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1.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 246: 112216, 2020 Jan 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31493461

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The leaves of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam have been an integral part of the traditional system of medicine for the treatment of inflammation, wounds, fever, asthma and liver disorders. The leaves are utilised as an edible vegetable in rural parts of India and Indonesia. Despite its pharmacological significance, Ziziphus mauritiana Lam lacks scientific evidence on its mutagenic and genotoxic potential. RATIONALE: The aim of the present work is to identify bioactive compounds present in the methanol extract of Ziziphus mauritiana Lam leaves (MEZ) using HPLC-ESI-QqQ and to evaluate its mutagenic and genotoxic potential. METHODS: The phytochemical standardization of the MEZ was done using HPLC-ESI-QqQ. The mutagenic and genotoxic potential of MEZ was tested using bacterial reverse mutation (Ames test), chromosomal aberration, and micronucleus tests. The Ames test was performed in Salmonella typhimurium strains TA98, TA100, TA102, TA1535 and TA1537, and the genotoxic potential was tested in in-vitro using chromosome aberration assay with Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells and in-vivo micronucleus test using mouse bone marrow cells. RESULTS: Fifteen phytochemical compounds were identified in HPLC-ESI- QqQ. It was observed from the Ames test that MEZ did not induce gene mutations in the S. typhimurium in the presence or absence of S9 activation. Similarly, no significant increase in the number of structural aberrations was observed in CHO cells with or without S9 activation. The oral administration of MEZ at a dose of up to 2000 mg/kg caused no significant increase in the number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes or in the mean ratio of polychromatic to total erythrocytes. CONCLUSION: The findings of the present study confirm that MEZ is not-mutagenic and non-genotoxic in the presence or absence of the exogenous metabolizing system.


Assuntos
Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/toxicidade , Folhas de Planta/química , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Células CHO , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Dano ao DNA , Camundongos , Testes para Micronúcleos , Mutagênese , Salmonella typhimurium
2.
J Sci Food Agric ; 100(1): 184-192, 2020 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31472017

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Slight acidic electrolyzed water (SAEW) has been widely used in cleaning systems of fruit and vegetables. It strongly reduces microbial contamination. However, no information is available on whether SAEW offers the potential for fresh jujube cleaning. The purposes of this study were, first, to compare the effectiveness of SAEW with commercial sanitizers (i.e. sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) or calcium hypochlorite (Ca(ClO)2 )) on 'Jiancui' jujube; second, to determine the response of fruit decay, tissue calcium (Ca) content, and quality attributes to dip application of calcium nitrate (Ca(NO3 )2 ) by concentration; and third, to investigate the effects of SAEW combined with Ca(NO3 )2 or calcium acetate (Ca(OAc)2 )) on fruit Ca uptake, quality attributes, and bioactive compounds. RESULTS: Fruits washed with NaClO, Ca(ClO)2 , or an SAEW solution showed no difference in reduction of decay incidence. In contrast to NaClO treatment, SAEW or Ca(ClO)2 significantly retarded losses in fruit firmness (FF), green color (hue angle), and skin lightness (L*), and maintained intact pericarp tissue structure during storage at 1 °C. Application of Ca(NO3 )2 at 5-10 g L-1 effectively promoted Ca2+ uptake and minimized declines in FF and L* value but had no effect on decay development. Adding 10 g L-1 Ca(NO3 )2 or Ca(OAc)2 to SAEW provided an additional benefit in increasing decay resistance, increasing Ca2+ into fruit and increasing levels of bioactive compounds in jujube fruit. CONCLUSION: SAEW in combination with Ca(NO3 )2 or Ca(OAc)2 has commercial potential for fresh jujube disinfection and improving storage quality as a result of the cleaning processes. © 2019 Society of Chemical Industry.


Assuntos
Acetatos/farmacologia , Compostos de Cálcio/farmacologia , Cálcio/análise , Conservação de Alimentos/métodos , Conservantes de Alimentos/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Nitratos/farmacologia , Ziziphus/efeitos dos fármacos , Eletrólise , Armazenamento de Alimentos , Frutas/efeitos dos fármacos , Controle de Qualidade , Água/química , Ziziphus/química
3.
Food Chem ; 306: 125628, 2020 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31629297

RESUMO

Microencapsulation of Zingiber officinale essential oil (EO) in polysaccharide, chitosan (CH) and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) based on the electrostatic interaction between charged polysaccharides at pH 3.0 in dual delivery system. Ratio variations of CH and CMC in microencapsulation were studied at 1:2, 2:1 and 1:1. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of the encapsulating materials combination on freeze-dried EO powders and to present the mechanisms for loading and releasing EO involved in the preparation of CH/CMC microcapsules. The spectroscopy analysis, physical properties, microstructural, encapsulation efficiency and EO release behavior in obtained EO microparticles were evaluated by using the analysis of fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS), respectively. Afterwards, the above prepared microcapsules were applied on winter jujube fruit (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) preservation. Results demonstrated that both the microstructure and stability of microencapsulation were improved in delivery system loading with CH and CMC (1:1) with the encapsulation efficiency of 88.50%, compared to other ratios of CH and CMC (1:2 and 2:1). Furthermore, the microencapsulation had a capacity to control and reduce the EO release, therefore the morphological and sensory quality of jujube fruits in EO delivery system during storage was enhanced significantly (P < 0.05), in comparison to control. Results revealed that the microparticles produced with CH and CMC (1:1) was considered to present better characteristics of microstructure, encapsulation efficiency, as well as to maintain higher nutritional quality for jujube fruit. Thus, EO microencapsulation loaded in CH/CMC-based dual delivery system has potential application and developmental value prospects in food industries.


Assuntos
Gengibre/química , Óleos Voláteis/química , Ziziphus/química , Cápsulas/análise , Quitosana/análogos & derivados , Quitosana/química , Frutas/química
4.
J Agric Food Chem ; 67(44): 12255-12263, 2019 Nov 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31618580

RESUMO

Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) honey, one of the most valuable honey varieties from China with unique characteristics, is vulnerable to being the target of adulteration and deliberate mislabeling of botanical origin. This study investigated the typical protein component of jujube honey to authenticate the floral source by SDS-PAGE analysis combined with LC-MS/MS identification, and its stability to heating was also evaluated. One band and two adjacent but independent bands, both with molecular weights of ∼19 kDa, were notably observed in Coomassie brilliant blue- and silver-stained SDS-PAGE gels, respectively, for jujube honey from different geographic origins, whereas that was not present for the other five botanical honey varieties, suggesting this protein component was suitable as a marker for jujube honey. LC-MS/MS identification revealed that it was constituted by one Z. jujuba-derived protein (gene number:Zj.jz016003045) and two A. mellifera-derived proteins (an uncharacterized protein with accession number tr|A0A088AC16 and a cleavage fragment from major royal jelly protein-1), and the existence of plant-derived protein was attributed to the special neutral pH of jujube honey. Additionally, these protein markers exhibited good stability to heating below 85 °C/30 min. This study provided a simple method to characterize jujube honey and first identified a protein indicator to determine the botanical origin of honey.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Plantas/química , Ziziphus/química , Sequência de Aminoácidos , China , Cromatografia Líquida , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Frutas/química , Frutas/genética , Mel/análise , Peso Molecular , Proteínas de Plantas/genética , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Ziziphus/genética
5.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(4): 1715-1716, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31608895

RESUMO

This study was designed to evaluate the anticancer activity of Ziziphus mauritiana roots. The dichloromethane and methanol extracts were prepared and anticancer activity was investigated the by using MTT assay. Human breast cancer cell line (MCF-7) was used in this study. 50µg/ml of dichloromethane extract of the roots of plant exhibited significant anticancer activity (70%) against the breast cancer cell line with IC50 20.34±0.9 using doxorubicin as standard. The study indicated that Ziziphus mauritiana has anticancer activity against MCF-7 cell line.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Neoplasias da Mama/tratamento farmacológico , Ziziphus/química , Neoplasias da Mama/patologia , Ensaios de Seleção de Medicamentos Antitumorais , Feminino , Humanos , Células MCF-7 , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Raízes de Plantas/química
6.
Chin J Nat Med ; 17(7): 551-560, 2019 Jul.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31514987

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen (ZSS) has been used for treatment of insomnia in China for centuries. To reveal the influence of insomnia on the levels of the neurotransmitters including serotonin (5-HT), glutamic acid (Glu), γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA), noradrenaline (NE) and dopamine (DA), and to study the role of ZSS aqueous extract in the treatment of insomnia, an UPLC-ESI- MS/MS method was developed and validated for simultaneous determination of five neurotransmitters in the rat brain. The brain samples were pretreated by one-step direct protein precipitation with acetonitrile. The analytes were detected in positive mode with multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and the procedure was completed in less than 10 min. The method showed a good linearity (R2 > 0.9967) with the other validation parameters were within acceptance range. The results indicated that the concentration of 5-HT, GABA and DA is significantly lower (P < 0.01) in para-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA)-induced insomnia rat model group, while Glu and NE significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.01). Treatment with ZSS aqueous extract (4 or 8 g·kg-1·d-1 for seven days) could ameliorate the symptoms of insomnia by significantly changing the levels of the neurotransmitter parameters mentioned above. The data obtained in this study demonstrate that ZSS aqueous extract could ameliorate the symptoms of insomnia by modulating the levels of monoamines and amino acid neurotransmitters in the brain.


Assuntos
Encéfalo/efeitos dos fármacos , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/farmacologia , Neurotransmissores/metabolismo , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/metabolismo , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Encéfalo/metabolismo , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Fenclonina/toxicidade , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/química , Hipnóticos e Sedativos/uso terapêutico , Masculino , Medicina Tradicional Chinesa , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/uso terapêutico , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/induzido quimicamente , Distúrbios do Início e da Manutenção do Sono/tratamento farmacológico , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
7.
Pak J Pharm Sci ; 32(3 Special): 1313-1319, 2019 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31551209

RESUMO

During current project, antibacterial and antibiofilm properties of traditional medicinal plant Ziziphus nummularia leaf extract and various fractions was investigated. The plant leaves were dried and extracted using 90% methanol followed by sequential fractionation using liquid-liquid fractionation. The fractions of a diverse polarity including chloroform, n-hexane, methanol and ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts were obtained that was further analysed by using HPLC. The phytochemical screening indicated presence of saponins, triterpenes and flavonoids. During DPPH assay, the methanolic fraction presented highest activity (IC50 193.1µg/mL), followed by ethyl acetate (IC50 220µg/mL) and chloroform (IC50 263µg/mL) fractions respectively. During FRAP assay, FRAP value for Z. nummularia extract 20.43µM. Among fractions, ethyl acetate fraction presented highest FRAP value (370.2µM), followed by chloroform (204µM) and methanolic (249µM) fractions. The antimicrobial activity of chloroform fraction was significantly high against P. aureginosa (6mm), L. monocytogenes, S. aureus (5mm), K. pneumoniae, B. Subtillus and E. coli (4mm). The ethyl acetate part presented significant activity (MIC 4mg/mL) against S. aureus, B. Subtillus and L. monocytogenes. The total extract and fractions were further tested for MBC and the MBC for ethyl acetate fractions was 4mg/mL, whereas all other fractions exhibited MBC >10mg/mL. No activity was recorded against Aspergillus niger. During antibiofilm assay, n-hexane fraction presented highest inhibition (88%) followed by ethyl acetate (69%) chloroform (65%) fractions. It was concluded that Z. nummularia possess moderate antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities. Further a synergistic effect is suggested in formulation having Z. nummularia.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Plantas Medicinais/química , Ziziphus/química , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Clorofórmio/química , Avaliação Pré-Clínica de Medicamentos , Flavonoides/análise , Recuperação de Fluorescência Após Fotodegradação/métodos , Metanol/química , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Paquistão , Fenóis/análise , Extratos Vegetais/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Saponinas/análise
8.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 94: 705-710, 2019 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31505247

RESUMO

The present study investigates the effect of dietary Ziziphus jujube fruit extract [ZJFE] on skin mucus non-specific immune parameters as well as mRNA levels of immune related gene in the skin of common carp fingerlings. An eight-week feeding trial was performed using different levels of dietary ZJFE (0, 0.25, 0.5 and 1%). At the end of the trial skin mucus immune parameters (total Ig, lysozyme and protease activity), cytokines genes (il1b, il8, il10 and tnf-alpha) expression in skin and growth performance were studied. The result showed highest and lowest skin mucus total Ig were observed in fish fed diet containing 0.5% ZJFE and control group, respectively (P < 0.05). There were no significant difference among treatments regarding skin mucus lysozyme activity (P >0.05). It should be noted that, feeding on 0.5 and 1% ZJFE significantly increased skin mucus protease activity (P <0.05). Likewise, gene expression studies in skin showed significant increase of il1b expression in fish fed 0.5% ZJFE compared other treatments (P <0.05). Also, il8 gene was noticeably up-regulated in 0.5 and 1% treatments compared to the control group (P <0.05). While there were no significant difference between 0.25% JFE treatment and control in case of relative il10 gene expression (P >0.05), feeding on diets containing 0.5% or 1% ZJFE significantly down-regulated il10 gene (P <0.05). Our study indicated that relative expression of tnf-alpha gene significantly increased in treated groups (P <0.05). Also, feeding on ZJFE supplemented diet improved growth performance parameters. Overall, this experiment demonstrated the potentially useful effects of ZJFE on skin mucosal immunity and performance of common carp fingerlings.


Assuntos
Carpas/imunologia , Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Imunidade nas Mucosas/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/metabolismo , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Carpas/genética , Carpas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Dieta/veterinária , Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Frutas/química , Extratos Vegetais/administração & dosagem , Pele/imunologia , Pele/metabolismo , Ziziphus/química
9.
Food Funct ; 10(9): 5898-5909, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31465056

RESUMO

Zizyphus lotus L. (Desf.) has been widely used as a homemade ingredient to treat numerous diseases in Algerian folk medicine. In this context, decoction, infusion and hydroethanolic extracts were prepared from the branches, leaves, roots, and stem barks. The extracts were characterized regarding their phytochemical composition by HPLC-DAD-ESI/MSn and were assessed for in vitro bioactivity (cytotoxicity, anti-inflammatory activity, and antibacterial activity). A total of 29 compounds (flavonoid derivatives and secoiridoids) were identified in Z. lotus, 15 being detected in leaves, 10 in branches, 5 in roots and 7 in stem barks. The highest contents of these compounds, especially secoiridoids, were detected in branches followed by leaves, oleuropein being the main compound detected in leaves and oleoside in branches. The aqueous preparations of the leaves and root barks revealed the highest cytotoxicity and anti-inflammatory potential. On the other hand, as for the antibacterial activity, the hydroethanolic extract of the branches showed the highest potential, especially against the MSSA strain. Hence, the chemical diversity found in Z. lotus makes it a source of bioactive ingredients that can be applied in the formulations of different ingredients in the food and pharmaceutical industries.


Assuntos
Compostos Fitoquímicos/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/química , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/efeitos dos fármacos , Bactérias Gram-Positivas/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Humanos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Camundongos , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Folhas de Planta/química , Raízes de Plantas/química , Células RAW 264.7 , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem
10.
Fitoterapia ; 137: 104261, 2019 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31284019

RESUMO

Three new sesquilignans, zijusesquilignans A-C (1-3), together with fifteen known compounds (4-18), were isolated from fruits of Ziziphus jujuba var. inermis Rehder (Rhamnaceae). Their chemical structures were established using spectroscopic analyses including 1D- and 2D-NMR, HR-EIMS, and ECD spectra. These compounds were assessed for their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production. Of these compounds, 1-3 and 17 displayed inhibitory effects on NO production, with IC50 values ranging from 18.1 to 66.4 µM. Pretreatment with 1 and 17 significantly suppressed LPS-induced expression of nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein in cells. Moreover, compounds 1-3, 7, 9, and 17 exhibited cytotoxic activities against three human tumor cell lines, with IC50 values ranging from 8.4 to 44.9 µM.


Assuntos
Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Frutas/química , Lignanas/farmacologia , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Ciclo-Oxigenase 2/metabolismo , Humanos , Lignanas/isolamento & purificação , Camundongos , Estrutura Molecular , Óxido Nítrico/metabolismo , Óxido Nítrico Sintase Tipo II/metabolismo , Compostos Fitoquímicos/isolamento & purificação , Compostos Fitoquímicos/farmacologia , Células RAW 264.7 , República da Coreia
11.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 44(10): 2009-2014, 2019 May.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31355553

RESUMO

Ziziphi Spinosae Semen is one of the Chinese herbal medicine being susceptible to aflatoxins contamination. To investigate the sources of aflatoxins contamination and toxigenic fungi species on Ziziphi Spinosae Semen,32 samples were collected from multiple steps during the post-harvest processing in this study. Aflatoxins in these samples were determined by immunoaffinity column and HPLC coupled with post-column photochemical derivatization. The dilution-plate method was applied to the fungi isolation. The isolated fungi strains were identified by morphological characterization and molecular approaches. The results showed that aflatoxins were detected in 28 samples from every step during the processing of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. Three samples were detected with aflatoxin B_1 and 2 samples with both aflatoxin B_1 and total aflatoxin exceeding the limit of Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Especially the samples from the washing step,with the highest detected amounts of AFB_1 and AFs were reached 94. 79,121. 43 µg·kg~(-1),respectively. All 32 samples were contaminated by fungi. The fungal counts on the newly harvested samples were 2. 20 × 10~2 CFU·g~(-1). Moreover,it increased as tphreocessing progresses,and achieved 1. 16×10~6 CFU·g~(-1) after washing. A total of 321 isolates were identified to 17 genera. Aspergillus flavus was the main source of aflatoxins during the processing and storage of Ziziphi Spinosae Semen. One isolate of A. flavus was confirmed producing AFB_1 and AFB_2. The fungal count was significantly increased by composting,and Aspergillus was the predominant genus after shell breaking. The contamination level of aflatoxins was increased by composting and washing.


Assuntos
Aflatoxinas/análise , Fungos/isolamento & purificação , Sementes/química , Sementes/microbiologia , Ziziphus/química , Aspergillus , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão
12.
Analyst ; 144(17): 5179-5185, 2019 Aug 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31343648

RESUMO

The development of noble ultra-small biocompatible Pt nanoclusters (Pt NCs) for glucose detection has been drawing great attention. Herein, ultra-small biocompatible jujube polysaccharide (JP) stabilized platinum nanoclusters (Ptn-JP NCs) are prepared using natural JP as a reducing and solubilizing agent. Ptn-JP NCs were studied for the colorimetric detection of glucose. Ptn-JP NCs (n = 50, 200 and 400) had an average particle diameter of 1-2 nm. Particularly, the measurements of hydrodynamic sizes of Ptn-JP NCs indicated that they maintained good stability in solution for one week. Pt200-JP NCs showed good biocompatibility, and were not toxic against HeLa cells at a high concentration of 400 µg mL-1. Furthermore, Pt200-JP NCs catalyzed the oxidation of 3,3',5,5'-tetramethylbenzidine (TMB) with H2O2 to produce blue oxidized TMB (oxTMB). This reaction followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics. More importantly, the glucose concentration could be sensitively detected by the color change, and this process was not interfered by other sugars. The linear range for glucose concentration was from 0.01 to 1 mM with a detection limit of 5.47 µM. The glucose concentrations of real samples of serum using Pt200-JP NCs were 9.2, 4.9 and 6.5 mM, respectively. The prepared Ptn-JP NCs have great potential in various biomedical detection methods.


Assuntos
Glicemia/análise , Nanopartículas Metálicas/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ziziphus/química , Benzidinas/química , Glicemia/química , Catálise , Colorimetria/métodos , Glucose Oxidase/química , Células HeLa , Humanos , Peróxido de Hidrogênio/química , Cinética , Limite de Detecção , Nanopartículas Metálicas/toxicidade , Oxirredução , Tamanho da Partícula , Platina/química , Platina/toxicidade , Polissacarídeos/toxicidade , Saliva/química
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 65: 226-233, 2019 Aug.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31300118

RESUMO

The aim of this study is to verify the action of the aqueous leaf extract Ziziphus joazeiro in the eradication of bacterial and fungal biofilms, and to compare these effects with the stem bark extracts, as well as with conventional standard drugs. The presence of secondary metabolites was observed through phytochemical prospection assays. The effect of the aqueous extract on microbial biofilm formation was observed by OD600 nm absorbance and the crystal violet assay. For bacterial and fungal biofilms, chlorhexidine gluconate and fluconazole, respectively, were used as positive controls. Phytochemical characterization showed the presence of secondary metabolite classes common to both extracts such as flavonoids, steroids and saponins. In particular, in the aqueous leaf extract phenols, condensed tannins and alkaloids were observed. Eradication results using the aqueous leaf extract showed an inhibition of the microbial biofilm mass, moreover the biofilms were more sensitive to the bark extract, which presented a greater inhibition number and an action similar to standard drugs. It is important to highlight the leaf extract showed significant eradication at the lowest concentrations for mature yeast biofilms, thus demonstrating its potential to modify microbial resistance susceptibility. Bacterial and fungal biofilm eradication results using the Ziziphus joazeiro aqueous extracts presented a biofilm inhibition effect for both, moreover the results support the ethnopharmacological knowledge surrounding the use of Ziziphus joazeiro stems in the community. In comparison, the bark extract presented a more effective treatment than the leaf extract against biofilms, presenting inhibition levels similar to the used standard drugs.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Bactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Fungos/efeitos dos fármacos , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Ziziphus/química , Antibacterianos/química , Antifúngicos/química , Clorexidina/análogos & derivados , Clorexidina/farmacologia , Fluconazol/farmacologia , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Casca de Planta/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química
14.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 136: 607-615, 2019 Sep 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220502

RESUMO

An acidic polysaccharide (SAZMP3) was isolated from jujube fruit residues by alkaline extraction and purified with DEAE-Sepharose Fast Flow and Sephacryl S-300 column chromatography. The structural characterizations of SAZMP3 were determined by high-performance gelpermeation chromatography, gas chromatography, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, methylation analysis, NMR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and atomic force microscopy. The results determined SAZMP3 was an acidic polysaccharide mainly contained rhamnose, galactose, and galacturonic acid with a molecular weight of 9.37 kDa and its backbone might mainly be composed of 1,4-α-D-GalAp with side chains of 1,3-ß-D-Galp, 1,3,5-linked Araf, 1,2,4-α-L-Rhap and terminals of 1-linked Araf, 1-linked Rhap, 1-linked Galp by methylation and NMR analysis. Besides, SAZMP3 has shown potential antioxidant activity in scavenging free radicals suggesting that it is an antioxidant agent, which might contribute to the functional food qualities of jujube fruit.


Assuntos
Álcalis/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Ziziphus/química , Compostos de Bifenilo/química , Metilação , Picratos/química , Solventes/química
15.
BMC Complement Altern Med ; 19(1): 147, 2019 Jun 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31234859

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Ethanol withdrawal (EtOHW) anxiety is a crucial risk factor for alcoholic relapse. The neuropeptide nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) acts upon its receptor (NOP) to antagonize corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and elicit anxiolytic actions. Semen Ziziphi Spinosae (SZS), a prototypical hypnotic-sedative herb in Oriental medicine, exhibits anxiolytic effects during nicotine withdrawal by improving amygdaloid CRF/CRF1 receptor (CRFR1) signaling. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of SZS on EtOHW anxiety and the involvement of amygdaloid CRF/CRFR1 and N/OFQ/NOP pathways. METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats received intraperitoneal injections of 2 g/kg EtOH (20% v/v) once daily for 28 d followed by a 3-d withdrawal. During EtOHW, the rats were given once-daily intragastric treatments of a methanol extract of SZS (MESZS, 60 or 180 mg/kg/d). Anxiety-like behaviors were measured with the open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests, and plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels were examined by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. mRNA and protein expression levels of the neuropeptides and their receptors were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot assays. RESULTS: MESZS increased the distance traveled in the center zone of the OF and dose-dependently elongated the duration of staying in the center zone in EtOHW rats. MESZS increased both the number of entries into and the time spent in the open arms of the EPM by EtOHW rats. And, MESZS inhibited the over secretion of plasma CORT during EtOHW. EtOHW enhanced CRF and CRFR1 gene and protein expression in the central nucleus of the amygdala (CeA), which were inhibited by 180 mg/kg/d MESZS. EtOHW increased amygdaloid NOP mRNA and protein expression but spared N/OFQ mRNA expression, and 180 mg/kg/d MESZS further promoted these increases. Additionally, a post-MESZS intra-CeA infusion of either CRF or the selective NOP antagonist UFP-101 abolished the expected anxiolytic effect of 180 mg/kg/d MESZS. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that MESZS ameliorates EtOHW anxiety by improving both CRF/CRFR1 and N/OFQ/NOP transmissions in the CeA.


Assuntos
Ansiolíticos/administração & dosagem , Ansiedade/tratamento farmacológico , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/efeitos dos fármacos , Etanol/efeitos adversos , Neuropeptídeos/metabolismo , Síndrome de Abstinência a Substâncias/complicações , Ziziphus/química , Animais , Ansiedade/etiologia , Ansiedade/genética , Ansiedade/metabolismo , Núcleo Central da Amígdala/metabolismo , Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Humanos , Masculino , Ratos , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/genética , Receptores de Hormônio Liberador da Corticotropina/metabolismo , Sementes/química
16.
Molecules ; 24(13)2019 Jun 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31247989

RESUMO

This study was to present the effect of different parameters of combined methods of drying such as vacuum-microwave (VMD: 480, 120 W), hot air (CDD: 70, 60, 50 °C) and combined methods as pre-drying by CD and finish drying by VMD (CD-VMD: 60 °C + 480/120W) in order to avoid a rapid increase in temperature at the critical moisture content of ca. 1 kg/kg dm (dry mass). Control samples were prepared by freeze-drying (FD). Drying kinetics, including the temperature profile of dried material, as well as on some quality factors of the finished product as phenolic compounds, antioxidant capacity, and color were evaluated. The increase in air temperature during CD as well as the increase in material temperature during VMD deteriorated dried product quality in terms of the content of phenolic compounds, antioxidant activity and color. Dried jujube fruits have a long shelf life and therefore may be a fine alternative to fresh fruit all year round.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Frutas/química , Fenóis/química , Pigmentação , Extratos Vegetais/química , Ziziphus/química , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Liofilização , Cinética , Micro-Ondas , Fenóis/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , Temperatura Ambiente
17.
Molecules ; 24(12)2019 Jun 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31197074

RESUMO

Ziziphus jujuba cv. Muzao is a plant widely cultivated in the Yellow River Basin of China. It has nutritional and healthcare functions, in which polysaccharides are the main components of its bio-functions. In order to make effective use of Ziziphus jujuba cv. Muzao residue resources and explore new functional food ingredients, the polysaccharide (ZJRP) from Ziziphus jujuba cv. Muzao residues were extracted by sodium hydroxide, and the optimal extraction conditions of ZJRP were obtained by the response surface method. The basic composition and antioxidant effects of ZJRP were determined. The results showed that ZJRP has significant antioxidant activity, mainly reflected in the high DPPH radical scavenging rate, which may be related to their high content of galacturonic acid and the extraction method. In addition, the rheological and thermal properties of ZJRP were respectively determined by a rheometer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), indicating that they have shear thinning properties and good thermal stability. Results showed that the alkaline extraction method can be used as a potential technique for extracting ZJRP with high antioxidant activity, and ZJRP can be further explored as a functional food ingredient.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/química , Extratos Vegetais/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Ziziphus/química , Álcalis/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Varredura Diferencial de Calorimetria , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/química , Depuradores de Radicais Livres/isolamento & purificação , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação
18.
Food Chem ; 293: 233-246, 2019 Sep 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31151607

RESUMO

Ziziphus plants are well recognized for their nutritive and medicinal value worldwide, albeit their chemical profile has yet to be fully reported. The secondary metabolites profile of three traditionally used Ziziphus leaf accessions was investigated via ultra-high performance liquid chromatography coupled to photodiode array and electrospray ionization mass detectors (UHPLC/PDA/ESI-MS). A total of 102 metabolites were characterized revealing the first holistic approach onto Ziziphus leaf metabolome and to include the first report of several novel flavonoids and cyclopeptide alkaloids. Fragmentation pattern for cyclopeptide alkaloids was proposed via ESI-MS. Principal component analysis (PCA) revealed close metabolite resemblance among Z. spina-christi and Z. mauritiana leaf specimens found enriched in saponins and distinct from that of Z. jujuba in which quercetin-3-O-(2-pentosyl)-rhamnoside was most abundant. Further, in-vitro antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antidiabetic assays revealed for Z. spina-christi and Z. mauritiana strong effects compared to Z. jujuba and in correlation with their metabolites repertoire.


Assuntos
Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão/métodos , Metaboloma , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray/métodos , Ziziphus/química , Alcaloides/análise , Flavonoides/análise , Extratos Vegetais/química , Folhas de Planta/química , Folhas de Planta/metabolismo , Análise de Componente Principal , Saponinas/análise , Ziziphus/metabolismo
19.
Food Chem ; 295: 247-253, 2019 Oct 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31174755

RESUMO

The fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profiles of fruit peel and pulp of 4 Spanish cultivars of Ziziphus jujuba were studied. The FAMEs profile of the cultivar 'GAL' was studied under two farming practices, (i) organic, 'GAL-E' and conventional, 'GAL-T'. Eleven FAMEs were identified, the predominant ones were cis-palmitoleic acid (pulp) and oleic and palmitic acid (peel). When comparing the FAMEs profiles between organic and conventional 'GAL' peel jujube fruits, the 'GAL-E' (organic) presented a higher unsaturated/saturated ratio than the 'GAL-T' cultivar (conventional), while this relationship in the pulp was the opposite. The 'DAT' cultivar was interesting for its high palmitoleic acid content while the 'GAL-E' and 'GAL-T' cultivars had high contents of oleic, palmitic and linoleic acids. The LDA (linear discriminant analysis) model showed that the FAMEs contents could be used to discriminate the studied cultivars, and the agricultural practice, because all groups were clearly separated with no overlaps.


Assuntos
Ácidos Graxos/análise , Frutas/química , Ziziphus/química , Análise Discriminante , Ácidos Graxos/química , Análise de Alimentos/métodos , Análise de Alimentos/estatística & dados numéricos , Agricultura Orgânica , Espanha
20.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 135: 1151-1161, 2019 Aug 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31173825

RESUMO

As a discarded byproduct of jujube (Z. jujuba), its seeds contain various biological components. Response surface methodology was used to optimize ultrasound-assisted heating extraction conditions of polysaccharides from Z. jujuba cv. Ruoqiangzao seeds (ZJSPs). The optimal parameters were as follows: temperature 83.1 °C, time 100 min, ultrasonic power 140 W, and water-material ratio 33.5 mL/g, allowed a maximum yield of 1.97%. One main fraction (ZJSPs-1) was successfully purified by ion-exchange and gel-permeation chromatography. With a molecular weight of 342 kDa, ZJSPs-1 was composed of arabinose, glucose, xylose, galactose and rhamnose. The presence of pyranose-form sugars as well as both α- and ß-configurations was validated by FT-IR and 1H NMR. TG/DSC indicated that ZJSPs-1 has a favorable thermal stability. XRD suggested that ZJSPs-1 exhibited both crystalline and amorphous portions. ZJSPs-1 was in aggregates of homogenous-dense honeycomb like structures observed by SEM and AFM. ZJSPs-1 possessed antitumor activities against HeLa cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner at 24 and 48 h with IC50 of 164.6 and 87.1 µg/mL, respectively. Fluorescent microscopic and flow cytometry revealed that ZJSPs-1 inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells through apoptosis. Z. jujuba seeds are good sources for antitumor polysaccharides in pharmaceutical and food industries.


Assuntos
Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos/química , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Sementes/química , Ziziphus/química , Antineoplásicos Fitogênicos/isolamento & purificação , Apoptose/efeitos dos fármacos , Linhagem Celular Tumoral , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Químicos , Humanos , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Análise Espectral , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Termogravimetria
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