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1.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 128: 55-68, 2018 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30063997

RESUMO

Many cases of rapid evolutionary radiations in plant and animal lineages are known; however phylogenetic relationships among these lineages have been difficult to resolve by systematists. Increasing amounts of genomic data have been sequentially applied in an attempt to resolve these radiations, dissecting their evolutionary patterns into a series of bifurcating events. Here we explore one such rapid radiation in the tropical plant order Zingiberales (the bananas and relatives) which includes eight families, approximately 110 genera, and more than 2600 species. One clade, the "Ginger families", including (Costaceae + Zingiberaceae) (Marantaceae + Cannaceae), has been well-resolved and well-supported in all previous studies. However, well-supported reconstructions among the "Banana families" (Musaceae, Heliconiaceae, Lowiaceae, Strelitziaceae), which most likely diverged about 90 Mya, have been difficult to confirm. Supported with anatomical, morphological, single locus, and genome-wide data, nearly every possible phylogenetic placement has been proposed for these families. In an attempt to resolve this complex evolutionary event, hybridization-based target enrichment was used to obtain sequences from up to 378 putatively orthologous low-copy nuclear genes (all ≥ 960 bp). Individual gene trees recovered multiple topologies among the early divergent lineages, with varying levels of support for these relationships. One topology of the "Banana families" (Musaceae (Heliconiaceae (Lowiaceae + Strelitziaceae))), which has not been suggested until now, was almost consistently recovered in all multilocus analyses of the nuclear dataset (concatenated - ExaML, coalescent - ASTRAL and ASTRID, supertree - MRL, and Bayesian concordance - BUCKy). Nevertheless, the multiple topologies recovered among these lineages suggest that even large amounts of genomic data might not be able to fully resolve relationships at this phylogenetic depth. This lack of well-supported resolution could suggest methodological problems (i.e., violation of model assumptions in both concatenated and coalescent analyses) or more likely reflect an evolutionary history shaped by an explosive, rapid, and nearly simultaneous polychotomous radiation in this group of plants towards the end of the Cretaceous, perhaps driven by vertebrate pollinator selection.


Assuntos
Genômica , Filogenia , Clima Tropical , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/genética , Teorema de Bayes , Núcleo Celular/genética , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta/genética
2.
J Exp Zool B Mol Dev Evol ; 328(1-2): 41-54, 2017 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28120453

RESUMO

The evolution of floral morphology in the monocot order Zingiberales shows a trend in which androecial whorl organs are progressively modified into variously conspicuous "petaloid" structures with differing degrees of fertility. Petaloidy of androecial members results from extensive laminarization of an otherwise radially symmetric structure. The genetic basis of the laminarization of androecial members has been addressed through recent candidate gene studies focused on understanding the spatiotemporal expression patterns of genes known to be necessary to floral organ formation. Here, we explore the correlation between gene duplication events and floral and inflorescence morphological diversification across the Zingiberales by inferring ancestral character states and gene copy number using the most widely accepted phylogenetic hypotheses. Our results suggest that the duplication and differential loss of GLOBOSA (GLO) copies is correlated with a change in the degree of the laminarization of androecial members. We also find an association with increased diversification in most families. We hypothesize that retention of paralogs in flower development genes could have led to a developmental shift affecting androecial organs with potential adaptive consequences, thus favoring diversification in some lineages but not others.


Assuntos
Flores/anatomia & histologia , Flores/genética , Zingiberales/anatomia & histologia , Zingiberales/genética , Flores/fisiologia , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/fisiologia
3.
Zootaxa ; 4052(1): 96-106, 2015 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26624778

RESUMO

Phytotelmatrichis, gen. n. a new genus of Ptiliidae: Acrotrichinae with two species Phytotelmatrichis peruviensis sp. n. and Phytotelmatrichis osopaddington sp. n. is described and illustrated. The new species were found during a survey of insects in the aquatic environments that form in the hollows (phytotelmata) in the leaves and floral bracts of Zingiberales plants. The new taxa were found in the the Zingiberales genera Calathea (Marantaceae), Heliconia (Heliconiaceae), and Alpinia and Renealmia (Zingiberaceae) in southern Peru. Sampling of other habitats in the same areas over five years and using a range of different techniques did not yield more specimens of this new genus. This suggests that the new species are restricted to phytotelmata.


Assuntos
Besouros/classificação , Zingiberales/embriologia , Zingiberales/parasitologia , Distribuição Animal , Estruturas Animais/anatomia & histologia , Estruturas Animais/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Animais , Tamanho Corporal , Besouros/anatomia & histologia , Besouros/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ecossistema , Feminino , Masculino , Tamanho do Órgão , Peru , Zingiberales/classificação
4.
Ann Bot ; 113(1): 119-33, 2014 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-24280362

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Zingiberales comprise a clade of eight tropical monocot families including approx. 2500 species and are hypothesized to have undergone an ancient, rapid radiation during the Cretaceous. Zingiberales display substantial variation in floral morphology, and several members are ecologically and economically important. Deep phylogenetic relationships among primary lineages of Zingiberales have proved difficult to resolve in previous studies, representing a key region of uncertainty in the monocot tree of life. METHODS: Next-generation sequencing was used to construct complete plastid gene sets for nine taxa of Zingiberales, which were added to five previously sequenced sets in an attempt to resolve deep relationships among families in the order. Variation in taxon sampling, process partition inclusion and partition model parameters were examined to assess their effects on topology and support. KEY RESULTS: Codon-based likelihood analysis identified a strongly supported clade of ((Cannaceae, Marantaceae), (Costaceae, Zingiberaceae)), sister to (Musaceae, (Lowiaceae, Strelitziaceae)), collectively sister to Heliconiaceae. However, the deepest divergences in this phylogenetic analysis comprised short branches with weak support. Additionally, manipulation of matrices resulted in differing deep topologies in an unpredictable fashion. Alternative topology testing allowed statistical rejection of some of the topologies. Saturation fails to explain observed topological uncertainty and low support at the base of Zingiberales. Evidence for conflict among the plastid data was based on a support metric that accounts for conflicting resampled topologies. CONCLUSIONS: Many relationships were resolved with robust support, but the paucity of character information supporting the deepest nodes and the existence of conflict suggest that plastid coding regions are insufficient to resolve and support the earliest divergences among families of Zingiberales. Whole plastomes will continue to be highly useful in plant phylogenetics, but the current study adds to a growing body of literature suggesting that they may not provide enough character information for resolving ancient, rapid radiations.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Plastídeos/genética , Zingiberales/genética , Evolução Biológica , Códon , Gengibre/genética , Modelos Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Zingiberales/classificação
5.
Mol Biol Evol ; 30(11): 2401-22, 2013 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23938867

RESUMO

The diversity of floral forms in the plant order Zingiberales has evolved through alterations in floral organ morphology. One striking alteration is the shift from fertile, filamentous stamens to sterile, laminar (petaloid) organs in the stamen whorls, attributed to specific pollination syndromes. Here, we examine the role of the SEPALLATA (SEP) genes, known to be important in regulatory networks underlying floral development and organ identity, in the evolution of development of the diverse floral organs phenotypes in the Zingiberales. Phylogenetic analyses show that the SEP-like genes have undergone several duplication events giving rise to multiple copies. Selection tests on the SEP-like genes indicate that the two copies of SEP3 have mostly evolved under balancing selection, probably due to strong functional restrictions as a result of their critical role in floral organ specification. In contrast, the two LOFSEP copies have undergone differential positive selection, indicating neofunctionalization. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, gene expression from RNA-seq data, and in situ hybridization analyses show that the recovered genes have differential expression patterns across the various whorls and organ types found in the Zingiberales. Our data also suggest that AGL6, sister to the SEP-like genes, may play an important role in stamen morphology in the Zingiberales. Thus, the SEP-like genes are likely to be involved in some of the unique morphogenetic patterns of floral organ development found among this diverse order of tropical monocots. This work contributes to a growing body of knowledge focused on understanding the role of gene duplications and the evolution of entire gene networks in the evolution of flower development.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Flores/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Duplicação Gênica , Genes de Plantas , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/genética , Flores/genética , Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/genética , Proteínas de Domínio MADS/metabolismo , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Seleção Genética , Zingiberales/crescimento & desenvolvimento
6.
Appl Biochem Biotechnol ; 169(1): 228-38, 2013 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-23179283

RESUMO

Expressed sequence tags (ESTs) databases of 11 Musa complementary DNA libraries were retrieved from National Center of Biotechnology Information and used for mining simple sequence repeats (SSRs). Out of 21,056 unique ESTs, SSR regions were found only in 5,158 ESTs. Among these SSR containing ESTs, the occurrence of trinucleotide repeats are the most abundant followed by mono-, di-, tetra-, hexa-, and pentanucleotides. Moreover, this study showed that the rate of class II SSRs (<20 nucleotides) was higher than the class I SSRs (<20 nucleotides), and proportion of class I and II SSRs as abundant for tri-repeats. As a representative sample, primers were synthesized for 24 ESTs, carrying >12 nucleotides of SSR region, and tested among the various genomic group of Musa accessions. The result showed that 88 % of primers were functional primers, and 43 % are showing polymorphism among the Musa accessions. Transferability studies of Musa EST-SSRs among the genera of the order Zingiberales exhibited 100 and 58 % transferability in Musaceae and Zingiberaceae, respectively. The sequence comparison of SSR regions among the different Musa accessions confirmed that polymorphism is mainly due to the variation in repeat length. High percentage of cross-species, cross-genera, and cross-family transferability also suggested that these Musa EST-SSR markers will be a valuable resource for the comparative mapping by developing COS markers, in evolutionary studies and in improvement of the members of Zingiberaceae and Musaceae.


Assuntos
Etiquetas de Sequências Expressas , Repetições de Microssatélites , Musa/genética , Zingiberales/genética , Sequência de Bases , Primers do DNA/genética , Mineração de Dados , Marcadores Genéticos , Dados de Sequência Molecular , Musa/classificação , Polimorfismo Genético , Zingiberales/classificação
7.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(4): 1507-1515, dic. 2010. ilus, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-638016

RESUMO

Plant biominerals are not always well characterized, although this information is important for plant physiology and can be useful for taxonomic purposes. In this work, fresh plant material of seven wild neotropical species of genus Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C. indica, C. glauca, C. plurituberosa, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina sp. ined., taken from different habitats, were studied to characterize the biominerals in their internal tissues. For the first time, samples from primary and secondary veins of leaves were investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, complemented with X-ray powder diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The spectroscopic results, supported by X-ray powder diffractometry, suggest that the calcium oxalate is present in the form of whewellite (CaC2O4×H2O) in all the investigated samples. It is interesting to emphasize that all IR spectra obtained were strongly similar in all species studied, thus indicating an identical chemical composition in terms of the biominerals found. In this sense, the results suggest that the species of Canna show similar ability to produce biogenic silica and produce an identical type of calcium oxalate within their tissues. These results can be an additional trait to support the relationship among the families of Zingiberales. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (4): 1507-1515. Epub 2010 December 01.


Los biominerales de las plantas no siempre han sido bien caracterizados aunque esta información es importante en fisiología vegetal y puede ser de utilidad para fines taxonómicos. En este trabajo se estudió material vegetal fresco de siete especies silvestres neotropicales: Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C. indica, C. glauca, C. plurituberosa, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina sp. ined., provenientes de diferentes localidades, con el fin de caracterizar los biominerales presentes en sus tejidos foliares internos. Por vez primera, muestras de venas primarias (ejes foliares) y secundarias de hojas de estas especies se investigaron por medio de espectroscopia de infarrojo, complementada con estudios por difracción de rayos X de polvos y microscopía electrónica de barrido. Los resultados indicaron la presencia de ópalo (sílice biogénica) y oxalato de calcio en los tejidos vegetales analizados. Además, se determinó que el oxalato de calcio está presente en forma de whewellita (CaC2O4×H2O), información nueva para el género. Tanto el ópalo como la whewellita están presentes en todas las especies analizadas, que representan aproximadamente un tercio de las especies silvestres del género. La capacidad de biomineralizar SiO2 en forma de ópalo en especies de Canna de diversos ambientes resulta también un rasgo altamente sugerente para futuros estudios.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Zingiberales/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/ultraestrutura
8.
Rev Biol Trop ; 58(1): 63-79, 2010 Mar.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-20411707

RESUMO

The morphology of pollen grains of eight taxa of Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C compacta, C. glauca, C. indica, C. paniculata, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina, an unpublished new species, were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopes. We used the Wodehouse technique on samples of 20 grains per specimen to measure the intine with a light microscope; and the density of spines (in 400 microm2 fields) with scanning electronic microscopy. Pollen grains are spherical, echinate, omniaperturate. The sporoderm presents a very thin exine covering a thicker intine. Corrugate micro-perforate, sub-reticulate, rugate, rugulate, striate to folded, micro-striate, micro-granulate, and smooth types of the external surface of the sporoderm were found. The spines consist of exine, partially to completely covered by tryphine. The two-layered intine is the thicker part of the wall. Echinate ornamentation is a generic character in Canna, but size, surface and color of pollen walls, and density and shape of spines, are diagnostic for species. Pollen morphology supports the view of C. indica and C. coccinea as different species. Canna fuchsina grows in wild, dense colonies, in humid riverside forests from Buenos Aires and Santa Fe Provinces, Argentina; its characters suggest relationships with a not well known group of taxa, some of them hybrids, such as C. x generalis. However, as these plants showed normal, well formed grains, close to those of C. coccinea, that germinate over the stigmatic surfaces in fresh flowers, we decided to include their pollen in this study.


Assuntos
Pólen/anatomia & histologia , Zingiberales/anatomia & histologia , Argentina , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/ultraestrutura
9.
Rev. biol. trop ; 58(1): 63-79, mar. 2010. ilus, tab
Artigo em Espanhol | LILACS | ID: lil-637808

RESUMO

Pollen morphology in species of Canna (Cannaceae), and systematics implications. The morphology of pollen grains of eight taxa of Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C. compacta, C. glauca, C. indica, C. paniculata, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina, an unpublished new species, were studied using light and scanning electronic microscopes. We used the Wodehouse technique on samples of 20 grains per specimen to measure the intine with a light microscope; and the density of spines (in 400μm2 fields) with scanning electronic microscopy. Pollen grains are spherical, echinate, omniaperturate. The sporoderm presents a very thin exine covering a thicker intine. Corrugate micro-perforate, sub-reticulate, rugate, rugulate, striate to folded, micro-striate, micro-granulate, and smooth types of the external surface of the sporoderm were found. The spines consist of exine, partially to completely covered by tryphine. The two-layered intine is the thicker part of the wall. Echinate ornamentation is a generic character in Canna, but size, surface and color of pollen walls, and density and shape of spines, are diagnostic for species. Pollen morphology supports the view of C. indica and C. coccinea as different species. Canna fuchsina grows in wild, dense colonies, in humid riverside forests from Buenos Aires and Santa Fe Provinces, Argentina; its characters suggest relationships with a not well known group of taxa, some of them hybrids, such as C. x generalis. However, as these plants showed normal, well formed grains, close to those of C. coccinea, that germinate over the stigmatic surfaces in fresh flowers, we decided to include their pollen in this study. Rev. Biol. Trop. 58 (1): 63-79. Epub 2010 March 01.


Se estudió la morfología de los granos de polen de ocho táxones de Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C. compacta, C. glauca, C. indica, C. paniculata, C. variegatifolia y C. fuchsina, nueva especie aún no descrita, que fueron estudiadas usando microscopio de luz y microscopio electrónico de barrido. Nosotros utilizamos la técnica de Wodehouse en muestras de 20 granos por espécimen para medir la intina con el microscopio de luz; y la densidad de espinas (en campos de 400μm2) con el microscopio electrσnico de barrido. Los granos de polen son esfιricos, equinados y omniaberturados. El esporodermo presenta una exina muy delgada cubriendo una intina gruesa. La superficie del esporodermo puede ser corrugada, microperforada, sub-reticulada, rugada, rugulada, plegada-estriada, micro-estriada, microgranulada o lisa. Las espinas están formadas por exina, cubiertas total o parcialmente por trifina. La intina esta formada por dos capas, es la parte más gruesa de la pared. La ornamentación equinada es un rasgo genérico en Canna, pero el tamaño, la superficie y el color del polen, y la densidad y forma de las espinas, son rasgos diagnósticos de las especies. La morfología del polen apoya el tratamiento de C. coccinea y C. indica como especies diferentes. Canna fuchsina crece formando densas colonias silvestres en selvas ribereñas húmedas de las provincias de Buenos Aires y Santa Fe, Argentina; sus características sugieren relaciones no muy bien entendidas en el grupo de taxones, algunos son híbridos tales como C. x generalis. Sin embargo, estas plantas muestran granos normales, bien formados, cercanos a los de C. coccinea, que germinan sobre el estigma de flores frescas, nosotros decidimos incluir su polen en este estudio.


Assuntos
Pólen/anatomia & histologia , Zingiberales/anatomia & histologia , Argentina , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Pólen/ultraestrutura , Especificidade da Espécie , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/ultraestrutura
10.
Rev Biol Trop ; 58(4): 1507-15, 2010 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-21247002

RESUMO

Plant biominerals are not always well characterized, although this information is important for plant physiology and can be useful for taxonomic purposes. In this work, fresh plant material of seven wild neotropical species of genus Canna, C. ascendens, C. coccinea, C. indica, C. glauca, C. plurituberosa, C. variegatifolia and C. fuchsina sp. ined., taken from different habitats, were studied to characterize the biominerals in their internal tissues. For the first time, samples from primary and secondary veins of leaves were investigated by means of infrared spectroscopy, complemented with X-ray powder diffractometry and scanning electron microscopy. The spectroscopic results, supported by X-ray powder diffractometry, suggest that the calcium oxalate is present in the form of whewellite (CaC2O4 x H2O) in all the investigated samples. It is interesting to emphasize that all IR spectra obtained were strongly similar in all species studied, thus indicating an identical chemical composition in terms of the biominerals found. In this sense, the results suggest that the species of Canna show similar ability to produce biogenic silica and produce an identical type of calcium oxalate within their tissues. These results can be an additional trait to support the relationship among the families of Zingiberales.


Assuntos
Oxalato de Cálcio/análise , Folhas de Planta/química , Dióxido de Silício/análise , Zingiberales/química , Microscopia Eletrônica de Varredura , Folhas de Planta/ultraestrutura , Espectrofotometria Infravermelho , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/ultraestrutura
11.
Braz J Biol ; 69(2): 289-96, 2009 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-19675929

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Luz Solar , Zingiberales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores , Clima Tropical , Zingiberales/classificação
12.
Braz. j. biol ; 69(2): 289-296, May 2009. graf, tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS | ID: lil-519169

RESUMO

This study aimed to characterize the structure of the herb stratum in relation to light availability in the Submontane Atlantic Rain Forest at the Carlos Botelho State Park, SP, Brazil. Fortyone 10 x10 m plots were established under the closed canopy (18 plots), small and medium canopy gaps (11) and large canopy gaps dominated by Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Inside each plot, the line intercept method was applied to assess soil coverage as an estimate of density of herb stratum vegetation. Hemispherical photographs were taken at the centre of the plots to evaluate the annual light regime. Overall, Calathea communis Wanderley and S. Vieira had the greater mean coverage, followed by woody seedlings, ground ferns and other herbs (mainly, Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae and Cyperaceae). There were strong correlations among several groups of the herb stratum, such as the negative correlations between woody seedlings with the coverage of C. communis and with rocks. The analysis of the hemispherical photographs confirmed the difference among environments that led to significant differences in the soil coverage of the herb stratum vegetation but woody seedlings. For instance, C. communis showed great coverage in large gaps while ferns were more abundant in small and medium gaps and in the understorey. Other herbs, in turn, demonstrated bigger soil coverage in small and medium gaps. Although this study represents a rough assessment of the structure and composition of the herb stratum, the results found here illustrated the evident relation between herb species density and the environmental variation promoted by changes on canopy structure and topography.


O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar a estrutura do estrato herbáceo em relação à disponibilidade de luz na Floresta Pluvial Atlântica Submontana do Parque Estadual Carlos Botelho, SP, Brasil. Para tanto, foram instaladas 41 parcelas de 10 x 10 m em ambientes sob o dossel fechado (18 parcelas), em clareiras pequenas e médias (11), e em clareiras grandes com dominância de Guadua tagoara (Ness) Kunth (12). Em cada parcela a percentagem de cobertura de solo, avaliada através do método de interceptação em linha, foi usada como estimativa da densidade da vegetação do estrato herbáceo. Fotografias hemisféricas foram tomadas ao centro de cada uma das parcelas para avaliar o regime anual de luz nos ambientes. No geral, a maior média obtida foi para Calathea communis Wanderley e S. Vieira, seguida por plântulas de regenerantes lenhosos, pteridófitas terrestres e outras ervas (principalmente Araceae, Acanthaceae, Amaranthaceae e Cyperaceae). Houve ainda fortes correlações entre vários grupos do estrato herbáceo, como as correlações negativas entre plântulas de regenerantes com a cobertura de C. communis e de rochas. A análise das fotografias hemisféricas confirmou a existência de ambientes com diferentes regimes de luz, que promoveram diferenças significativas na cobertura do solo de todos os grupos do estrato herbáceo, exceto para plântulas de regenerantes. Por exemplo, C. communis apresentou grande cobertura nas grandes clareiras, enquanto que as pteridófitas terrestres foram mais abundantes no subbosque e nas clareiras pequenas e médias. O grupo Outras Ervas, por sua vez, apresentou maiores coberturas nas clareiras pequenas e médias. Apesar de representar uma análise grosseira da estrutura e composição, os resultados encontrados aqui ilustraram uma evidente relação entre a densidade de formas de vida herbácea e as variações ambientais promovidas por mudanças na estrutura do dossel da floresta e na topografia.


Assuntos
Ecossistema , Luz Solar , Zingiberales/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Brasil , Estações do Ano , Especificidade da Espécie , Árvores , Clima Tropical , Zingiberales/classificação
13.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 21(3): 333-45, 2001 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11741377

RESUMO

The phylogenetic relationships of Costaceae, a tropical monocotyledonous family sister to the gingers (Zingiberaceae), were investigated with a combination of two chloroplast loci (the trnL-F locus, including the trnL intron, the 3'trnL exon, and the trnL-F intergenic spacer, and the trnK locus, including the trnK intron and the matK coding region) and one nuclear locus (ITS1-5.8s-ITS2). The resulting parsimony analysis of selected taxa that demonstrate the range of floral morphological variation in the family shows that the Cadalvena-type [corrected] floral morphology is ancestral to the group and that both Tapeinochilos species and a Monocostus + Dimerocostus clade represent recent divergences. The genus Costus is broadly paraphyletic but Costus subgenus Eucostus K. Schum. represents a large monophyletic radiation that is poorly resolved. Within this clade, secondary analyses suggest that pollination syndrome, traditionally used for taxonomic and classification purposes within the genus Costus, is a relatively plastic trait of limited phylogenetic utility. This represents the first detailed investigation into intrageneric and interspecific evolutionary relationships within the family Costaceae and presents some novel evolutionary trends with respect to floral morphology and biogeography.


Assuntos
Filogenia , Zingiberales/genética , Cloroplastos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Éxons , Zingiberales/classificação
14.
Syst Biol ; 50(6): 926-44, 2001.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12116641

RESUMO

The Zingiberales are a tropical group of monocotyledons that includes bananas, gingers, and their relatives. The phylogenetic relationships among the eight families currently recognized are investigated here by using parsimony and maximum likelihood analyses of four character sets: morphological features (1), and sequence data of the (2) chloroplast rbcL gene, (3) chloroplast atpB gene, and (4) nuclear 18S rDNA gene. Outgroups for the analyses include the closely related Commelinaceae + Philydraceae + Haemodoraceae + Pontederiaceae + Hanguanaceae as well as seven more distantly related monocots and paleoherbs. Only slightly different estimates of evolutionary relationships result from the analysis of each character set. The morphological data yield a single fully resolved most-parsimonious tree. None of the molecular datasets alone completely resolves interfamilial relationships. The analyses of the combined molecular dataset provide more resolution than do those of individual genes, and the addition of the morphological data provides a well-supported estimate of phylogenetic relationships: (Musaceae ((Strelitziaceae, Lowiaceae) (Heliconiaceae ((Zingiberaceae, Costaceae) (Cannaceae, Marantaceae))))). Evidence from branch lengths in the parsimony analyses and from the fossil record suggests that the Zingiberales originated in the Early Cretaceous and underwent a rapid radiation in the mid-Cretaceous, by which time most extant family lineages had diverged.


Assuntos
Evolução Molecular , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/genética , DNA de Plantas/genética , Bases de Dados Factuais , Bases de Dados Genéticas , Fósseis , Genes de Plantas , Modelos Genéticos , Filogenia , RNA Ribossômico 18S/genética , Ribulose-Bifosfato Carboxilase/genética , Zingiberales/anatomia & histologia
15.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 17(3): 360-6, 2000 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11133190

RESUMO

Banana is one of the most important subtropical crops. The genetic system, however, is relatively unknown and is complicated by specific interhybridization, heterozygosity, and polyploidy, which are common in most clones. These factors make identification of closely related banana cultivars difficult, particularly when sterile. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis using eight primer combinations was carried out on 16 banana cultivars. Results showed that AFLP could be used to distinguish the different cultivars by their unique banding patterns. Unique AFLP molecular markers were detected for 12 banana cultivars, which can be used to develop specific probes for identification purposes. The cluster analysis also revealed the need for a link between genotype studies using molecular techniques and the current system of classification of Musa cultivars based purely on morphological traits.


Assuntos
Impressões Digitais de DNA , Polimorfismo Genético/genética , Zingiberales/classificação , Zingiberales/genética , Primers do DNA , Marcadores Genéticos/genética , Variação Genética/genética , Genótipo , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase
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