Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Mostrar: 20 | 50 | 100
Resultados 1 - 20 de 2.867
Filtrar
1.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 192-197, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335560

RESUMO

The recent outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is now officially declared as a pandemic by the World Health Organization. As of now, there is no known effective pharmaceutical agent against the SARS-CoV-2 virus. However, several precautionary measures have been prescribed to prevent further spread of the virus, which include avoidance of social gatherings, proper handwashing, frequently disinfecting of used items and surfaces and so on. More recent studies have highlighted the possibility of treating patients infected with the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus with chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine, of which mechanism of action is not completely understood. We seek to draw the attention of the scientific community to the possibility of drastically reducing the effects of the virus on the affected patients and improving clinical trials outcome through the synergistic action of zinc and chloroquine in patients suffering from the coronavirus disease.


Assuntos
Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Pandemias
2.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 198-211, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32335561

RESUMO

The COVID-19 pandemic represents the greatest global public health crisis since the pandemic influenza outbreak of 1918. We are facing a new virus, so several antiviral agents previously used to treat other coronavirus infections such as SARS and MERS are being considered as the first potential candidates to treat COVID-19. Thus, several agents have been used by the beginning of the current outbreak in China first and all over the word successively, as reported in several different guidelines and therapeutic recommendations. At the same time, a great number of clinical trials have been launched to investigate the potential efficacy therapies for COVID-19 highlighting the urgent need to get as quickly as possible high-quality evidence. Through PubMed, we explored the relevant articles published on treatment of COVID-19 and on trials ongoing up to April 15, 2020.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Betacoronavirus , Cloroquina/uso terapêutico , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Sinergismo Farmacológico , Humanos , Hidroxicloroquina/uso terapêutico , Pandemias , Zinco/uso terapêutico
3.
Cell Physiol Biochem ; 54(2): 180-194, 2020 Feb 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32068980

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Still in 1999 the first hints were published for the pharmacoresistant Cav2.3 calcium channel to be involved in the generation of epileptic seizures, as transcripts of alpha1E (Cav2.3) and alpha1G (Cav3.1) are changed in the brain of genetic absence epilepsy rats from Strasbourg (GAERS). Consecutively, the seizure susceptibility of mice lacking Cav2.3 was analyzed in great detail by using 4-aminopyridine, pentylene-tetrazol, N-methyl-D-aspartate and kainic acid to induce experimentally convulsive seizures. Further, γ-hydroxybutyrolactone was used for the induction of non-convulsive absence seizures. For all substances tested, Cav2.3-competent mice differed from their knockout counterparts in the sense that for convulsive seizures the deletion of the pharmacoresistant channel was beneficial for the outcome during experimentally induced seizures [1]. The antiepileptic drug lamotrigine reduces seizure activity in Cav2.3-competent but increases it in Cav2.3-deficient mice. In vivo, Cav2.3 must be under tight control by endogenous trace metal cations (Zn2+ and Cu2+). The dyshomeostasis of either of them, especially of Cu2+, may alter the regulation of Cav2.3 severely and its activity for Ca2+ conductance, and thus may change hippocampal and neocortical signaling to hypo- or hyperexcitation. METHODS: To investigate by telemetric EEG recordings the mechanism of generating hyperexcitation by kainate, mice were tested for their sensitivity of changes in neuronal (intracerebroventricular) concentrations of the trace metal cation Zn2+. As the blood-brain barrier limits the distribution of bioavailable Zn2+ or Cu2+ into the brain, we administered micromolar Zn2+ ions intracerebroventricularly in the presence of 1 mM histidine as carrier and compared the effects on behavior and EEG activity in both genotypes. RESULTS: Kainate seizures are more severe in Cav2.3-competent mice than in KO mice and histidine lessens seizure severity in competent but not in Cav2.3-deficient mice. Surprisingly, Zn2+ plus histidine resembles the kainate only control with more seizure severity in Cav2.3-competent than in deficient mice. CONCLUSION: Cav2.3 represents one important Zn2+-sensitive target, which is useful for modulating convulsive seizures.


Assuntos
Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/metabolismo , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Convulsões/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Canais de Cálcio Tipo R/genética , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/genética , Eletroencefalografia , Hipocampo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipocampo/metabolismo , Histidina/farmacologia , Íons/química , Ácido Caínico/toxicidade , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , Convulsões/induzido quimicamente , Convulsões/patologia , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Zinco/farmacologia , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico/metabolismo
4.
JAMA ; 323(1): 35-48, 2020 01 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31910279

RESUMO

Importance: Dietary supplements marketed for male fertility commonly contain folic acid and zinc based on limited prior evidence for improving semen quality. However, no large-scale trial has examined the efficacy of this therapy for improving semen quality or live birth. Objective: To determine the effect of daily folic acid and zinc supplementation on semen quality and live birth. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Folic Acid and Zinc Supplementation Trial was a multicenter randomized clinical trial. Couples (n = 2370; men aged ≥18 years and women aged 18-45 years) planning infertility treatment were enrolled at 4 US reproductive endocrinology and infertility care study centers between June 2013 and December 2017. The last 6-month study visit for semen collection occurred during August 2018, with chart abstraction of live birth and pregnancy information completed during April 2019. Interventions: Men were block randomized by study center and planned infertility treatment (in vitro fertilization, other treatment at a study site, and other treatment at an outside clinic) to receive either 5 mg of folic acid and 30 mg of elemental zinc (n = 1185) or placebo (n = 1185) daily for 6 months. Main Outcomes and Measures: The co-primary outcomes were live birth (resulting from pregnancies occurring within 9 months of randomization) and semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, morphology, volume, DNA fragmentation, and total motile sperm count) at 6 months after randomization. Results: Among 2370 men who were randomized (mean age, 33 years), 1773 (75%) attended the final 6-month study visit. Live birth outcomes were available for all couples, and 1629 men (69%) had semen available for analysis at 6 months after randomization. Live birth was not significantly different between treatment groups (404 [34%] in the folic acid and zinc group and 416 [35%] in the placebo group; risk difference, -0.9% [95% CI, -4.7% to 2.8%]). Most of the semen quality parameters (sperm concentration, motility, morphology, volume, and total motile sperm count) were not significantly different between treatment groups at 6 months after randomization. A statistically significant increase in DNA fragmentation was observed with folic acid and zinc supplementation (mean of 29.7% for percentage of DNA fragmentation in the folic acid and zinc group and 27.2% in the placebo group; mean difference, 2.4% [95% CI, 0.5% to 4.4%]). Gastrointestinal symptoms were more common with folic acid and zinc supplementation compared with placebo (abdominal discomfort or pain: 66 [6%] vs 40 [3%], respectively; nausea: 50 [4%] vs 24 [2%]; and vomiting: 32 [3%] vs 17 [1%]). Conclusions and Relevance: Among a general population of couples seeking infertility treatment, the use of folic acid and zinc supplementation by male partners, compared with placebo, did not significantly improve semen quality or couples' live birth rates. These findings do not support the use of folic acid and zinc supplementation by male partners in the treatment of infertility. Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT01857310.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Ácido Fólico/farmacologia , Infertilidade Masculina/tratamento farmacológico , Sêmen/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Fragmentação do DNA/efeitos dos fármacos , Suplementos Nutricionais/efeitos adversos , Feminino , Fertilização In Vitro , Ácido Fólico/efeitos adversos , Ácido Fólico/uso terapêutico , Humanos , Nascimento Vivo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Análise do Sêmen , Contagem de Espermatozoides , Falha de Tratamento , Adulto Jovem , Zinco/efeitos adversos , Zinco/uso terapêutico
5.
Life Sci ; 245: 117351, 2020 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31981629

RESUMO

AIMS: To study the specific therapeutic effect of zinc on spinal cord injury (SCI) and its specific protective mechanism. MAIN METHODS: The effects of zinc ions on neuronal cells were examined in a mouse SCI model and in vitro. In vivo, neurological function was assessed by Basso Mouse Scaleat (BMS) at 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after spinal cord injury. The number of neurons and histomorphology were observed by nissl staining and hematoxylin-eosin staining (HE). The chromatin and mitochondrial structure of neurons were detected by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The expression of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)-related antioxidant protein and NLRP3 inflammation-related protein were detected in vivo and in vitro by western blot (WB) and immunofluorescence (IF), respectively. KEY FINDINGS: Zinc treatment promoted motor function recovery on days 3, 5, 7, 14, 21 and 28 after SCI. In addition, zinc reduces the mitochondrial void rate in spinal neuronal cells and promotes neuronal recovery. At the same time, zinc reduced the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and malondialdehyde in spinal cord tissue after SCI, while increasing superoxide dismutase activity and glutathione peroxidase production. Zinc treatment resulted in up-regulation of Nrf2/Ho-1 levels and down-regulation of nlrp3 inflammation-associated protein expression in vitro and in vivo. SIGNIFICANCE: Zinc has a protective effect on spinal cord injury by inhibiting oxidative damage and nlrp3 inflammation. Potential mechanisms may include activation of the Nrf 2/Ho-1 pathway to inhibit nlrp3 inflammation following spinal cord injury. Zinc has the potential to treat SCI.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Proteínas de Membrana/metabolismo , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Proteína 3 que Contém Domínio de Pirina da Família NLR/metabolismo , Neurônios/efeitos dos fármacos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/tratamento farmacológico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Western Blotting , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Imunofluorescência , Marcação In Situ das Extremidades Cortadas , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Neurônios/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Medula Espinal/citologia , Medula Espinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Medula Espinal/patologia , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/metabolismo , Traumatismos da Medula Espinal/patologia , Zinco/farmacologia
6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 57: 126417, 2020 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653549

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: To this day, empirical data suggests that zinc has important roles in matrix synthesis, bone turnover, and mineralization and its beneficial effects on bone could be mediated through different mechanisms. The influence of zinc on bone turnover could be facilitated via regulating RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway in bone tissue. Therefore, the aim of the study was to conduct a review to investigate the possible effect of the zinc mediated bone remodeling via RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway. METHODS: A comprehensive systematic search was performed in MEDLINE/PubMed, Cochrane Library, SCOPUS, and Google Scholar to explore the studies investigating the effect of zinc as a bone remodeling factor via RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway regulation. Subsequently, the details of the pathway and the impact of zinc supplements on RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway regulation were discussed. RESULTS: The pathway could play an important role in bone remodeling and any imbalance between RANKL/RANK/OPG components could lead to extreme bone resorption. Although the outcomes of some studies are equivocal, it is evident that zinc possesses protective properties against bone loss by regulating the RANKL/RANK/OPG pathway. There are several experiments where zinc supplementation resulted in upregulation of OPG expression or decreases RANKL level. However, the results of some studies oppose this. CONCLUSION: It is likely that sufficient zinc intake will elicit positive effects on bone health by RANKL/RANK/OPG regulation. Although the outcomes of a few studies are equivocal, it seems that zinc can exert the protective properties against bone loss by suppressing osteoclastogenesis via downregulation of RANKL/RANK. Additionally, there are several experiments where zinc supplementation resulted in upregulation of OPG expression. However, the results of limited studies oppose this. Therefore, aside from the positive role zinc possesses in preserving bone mass, further effects of zinc in RANKL/RANK/OPG system requires further animal/human studies.


Assuntos
Osso e Ossos/efeitos dos fármacos , Osso e Ossos/metabolismo , Osteoprotegerina/metabolismo , Ligante RANK/metabolismo , Receptor Ativador de Fator Nuclear kappa-B/metabolismo , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Densidade Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos
7.
Chem Commun (Camb) ; 55(87): 13148-13151, 2019 Oct 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31617549

RESUMO

Cu2ZnSnS4 nanocrystals (CZTS NCs) have been demonstrated to be effective in tumor therapy as a novel susceptible agent for microwave thermal and microwave dynamic therapy. CZTS NCs intensify the heating effect of microwaves with a significant temperature increase of about 15 °C compared to the control group and showed remarkable anti-tumor performance after 5 min of microwave irradiation. For the first time, we report the microwave absorption performance and singlet oxygen production of CZTS NCs used in microwave therapy, which reveals new opportunities for novel combined mechanisms of microwave thermal and microwave dynamic tumor therapies.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Cobre/uso terapêutico , Neoplasias Hepáticas/tratamento farmacológico , Micro-Ondas , Nanopartículas/uso terapêutico , Sulfetos/uso terapêutico , Temperatura , Estanho/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Animais , Antineoplásicos/química , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Terapia Combinada , Cobre/química , Relação Dose-Resposta a Droga , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Neoplasias Hepáticas/patologia , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Hepáticas Experimentais/patologia , Camundongos , Nanopartículas/química , Tamanho da Partícula , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Sulfetos/química , Propriedades de Superfície , Estanho/química , Zinco/química
8.
J Glob Health ; 9(2): 020416, 2019 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31555441

RESUMO

Background: Kenyan paediatric treatment protocols recommend the use of zinc supplement for all children with diarrhoea. However, there is limited evidence of benefit for young children aged 1-5 months and those who are well-nourished. We examine effectiveness of zinc supplementation for children admitted with diarrhoea to Kenya's public hospitals with different nutritional and age categories. This is to determine whether the current policy where zinc is prescribed for all children with diarrhoea is appropriate. Methods: We explore the effect of zinc treatment on time to discharge for children aged 1-5 and 6-59 months and amongst those classified as either severely - moderately under-nourished or well-nourished. To overcome the challenges associated with non-random allocation of treatments and missing data in these observational data, we use propensity score methods and multiple imputation to minimize bias. Results: The analysis included 1645 (1-5 months) and 11 546 (6-59 months) children respectively. The estimated sub-distribution hazard ratios for being discharged in the zinc group vs the non-zinc group were 1.25 (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.07, 1.46) and 1.17 (95% CI = 1.10, 1.24) in these respective age categories. Zinc treatment was associated with shorter time to discharge in both well and under-nourished children. Conclusion: Zinc treatment, in general, was associated with shorter time to discharge. In the absence of significant adverse effects, these data support the continued use of zinc for admissions with diarrhoea including those aged 1-5 months and in those who are well-nourished.


Assuntos
Diarreia/tratamento farmacológico , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Hospitais Públicos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Fatores Etários , Pré-Escolar , Feminino , Política de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Quênia , Masculino , Estado Nutricional , Alta do Paciente/estatística & dados numéricos , Fatores de Tempo , Resultado do Tratamento
9.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010505, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31293782

RESUMO

Background: In Kenya, diarrheal disease is the second leading cause of death among children under five. The Government of Kenya launched a national plan to increase coverage of oral rehydration solution (ORS) and zinc by addressing demand and supply-side barriers. This study evaluates progress of ORS and zinc uptake in Kenya according to the national plan from 2011 to 2016. Methods: In 2016, we conducted a nationally representative population-based household survey to estimate coverage of ORS and zinc for treatment of diarrhea cases among children under five. We also used ORS and zinc coverage data from the two most recent Kenya Demographic and Health Surveys in 2008/09 and 2014 to estimate annual changes in coverage rates during the program period. Based on these inputs, we used the Lives Saved Tool to estimate the number of diarrhea deaths averted between 2011 and 2016 due to increased use of ORS and zinc. Results: The 2016 survey results showed that ORS coverage was 42% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 38%, 47%) and zinc coverage was 18% (95% CI = 15%, 23%). The estimated coverage for the combined use of ORS and zinc was 15% in 2016 (95% CI = 12%, 19%). Compared to 2011, an additional 3340 (sensitivity bounds = 2 670, 3 920) diarrhea deaths among children under five were averted due to increases in ORS and zinc coverage. Conclusions: Kenya was successful in catalyzing uptake of combined treatment with ORS and zinc, which rose from 0.8% in 2011 to 15% in 2016. Ongoing efforts are necessary to further build on these gains.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Programas Governamentais , Soluções para Reidratação/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Diarreia/mortalidade , Feminino , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Quênia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Resultado do Tratamento
10.
J Glob Health ; 9(1): 010504, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31217963

RESUMO

Background: In Uganda, diarrhoea was the third leading cause of mortality among children under the age of five in 2010. To address this issue, the Ministry of Health (MOH) formed a national Diarrhoea and Pneumonia Coordination Committee (DPCC) in 2011. One of the objectives of the DPCC for reducing diarrhoea mortality was to increase the use of oral rehydration salts (ORS) and zinc. This study aimed to describe and evaluate efforts by the DPCC to increase ORS and zinc coverage. Methods: We conducted a retrospective mixed-methods evaluation to describe the activities conducted under the DPCC and evaluate the extent to which the committee's goal of increasing ORS and zinc use was achieved. We conducted secondary analysis using Uganda's Demographic and Health Survey from 2011 and 2016, analyzed cross-sectional private medicine outlet surveys from 2014 and 2016, analyzed ORS and zinc distribution data from the Uganda National Medical Stores, and reviewed program documents from DPCC partners. Results: Nationally, the proportion of children under five with diarrhoea treated with ORS and zinc increased from 1% (95% confidence interval (CI) = 1%, 2%) in 2011 to 30% (95% CI = 27%, 32%) in 2016. Among private medicine outlets, the adjusted odds of having any zinc in-stock was 1.5 (95% CI = 1.14, 1.97) times higher in 2016 than in 2014, and the retail price for a complete treatment (2 ORS sachets and 10 zinc tablets) declined by $0.19 (95% CI = -0.31, -0.06), or 14%. Conclusions: Use of combined ORS and zinc for treatment of diarrhoea in children under five significantly increased in Uganda during the program period. The range of activities conducted by the various members of the DPCC likely contributed to the increase in the use of combined ORS and zinc.


Assuntos
Diarreia/terapia , Hidratação/estatística & dados numéricos , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , Diarreia/mortalidade , Pesquisas sobre Serviços de Saúde , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Avaliação de Programas e Projetos de Saúde , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Estudos Retrospectivos , Uganda/epidemiologia
11.
J Nutr Sci Vitaminol (Tokyo) ; 65(2): 184-191, 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31061288

RESUMO

Zinc in various therapeutic doses was used on patients suffering from oral mucositis during cancer treatment. A meta-analysis was conducted to probe the role of oral zinc as a possible treatment option for oral mucositis. A literature search was done using PubMed, EBSCO, Cochrane, MedLine, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate and Google Scholar with key words. The analysis was directed to recognize and identify the use of zinc supplementations at a confidence interval (CI) 95% with p value significance taken as <0.05. A total number of 21,428 articles was retrieved. After thorough screening and assessment of the eligibility criteria, 10 articles were included in qualitative and quantitative analysis in the study. The 10 articles constituted a total sample size of 299 in the case group and 294 in the control group. Oral zinc doses used were 25 mg, 30 mg, 50 mg and 220 mg capsules and mouthwash of 0.2% zinc, as well as 0.5 g of granules dissolved in 5% sodium alginate solution. Two studies showed no significance, with the overall effect 1.61. Eight studies favored zinc over a placebo with an overall effect size of -0.89 at 95% CI of -1.08 and -0.70 which was statistically significant (Z=9.27, p<0.00001). This analysis suggests that zinc usage has shown significant reduction in the severity of oral mucositis but not prevention. The onset of the reaction was delayed and hastened healing. Pharyngeal mucositis, pain and quality of life of the individuals received no effect from zinc therapy.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos/efeitos adversos , Radioterapia/efeitos adversos , Estomatite , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Antineoplásicos/uso terapêutico , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Neoplasias/complicações , Neoplasias/terapia , Estomatite/classificação , Estomatite/tratamento farmacológico , Estomatite/etiologia
13.
Biomed J ; 42(1): 46-52, 2019 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30987704

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zinc plays a vital antioxidant role in human metabolism. Recent studies have demonstrated a correlation between noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) and oxidative injury; however, no investigation has focused specifically on the subgroup of NIHL associated tinnitus patients. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of zinc supplementation in treating NIHL associated tinnitus. METHODS: Twenty patients with tinnitus and a typical NIHL audiogram (38 ears) were included in this study. Another 20 healthy subjects were used as the control group. A full medical history assessment was performed, and each subject underwent an otoscopic examination, basic audiologic evaluation, distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs), tinnitus-match testing, Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) and serum zinc level analyses. After 2 months of treatment with zinc, all tests were repeated. RESULTS: There was a significant difference between pretreatment and post-treatment within the tinnitus group (73.6 vs. 84.6 µg/dl). The pre- and post-treatment difference in serum zinc was significantly higher in the young group (≦50 years) compared to the old group (19.4 ± 11.4 vs. 2.6 ± 9.2 µg/dl, respectively; p = 0.002). There were no statistically significant differences in hearing thresholds, speech reception thresholds, or tinnitus frequency and loudness results before and after treatment. In addition, 17 patients (85%) showed statistically significant improvement of THI-total scores post-treatment, from 38.3 to 30 (p = 0.024). CONCLUSIONS: Zinc oral supplementation elevated serum zinc levels, especially in younger patients. THI scores improved significantly following zinc treatment in patients with NIHL associated tinnitus. However, no improvements in objective hearing parameters were observed.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais , Perda Auditiva Provocada por Ruído/terapia , Zumbido/terapia , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Ruído/efeitos adversos , Método Simples-Cego , Inquéritos e Questionários , Zumbido/complicações
14.
Chem Biol Interact ; 307: 37-50, 2019 Jul 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31009641

RESUMO

Zinc depletion during diabetes postulates a role for zinc nutrition in the management of associated complications. The present study evaluated zinc supplementation for countering the compromised intestinal integrity through moderation of oxidative stress and suppression of stress-stimulated inflammatory proliferation in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Diabetic rats were provided with supplemental zinc for six weeks (5 and 10-times of normal level). Supplemental zinc nurtured diabetic groups evidenced a significant reversal of the disruption of intestinal ultra structure. While the brush border membrane (BBM) of diabetic animals showed decreased fluidity with increased cholesterol: phospholipid ratio and altered polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio, the same was countered in zinc supplementation. A stimulated activity of BBM-bound enzymes suggested a modulation in membrane dynamics in diabetic condition which was moderated in zinc treatment. Higher expression of the lipid oxidative markers, oxidative stress markers, concomitant inflammatory markers, cytokines, fibrosis factors and apoptotic regulatory proteins in the intestines were curbed by zinc supplementation. The pathological aberrations of the intestinal architecture in diabetic animals were similarly reverted. Thus, supplemental zinc has a favourable consequence in restricting the compromised intestinal health in diabetes which was exerted through a defensive stimulus on oxidative stress induced cytokines, inflammatory propagation, and subsequent injury.


Assuntos
Intestino Delgado/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/farmacologia , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Colágeno Tipo IV/genética , Colágeno Tipo IV/metabolismo , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/induzido quimicamente , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/tratamento farmacológico , Diabetes Mellitus Experimental/patologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Feminino , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mucosa Intestinal/ultraestrutura , Intestino Delgado/metabolismo , Intestino Delgado/patologia , Peroxidação de Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Fluidez de Membrana/efeitos dos fármacos , NF-kappa B/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ratos , Ratos Wistar , Estreptozocina/toxicidade , Superóxido Dismutase/metabolismo , Zinco/uso terapêutico
15.
Dermatol Online J ; 25(2)2019 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30865402

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Patients with psoriasis have a growing interest in managing their disease through diet. OBJECTIVE: This review paper aims to analyze dietary interventions for psoriasis and their outcome. METHODS: Terms "psoriasis AND diet" were used to search PubMed database and 63 articles describing dietary changes influencing psoriasis were selected. RESULTS: Low calorie diet (LCD) improves Psoriasis Area and Severity Index (PASI) and Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) in conjunction with topical or systemic therapy, although LCD was unsuccessful in maintaining disease remission when patients discontinued concomitant cyclosporine or methotrexate therapy. A fish oil diet improved baseline PASI of 7.7 to 5.3 at three months and 2.6 at 6 months compared to control (PASI: 8.9, 7.8, and 7.8, respectively). A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study investigating selenium supplementation in psoriasis provided no PASI improvement. Zinc supplementation with concomitant betamethasone valerate 0.0025% ointment in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study provided a mean PASI of 11.2 in the intervention group and 8.0 in the control group with no significant difference between both arms. Gluten free diet and vitamin D supplementation were also efficacious dietary changes although results were mixed. CONCLUSIONS: Dietary changes alone do not cause a large effect in psoriasis but may become an important adjunct to current first line treatments.


Assuntos
Restrição Calórica , Fármacos Dermatológicos/uso terapêutico , Óleos de Peixe/uso terapêutico , Psoríase/dietoterapia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Dieta Livre de Glúten , Suplementos Nutricionais , Humanos , Psoríase/tratamento farmacológico , Qualidade de Vida , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Zinco/uso terapêutico
16.
Indian Pediatr ; 56(5): 391-406, 2019 05 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30898990

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of zinc supplementation in children under 5 years of age rom low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) on anthropometry and prevalence of malnutrition. Design: Systematic review of randomized controlled trials and cluster randomized trials. SETTING: Low- and middle-income countries. PARTICIPANTS: 63 trials with zinc supplementation, incorporating data on 27372 children. Trials conducted exclusively in specifically diseased participants and in children with severe acute malnutrition were excluded. Intervention: Zinc supplementation, provided either as medicinal supplementation or through food fortification. OUTCOME MEASURES: (i) Anthropometry: weight, height, weight-for-height, mid-arm circumference, head circumference; (ii) Prevalence of malnutrition. RESULTS: There was no evidence of effect on height-for-age Z score at the end of supplementation period (25 trials; 9165 participants; MD= 0.00 Z; 95% CI -0.07, 0.07; P=0.98; moderate quality evidence) with significant heterogeneity (I² = 57%; P<0.001) related to dose and duration of zinc between trials. There was little or no effect on change in height-for-age Z score (13 trials; 8852 participants; MD= 0.11 Z; 95% CI -0.00, 0.21; P=0.05), but the heterogeneity was considerable (I²=94%; P<0.001). There was no evidence of effect on length (6303 participants; MD= 1.18 cm; 95% CI -0.63, 2.99 cm, P=0.20; moderate quality evidence; considerable heterogeneity, I²=99%) but a little positive effect on change in length (19 trials; 10783 participants; MD= 0.43 cm; 95% CI 0.16, 0.70, P=0.002; moderate quality evidence; considerable heterogeneity, I²=93%). There was no evidence of effect on weight-for-age Z score or change in weight-for-age Z score but a little positive effect on weight (19 trials; 8851 study participants; MD= 0.23 kg; 95% CI 0.03, 0.42; P=0.02; considerable heterogeneity, I²=91%) and change in weight (kg) (23 trials; 10143 study participants; MD= 0.11 kg; 95% CI 0.05, 0.17, P<0.001, substantial heterogeneity, I²=80%). There was no evidence of effect on weight-for-height Z score, and mid upper arm circumference at the end of supplementation period, but there was a little positive effect on change in MUAC from baseline (8 trials; 1724 participants; MD = 0.09 cm; 95% CI 0.01, 0.16; P=0.03; no heterogeneity, I²=0%). Head circumference in zinc supplemented group was marginally higher compared to control (2966 study participants; MD= 0.39 cm; 95% CI 0.03, 0.75; P=0.03; substantial heterogeneity, I²=67%). There was no evidence of benefit in stunting (10 trials; 11838 study participants; RR= 1.0; 95% CI 0.95, 1.06; P=0.89; Moderate Quality Evidence; no significant heterogeneity, I²=11%), wasting (7 trials; 8988 study participants; RR= 0.94; 95% CI 0.82, 1.06; P=0.31; Moderate Quality Evidence; no significant heterogeneity, I²=13%) or underweight (7 trials; 8677 study participants; RR= 1.08; 95% CI 0.96, 1.21; P=0.19; Moderate Quality Evidence; substantial heterogeneity, I²=73%). CONCLUSION: Available evidence suggests that zinc supplementation probably leads to little or no improvement in anthropometric indices and malnutrition (stunting, underweight and wasting) in children under five years of age in LMICs. Advocating zinc supplementation as a public health measure to improve growth, therefore appears unjustified in these settings with scarce resources.


Assuntos
Países em Desenvolvimento , Suplementos Nutricionais , Transtornos do Crescimento/prevenção & controle , Desnutrição/prevenção & controle , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Síndrome de Emaciação/prevenção & controle , Zinco/uso terapêutico , África/epidemiologia , Antropometria , Ásia/epidemiologia , Desenvolvimento Infantil , Pré-Escolar , Transtornos do Crescimento/epidemiologia , Humanos , Lactente , América Latina/epidemiologia , Desnutrição/epidemiologia , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto , Resultado do Tratamento , Síndrome de Emaciação/epidemiologia
17.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth ; 19(1): 107, 2019 Mar 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30922259

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Diabetes is the most common medical condition in pregnant women and its complications affect both mother and fetus. The beneficial effects of vitamin D on gestational diabetes have been shown, though data on the effects of co-administration of vitamin D with other nutrients on pregnancy outcomes in gestational diabetes (GDM) are scarce. This study was aimed to determine the effects of magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation on parameters of inflammation and oxidative stress, and pregnancy outcomes among women with GDM. METHODS: This randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial was conducted on 60 women with GDM not taking oral hypoglycemic agents. Patients were randomly assigned to take magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D supplements (n = 30) or placebo (n = 30) for 6 weeks. Fasting blood samples were collected from participants at baseline and after the 6-week intervention to measure related biomarkers. RESULTS: Magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation resulted in a significant reduction in serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (- 1.2 ± 3.5 vs. + 0.8 ± 2.0 mg/L, P = 0.01) and plasma malondialdehyde concentrations (- 0.3 ± 0.3 vs. + 0.3 ± 1.1 µmol/L, P = 0.003), as well as a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity levels (+ 38.2 ± 76.5 vs. -16.3 ± 93.5 mmol/L, P = 0.01), compared to placebo. We found a decreasing trend in newborns' weight (3089.8 ± 519.9 vs. 3346.3 ± 411.1 g, P = 0.05) and the rate of macrosomia (3.3% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.08) in the magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D supplemented women. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the findings of this study have demonstrated that magnesium-zinc-calcium-vitamin D co-supplementation for 6 weeks to women with GDM may reduce biomarkers of inflammation and oxidative stress. This study was retrospectively registered on 25 April 2017 in the Iranian website ( www.irct.ir ) for clinical trials registration ( http://www.irct.ir : IRCT201704225623N109).


Assuntos
Cálcio/uso terapêutico , Diabetes Gestacional/terapia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Magnésio/uso terapêutico , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Adulto , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Biomarcadores/sangue , Peso ao Nascer , Proteína C-Reativa/metabolismo , Diabetes Gestacional/sangue , Método Duplo-Cego , Feminino , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Inflamação , Malondialdeído/sangue , Estresse Oxidativo , Gravidez , Resultado da Gravidez , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
18.
J Altern Complement Med ; 25(6): 567-577, 2019 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30912673

RESUMO

Objective: The pathophysiology of atopic dermatitis (AD) involves a complex interplay between immune system dysfunction, genetics, and environmental factors. It is well known that nutritional status is essential to a proper functioning immune system, leading to a highly debated question regarding the role of dietary factors in the pathogenesis of AD. Food allergies and elimination diets have been broadly studied in atopy; however, less consideration has been given to how vitamins, minerals, and other micronutrients influence the risk for AD and severity of symptoms. This systematic review discusses evidence on how various micronutrients, including vitamins (C, E, and D) and trace minerals (zinc, selenium, iron, copper, magnesium, and strontium) are associated with AD, and how supplementation influence disease severity. Design: A systematic search was conducted to identify the role that oral micronutrients have on AD. The authors reviewed 49 studies herein. Results: While there are weak associations between vitamins C or E and AD, there is sufficient evidence to suggest that vitamin D supplementation provides benefit in AD patients. Deficiency of selenium and zinc may exacerbate AD. Current reports are not sufficient to confidently discern the role of other vitamins and trace minerals on AD. Conclusions: Though oral micronutrients may play a role in AD, the current literature is limited, and there is a need for more comprehensive randomized controlled trials (RCTs) to truly decipher the role between oral micronutrients and AD.


Assuntos
Dermatite Atópica/tratamento farmacológico , Suplementos Nutricionais , Minerais/uso terapêutico , Estado Nutricional , Oligoelementos/uso terapêutico , Vitaminas/uso terapêutico , Deficiência de Vitaminas/complicações , Dermatite Atópica/complicações , Humanos , Selênio/uso terapêutico , Índice de Gravidade de Doença , Oligoelementos/deficiência , Vitamina D/uso terapêutico , Zinco/uso terapêutico
20.
Nutrients ; 11(1)2019 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30669644

RESUMO

Acrodermatitis enteropathica (AE) is a rare disease characterised by a failure in intestinal zinc absorption, which results in a host of symptoms that can ultimately lead to death if left untreated. Current clinical treatment involves life-long high-dose zinc supplements, which can introduce complications for overall nutrient balance in the body. Previous studies have therefore explored the pharmacological treatment of AE utilising metal ionophore/transport compounds in an animal model of the disease (conditional knockout (KO) of the zinc transporter, Zip4), with the perspective of finding an alternative to zinc supplementation. In this study we have assessed the utility of a different class of zinc ionophore compound (zinc diethyl bis(N4-methylthiosemicarbazone), Zn-DTSM; Collaborative Medicinal Development, Sausalito, CA, USA) to the one we have previously described (clioquinol), to determine whether it is effective at preventing the stereotypical weight loss present in the animal model of disease. We first utilised an in vitro assay to assess the ionophore capacity of the compound, and then assessed the effect of the compound in three in vivo animal studies (in 1.5-month-old mice at 30 mg/kg/day, and in 5-month old mice at 3 mg/kg/day and 30 mg/kg/day). Our data demonstrate that Zn-DTSM has a pronounced effect on preventing weight loss when administered daily at 30 mg/kg/day; this was apparent in the absence of any added exogenous zinc. This compound had little overall effect on zinc content in various tissues that were assessed, although further characterisation is required to more fully explore the cellular changes underlying the physiological benefit of this compound. These data suggest that Zn-DTSM, or similar compounds, should be further explored as potential therapeutic options for the long-term treatment of AE.


Assuntos
Acrodermatite/tratamento farmacológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/uso terapêutico , Absorção Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ionóforos/uso terapêutico , Tiossemicarbazonas/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Zinco/uso terapêutico , Zinco/deficiência , Acrodermatite/metabolismo , Acrodermatite/patologia , Animais , Transporte Biológico , Proteínas de Transporte de Cátions/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Feminino , Ionóforos/metabolismo , Masculino , Camundongos , Compostos Organometálicos/metabolismo , Compostos Organometálicos/uso terapêutico , Tiossemicarbazonas/metabolismo , Perda de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , Zinco/metabolismo , Zinco/uso terapêutico , Compostos de Zinco/metabolismo
SELEÇÃO DE REFERÊNCIAS
DETALHE DA PESQUISA