-3-year-old children from Western European countries. However, the use of currently available cut-off values defining ZnD in young children has its limitations since these are largely based on reference values in older children. Moreover, these values were not evaluated in relation to health consequences, warranting further research.


Assuntos
Zinco/deficiência , Pré-Escolar , Ingestão de Alimentos , Europa (Continente) , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zinco/sangue
16.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836265

RESUMO

Decompensated liver cirrhosis has a dismal prognosis, with patients surviving on average for 2-4 years after the first diagnosis of ascites. Albumin is an important tool in the therapy of cirrhotic ascites. By virtue of its oncotic properties, it reduces the risk of cardiovascular dysfunction after paracentesis. Treatment with albumin also counteracts the development of hepatorenal syndrome and spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. More recently, the positive impact of long-term albumin supplementation in liver disease, based on its pleiotropic non-oncotic activities, has been recognized. These include transport of endo- and exogenous substances, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and immunomodulatory activities, and stabilizing effects on the endothelium. Besides the growing recognition that effective albumin therapy requires adjustment of the plasma level to normal physiological values, the search for substances with adjuvant activities is becoming increasingly important. More than 75% of patients with decompensated liver cirrhosis do not only present with hypoalbuminemia but also with zinc deficiency. There is a close relationship between albumin and the essential trace element zinc. First and foremost, albumin is the main carrier of zinc in plasma, and is hence critical for systemic distribution of zinc. In this review, we discuss important functions of albumin in the context of metabolic, immunological, oxidative, transport, and distribution processes, alongside crucial functions and effects of zinc and their mutual dependencies. In particular, we focus on the major role of chronic inflammatory processes in pathogenesis and progression of liver cirrhosis and how albumin therapy and zinc supplementation may affect these processes.


Assuntos
Albuminas/uso terapêutico , Cirrose Hepática/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/deficiência , Ascite , Síndrome Hepatorrenal/complicações , Humanos , Inflamação , Cirrose Hepática/complicações , Hepatopatias , Peritonite/complicações , Albumina Sérica
17.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836302

RESUMO

Trace elements play an important role in metabolism. We compared the daily intake and serum concentrations of copper (Cu), selenium (Se), and zinc (Zn) across a spectrum of glucose tolerance status in a representative U.S. population. Daily intake and serum concentrations of Cu, Zn and Se in 5087 adults from the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were examined and compared to normal (NGT) and abnormal (AGT) glucose tolerance and the presence of diabetes mellitus (DM). Other than Zn deficiency (21.15%), the prevalence of Zn, Se, and Cu excess and Se and Cu deficiency were low (<4.00%). As compared to the NGT group, Cu and Se supplementation was higher in the AGT and DM groups (p < 0.0001 for all). Serum Se and Zn, but not Cu, concentrations were highly correlated with daily intake (p < 0.0001 for both). As compared to the NGT group, serum Cu concentration was highest in the AGT group (p = 0.03), serum Se concentration was highest in the DM group (p < 0.0001), and serum Zn concentration was highest in the AGT group (p < 0.0001). Serum Se and Zn concentration was correlated with daily Se and Zn intake. Even within the reference range for serum Cu, Se, and Zn concentrations, a higher serum concentration of Cu, Se, and Zn was associated with abnormal glucose metabolism. Although the casual relationship remains to be elucidated, these data suggest caution in Cu, Se and Zn supplementation in non-deficient individuals.


Assuntos
Cobre/sangue , Ingestão de Alimentos , Glucose/metabolismo , Selênio/sangue , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Diabetes Mellitus , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/sangue , Zinco/sangue
18.
Hepatol Commun ; 5(12): 2001-2008, 2021 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34752016

RESUMO

We have reported that the plasma zinc concentration gradually decreases with the progression of fibrosis and is related to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) development. The aim of this study was to examine the impact of the zinc concentration on HCC development (study 1) and the relationship between zinc intake and HCC development (study 2) in patients with hepatitis C virus (HCV) eradicated by direct-acting antivirals (DAAs). A total of 599 sustained virological response (SVR) patients treated with DAAs without a history of HCC were retrospectively analyzed in this study. Eighty patients received supplemental zinc (Zn treatment group), and 519 patients did not receive zinc (no Zn treatment group). In study 1, the cumulative incidence rate of HCC was compared between the Zn treatment group and the no Zn treatment group. In study 2, the risk factors for HCC development were examined in the no Zn treatment group. In study 1, in the Zn treatment group, HCC did not develop during follow-up, and the cumulative risk of HCC was significantly lower in the Zn treatment group than in the no Zn treatment group (P = 0.048). In study 2, the 1-year and 3-year cumulative incidence rates of HCC were 1.8% and 5.6%, respectively. The risk factors for HCC identified by multivariate analysis were male sex, cirrhosis, low platelet count before treatment, and low serum zinc concentration 12 weeks after the end of DAA therapy. Conclusion: The Zn concentration is related to HCC development in patients with HCV eradicated by DAA therapy. Oral zinc supplementation is recommended as a means of suppressing HCC development in patients who have achieved SVR.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Hepatocelular/prevenção & controle , Suplementos Nutricionais , Hepatite C/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/prevenção & controle , Zinco/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virologia , Feminino , Hepacivirus , Hepatite C/sangue , Hepatite C/complicações , Humanos , Incidência , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise Multivariada , Estudos Retrospectivos , Resposta Viral Sustentada , Zinco/sangue
19.
Nutrients ; 13(11)2021 Nov 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34836369

RESUMO

Long-term intake of potential zinc-chelating drugs may cause zinc deficiency. We postulated that zinc deficiency in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients was related to the intake of drugs such as levodopa. We investigated the relationship between zinc levels and levodopa administration period, dosage, and symptoms of zinc deficiency in PD patients. We measured serum zinc levels and analyzed correlations between serum zinc levels, the levodopa oral administration period, dosage, dosing frequency, and zinc deficiency symptoms including taste disorders. Data analyses were performed using Spearman's rank correlation coefficient. The mean serum zinc level was 60.5 ± 11.6 µg/dL. The mean administration period for levodopa was 8.0 ± 5.5 years, mean administration frequency 3.4 ± 0.9 times/d, and mean administration dose 420.6 ± 237.1 mg/d. Negative correlations between zinc levels and levodopa dosage and dosing frequency were found. Multiple regression analysis showed a significant correlation with the frequency of levodopa (ß = -0.360, p = 0.007). No significant change in clinical symptoms was observed after zinc administration, but anxiety tended to improve. Our results indicated that frequent levodopa administration strongly influenced serum zinc levels which may have alleviating effects on psychiatric symptoms; therefore, preventing zinc deficiency can be important during PD treatment.


Assuntos
Antiparkinsonianos/efeitos adversos , Deficiências Nutricionais/etiologia , Levodopa/efeitos adversos , Doença de Parkinson/sangue , Zinco/sangue , Administração Oral , Idoso , Antiparkinsonianos/administração & dosagem , Antiparkinsonianos/uso terapêutico , Quelantes , Deficiências Nutricionais/sangue , Feminino , Humanos , Levodopa/administração & dosagem , Levodopa/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Zinco/deficiência
20.
Front Immunol ; 12: 699389, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34603280

RESUMO

The impact of zinc (Zn) sufficiency/supplementation on COVID-19-associated mortality and incidence (SARS-CoV-2 infections) remains unknown. During an infection, the levels of free Zn are reduced as part of "nutritional immunity" to limit the growth and replication of pathogen and the ensuing inflammatory damage. Considering its key role in immune competency and frequently recorded deficiency in large sections of different populations, Zn has been prescribed for both prophylactic and therapeutic purposes in COVID-19 without any corroborating evidence for its protective role. Multiple trials are underway evaluating the effect of Zn supplementation on COVID-19 outcome in patients getting standard of care treatment. However, the trial designs presumably lack the power to identify negative effects of Zn supplementation, especially in the vulnerable groups of elderly and patients with comorbidities (contributing 9 out of 10 deaths; up to >8,000-fold higher mortality). In this study, we have analyzed COVID-19 mortality and incidence (case) data from 23 socially similar European populations with comparable confounders (population: 522.47 million; experiencing up to >150-fold difference in death rates) and at the matching stage of the pandemic (March 12 to June 26, 2020; first wave of COVID-19 incidence and mortality). Our results suggest a positive correlation between populations' Zn-sufficiency status and COVID-19 mortality [r (23): 0.7893-0.6849, p-value < 0.0003] as well as incidence [r (23):0.8084-0.5658; p-value < 0.005]. The observed association is contrary to what would be expected if Zn sufficiency was protective in COVID-19. Thus, controlled trials or retrospective analyses of the adverse event patients' data should be undertaken to correctly guide the practice of Zn supplementation in COVID-19.


Assuntos
COVID-19/dietoterapia , COVID-19/mortalidade , SARS-CoV-2/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/sangue , Zinco/uso terapêutico , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Suplementos Nutricionais , Europa (Continente)/epidemiologia , Humanos , Oxirredução/efeitos dos fármacos , Estresse Oxidativo , SARS-CoV-2/imunologia
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