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1.
J Theor Biol ; 557: 111324, 2023 Jan 21.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334851

RESUMO

Land conversion and the resulting contact between domesticated and wild species has arguably been the single largest contributor to the emergence of novel epizootic and zoonotic diseases in the past century. An unintended consequence of these interactions is zoonotic or epizootic disease spillovers from wild species to humans and their domesticates. Disease spillovers are edge effects of land conversion and are sensitive to the size and shape of converted areas. We combine spatial metrics from landscape ecology with theoretical epidemiological models to understand how the size and shape of land conversion affect epizootic and zoonotic disease transmission of single and two species populations. We show that the less compact the converted area, and the greater the depth of the contact zone, the more rapidly will an introduced disease spread through the domesticated population.


Assuntos
Benchmarking , Ecologia , Humanos , Animais , Modelos Epidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
2.
Med Mycol ; 60(11)2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36318452

RESUMO

Cases of cat-transmitted sporotrichosis in Brazil have increased in recent years. We collected respiratory secretions expelled while sneezing from 28 cats diagnosed with sporotrichosis. We identified the presence of Sporothrix spp. in respiratory droplets expelled in the sneeze of infected cats. The results raise concerns about a new transmission route for cat-transmitted sporotrichosis. Physicians who diagnose and treat human cases of sporotrichosis should be aware of this potential new transmission method to improve clinical suspicion. Approximately half of patients with granulomatous conjunctival sporotrichosis did not report experiencing traumatic injury from cats.


Cat-transmitted sporotrichosis is a zoonosis in geographic expansion from Brazil to other Latin American countries and is considered a public health problem. Data suggest that transmission can occur through the sneeze of an infected cat. The One Health approach is necessary to control the disease.


Assuntos
Doenças do Gato , Sporothrix , Esporotricose , Humanos , Animais , Gatos , Esporotricose/diagnóstico , Esporotricose/veterinária , Esporotricose/tratamento farmacológico , Aerossóis e Gotículas Respiratórios , Zoonoses , Brasil , Doenças do Gato/diagnóstico
5.
Pediatr Infect Dis J ; 41(12): 1020-1031, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322796

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease, presenting with fever, lymphadenopathy and vesicular-pustular skin lesions, that historically has rarely been reported outside the endemic regions of Central and West Africa. It was previously thought that human-to-human transmission was too low to sustain spread. During 2022, the number of cases of monkeypox, caused by clade II, rose rapidly globally, predominantly among men who have sex with men. In previous outbreaks with monkeypox clade 1 in endemic areas, children were disproportionately more affected with higher morbidity and mortality. It is unclear whether children are at similarly higher risk from monkeypox clade II. Nonetheless, children and pregnant women are considered high-risk groups and antiviral treatment should be considered for those affected. While smallpox vaccination offers good protection against monkeypox, the duration of protection is unknown, and infection occurs in vaccinated individuals. Should the current outbreak spread to children, authorities should be prepared to rapidly implement vaccination for children. In this review, we summarize epidemiological and clinical features, as well as the pathogenesis, treatment, and prevention options for monkeypox with a focus on considerations for children.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Minorias Sexuais e de Gênero , Criança , Masculino , Animais , Feminino , Humanos , Gravidez , Varíola dos Macacos/diagnóstico , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Varíola dos Macacos/prevenção & controle , Homossexualidade Masculina , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Pediatras
6.
Ann Glob Health ; 88(1): 93, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36348706

RESUMO

While zoonotic diseases are defined by transmission processes between animals and humans, for many of these diseases the presence of a contaminated environmental source is the cause of transmission. Most zoonoses depend on complex environmentally driven interactions between humans and animals, which occur along an occupational and recreational environmental continuum, including farming and animal marketing systems, environmental management systems, and community leisure environments. Environmentally driven zoonoses (EDZs) are particularly challenging to diagnose and control as their reservoirs are in the natural environment and thus often escape conventional surveillance systems that rely on host monitoring. Changes in the environment as a result of climate change [1], human population density [2], and intensification of agriculture [3] have been linked to increasing transmission events for this group of infections. As such, there is a recognised need to be able to detect the presence of EDZs in the environment as a means to better anticipate transmission events and improve source attribution investigations. Finally, the recognition that a One Health approach is needed to combat these infections is signalling to governments the need to develop policy that optimises trade-offs across human, animal, and environmental health sectors. In this review, we discuss and critically appraise the main challenges relating to the epidemiology, diagnosis, and control of environmental zoonotic disease. Using a set of exemplar diseases, including avian influenza and antimicrobial resistant pathogens, we explore the epidemiological contexts (risk factors) within which these infections not only impact human health but also contribute to animal health and environmental impacts. We then critically appraise the surveillance challenges of monitoring these infections in the environment and examine the policy trade-offs for a more integrated approach to mitigating their impacts.


Assuntos
Influenza Aviária , Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Densidade Demográfica , Mudança Climática
7.
Zhonghua Jie He He Hu Xi Za Zhi ; 45(11): 1135-1140, 2022 Nov 12.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36344230

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonotic disease caused by Monkeypox virus, which can cause the change of smallpox pattern in human. Monkeypox has been epidemic in central and west African countries, and infections outside the African continent are rare. Since May 2022, unprecedented outbreaks of human monkeypox and clusters of cases have occurred in non-epidemic countries such as Europe, the Americas and Australia, with multi-country outbreaks drawing global attention. The prevalence, transmission route and reoccurrence of monkeypox are still unknown. In view of the rapid increase of monkeypox cases, this paper reviewed the epidemiological changes, outbreak causes, clinical characteristics, and treatment methods of monkeypox, so as to clarify the epidemic background and transmission characteristics, improve the understanding of the disease, prevent the disease as soon as possible and formulate diagnosis and treatment measures.


Assuntos
Epidemias , Varíola dos Macacos , Animais , Humanos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças
8.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Nov 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366571

RESUMO

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has become the most far-reaching public health crisis of modern times. Several efforts are underway to unravel its root cause as well as to proffer adequate preventive or inhibitive measures. Zoonotic spillover of the causative virus from an animal reservoir to the human population is being studied as the most likely event leading to the pandemic. Consequently, it is important to consider viral evolution and the process of spread within zoonotic anthropogenic transmission cycles as a global public health impact. The diverse routes of interspecies transmission of SARS-CoV-2 offer great potential for a future reservoir of pandemic viruses evolving from the current SARS-CoV-2 pandemic circulation. To mitigate possible future infectious disease outbreaks in Africa and elsewhere, there is an urgent need for adequate global surveillance, prevention, and control measures that must include a focus on known and novel emerging zoonotic pathogens through a one health approach. Human immunization efforts should be approached equally through the transfer of cutting-edge technology for vaccine manufacturing throughout the world to ensure global public health and one health.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animais , Humanos , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(21)2022 Nov 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36362199

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a severe zoonotic infectious disease caused by the infection of the Brucella, which is widespread and causes considerable economic losses in underdeveloped areas. Brucella is a facultative intracellular bacteria whose main target cells for infection are macrophages, placental trophoblast cells and dendritic cells. The main clinical signs of Brucella infection in livestock are reproductive disorders and abortion. At present, the pathogenesis of placentitis or abortion caused by Brucella in livestock is not fully understood, and further research on the effect of Brucella on placental development is still necessary. This review will mainly introduce the research progress of Brucella infection of placental trophoblast cells as well as the inflammatory response caused by it, explaining the molecular regulation mechanism of Brucella leading to reproductive system disorders and abortion, and also to provide the scientific basis for revealing the pathogenesis and infection mechanism of Brucella.


Assuntos
Aborto Espontâneo , Brucella , Brucelose , Animais , Feminino , Gravidez , Humanos , Trofoblastos/patologia , Placenta/patologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Brucelose/microbiologia , Zoonoses/patologia , Aborto Espontâneo/patologia
11.
BMJ Open ; 12(11): e058437, 2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36379648

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The increasing incidence of pathogen transmission from animals to humans (zoonotic spillover events) has been attributed to behavioural practices and ecological and socioeconomic change. As these events sometimes involve pathogens with epidemic or pandemic potential, they pose a serious threat to population health. Public policies may play a key role in preventing these events. The aim of this review is to identify evaluations of public policies that target the determinants of zoonotic spillover, examining approaches taken to evaluation, choice of outcomes measures and evidence of effectiveness. Our approach to identifying and analysing this literature will be informed by a One Health lens, acknowledging the interconnectedness of human, animal and environmental health. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A systematic scoping review methodology will be used. To identify articles, we will search Medline, SCOPUS, Web of Science and Global Health in May 2021 using search terms combining animal health and the animal-human interface, public policy, prevention and zoonoses. We will screen titles and abstracts and extract data according to published guidelines for scoping reviews. All evaluations of public policies aiming to prevent zoonotic spillover events will be eligible for inclusion. We will summarise key data from each study, mapping policies along the spillover pathway and outlining the range of policies, approaches to evaluation and outcome measures. Review findings will provide a useful reference for researchers and practitioners, outlining the state of the evaluative evidence around policies to prevent zoonotic spillover. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Formal ethical approval is not required, because the study does not involve primary data collection. The findings of this study will be disseminated through a peer-reviewed publication, presentations and summaries for key stakeholders.


Assuntos
Projetos de Pesquisa , Zoonoses , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Política de Saúde , Avaliação de Resultados em Cuidados de Saúde , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto
12.
Viruses ; 14(11)2022 Oct 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36366429

RESUMO

The interferon-induced myxovirus resistance protein A (MxA) is a potent restriction factor that prevents zoonotic infection from influenza A virus (IAV) subtype H7N9. Individuals expressing antivirally inactive MxA variants are highly susceptible to these infections. However, human-adapted IAVs have acquired specific mutations in the viral nucleoprotein (NP) that allow escape from MxA-mediated restriction but that have not been observed in MxA-sensitive, human H7N9 isolates. To date, it is unknown whether H7N9 can adapt to escape MxA-mediated restriction. To study this, we infected Rag2-knockout (Rag2-/-) mice with a defect in T and B cell maturation carrying a human MxA transgene (MxAtg/-Rag2-/-). In these mice, the virus could replicate for several weeks facilitating host adaptation. In MxAtg/-Rag2-/-, but not in Rag2-/- mice, the well-described mammalian adaptation E627K in the viral polymerase subunit PB2 was acquired, but no variants with MxA escape mutations in NP were detected. Utilizing reverse genetics, we could show that acquisition of PB2 E627K allowed partial evasion from MxA restriction in MxAtg/tg mice. However, pretreatment with type I interferon decreased viral replication in these mice, suggesting that PB2 E627K is not a true MxA escape mutation. Based on these results, we speculate that it might be difficult for H7N9 to acquire MxA escape mutations in the viral NP. This is consistent with previous findings showing that MxA escape mutations cause severe attenuation of IAVs of avian origin.


Assuntos
Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Influenza Humana , Animais , Humanos , Camundongos , Subtipo H7N9 do Vírus da Influenza A/genética , Mamíferos , Mutação , Nucleoproteínas/genética , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses , Proteínas de Resistência a Myxovirus/metabolismo
14.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 12: 1014530, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36325463

RESUMO

Purpose: Leptospirosis is a zoonotic disease caused by pathogenic spirochetes of the genus Leptospira. However, there is currently no consensual definition or diagnostic criteria for severe and different forms of leptospirosis. Therefore, more insight on clinical manifestations, risk factors, and outcomes of leptospirosis is warranted. The identification of leptospirosis with distinct clinical manifestations and prognosis in our population. Methods: Multiple correspondence analysis and hierarchical classification on principal components were presented to identify different clinical types of leptospirosis. The outcomes were clinical phenotypes, laboratory and imaging findings, and prognosis. Results: The 95 enrolled patients had median values of 54.0 years (39.0-65.0) for age, 9.0 (7.0-14.0) for total hospital stay lengths, of whom 86.3% was male and 40.0% was transferred to ICU. Three clinical types were distinguished: mild leptospirosis (n=43, 45.3%) with less organ dysfunction and shorter hospital stays; respiratory leptospirosis (n=28, 29.5%) with hemoptysis, and respiratory and circulatory failure; and hepato-renal leptospirosis (n=24, 25.3%) with worst liver and kidney dysfunction. Total hospital mortality was 15.8% and was associated with dyspnea and high levels of neutrophil counts. Conclusions: The identification of leptospirosis with distinct clinical manifestations and prognosis in our population may assist clinicians to distinguish leptospirosis-like disease. Moreover, dyspnea and neutrophil count were found to be independent risk factors for severe leptospirosis progression.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Masculino , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Estudos Retrospectivos , Zoonoses , Dispneia/complicações
15.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 11(1): 109, 2022 Oct 22.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36273213

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Zoonoses are public health threats that cause severe damage worldwide. Zoonoses constitute a key indicator of One Health (OH) and the OH approach is being applied for zoonosis control programmes of zoonotic diseases. In a very recent study, we developed an evaluation system for OH performance through the global OH index (GOHI). This study applied the GOHI to evaluate OH performance for zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: The framework for the OH index on zoonoses (OHIZ) was constructed including five indicators, 15 subindicators and 28 datasets. Publicly available data were referenced to generate the OHIZ database which included both qualitative and quantitative indicators for all sub-Sahara African countries (n = 48). The GOHI algorithm was used to estimate scores for OHIZ. Indicator weights were calculated by adopting the fuzzy analytical hierarchy process. RESULTS: Overall, five indicators associated with weights were generated as follows: source of infection (23.70%), route of transmission (25.31%), targeted population (19.09%), capacity building (16.77%), and outcomes/case studies (15.13%). Following the indicators, a total of 37 sub-Sahara African countries aligned with OHIZ validation, while 11 territories were excluded for unfit or missing data. The OHIZ average score of sub-Saharan Africa was estimated at 53.67/100. The highest score was 71.99 from South Africa, while the lowest score was 40.51 from Benin. It is also worth mentioning that Sub-Sahara African countries had high performance in many subindicators associated with zoonoses, e.g., surveillance and response, vector and reservoir interventions, and natural protected areas, which suggests that this region had a certain capacity in control and prevention or responses to zoonotic events. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals that it is possible to perform OH evaluation for zoonoses in sub-Saharan Africa by OHIZ. Findings from this study provide preliminary research information in advancing knowledge of the evidenced risks to strengthen strategies for effective control of zoonoses and to support the prevention of zoonotic events.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Animais , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Saúde Pública , Saúde Global , África do Sul
16.
Zhonghua Yu Fang Yi Xue Za Zhi ; 56(10): 1411-1415, 2022 Oct 06.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36274606

RESUMO

Monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by monkeypox virus. Monkeypox virus belongs to the Orthopoxviruses genus in the Poxviridae family, which is regarded as the most important Orthopoxvirus infection in human beings after the extinction of smallpox. Since the first human monkeypox case was reported in the Democratic Republic of the Congo in 1970, monkeypox has become endemic in Central and West African. From May 6 to July 15, 2022, monkeypox has broken out in many countries. Monkeypox cases have been detected in 62 countries and regions. Moreover, human to human transmission has occurred and attracted high global attention. Monkeypox virus has been discovered for more than 60 years, but the understanding and research of its natural host, epidemiological characteristics and treatment are still relatively limited. Therefore, this study analyzes the epidemic situation, the possible causes of the outbreak and the future key research directions, and puts forward countermeasures to provide scientific basis for the prevention and control of monkeypox.


Assuntos
Varíola dos Macacos , Infecções por Poxviridae , Animais , Humanos , Vírus da Varíola dos Macacos , Varíola dos Macacos/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Infecções por Poxviridae/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
17.
Parasite ; 29: 47, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36269100

RESUMO

Leishmania parasites can cause zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) by circulating between humans, rodents, and sandflies in Iran. In this study, published data were collected from scientific sources such as Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Springer, ResearchGate, Wiley Online, Ovid, Ebsco, Cochrane Library, Google scholar, and SID. Keywords searched in the articles, theses, and abstracts from 1983 to 2021 were cutaneous leishmaniasis, epidemiology, reservoir, vector, climatic factors, identification, and Iran. This review revealed that CL was prevalent in the west of Iran, while the center and south of Iran were also involved in recent years. The lack of facilities in suburban regions was an aggravating factor in the human community. Some parts of southern Iran were prominent foci of CL due the presence of potential rodent hosts in these regions. Rhombomys opimus, Meriones lybicus, and Tatera indica were well-documented species for hosting the Leishmania species in Iran. Moreover, R. opimus has been found with a coinfection of Leishmania major and L. turanica from the northeast and center of Iran. Mashhad, Kerman, Yazd, and sometimes Shiraz and Tehran foci were distinct areas for L. tropica. Molecular identifications using genomic diagnosis of kDNA and ITS1 fragments of the parasite indicated that there is heterogeneity in leishmaniasis in different parts of the country. Although cutaneous leishmaniasis has been a predicament for the health system, it is relatively under control in Iran.


Title: Leishmaniose cutanée en Iran : une synthèse des aspects épidémiologiques, mettant l'accent sur les découvertes moléculaires. Abstract: Les parasites Leishmania peuvent établir une leishmaniose cutanée zoonotique (LC) en circulant entre les humains, les rongeurs et les phlébotomes en Iran. Dans cette étude, les données publiées ont été collectées à partir de ressources scientifiques telles que Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, Springer, ResearchGate, Wiley Online, Ovid, Ebsco, Cochrane Library, Google Scholar et SID. Les mots-clés recherchés dans les articles, les thèses et les résumés de 1983 à 2021 étaient leishmaniose cutanée, épidémiologie, réservoir, vecteur, facteurs climatiques, identification et Iran. Cet examen a révélé que la LC est répandue dans l'ouest de l'Iran, tandis que le centre et le sud de l'Iran sont également impliqués ces dernières années. Le manque d'équipements dans les régions suburbaines est un facteur aggravant dans la communauté humaine. Certaines parties du sud de l'Iran sont des foyers importants de LC en raison de la présence d'hôtes potentiels de rongeurs dans ces régions. Rhombomys opimus, Meriones lybicus et Tatera indica sont des espèces bien documentées pour héberger les espèces de Leishmania en Iran. De plus, R. opimus a été trouvé avec une co-infection de Leishmania major et L. turanica au nord-est et au centre de l'Iran. Mashhad, Kerman, Yazd et parfois des foyers de Shiraz et de Téhéran sont des zones distinctes pour L. tropica. Les identifications moléculaires utilisant le diagnostic génomique des fragments d'ADNk et ITS1 du parasite ont indiqué qu'il existe une hétérogénéité dans la leishmaniose dans différentes parties du pays. Bien que la leishmaniose cutanée ait été une situation difficile pour le système de santé, elle est relativement contrôlée en Iran.


Assuntos
Leishmania major , Leishmaniose Cutânea , Animais , Humanos , DNA de Cinetoplasto , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/parasitologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/epidemiologia , Leishmaniose Cutânea/parasitologia , Leishmania major/genética , Gerbillinae/parasitologia
18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 119(42): e2202871119, 2022 10 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36215506

RESUMO

COVID-19 is the latest zoonotic RNA virus epidemic of concern. Learning how it began and spread will help to determine how to reduce the risk of future events. We review major RNA virus outbreaks since 1967 to identify common features and opportunities to prevent emergence, including ancestral viral origins in birds, bats, and other mammals; animal reservoirs and intermediate hosts; and pathways for zoonotic spillover and community spread, leading to local, regional, or international outbreaks. The increasing scientific evidence concerning the origins of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) is most consistent with a zoonotic origin and a spillover pathway from wildlife to people via wildlife farming and the wildlife trade. We apply what we know about these outbreaks to identify relevant, feasible, and implementable interventions. We identify three primary targets for pandemic prevention and preparedness: first, smart surveillance coupled with epidemiological risk assessment across wildlife-livestock-human (One Health) spillover interfaces; second, research to enhance pandemic preparedness and expedite development of vaccines and therapeutics; and third, strategies to reduce underlying drivers of spillover risk and spread and reduce the influence of misinformation. For all three, continued efforts to improve and integrate biosafety and biosecurity with the implementation of a One Health approach are essential. We discuss new models to address the challenges of creating an inclusive and effective governance structure, with the necessary stable funding for cross-disciplinary collaborative research. Finally, we offer recommendations for feasible actions to close the knowledge gaps across the One Health continuum and improve preparedness and response in the future.


Assuntos
COVID-19 , Quirópteros , Saúde Única , Animais , Animais Selvagens , COVID-19/epidemiologia , COVID-19/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , SARS-CoV-2 , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
19.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(11): 2206-2213, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36285873

RESUMO

Anthrax is a priority zoonosis for control in Vietnam. The geographic distribution of anthrax remains to be defined, challenging our ability to target areas for control. We analyzed human anthrax cases in Vietnam to obtain anthrax incidence at the national and provincial level. Nationally, the trendline for cases remained at ≈61 cases/year throughout the 26 years of available data, indicating control efforts are not effectively reducing disease burden over time. Most anthrax cases occurred in the Northern Midlands and Mountainous regions, and the provinces of Lai Chau, Dien Bien, Lao Cai, Ha Giang, Cao Bang, and Son La experienced some of the highest incidence rates. Based on spatial Bayes smoothed maps, every region of Vietnam experienced human anthrax cases during the study period. Clarifying the distribution of anthrax in Vietnam will enable us to better identify risk areas for improved surveillance, rapid clinical care, and livestock vaccination campaigns.


Assuntos
Antraz , Bacillus anthracis , Animais , Humanos , Antraz/epidemiologia , Antraz/prevenção & controle , Vietnã/epidemiologia , Teorema de Bayes , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Gado , Surtos de Doenças
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