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1.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt B): 134684, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36283310

RESUMO

Zein has been widely used as a kind of carrier material for its self-assembly capability, while the mechanism of this process is still elusive. Rutin, one of the flavonoids, has been confirmed as the main ingredient of pigments in jujube peels. In this work, the binding mechanism in the zein/rutin complexes has been systematically studied by using multi-spectroscopic methods and molecular simulations. Results have shown that the encapsulation efficiency of complexes has researched the maximum, 67.30 % ± 1.50 %, when the concentration of rutin is 60 µM. Furthermore, the spherical morphology of complexes has been provided by microstructure characterization. Multi-spectroscopic indicated that a static quenching, alongside strong affinity, occurred in the process of interaction. Hydrophobic interaction has been further proven as the main force in zein/rutin complexes from the results of molecular dynamics simulation. This work is vital to fully utilize zein for the delivery of bio-compounds.


Assuntos
Nanopartículas , Zeína , Ziziphus , Zeína/química , Rutina/química , Ziziphus/metabolismo , Nanopartículas/química , Interações Hidrofóbicas e Hidrofílicas
2.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 90: 106219, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36371874

RESUMO

Pretreatment combined with vacuum freeze-drying is an effective technique to extend the storage period of jujube fruits and reduce energy consumption and cost; however, the effects of pretreatment on the quality characteristics of jujube during vacuum freeze-drying remain unknown. In this study, the effects of cold plasma (CP), high hydrostatic pressure (HHP), ultrasound (US), high-pressure carbon dioxide (HPCD), and conventional blanching (BC) as pretreatments on the performance of vacuum freeze-dried jujube slices were investigated. The results indicated that the application of different pretreatments decreased the water activity and increased the rehydration capacity, owing to the pretreatment etching larger and more porous holes in the microstructure. Freeze-dried jujube slices pretreated with HPCD retained most of their quality characteristics (color, hardness, and volatile compounds), followed by the HHP- and US-pretreated samples, whereas samples pretreated with BC showed the greatest deterioration in quality characteristics, and hence, BC is not recommended as a pretreatment for freeze-dried jujube slices. Sensory evaluation based on hedonic analysis showed that jujube slices pretreated with HPCD and US were close to the control sample and scored highest. Compared to other pretreated samples and the control, freeze-dried jujube slices pretreated with HPCD showed the least degradation (4.93%) of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), the highest contents of total phenol, total flavonoid, and l-ascorbic acid, and the highest antioxidant capacity. Partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) was performed to screen all the quality characteristic data of different pretreated samples, and 12 volatile compounds, including ethyl hexanoate and (E)-2-hexenal, along with color, l-ascorbic acid content, and cAMP content were found suitable to be used as discriminators for pretreated freeze-dried jujube slices. Therefore, non-thermal pretreatments, including HPCD, US, and HHP pretreatments, are promising techniques for the vacuum freeze-drying of jujube products.


Assuntos
Gases em Plasma , Ziziphus , Frutas/química , Dióxido de Carbono , Pressão Hidrostática , Dessecação/métodos , Cor , Ácido Ascórbico/análise
3.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(22)2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36430653

RESUMO

Sleep is an essential component of quality of life. The majority of people experience sleep problems that impact their quality of life. Melatonin is currently a representative sleep aid. However, it is classified as a prescription drug in most countries, and consumers cannot purchase it to improve their sleep. This sleep induction experiment in mice aimed to identify a natural combination product (NCP) that can create synergistic sleep-promoting effects. Based on the mechanism of action of sleep, we investigated whether phenomenological indicators of sleep quality change according to the intake of NCP. The sleep onset and sleep time of the mice that consumed the NCP found by this study were improved compared to the existing sleep aids. The mean melatonin level in the blood increased by 197% compared to the control. To our knowledge, this is the first study to demonstrate that Rosa multiflora Thunb. (Yeongsil) can promote sleep similarly to Zizyphus jujuba Miller (Sanjoin). The results indicate a preclinical study of NCPs containing Rosa multiflora Thunb and Zizyphus jujuba Miller developed by us showed significant differences in sleep incubation and duration depending on melatonin concentrations. Our results also suggest that increased melatonin concentrations in the blood are likely to improve sleep quality, especially regarding incubation periods.


Assuntos
Anestesia , Melatonina , Rosa , Ziziphus , Camundongos , Animais , Melatonina/farmacologia , Qualidade do Sono , Qualidade de Vida
4.
Food Res Int ; 161: 111826, 2022 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36192894

RESUMO

This study evaluated the effects of coatings with juá mucilage (JM), juá mucilage incorporated with phenolic extract from juá (JMPE), and juá mucilage with gum arabic (JM-GA) on quality parameters, bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity of fresh-cut pineapple during 9 days at 5 ± 1 °C. JM and JMPE coatings were effective in reducing enzymatic activity, consequently reducing changes in fruit color compared to uncoated fresh-cut pineapple (C). JM coating was more efficient in reducing metabolic activity with the lowest conversion of sugars into glucose, fructose and organic acids. In addition, JMPE coating showed the highest retention of phenolics. On the other hand, JM had a minor reduction in antioxidant activity in FRAP (39.55 %) and ORAC (33.46 %) assay compared to other coatings (p ≤ 0.05). Findings indicate that JM and JMPE are promising for application to preserve the overall quality and to extend the shelf life of fresh-cut pineapple.


Assuntos
Ananas , Ziziphus , Antioxidantes/análise , Conservação de Alimentos , Frutose , Glucose , Goma Arábica , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais , Açúcares
5.
BMC Genomics ; 23(1): 692, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36203136

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Plant-specific BURP domain-containing genes are involved in plant development and stress responses. However, the role of BURP family in jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) has not been investigated. RESULTS: In this study, 17 BURP genes belonging to four subfamilies were identified in jujube based on homology analysis, gene structures, and conserved motif confirmation. Gene duplication analysis indicated both tandem duplication and segmental duplication had contributed to ZjBURP expansion. The ZjBURPs were extensively expressed in flowers, young fruits, and jujube leaves. Transcriptomic data and qRT-PCR analysis further revealed that ZjBURPs also significantly influence fruit development, and most genes could be induced by low temperature, salinity, and drought stresses. Notably, several BURP genes significantly altered expression in response to low temperature (ZjPG1) and drought stresses (ZjBNM7, ZjBNM8, and ZjBNM9). CONCLUSIONS: These results provided insights into the possible roles of ZjBURPs in jujube development and stress response. These findings would help selecting candidate ZjBURP genes for cold- and drought-tolerant jujube breeding.


Assuntos
Ziziphus , Secas , Frutas , Filogenia , Melhoramento Vegetal , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Temperatura
6.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 222(Pt A): 1063-1077, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36181883

RESUMO

The formulation of new bionanocomposite (BNC) films using whey protein isolates (WPI, 3.3-11.7 %)-jujube polysaccharide (JPS, 1.59-18.41 %)/starch nanocrystals (SNCs, 0.32-3.68 %) blends was optimized. The ultrasound-assisted acid hydrolysis produced ~63.1 nm SNCs from native starch with -24.3 mV ζ-potential. The extracted JPS purification led to a single symmetrical peak for galactoarabinan-rich fraction (1.35 × 105 Da). The optimal levels of barrier (oxygen (11.85 cm3 m-2 d-1 atm-1) and water vapor (3.22 × 10-10 g m-1 s-1 Pa-1) permeability rate), optical (opacity index (2.7 AU µm-1), total color difference (18.69), and whiteness index (77.40)), and thermal (glass transition temperature (-8.29 °C) and melting point (110.38 °C)) properties were obtained at 5.0 % WPI, 15.0 % JPS, and 3.0 % SNCs. The film-forming solution of optimal BNCs had a significant antibacterial effect against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The improved crystallinity of BNCs at an optimal SNC level was confirmed by the X-ray diffraction (XRD). The field emission-scanning electron (FE-SEM) and atomic force (AFM) microscopy images confirmed a continuous and uniform network for the optimal BNCs without any pores or cracks accompanied by low surface roughness. The FTIR spectroscopy proved covalent interaction and hydrogen bonding among chemical functional groups of WPI and JPS reinforced with SNCs. The optimal BNC could preserve banana fruits with favorable physicochemical and microbial quality during storage.


Assuntos
Musa , Nanocompostos , Nanopartículas , Ziziphus , Amido/química , Proteínas do Soro do Leite/química , Frutas , Nanocompostos/química , Polissacarídeos , Nanopartículas/química , Permeabilidade , Expectativa de Vida
7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 222(Pt A): 285-294, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36150569

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a traditional popular fruit widely grown in China. The volatiles in jujube determine its unique flavor and the high fruit quality required by consumers. However, the biosynthesis of volatiles in jujube were remain unknown. By using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, there were 46 volatile compounds were identified and determined from three representative jujube fruit types at six developmental stages, including the dry-used (Z. jujuba cv. 'Junzao'), the fresh-used (Z. jujuba cv. 'Dongzao'), and wild jujube (Z. jujuba var. spinosa Hu. cv. 'Qingjiansuanzao'). The aldehydes were identified as major volatile contributors to flavor, of which (E)-2-hexenal was the primary volatile in jujube fruit. Then LOX and HPL gene family were identified in jujube, which were involved in aldehyde biosynthesis through the lipoxygenase-hydroperoxide lyase (LOX-HPL) pathway. Gene expression analysis suggested that ZjLOX3, ZjLOX4, and ZjHPL1 were highly correlated with the accumulation of (E)-2-hexenal, and their proteins were localized to the nucleus and cytoplasm. Transient over-expression of ZjLOX3, ZjLOX4, and ZjHPL1 in jujube fruit significantly enhanced the accumulation of (E)-2-hexenal. Our study provides valuable information on the major volatiles and their biosynthesis in different types of jujube fruit. These results will help determine flavor improvements for future breeding.


Assuntos
Melhoramento Vegetal , Ziziphus , Ziziphus/genética , Ziziphus/química , Aldeídos/análise , Frutas/genética , Frutas/química
8.
Poult Sci ; 101(10): 102072, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36055020

RESUMO

The main objective of this study was to explore the effects of dietary selenium yeast and jujube powder on mitochondrial oxidative damage and cell apoptosis of broilers during postmortem aging, chicken breasts of broilers fed diets supplemented with different concentrations of selenium yeast and jujube powder were used as research subjects. With the prolongation of postmortem aging time, the levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), carbonyl content, mitochondrial permeability transition pore (MPTP) openness, and mitochondrial membrane permeability increased significantly (P < 0.05). The contents of the sulfhydryl, mitochondrial membrane potential, shear force, and cytochrome C (Cyt-c) reduction level decreased significantly (P < 0.05). The activity of Caspase-3 and Caspase-9 increased from 0 to 24 h postmortem but fell from 24 to 72 h postmortem. Compared with the control group, dietary selenium yeast and jujube powder significantly reduced mitochondrial oxidative damage. They greatly increased the shear force, mitochondrial membrane potential, and Cyt-c reduction levels (P < 0.05). Among them, the combination group of high-dose selenium yeast and jujube powder had more significant effects on ROS scavenging, reducing cell membrane permeability, protecting cell membrane integrity, and increasing Cyt-c reduction level (P < 0.05). In conclusion, cell apoptosis intensifies during the chicken breast's aging time, and muscle tenderness continues. Still, different doses of dietary selenium yeast and jujube powder can inhibit mitochondrial oxidation to various degrees. The combined group of selenium yeast and jujube powder with 0.6 mg·kg-1 has the best effect. This study is of great significance for applying natural antioxidant ingredients such as selenium yeast and jujube powder in the development and utilization of poultry feed.


Assuntos
Selênio , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Apoptose , Caspase 3/metabolismo , Caspase 9/metabolismo , Caspase 9/farmacologia , Galinhas , Citocromos c/metabolismo , Citocromos c/farmacologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Poro de Transição de Permeabilidade Mitocondrial , Estresse Oxidativo , Pós/farmacologia , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Selênio/metabolismo , Selênio/farmacologia , Ziziphus/metabolismo
9.
Food Chem ; 397: 133788, 2022 Dec 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35933749

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) treatment (0, control; 3 mmol L-1) on the antioxidant and hormone levels of winter jujube during shelf life (20 d) at 4 °C. The results showed that 3 mmol L-1 SA treatment preferably maintained firmness, color, titratable acidity, and total soluble solids, and effectively reduced the respiratory intensity and TSS/TA value (13.08%) of the fruit. Compared with the control group, the SA group had a higher content of sucrose (14.03%) and malic acid (29.13%). Meanwhile, SA reduced the accumulation of H2O2 (27.73%) and O2- (45.44%) by enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase, peroxidase, catalase, ascorbate peroxidase) and the content of antioxidant substances (ascorbic acid, total phenols, total flavonoids, and glutathione) in the fruit. In addition, 3 mmol L-1 SA treatment led to higher levels of endogenous abscisic acid (18.49%) and SA (20.47%) in fruit, and lower concentration of jasmonic acid (42.68%), but had a weak effect on indole acetic acid levels.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , Ziziphus , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Frutas , Hormônios , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/farmacologia , Ácido Salicílico/farmacologia
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 379: 109866, 2022 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35944358

RESUMO

Microbial antagonists are effective and environmentally friendly in controlling postharvest diseases of fruit. The present study investigated the influence of D. nepalensis on epiphytic microbiome and postharvest decay of jujube. Results showed that D. nepalensis notably reduced fungal decay, maintained the fruit firmness and delayed discoloration. The epiphytic microbiome revealed that D. nepalensis changed the fungal communities, but few influence on bacterial communities were observed. D. nepalensis, as the dominant population in the treatment group, decreased the abundance of pathogenic fungi of Alternaria, Penicillium, Fusarium and Botrytis, while increased the beneficial bacteria of Pantoea. The canonical correspondence analysis revealed that Debaryomyces was negatively correlated with the decay rate, whereas Penicillium, Acremonium, Rhodosporidiobolus and Hansfordia were positively correlated. In conclusion, D. nepalensis altered the successional process of fungal and bacterial communities to reduce the decay rate of jujube during storage.


Assuntos
Microbiota , Penicillium , Ziziphus , Alternaria , Bactérias , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/microbiologia , Saccharomycetales , Ziziphus/microbiologia
11.
J Food Sci ; 87(9): 3752-3765, 2022 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35988146

RESUMO

Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and sour jujube (Ziziphus spinosa Hu.) fruits have health benefits because they contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. However, differences in the flavonoid metabolites of these two fruits remain unclear. We determined the flavonoids present in Z. jujuba cv. Hupingzao (HPZ) and Z. spinosa cv. Taigusuanzao (TGSZ) from two different harvest periods fruits: HPZ white period (HW) and HPZ red period (HR) as well as TGSZ white period (SW) and TGSZ red period (SR). We identified 123 flavonoid metabolites: 40 flavonols, 37 flavones, 12 anthocyanins, 9 dihydroflavones, 8 flavanols, 7 flavonoid carbonosides, 5 dihydroflavonols, 3 isoflavones, and 2 chalcones. The total flavonoid content of both HPZ and TGSZ decreased with fruit development and was significantly higher in TGSZ than in HPZ fruits. Moreover, we detected 63, 81, 56, and 63 differential flavonoid metabolites (DFMs) between HW and HR (two upregulated and 61 downregulated), SW and SR (four upregulated and 77 downregulated), HW and SW (54 upregulated and two downregulated), and HR and SR (62 upregulated and one downregulated), respectively. KEGG pathway annotation and enrichment analysis showed that 22 DFMs were annotated seven relevant metabolic pathways, among which flavonoid biosynthesis pathway and secondary metabolites biosynthesis pathway were the main pathways, and flavanols were the primary metabolites that influenced the difference in flavonoid accumulation between the fruits. To our knowledge, this is the first study to reveal the differences in flavonoid metabolism between Chinese jujube and sour jujube. Our findings may facilitate the comprehensive use of functional flavonoids. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) and sour jujube (Ziziphus spinosa Hu.) fruits have health benefits because they contain bioactive compounds such as flavonoids. However, differences in the flavonoid metabolites of these two fruits remain unclear. We determined the flavonoids present in Z. jujuba cv. Hupingzao (HPZ) and Z. spinosa cv. Taigusuanzao (TGSZ) from two different harvest periods. Our findings may facilitate the comprehensive use and product research of functional flavonoids of jujube.


Assuntos
Chalconas , Flavonas , Isoflavonas , Ziziphus , Antocianinas/metabolismo , China , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Flavonóis/metabolismo , Frutas/metabolismo , Isoflavonas/metabolismo , Metabolômica , Extratos Vegetais
12.
Plant Physiol Biochem ; 189: 14-23, 2022 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36030619

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a popular fruit with health benefits ascribed to its various metabolites. These metabolites determine the flavors and bioactivities of the fruit, as well as their desirability. However, the dynamics of the metabolite composition and the underlying gene expression that modulate the overall flavor and accumulation of active ingredients during fruit development remain largely unknown. Therefore, we conducted an integrated metabolomic and transcriptomic investigation covering various developmental stages in the jujube cultivar Z. jujuba cv. Jinsixiaozao, which is famous for its nutritional and bioactive properties. A total of 407 metabolites were detected by non-targeted metabolomics. Metabolite accumulation during different jujube developmental stages was examined. Most nucleotides and amino acids and their derivatives accumulated during development, with cAMP increasing notably during ripening. Triterpenes gradually accumulated and were maintained at high concentrations during ripening. Many flavonoids were maintained at relatively high levels in early development, but then rapidly decreased later. Transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses revealed that chalcone synthase (CHS), chalcone isomerase (CHI), flavonol synthase (FLS), and dihydroflavonol 4-reductase (DFR) were mainly responsible for regulating the accumulation of flavonoids. Therefore, the extensive downregulation of these genes was probably responsible for the decreases in flavonoid content during fruit ripening. This study provide an overview of changes of active components in 'Jinsixiaozao' during development and ripening. These findings enhance our understanding of flavor formation and will facilitate jujube breeding for improving both nutrition and function.


Assuntos
Triterpenos , Ziziphus , Aminoácidos/metabolismo , Flavonoides/metabolismo , Frutas , Nucleotídeos/análise , Nucleotídeos/metabolismo , Oxirredutases/metabolismo , Melhoramento Vegetal , Transcriptoma , Triterpenos/metabolismo , Ziziphus/genética
13.
Phytochemistry ; 203: 113391, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36007667

RESUMO

The productions of cryptic metabolites including three undescribed drimane sesquiterpenoids, penicichrins A-C, and three known compounds from Penicillium chrysogenum were activated by the host Ziziphus jujuba medium. The structures were established by comprehensive analysis of spectroscopic data. The spiro ß-lactone, and gem-dimethyl dihydroxylation in induced penicichrins A-C were rare in natural products. Cryptic metabolites, monaspurpurone was first found in Penicillium. 4-Methoxy-3-methylgoniothalamin, and 2-hydroxy-l-phenyl-l,4-pentanedione were second example of isolation. Penicichrin A, monaspurpurone, 4-methoxy-3-methylgoniothalamin, physcion, ergosterol, and ergosta-7,22-dien-3ß-ol had antifungal activities against phytopathogens, P. chrysogenum, Alternaria alternata and Aspergillus fumigatus with MICs ≤2 µg/mL, and 2-hydroxy-l-phenyl-l,4-pentanedione had flowering activity. So the chemical constituents from Z. jujuba could induce the productions of cryptic metabolites with plant growth-promoting activity from endophyte P. chrysogenum.


Assuntos
Produtos Biológicos , Penicillium chrysogenum , Ziziphus , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Ergosterol , Lactonas , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química
14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011920

RESUMO

In the present study, winter jujube organs including fruit, fruiting leaf and foliage leaf, and associated soils in 14 typical orchards in Binzhou City, Shandong Province, China were collected and determined for the mass fractions of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd. The mass fractions of Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, and Cd in plant tissues generally showed an order of Cu > Zn > Ni > Co > Cd as well as those in the soils decreased as Zn > Cu > Ni > Co > Cd. The values of single factor index and Nemerow pollution index suggested the jujube fruits were not polluted by heavy metals. Values of estimated daily intake for all the elements were far below their associated acceptable reference values, indicating no health risks would be caused by a single trace element. The results of targeted hazard quotient (THQ) of the metals in the fruits decreased as Cu > Ni > Zn > Cd accompanying total THQ (TTHQ) lower than 1 showing no hazard would be caused by those metals. Correlation analysis showed soil might not be the main source of heavy metals in winter jujube organs. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for Co, Ni, Zn and Cd in fruits and leaves were far below 1 suggesting their low bioavailablities. The relatively great BAFs of Cu in the leaves might be due to the application of fertilizers and pesticides containing great amounts of Cu through soil and foliar spraying. To sum up, heavy metals tended not to be a major threat to winter jujube cultivation, and winter jujube had great edible safety.


Assuntos
Metais Pesados , Poluentes do Solo , Ziziphus , Cádmio , China , Monitoramento Ambiental/métodos , Metais Pesados/análise , Medição de Risco , Rios , Solo , Poluentes do Solo/análise , Zinco
15.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 13372, 2022 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35927453

RESUMO

The ecological environment of the hilly and gully area of the Loess Plateau in northern Shaanxi is fragile and the soil fertility is low. As a result, the yield and quality of Pear-jujube which constitute one of the dominant economic forests in this region, have been severely restricted. At present, the scientific application of fertilizer is important for comprehensively improving the quality of fruit trees, and for devising the optimal management of fruit trees. In particular, the application of organic fertilizers plays an important role in improving soil and improving fruit quality. In this experiment, a field study was conducted to understand the effects of different organic fertilizer applications on physiological growth, photosynthetic characteristics, reproductive growth and nutritional quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau. The results showed that organic fertilizer significantly promoted the physiological growth of Pear-jujube. The Pear-jujube bearing branch and leaf area under the soybean cake fertilizer (SC) treatment were 20.17 cm and 1246 mm2/leaf, respectively, which are increased by 34% and 44.46% compared with the no fertilizer treatment, which was a control check (CK). The total chlorophyll content of fertilization treatment was significantly higher than that of CK (P < 0.05). The maximum of chlorophyll content was 10.90 mg/dm2 under the biogas fertilizer (BM). The content of LAI was in the order BM > conventional fertilizer (CF) > sheep manure (SM) > SC > CK. The changing trend of gap fraction was opposite to that of LAI, and the density of light was consistent with that of LAI. The density of light BM was the largest, reached 38.06 mol/(m2 d), which was 15.13% higher than that of CK. Organic fertilizer significantly improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn) and water use efficiency (WUEp) of Pear-jujube. The WUEp of SC was up to 3.30%. Organic fertilizer significantly promoted the reproductive growth and improved the nutritional quality of Pear-jujube. The yield under the SC was 19,177 kg/hm2, increased by 138.5% compared with that of CK. The fruit water content (FWC), total soluble solids (TSS), solid-acid ratio (TSS/TA), Vc and total flavonoids content improved, and the maxima of FWC, TSS, TSS/TA, Vc and total flavonoids content under the SC treatment were 86.30%, 18.48%, 40.17, 46.18 mg/kg and 14.35 mg/kg, respectively, which were significantly different from those of CK (P < 0.05). Organic fertilization effectively promotes the growth, development, yield and fruit quality of Pear-jujube in the Loess Plateau and the effect of the soybean cake fertilizer is the most significant.


Assuntos
Pyrus , Ziziphus , Agricultura/métodos , Animais , China , Clorofila , Fertilizantes , Flavonoides , Florestas , Frutas , Nitrogênio , Ovinos , Solo , Água
16.
Metab Brain Dis ; 37(8): 2995-3009, 2022 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35922734

RESUMO

Pharmacological treatments against Alzheimer disease provide only symptomatic relief and are associated with numerous side effects. Previous studies showed that a concoction of Ziziphus jujuba leaves possesses anti-amnesic effects in scopolamine-treated rats. More recently, an aqueous macerate of Z. jujuba leaves has been shown to reduce short-term memory impairment in D-galactose-treated rats. However, no study on the effect of an aqueous macerate of Z. jujuba on long-term memory impairment was performed. Therefore, this study evaluates the effect of an aqueous macerate of Z. jujuba on long-term spatial memory impairment in D-galactose-treated rats. Long-term spatial memory impairment was induced in rats by administering D-galactose (350 mg/kg/day, s.c.), once dailyfor 21 days. On the 22nd day, the integrity of this memory was assessed using the Morris water maze task. Rats that developed memory impairment were treated with tacrine (10 mg/kg, p.o.), or aspirin (20 mg/kg, p.o.), or extract (41.5, 83, and 166 mg/kg, p.o.), once daily, for 14 days. At the end of the treatment, memory impairment was once more assessed using the same paradigm. Animals were then euthanized, and some pro-inflammatory cytokine markers were analyzed in the hippocampus or blood. The extract at all doses significantly reduced the latency to attain the platforming of the water maze test. The extract (83 mg/kg) also increased the time spent in the target quadrant during the retention phase. The extract markedly reduced the concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine markers in the hippocampus and blood. Together, these results suggest that this aqueous extract Z. jujuba reduces long-term spatial memory impairment. This effect may be mediated in part by its anti-inflammatory activity.


Assuntos
Ziziphus , Ratos , Animais , Galactose/toxicidade , Memória Espacial , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Amnésia/tratamento farmacológico , Transtornos da Memória/induzido quimicamente , Transtornos da Memória/tratamento farmacológico , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Citocinas , Aprendizagem em Labirinto
17.
Molecules ; 27(13)2022 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35807485

RESUMO

Ziziphus nummularia, a small bush of the Rhamnaceae family, has been widely used in traditional folk medicine, is rich in bioactive molecules, and has many reported pharmacological and therapeutic properties. Objective: To gather the current knowledge related to the medicinal characteristics of Z. nummularia. Specifically, its phytochemical contents and pharmacological activities in the treatment of various diseases such as cancer, diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases, are discussed. Methods: Major scientific literature databases, including PubMed, Scopus, ScienceDirect, SciFinder, Chemical Abstracts, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Abstracts, Henriette's Herbal Homepage, Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases, were searched to retrieve articles related to the review subject. General web searches using Google and Google scholar were also utilized. The search period covered articles published between 1980 and the end of October 2021.The search used the keywords 'Ziziphus nummularia', AND ('phytochemical content', 'pharmacological properties, or activities, or effects, or roles', 'anti-inflammatory', 'anti-drought', 'anti-thermal', 'anthelmintic', 'antidiabetic',' anticancer', 'anticholinesterase', 'antimicrobial', 'sedative', 'antipyretic', 'analgesic', or 'gastrointestinal'). Results: This plant is rich in characteristic alkaloids, especially cyclopeptide alkaloids such as nummularine-M. Other phytochemicals, including flavonoids, saponins, glycosides, tannins, and phenolic compounds, are also present. These phytochemicals are responsible for the reported pharmacological properties of Z. nummularia, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, anthelmintic, antidiabetic, anticancer, analgesic, and gastrointestinal activities. In addition, Z. nummularia has anti-drought and anti-thermal characteristics. Conclusion: Research into the phytochemical and pharmacological properties of Z. nummularia has demonstrated that this plant is a rich source of novel bioactive compounds. So far, Z. nummularia has shown a varied pharmacological profile (antioxidant, anticancer, anti-inflammatory, and cardioprotective), warranting further research to uncover the therapeutic potential of the bioactives of this plant. Taken together, Z. nummularia may represent a new potential target for the discovery of new drug leads.


Assuntos
Alcaloides , Ziziphus , Antioxidantes , Etnofarmacologia , Medicina Tradicional , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Compostos Fitoquímicos/uso terapêutico , Fitoterapia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química
18.
Biomed Chromatogr ; 36(10): e5444, 2022 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35792558

RESUMO

Through field trials and residue analysis, the dissipation behaviour and final residue levels of sodium nitrophenol on jujube were clarified to provide a basis for its safe application and the development of maximum residue limits. The samples were extracted with acetonitrile, cleaned up by a hydrophilic-lipophilic balanced solid-phase extraction column, determined by ultra-high LC-tandem mass spectrometry and quantified by the external standard method. The mean recoveries of sodium 5-nitroguaiacolate, sodium o-nitrophenol and sodium p-nitrophenol were 88.9%-103.8%, with relative standard deviations less than 13.6% at 0.002-0.2 mg/kg spiked levels. Sodium nitrophenol in jujube was dissipated according to the first-order kinetic equation with half-lives of 12.7-17.4 days. At a harvesting interval of 7 days, the residues of sodium nitrophenol in jujube were lower than the limit of 0.03 mg/kg established by the European Food Safety Authority. Residues of jujube were acceptable at a harvest interval of 7 days when sodium nitrophenol was sprayed twice at 9.0 mg/kg with an interval of 7 days. Therefore, the safety interval for sodium nitrophenol application on jujube can be set as 7 days.


Assuntos
Resíduos de Praguicidas , Ziziphus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida/métodos , Nitrofenóis/análise , Resíduos de Praguicidas/análise , Sódio/análise , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem/métodos
19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35849979

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) is a traditional Chinese medicine used for sedation and hypnosis. Preliminary studies have shown that frying it could increase its sedative and hypnotic effects due to an increase in its chemical contents. However, the correlation between increased ZSS contents and therapeutic effects remains unclear. This study aimed to identify chemical components that change between ZSS and Fried Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (FZSS) and Q-markers related to these changed components' sedative and hypnotic effects. Differences between ZSS and FZSS were investigated using the UPLC fingerprint analysis. Components significantly different between ZSS and FZSS were screened using the UPLC-Q-TOF-MS analysis combined with a multivariate statistical method. In addition, ZSS and FZSS extracts were treated with diazepam in vitro to observe their differences in saturation competition between ZSS extract and diazepam, before and after processing, and diazepam on the GABA receptor in SD rats' brain tissue. Then, the chemical components of ZSS and FZSS that competed with diazepam to bind to the GABA receptor were identified by LC-MS/MS analysis. Finally, the binding efficiency of the different medicinal components was assessed using molecular docking technology. The results indicated significant differences in the content of various chemical components between ZSS and FZSS. Among them, the contents of adenosine, spinosin, 6'″-feruloylspinosin, jujuboside A and betulinic acid were found to be significantly increased after frying. LC-MS/MS and molecular docking analysis screened spinosin, 6'″-feruloylspinosin and betulinic acid as Q markers for the sedative and hypnotic effects of ZSS and FZSS. In summary, this study identified the changed sedative-hypnotic chemical components and Q-markers of ZSS before and after frying.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Ziziphus , Animais , Biomarcadores , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Cromatografia Líquida , Diazepam , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/química , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/farmacologia , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Simulação de Acoplamento Molecular , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de GABA , Sementes , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ziziphus/química
20.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 29(59): 89772-89787, 2022 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35859234

RESUMO

In the current work, various concentrations of the aqueous extract of Ziziphus spina-christi were employed for the phytoreduction of graphene oxide (GO). The green synthesized reduced graphene oxide (rGO) was characterized through UV-Vis spectrometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) denoted the presence of numerous phytoconstituents including ketones, terpenoids, fatty acids, esters, and flavonoids, which acted as reducing and capping agents. The obtained results indicated the increase in rGO yield and shape with increasing the extract concentration. The optimized rGO was instantaneously ~100% removed methylene blue (MB) from the water at 5 mg L-1. However, the removal efficiency was slightly declined to reach 73.55 and 65.1% at 10 and 15 mg L-1, respectively. A powerful antibacterial activity for rGO particularly against gram-negative bacteria with a high concentration of 2 × 108 CFU mL-1 was confirmed. Furthermore, rGO demonstrated promising and comparable antioxidant efficiency with vitamin C against DPPH free radical scavenging. While vitamin C recorded 13.45 and 48.4%, the optimized rGO attained 13.30 and 45.20% at 12 and 50 µg mL-1, respectively.


Assuntos
Grafite , Nanopartículas Metálicas , Ziziphus , Antioxidantes , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Grafite/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ácido Ascórbico , Difração de Raios X , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química
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