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1.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 46(3): 620-629, 2021 Feb.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645028

RESUMO

In this study, the antioxidant property changes in fermented Ziziphi Spinosae Semen(FZSS) with Poria cocos were analyzed by DPPH, ABTS and FRAP methods. Then the content determination of active ingredients and ~1H nuclear magnetic resonance(~1H-NMR) spectroscopy were also used to investigate the mechanism of FZSS with P. cocos in enhancing the antioxidant activity. The results showed that the content of active ingredients such as total phenols, total saponins and total polysaccharides were significantly increased during the fermentation time. The results of ~1H-NMR metabonomics showed that the contents of amino acids such as leucine, lysine, valine and alanine, nitrogen compounds such as creatine, creatinine, and betaine, and secondary metabolites, for instance, jujuboside A and spinosin were higher after fermentation, and above components showed positive correlation with antioxidant capacity in Pearson correlation analysis. Therefore, it was inferred that the enhancement of antioxidant activity of FZSS may be the result of the joint action of various chemical components. This study preliminarily clarified the mechanism of FZSS in enhancing the antioxidant activity, and provided new research ideas for the product development and utilization of FZSS.


Assuntos
Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas , Poria , Wolfiporia , Ziziphus , Antioxidantes , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Sêmen
2.
Molecules ; 26(5)2021 Feb 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33669142

RESUMO

Water-soluble fluorescent carbon dots (CDs) were synthesized by a hydrothermal method using citric acid as the carbon source and ethylenediamine as the nitrogen source. The repeated and scale-up synthetic experiments were carried out to explore the feasibility of macroscopic preparation of CDs. The CDs/Fe3+ composite was prepared by the interaction of the CDs solution and Fe3+ solution. The optical properties, pH dependence and stability behavior of CDs or the CDs/Fe3+ composite were studied by ultraviolet spectroscopy and fluorescence spectroscopy. Following the principles of fluorescence quenching after the addition of Fe3+ and then the fluorescence recovery after the addition of asorbic acid, the fluorescence intensity of the carbon dots was measured at λex = 360 nm, λem = 460 nm. The content of ascorbic acid was calculated by quantitative analysis of the changing fluorescence intensity. The CDs/Fe3+ composite was applied to the determination of different active molecules, and it was found that the composite had specific recognition of ascorbic acid and showed an excellent linear relationship in 5.0-350.0 µmol·L-1. Moreover, the detection limit was 3.11 µmol·L-1. Satisfactory results were achieved when the method was applied to the ascorbic acid determination in jujube fruit. The fluorescent carbon dots composites prepared in this study may have broad application prospects in a rapid, sensitive and trace determination of ascorbic acid content during food processing.


Assuntos
Ácido Ascórbico/análise , Carbono/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/química , Pontos Quânticos/química , Corantes Fluorescentes/síntese química , Frutas/química , Ziziphus/química
3.
Zootaxa ; 4942(2): zootaxa.4942.2.6, 2021 Mar 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757068

RESUMO

Two new species of Metatarsonemus Attiah, 1970 (Acari: Heterostigmatina: Tarsonemidae), M. badurkani Karmakar Mondal sp. nov. and M. shirishi Karmakar Mondal sp. nov., are described based on specimens collected from Ziziphus jujubae (Rhamnaceae), Lagerstroemia speciosa (Lythraceae), Piper betle (Piperaceae) and Albizia lebbeck (Leguminosae) in West Bengal, India. A larval description of M. shirishi and a dichotomous key to the species of Metatarsonemus are provided.


Assuntos
Ácaros e Carrapatos , Rhamnaceae , Ziziphus , Animais , Índia , Larva
4.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1237-1240, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33560459

RESUMO

Aplosporella javeedii is a pathogenic fungus that causes canker and dieback of jujube in China. In this study, we report a new mycovirus, Aplosporella javeedii partitivirus 1 (AjPV1), isolated from A. javeedii strain NX55-3. The AjPV1 genome contains two double-stranded RNA elements (dsRNA1 and dsRNA2). The size of dsRNA1 is 2,360 bp, and it encodes a putative RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), while dsRNA2 is 2,301 bp in length and encodes a putative capsid protein (CP). The sequences of RdRp and CP have significant similarity to those of members of the family Partitiviridae. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis showed that AjPV1 is a new member of the family Partitiviridae that is related to members of the genus Betapartitivirus. To our knowledge, AjPV1 is the first mycovirus reported from A. javeedii.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos/virologia , Micovírus/genética , Doenças das Plantas/microbiologia , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Sequência de Bases , /isolamento & purificação , Micovírus/classificação , Micovírus/isolamento & purificação , Genoma Viral/genética , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , RNA Viral/genética , Proteínas Virais/genética , Ziziphus/microbiologia , Ziziphus/virologia
5.
Am J Bot ; 108(2): 236-248, 2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33586136

RESUMO

PREMISE: Water is the most limiting factor in dryland ecosystems, and plants are adapted to cope with this constraint. Particularly vulnerable are phreatophytic plants from groundwater-dependent ecosystems (GDEs) in regions that have to face water regime alterations due to the impacts of climate and land-use changes. METHODS: We investigated two aspects related to the water-use strategy of a keystone species that dominates one of the few terrestrial GDEs in European drylands (Ziziphus lotus): where it obtains water and how it regulates its use. We (1) evaluated plants' water sources and use patterns using a multiple-isotope approach (δ2 H, δ18 O, and Δ13 C); (2) assessed the regulation of plant water potential by characterizing the species on an isohydric-anisohydric continuum; and (3) evaluated plants' response to increasing water stress along a depth-to-groundwater (DTGW) gradient by measuring foliar gas exchange and nutrient concentrations. RESULTS: Ziziphus lotus behaves as a facultative or partial phreatophyte with extreme anisohydric stomatal regulation. However, as DTGW increased, Z. lotus (1) reduced the use of groundwater, (2) reduced total water uptake, and (3) limited transpiration water loss while increasing water-use efficiency. We also found a physiological threshold at 14 m depth to groundwater, which could indicate maximum rooting length beyond which optimal plant function could not be sustained. CONCLUSIONS: Species such as Z. lotus survive by squandering water in drylands because of a substantial groundwater uptake. However, the identification of DTGW thresholds indicates that drawdowns in groundwater level would jeopardize the functioning of the GDE.


Assuntos
Água Subterrânea , Lotus , Ziziphus , Ecossistema , Água
6.
BMC Surg ; 21(1): 18, 2021 Jan 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33407359

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Impaction of jujube pits in the upper gastrointestinal (GI) tract is a special clinical condition in the northern Chinese population. Endoscopic removal is the preferred therapy, but there is no consensus on the management strategies. We reported our individualized endoscopic strategies on the jujube pits impacted in the upper GI tract. METHODS: In this retrospective study, we included 191 patients (male: 57; female: 134) who presented to our hospital with ingestion of jujube pits between January 2015 and December 2017. Demographic information, times of hospital visiting, locations of jujube pits, endoscopic procedures, post-extraction endoscopic characteristics were analyzed. Management strategies including sufficient suction, repeated irrigation, jejunal nutrition and gastrointestinal decompression were given based on post-extraction endoscopic characteristics and impacted locations. RESULTS: Peak incidence was in the second quarter of each year (85/191 cases, 44.5%). Among the 191 cases, 169 (88.5%) showed pits impaction in the esophagus, 20 (10.5%) in the prepyloric region and 2 (1.0%) in the duodenal bulb. A total of 185 patients (96.9%) had pits removed with alligator jaw forceps, and 6 (3.1%) underwent suction removal with transparent caps placed over the end of the endoscope to prevent injury on removal of these pits with two sharp painted edges. Post-extraction endoscopic manifestations included mucosal erosion (26.7%), mucosa laceration (24.6%), ulceration with a white coating (18.9%) and penetrating trauma with pus cavity formation (29.8%). All patients received individualized endoscopic and subsequent management strategies and showed good outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Individualized endoscopic management for impacted jujube pits in the upper GI tract based on post-extraction endoscopic characteristics and impacted locations was safe, effective, and minimally invasive.


Assuntos
Corpos Estranhos , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior , Ziziphus , China , Feminino , Corpos Estranhos/cirurgia , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Estudos Retrospectivos , Trato Gastrointestinal Superior/cirurgia
7.
Food Chem ; 347: 129005, 2021 Jun 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33482487

RESUMO

Jujube leaf is well known for its high nutritional value and medicinal benefits. However, a thorough and dynamic assessment of the metabolites present in jujube leaves is lacking. Here, the primary and secondary metabolites from purple leaf buds and green mature leaves were investigated using ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry. A total of 778 metabolites were characterized and more than 700 compounds were reported for the first time. Analysis of differentially accumulated metabolites showed that the flavonoids were the major differential metabolites and determined the leaf coloration. The transcriptome data indicated that 20 flavonoid structural genes and three main types of flavonoid regulatory genes were significantly differentially expressed. Moreover, light had a significant influence on flavonoid accumulation. These results improve our understanding of metabolite accumulation and the molecular mechanisms of flavonoid biosynthesis in jujube leaf.


Assuntos
Metaboloma , Transcriptoma , Ziziphus/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cor , Análise Discriminante , Flavonoides/análise , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Luz , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Folhas de Planta/efeitos da radiação , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA de Plantas/metabolismo , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ziziphus/química , Ziziphus/genética
8.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17482-17494, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33394435

RESUMO

Heavy metal contamination including mercury (Hg) has become one of the most serious environmental problems facing humans and other living organisms. Here, the hepatoprotective effects of Z. spina-christi leaf extract (ZCE) against inorganic mercury salt (mercuric chloride; HgCl2)-induced hepatotoxicity model was investigated in rats. Mercury concentration, liver function markers, oxidative stress markers, inflammation, cell death indicators, and histopathology were assessed. ZCE protected against HgCl2-induced hepatotoxicity, decreased Hg concentration, lipid peroxidation, and nitric oxide, increased glutathione, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione recycling enzymes (peroxidase and reductase), and upregulated nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) gene expression in HgCl2-intoxicated rat hepatic tissue. Nrf2 downstream gene and heme oxygenase-1 were also upregulated, confirming that hepatoprotection by ZCE against HgCl2-induced liver damage involved activation of the Nrf2/antioxidant response element pathway. ZCE also decreased the expression and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and pro-apoptotic proteins and increased anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2. Immunohistochemical analysis of liver tissues of HgCl2-treated rats confirmed the alternations of apoptotic-related protein expression. Our data demonstrated that post-administration of ZCE attenuated HgCl2-induced liver damage by activating the Nrf2/HO-1 signaling pathway. Therefore, administering this extract may be a novel therapeutic strategy for inorganic mercury intoxication.


Assuntos
Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas , Ziziphus , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Doença Hepática Crônica Induzida por Substâncias e Drogas/metabolismo , Fígado/metabolismo , Masculino , Cloreto de Mercúrio/metabolismo , Cloreto de Mercúrio/toxicidade , Fator 2 Relacionado a NF-E2/metabolismo , Estresse Oxidativo , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ratos , Ziziphus/metabolismo
9.
Chemosphere ; 262: 128031, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33182077

RESUMO

In this research, raw jujube seeds (RJS) treated with sulphuric acid followed by ultrasonic treatment such as ultrasonic assisted jujube seeds (UAJS) based biochar have been experimented as a viable material for treating Zn(II) and Pb(II) contaminated water. The adsorption ability of UAJS was compared with RJS through Langmuir adsorption capacity. The produced adsorbents were analysed by using BET surface area and thermogravimetric analyses. The removal kinetics, isotherms and thermodynamic behaviours of metal ions adsorption by UAJS were studied. Adsorption equilibrium data were analysed using various equilibrium models and Freundlich isotherm was appropriate towards explain the adsorption characteristics. UAJS Langmuir capacity of 221.1 mg/g and 119.8 mg/g were obtained for Zn(II) ions and Pb(II) ions, respectively. The results observed that UAJS holds higher capacity as compared with RJS. The pseudo-first order model was relevant to address adsorption behaviour. The mechanism on the separation of metal ions by UAJS was tested using diffusion and Boyd models. The mechanism outcomes observed that the internal and external diffusion controlled the separation process. The thermodynamic results explain the separation process was viable, exothermic and natural. The electroplating industrial wastewater was also treated with UAJS biochar to remove the metal ions such as copper, nickel, chromium and zinc ions from wastewater. Desorption process showed that 0.1 N HCl provide the good results as compared with other desorbing agents. The adsorbent property is not lost till the maximum of 5 adsorption/desorption cycles. The produced UAJS can be a better adsorbent for treating the heavy metal polluted wastewater.


Assuntos
Carvão Vegetal/química , Galvanoplastia , Metais Pesados/análise , Águas Residuárias/química , Poluentes Químicos da Água/análise , Purificação da Água/métodos , Adsorção , Difusão , Íons , Cinética , Sementes/química , Termodinâmica , Ziziphus/química
10.
Food Chem ; 339: 127859, 2021 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32829244

RESUMO

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of four commercial lactic acid bacteria (LAB), namely L. acidophilus, L. casei, L. helveticus and L. plantarum, on the phenolic profiles, antioxidant capacities and flavor profiles of jujube juices prepared from two crop varieties (Ziziphus Jujuba cv. Muzao and Hetian). Results showed that both jujube juices were excellent matrices for LAB growth with more than 11 log CFU/mL of viable counts at the end of fermentation. LAB fermentation dramatically increased total phenolic content, while decreased total flavonoid content of jujube juices. However, antioxidant capacities based on DPPH and FRAP methods were significantly improved by LAB fermentation and positively correlated with caffeic acid and rutin contents. Furthermore, a total of 74 volatile compounds were identified and increased in total content by LAB fermentation, which resulted in 22 and 19 new flavor volatiles formation in Muzao juice and Hetian juice, respectively.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Sucos de Frutas e Vegetais/microbiologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Fenóis/metabolismo , Fenóis/farmacologia , Ziziphus/química , Biotransformação , Fermentação , Frutas/química
11.
Food Chem ; 337: 127783, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32791427

RESUMO

Jujube slices were pretreated by cold plasma for 15, 30, and 60 s on each side, followed by hot air drying at 50, 60, and 70 °C. Scanning electron microscopy investigation indicated that the application of cold plasma significantly changed the surface topography of jujube slice by etching larger cavities, which can facilitate moisture transfer and consequently enhance drying rate and effective diffusivity. Modified Henderson & Pabis model and Two-term model were the two most recommended models for describing the drying kinetics of jujube slices. Cold plasma pretreatment improved the contents of procyanidins, flavonoids, and phenolics by 53.81%, 33.89%, and 13.85% at most, respectively, and thereby enhanced antioxidant capacity by 36.85% at most. Besides, cold plasma pretreatment can reduce the production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural by 52.19% at most. In summary, cold plasma can be used as a promising pretreatment tool for drying processes of jujube slices.


Assuntos
Dessecação/métodos , Manipulação de Alimentos/métodos , Frutas/química , Gases em Plasma , Ziziphus/química , Antioxidantes/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Cinética , Fenóis/análise , Proantocianidinas/análise
12.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(52): e23899, 2020 Dec 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33350787

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Alcohol dependence is one of the biggest problems facing public health worldwide. Currently, it is an under-diagnosed and under-treated disease. Even when given treatments for addiction withdrawal, over 2/3 of patients who have undergone abstinence-oriented treatment will relapse in the first year. Therefore, it is necessary to find an efficacious way to prevent and treat alcohol dependence. ASF (a Compound of Traditional Chinese Medicine) has proven to inhibit the formation and expression of ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and the development of conditioned place preference in mice. As an empirical prescription for abstinence from alcohol, ASF has long been used in clinical patients. However, the effect of ASF in humans has not yet been investigated. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy of ASF for patients with alcohol dependence. METHODS: The effect of ASF will be studied in a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trial. 82 outpatients and inpatients will be recruited and randomly assigned to treatment with either ASF or placebo for 6 weeks as a complement to cognitive behavioural therapy. The primary endpoints are the changes in the average daily alcohol consumption of the 2 groups before and after treatment and comparison of the scores of the psychological craving self-rating scale during the courses of treatment of 2 groups. The secondary endpoints include abstinence rates of the 2 groups during the follow-up period, days without consumption, and changes of Short Form Health Survey (SF-36) scores in 2 groups before and after therapy. DISCUSSION: This study is the first randomized controlled trial to investigate ASF in the treatment of alcohol dependence. ASF is likely to be a new and effective drug for the treatment of alcohol dependence developed from natural products with a low incidence of side effects or toxicity. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Registry number: ChiCTR2000039397.


Assuntos
Abstinência de Álcool , Alcoolismo , Fissura/efeitos dos fármacos , Epimedium , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa/métodos , Ziziphus , Adulto , Abstinência de Álcool/psicologia , Abstinência de Álcool/estatística & dados numéricos , Alcoolismo/psicologia , Alcoolismo/terapia , Autoavaliação Diagnóstica , Método Duplo-Cego , Medicamentos de Ervas Chinesas/administração & dosagem , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Avaliação de Processos e Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Ensaios Clínicos Controlados Aleatórios como Assunto
13.
Viruses ; 13(1)2020 12 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33375657

RESUMO

Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is a native fruit crop in China. Leaf mottle and dapple fruit disease is prevalent in cultivated jujube plants grown at Aksu in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of China. Jujube yellow mottle-associated virus (JYMaV), a tentative member in the genus Emaravirus, was recently identified from mottle-diseased jujube plants grown in Liaoning Province in China, but its incidence and genetic diversity in China is unknown. In this study, the genome sequences of three JYMaV isolates from two jujube cultivars and one jujube variant were determined by high-throughput sequencing (HTS) for small RNA and rRNA-depleted RNA coupled with RT-PCR assays. Comparison of these sequences together with sequences of the viral RNA segments derived by primer set 3C/5H-based RT-PCR revealed that genetic diversity was present in the virus populations and high sequence variation occurred at the non-translational regions of each of the viral genomic segments. Field investigation confirmed the close association of the virus with leaf mottle symptoms of jujube plants. Furthermore, this study revealed that P5 encoded in the viral RNA5 displayed a nuclear localization feature differing from the plasmodesma (PD) subcellular localization of the virus movement protein (P4), and the two proteins could interact with each other in the BiFC assays. Our study provides a snapshot of JYMaV genetic diversity in its natural hosts.


Assuntos
Bunyaviridae/classificação , Bunyaviridae/genética , Ziziphus/virologia , Bunyaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Bunyaviridae/ultraestrutura , China , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Genômica/métodos , Sequenciamento de Nucleotídeos em Larga Escala , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Fenótipo , Filogenia , Doenças das Plantas/virologia , Folhas de Planta/virologia , Vírus de RNA/genética , RNA Viral , Análise de Sequência de RNA
14.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 92(suppl 2): e20181382, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33174909

RESUMO

The aim of this paper is to investigate the ultrastructural events that occur during pollen grains development, with emphasis in pollen grain wall and tapetum ontogeny in Ziziphus jujuba, Z. mucronata, Paliurus spina-christi (Paliureae) and Gouania ulmifolia (Gouanieae). Anthers at different developmental stages were processed according to classic techniques for transmission electron microscopy. Differences in the number of endothecium layers and in the number of tapetal cell nuclei were found. Tapetal cells present an anastomosing tubular network and large vesicles with fibrillar content in the cytoplasm. Pollen grain development and ontogeny of pollen grain wall are similar in the four species. The number of endothecium layers, the number of nuclei of the tapetal cells and tapetal cells ultrastructure of the four species support the phylogenetic relationships previously published for the Rhamnaceae family. Tapetal vesicles with fibrillar or polysaccharide content seem to be an exclusive characteristic of the tribes Paliureae and Gouanieae. Some ultrastructural characters of the pollen grain wall development are common to other species of Rhamnaceae, such as the primexine matrix present at the microspore mother cell stage, the aperture entirely built up during the tetrad stage, the thick and fibrillar intine, and the granular infractectum.


Assuntos
Rhamnaceae , Ziziphus , Microscopia Eletrônica de Transmissão , Filogenia , Pólen
15.
PLoS One ; 15(9): e0235763, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32956359

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) is an economically and agriculturally significant fruit crop and is widely cultivated throughout the world. Heat stress has recently become a primary abiotic stressor limiting the productivity and growth of jujube, as well as other crops. There are few studies, however, that have performed transcriptome profiling of jujube when it is exposed to heat stress. In this study, we observed the physiochemical changes and analyzed gene expression profiles in resistant jujube cultivar 'HR' and sensitive cultivar 'HS' subjected to heat stress for 0, 1, 3, and 5d. Twenty-four cDNA libraries from 'HR' and 'HS' leaves were built with a transcriptome assay. A total of 6887 and 5077 differentially expressed genes were identified in 'HR' and 'HS' after 1d, 3d, and 5d of heat stress compared with the control treatment, GO and KEGG enrichment analysis revealed that some of the genes were highly enriched in oxidation-reduction process, response to stress, response to water deprivation, response to heat, carbon metabolism, protein processing in endoplasmic reticulum, and plant hormone signal transduction and may play vital roles in the heat stress response in jujube plants. Differentially expressed genes were identified in the two cultivars, including heat shock proteins, transcriptional factors, and ubiquitin-protein ligase genes. And the expression pattern of nine genes was also validated by qRT-PCR. These results will provide useful information for elucidating the molecular mechanism underlying heat stress in different jujube cultivars.


Assuntos
Regulação da Expressão Gênica de Plantas , Resposta ao Choque Térmico , Transcriptoma , Ziziphus/genética , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Proteínas de Plantas/metabolismo , Ziziphus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Ziziphus/fisiologia
16.
Food Chem ; 331: 127361, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32650229

RESUMO

A low cost hand-held spectral analytical system was developed for in situ screening of phenolics and flavonoids in puff dried Ziziphus jujuba (Z. Jujuba) samples. Standards of gallic acid, caffeic acid, l-epicatechin, phloridzin and cianidanol were used to quantify the individual phenolics and flavonoids using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD). The synergy interval partial least square with ant colony optimization (Si-ACO-PLS) was attempted to optimize and capture informative variables for the prediction of target compounds. The model performance was evaluated using correlation coefficients of prediction (Rp); root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) and residual predictive deviation (RPD). The Si-ACO-PLS yielded optimal performance, 0.8540 ≤ Rc ≤ 0.9250, 0.8360 ≤ Rp ≤ 0.9056, 0.84 ≤ RMSEP ≤ 16.30 and 2.03 ≤ RPD ≤ 2.26. The hand-held spectral analytical system coupled with Si-ACO-PLS proved to the reliable, rapid and cost-effective method to quantify the phenolics and flavonoids in Z. Jujuba.


Assuntos
Flavonoides/análise , Análise de Alimentos/instrumentação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Fenóis/análise , Ziziphus/química , Algoritmos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Dessecação/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Análise Espectral/instrumentação , Análise Espectral/métodos
17.
Anim Sci J ; 91(1): e13434, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32696560

RESUMO

Liver fibrosis is a major health concern, which might progress to cirrhosis. To date, treatment trials rely mainly on the removal of the causative factor. The current study investigated the potential ameliorative role of sidr honey on thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Forty-eight Wistar albino rats were equally allocated into four groups: control; sidr honey (5g/kg body weight (BW), orally); TAA (200 mg/kg BW, IP three times weekly/15 weeks); and sidr honey plus TAA at the same dose and administration rout. Rats co-treated with sidr honey plus TAA revealed significant reduction in hepatic malondialdehyde, hyaluronic acid (HA), alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, gamma glutamyl transferase, direct bilirubin, and hepatic mRNA expression of transforming growth factor (TGF)-ß1 and collagen type I alpha 1 chain (COL1a1) compared to TAA-exposed rats. In addition, the hepatoprotective potential of sidr honey was indicated via improvement of histopathologic picture of hepatocytes and upregulation of total antioxidant capacity, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, total protein, and albumin compared to TAA-treated rats. In conclusion, daily administration of sidr honey (5 g/kg BW) is a promising natural antioxidant and fibrosuppressive agent that could ameliorate liver fibrosis via downregulation of fibrosis genes including TGF-ß1 and COL1a1 and HA and via enhancement of antioxidant system.


Assuntos
Colágeno Tipo I/genética , Colágeno Tipo I/metabolismo , Regulação para Baixo/genética , Expressão Gênica , Mel , Ácido Hialurônico/metabolismo , Cirrose Hepática/genética , Cirrose Hepática/terapia , Estresse Oxidativo/genética , Fitoterapia , Tioacetamida/efeitos adversos , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/genética , Fator de Crescimento Transformador beta1/metabolismo , Ziziphus , Animais , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Cirrose Hepática/induzido quimicamente , Masculino , Ratos Wistar
18.
Food Chem ; 330: 127330, 2020 Nov 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32569941

RESUMO

Conventional analysis, electronic senses and HS-SPME-GC-MS were applied to evaluate the effects of pretreatment methods and leaching methods on jujube wine quality. Significant differences (p < 0.05) in the levels of alcohol content, color, taste and aroma were observed among all the jujube wine samples, in which the pulp and pectase fermented jujube wine was the best among all. Moreover, rather than taste, aroma is the most significantly (p < 0.05) affected. In regard to aroma, a total of 182 volatile compounds were identified by HS-SPME-GC-MS. It was found that the blended-into-pulp treatment and the leached-by-pectase treatment had notable positive effects on jujube wine. The pulp and pectase fermented jujube wines exhibited the highest concentration of total volatile compounds as well as alcohols, esters, acids and aldehydes. Thus, the optimal pretreatment method and leaching method for jujube wine fermentation are blended-into-pulp and leached-by-pectase respectively.


Assuntos
Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Qualidade dos Alimentos , Vinho/análise , Ziziphus , Álcoois/análise , Aldeídos/análise , Cor , Nariz Eletrônico , Ésteres/análise , Fermentação , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Frutas/química , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Análise Multivariada , Odorantes/análise , Microextração em Fase Sólida/métodos , Paladar , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ziziphus/química
19.
J Environ Manage ; 269: 110828, 2020 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32561020

RESUMO

There are nearly two million ha of red jujube in the arid inland agricultural region south of the Tianshan mountains in China that produce approximately 37.2% of the global red jujube market. This paper provides an insight into the spatiotemporal variation of the water footprint and economic water productivity of red jujube cultivation in six main red jujube-producing areas. The effects of regional policies, industrial clusters, planting structures, irrigation methods and brand values studied extensively in this paper and shows how these driving factors affect the variation. Time series data covering the period of 2003-2015 was used for the study. The results showed that the annual variation of yield, cultivated areas, water footprint and economic water productivity of red jujube cultivation have experienced upward trends in the Tianshan regions, but that there were also few differences between different growing areas. The blue water makes the largest contribution (more than 70%) to the components of the red jujube water footprint in each red jujube producing area. The contribution of grey water footprint to the total consumptive WF was quite small (less than 10%) and the remaining 10%-15% was due to the green water. The water footprint and overall economic water productivity through the red jujube in various producing areas are affected by local government management and performance. The possible ways of improving economic water productivity in terms of red jujube cultivation are through policy, technological and management interventions.


Assuntos
Água , Ziziphus , Agricultura , China , Políticas
20.
Food Chem ; 331: 127201, 2020 Nov 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32562976

RESUMO

Volatile compounds in Chinese jujubes dried by different methods - hot-air (HAD), heat-pump (HPD), infrared radiation (IRD), vacuum (VD), vacuum freeze (VFD) and instant controlled pressure drop (DIC) drying - were analyzed using GC-MS, MOS e-nose, and flash GC e-nose. Acids comprised more than 90% of the aroma compounds in the dried jujubes, of which acetic, butanoic, propanoic, hexanoic, octanoic and decanoic acids were the most common. Jujubes dried using VFD had the highest content of total aroma compounds (1061.6 µg/kg), while DIC-dried jujubes had the most diverse profile (26 species). HPD-, IRD-, HAD- and VD-dried jujubes had similar aroma profiles based on GC-MS and flash GC e-nose results. Although the results of GC-MS, MOS e-nose, and flash GC e-nose were significant different (p < 0.05), their combination could characterize aroma profiles more comprehensively.


Assuntos
Nariz Eletrônico , Cromatografia Gasosa-Espectrometria de Massas/métodos , Compostos Orgânicos Voláteis/análise , Ziziphus/química , Dessecação , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Liofilização , Odorantes/análise
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