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1.
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi ; 33(4): 424-429, 2021 Mar 24.
Artigo em Chinês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34505454

RESUMO

Food-borne parasitic diseases include meat-borne, fish-borne, plant-borne, water-borne, mollusk-borne and freshwater crustacean-borne parasitic diseases. The review summarizes the current status and control of 6 major food-borne parasitic diseases in China, including clonorchiasus, paragonimiasis, Taenia solium taeniasis, toxoplasmosis, trichinellosis and angiostrongyliasis, aiming to increase the understanding of food-borne parasitic diseases and provide insights into the development of the control strategy for food-borne parasitic diseases. The transmission of food-borne parasitic diseases are predominantly associated with diet, and neither eating raw nor semi-cooked food is the most effective measure to prevent the development of food-borne parasitic diseases.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos , Doenças Parasitárias , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Parasitologia de Alimentos , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Alimentos/prevenção & controle , Doenças Parasitárias/epidemiologia , Doenças Parasitárias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses
2.
Rev Med Suisse ; 17(748): 1466-1473, 2021 Sep 01.
Artigo em Francês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34468098

RESUMO

Hepatic cystic echinococcosis (HCE), is a cosmopolitan parasitic zoonosis. Autochtonous HCE cases are rare and the majority of cases are imported from endemic areas. It induces the development in the liver of Echinococcus granulosus larvae. Extrahepatic localizations are also possible. Cyst development is slow with an often-late diagnosis. In Switzerland, HCE discovery is usually fortuitous, during an abdominal radiological examination. More rarely, an acute clinical picture reveals a complication that can be severe or even fatal. The diagnosis is based on ultrasound findings that allows cyst characterization according to the WHO classification. This guides the therapeutic choice: simple monitoring, albendazole therapy, percutaneous procedures or surgery.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus granulosus , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Animais , Equinococose/diagnóstico por imagem , Equinococose/terapia , Humanos , Fígado , Zoonoses
3.
Front Biosci (Landmark Ed) ; 26(8): 379-386, 2021 08 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34455767

RESUMO

Background: The world faces the challenge posed by the interaction between hosts and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) with potential role for arthropod vectors, and the effect of SARS-CoV-2 variants on acquired immunity, vaccine efficacy and coronavirus disease-19 (COVID-19) pandemic control. Proposal: The characterization of the role played by animal hosts and host-virus interactions is essential to address this challenge. Zoonotic (animal-to-human) and reverse zoonotic (human-to-animal) routes may be involved in virus transmission with a possible still unconfirmed role for arthropod vectors. Herein we propose to consider the risks posed by the possible role of arthropod vectors in COVID-19 and that immunity against SARS-CoV-2 may increase the risk for zoonotic virus transmission. These risks should be considered when evaluating vaccine efficacy and monitoring animal SARS-CoV-2 variants. Conclusion: Virus surveillance, epidemiology, sequencing and evaluation of susceptibility to antibodies and other protective immune mechanisms from vaccinated individuals should be improved. A One Health approach such as the one applied by our group SaBio is necessary for a more effective control of COVID-19 and prevention of future pandemics.


Assuntos
Vetores Artrópodes , COVID-19/transmissão , Animais , COVID-19/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Parasita , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses
4.
mBio ; 12(4): e0194821, 2021 08 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34334001

RESUMO

The origins of the calamitous SARS-CoV-2 pandemic are now the subject of vigorous discussion and debate between two competing hypotheses for how it entered the human population: (i) direct infection from a feral source, likely a bat and possibly with an intermediate mammalian host, and (ii) a lab accident whereby bat isolates infected a researcher, who then passed it to others. Here, we ask whether the tools of science can help resolve the origins question and conclude that while such studies can provide important information, these are unlikely to provide a definitive answer. Currently available data combined with historical precedent from other outbreaks and viewed through the prism of Occam's razor favor the feral source hypothesis, but science can provide only probabilities, not certainty.


Assuntos
COVID-19/transmissão , Vigilância em Saúde Pública/métodos , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Acidentes de Trabalho , Animais , Quirópteros/virologia , Humanos , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Front Cell Infect Microbiol ; 11: 711332, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34381740

RESUMO

Echinococcosis is a zoonosis caused by the larval stage of cestode species that belong to the genus Echinococcus. The infection of hydatid in sheep is very common in China, especially in the northwestern China. Here, we conducted the first systematic review and meta-analysis of echinococcosis in sheep in China. Six databases (PubMed, ScienceDirect, Baidu Library, CNKI, Wanfang, and VIP Chinese Journal Database) were used to retrieve the literatures on echinococcosis in sheep in China from 1983 to 2020, and 74 studies. The random effects model was used in the "meta" package of the R software and the PFT was chosen for rate conversion. The research data were analyzed through subgroup analysis and univariate meta-regression analysis to reveal the factors that lead to research heterogeneity. The combined prevalence of Echinococcus in the selected period was estimated to be 30.9% (192,094/826,406). In the analysis of sampling year, the lowest positive rate was 13.9% (10,296/177,318) after 2011. The highest prevalence of Echinococcus was 51.1% (278/531) in the southwestern China. The highest infection rate in sheep was 20.1% (58,344/597,815) in the liver. The analysis based on age showed that the infection rate of elderly sheep was significantly higher than that in younger animals (P < 0.05). We also evaluated the effects of different geographic and climatic factors on the prevalence of Echinococcus in sheep. The results showed that the prevalence of Echinococcus was higher in high altitude, cold, humid, and high rainfall areas. It is necessary to carry out long-term monitoring and control of echinococcosis, cut off the infection route, and reduce the risk of infection in the high risk areas.


Assuntos
Equinococose , Echinococcus , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Equinococose/epidemiologia , Equinococose/veterinária , Prevalência , Ovinos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
7.
Medicina (B Aires) ; 81(4): 617-623, 2021.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34453805

RESUMO

Hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome is an emerging zoonosis in Argentina, which has low incidence but high death rates. No specific pharmacological therapy is available and symptomatic therapy is the only current alternative. This article presents the pathogenesis of hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome through a review of clinical experiences in neighbor South American countries, mainly Chile, and the experience acquired at the Infectious Diseases Hospital Francisco Javier Muñiz, Buenos Aires, Argentina. The role of early corticosteroid therapy is discussed taking into account that there is insufficient evidence favoring its use in the hantavirus cardiopulmonary syndrome.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus , Hantavirus , Animais , Argentina , Síndrome Pulmonar por Hantavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Zoonoses
8.
Cell Rep ; 36(8): 109614, 2021 08 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34433041

RESUMO

Zoonotic pathogens, such as COVID-19, reside in animal hosts before jumping species to infect humans. The Carnivora, like mink, carry many zoonoses, yet how diversity in host immune genes across species affect pathogen carriage is poorly understood. Here, we describe a progressive evolutionary downregulation of pathogen-sensing inflammasome pathways in Carnivora. This includes the loss of nucleotide-oligomerization domain leucine-rich repeat receptors (NLRs), acquisition of a unique caspase-1/-4 effector fusion protein that processes gasdermin D pore formation without inducing rapid lytic cell death, and the formation of a caspase-8 containing inflammasome that inefficiently processes interleukin-1ß. Inflammasomes regulate gut immunity, but the carnivorous diet has antimicrobial properties that could compensate for the loss of these immune pathways. We speculate that the consequences of systemic inflammasome downregulation, however, can impair host sensing of specific pathogens such that they can reside undetected in the Carnivora.


Assuntos
Carnívoros/metabolismo , Evolução Molecular , Inflamassomos/metabolismo , Zoonoses/patologia , Animais , Caspase 1/genética , Caspase 1/metabolismo , Caspase 8/metabolismo , Caspases Iniciadoras/genética , Caspases Iniciadoras/metabolismo , Morte Celular , Linhagem Celular , Humanos , Interleucina-1beta/metabolismo , Lipopolissacarídeos/farmacologia , Macrófagos/citologia , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Proteínas NLR/genética , Proteínas NLR/metabolismo , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/biossíntese , Proteínas Recombinantes de Fusão/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/genética , Proteínas Recombinantes/metabolismo , Salmonella typhi/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/imunologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
9.
BMC Public Health ; 21(1): 1517, 2021 08 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34362321

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: There is a strong policy impetus for the One Health cross-sectoral approach to address the complex challenge of zoonotic diseases, particularly in low/lower middle income countries (LMICs). Yet the implementation of this approach in LMIC contexts such as India has proven challenging, due partly to the relatively limited practical guidance and understanding on how to foster and sustain cross-sector collaborations. This study addresses this gap by exploring the facilitators of and barriers to successful convergence between the human, animal and environmental health sectors in India. METHODS: A mixed methods study was conducted using a detailed content review of national policy documents and in-depth semi-structured interview data on zoonotic disease management in India. In total, 29 policy documents were reviewed and 15 key informant interviews were undertaken with national and state level policymakers, disease managers and experts operating within the human-animal-environment interface of zoonotic disease control. RESULTS: Our findings suggest that there is limited policy visibility of zoonotic diseases, although global zoonoses, especially those identified to be of pandemic potential by international organisations (e.g. CDC, WHO and OIE) rather than local, high burden endemic diseases, have high recognition in the existing policy agenda setting. Despite the widespread acknowledgement of the importance of cross-sectoral collaboration, a myriad of factors operated to either constrain or facilitate the success of cross-sectoral convergence at different stages (i.e. information-sharing, undertaking common activities and merging resources and infrastructure) of cross-sectoral action. Importantly, participants identified the lack of supportive policies, conflicting departmental priorities and limited institutional capacities as major barriers that hamper effective cross-sectoral collaboration on zoonotic disease control. Building on existing informal inter-personal relationships and collaboration platforms were suggested by participants as the way forward. CONCLUSION: Our findings point to the importance of strengthening existing national policy frameworks as a first step for leveraging cross-sectoral capacity for improved disease surveillance and interventions. This requires the contextual adaptation of the One Health approach in a manner that is sensitive to the underlying socio-political, institutional and cultural context that determines and shapes outcomes of cross-sector collaborative arrangements.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Animais , Humanos , Índia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
10.
Front Public Health ; 9: 644786, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34368040

RESUMO

A critical step for decreasing zoonotic disease threats is to have a good understanding of the associated risks. Hunters frequently handle potentially infected birds, so they are more at risk of being exposed to zoonotic avian pathogens, including avian influenza viruses (AIVs). The objective of the current study was to gain a better understanding of Cuban hunters' general hunting practices, focusing on their knowledge and risk perception on avian influenza. An anonymous and voluntary semi-structured questionnaire was designed and applied to 398 hunters. Multiple correspondence analyses found relationships with potential exposure of AIVs to people and domestic animals. The main associated risks factors identified were not taking the annual flu vaccine (60.1%) and not cleaning hunting knives (26.3%); Direct contact with water (32.1%), cleaning wild birds at home (33.2%); receiving assistance during bird cleaning (41.9%), keeping poultry at home (56.5%) and feeding domestic animals with wild bird leftovers (30.3%) were also identified as significant risk factors. The lack of use of some protective measures reported by hunters had no relationship with their awareness on avian influenza, which may imply a lack of such knowledge. The results evidenced that more effective risk communication strategies about the consequences of AIVs infecting human or other animals, and the importance of reducing such risks, are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Vírus da Influenza A , Influenza Aviária , Animais , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Percepção , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 45(3): 171-175, 2021 08 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34346871

RESUMO

Objective: European hares (Lepus europaeus) are among the most important animals that are connected with humans in many countries and natural life. Hares are important for public health, since they carry many zoonotic diseases, such as Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Francisella tularensis and Toxoplasma gondii. The study aimed to determine the seroprevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi, Francisella tularensis and T. gondii and the potential zoonotic risk posed by hares that live in provinces of Turkey. Methods: Blood samples were collected from hares during the official hunting season. Serum samples were examined serologically by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay for E. cuniculi, Sabin-Feldman dye test was used to examine T. gondii, while micro-agglutination test was used to examine F. tularensis. Results: Of the total of 42 hares examined, one (2.4%) was found positive for E. cuniculi, two (4.8%) were found positive for T. gondii and one (2.4%) was found positive for F. tularensis. Conclusion: Anti-T. gondii and anti-E. cuniculi antibodies were serologically detected in hares for the first time in Turkey. Furthermore, this is the first study reporting the seropositivity of F. tularensis infection in hares.


Assuntos
Encephalitozoon cuniculi , Francisella tularensis , Lebres , Toxoplasma , Animais , Humanos , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
12.
World J Gastroenterol ; 27(28): 4603-4638, 2021 Jul 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34366625

RESUMO

In this review the current overall knowledge on hepatitis A, B, C, D, and E will be discussed. These diseases are all characterized by liver inflammation but have significant differences in distribution, transmission routes, and outcomes. Hepatitis B virus and hepatitis C virus are transmitted by exposure to infected blood, and in addition to acute infection, they can cause chronic hepatitis, which in turn can evolve into cirrhosis. It is estimated that more than 300 million people suffer from chronic hepatitis B or C worldwide. Hepatitis D virus, which is also transmitted by blood, only affects hepatitis B virus infected people, and this dual infection results in worse liver-related outcomes. Hepatitis A and E spread via the fecal-oral route, which corresponds mainly to the ingestion of food or water contaminated with infected stools. However, in developed countries hepatitis E is predominantly a zoonosis. Although hepatitis A virus and hepatitis E virus are usually responsible for a self-limiting hepatitis, a serious, rarely fatal illness is also possible, and in immunosuppressed patients, such as organ transplant recipients, hepatitis E virus infection can become chronic. The description of goals achieved, unresolved issues, and the latest research on this topic may make it possible to speculate on future scenarios in the world of viral hepatitis.


Assuntos
Hepatite B Crônica , Vírus da Hepatite E , Hepatite E , Animais , Objetivos , Hepatite E/diagnóstico , Hepatite E/epidemiologia , Humanos , Zoonoses
13.
Comp Immunol Microbiol Infect Dis ; 78: 101689, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34225227

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most widespread zoonosis worldwide, and it can cause reproductive failures in livestock, while in humans may vary from a mild fever to multi-organ failure and death. Due to this, in this study, we evaluated the usefulness of the segment encoding LigB C-terminus region, only present in pathogenic as target for a diagnostic PCR. This new PCR yielded a 100 % positivity for pathogenic Leptospira species and no cross-reactivity was found with intermediate or non-pathogenic species, or with other microorganisms, demostrating its high analytical specificity. The estimated analytical sensitivity was higher in serum samples than in blood or urine samples (6-9 × 102 lept/mL and 6-9 × 105 and 6-9 × 106 lept/mL, respectively). Multiple sequence alignment of the target region from different pathogenic Leptospira species confirmed that this gene region is highly conserved among these species, with few single nucleotide polymorphisms. The ligb-ct PCR here developed appears as a useful tool for the molecular diagnosis of leptospirosis.


Assuntos
Leptospira , Leptospirose , Animais , Leptospira/genética , Leptospirose/diagnóstico , Leptospirose/veterinária , Fases de Leitura Aberta , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase/veterinária , Zoonoses
14.
Curr Biol ; 31(16): 3671-3677.e3, 2021 08 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237267

RESUMO

Most new infectious diseases emerge when pathogens transfer from animals to humans.1,2 The suspected origin of the COVID pandemic in a wildlife wet market has resurfaced debates on the role of wildlife trade as a potential source of emerging zoonotic diseases.3-5 Yet there are no studies quantitatively assessing zoonotic disease risk associated with wildlife trade. Combining data on mammal species hosting zoonotic viruses and mammals known to be in current and future wildlife trade,6 we found that one-quarter (26.5%) of the mammals in wildlife trade harbor 75% of known zoonotic viruses, a level much higher than domesticated and non-traded mammals. The traded mammals also harbor distinct compositions of zoonotic viruses and different host reservoirs from non-traded and domesticated mammals. Furthermore, we highlight that primates, ungulates, carnivores, and bats represent significant zoonotic disease risks as they host 132 (58%) of 226 known zoonotic viruses in present wildlife trade, whereas species of bats, rodents, and marsupials represent significant zoonotic disease risks in future wildlife trade. Thus, the risk of carrying zoonotic diseases is not equal for all mammal species in wildlife trade. Overall, our findings strengthen the evidence that wildlife trade and zoonotic disease risks are strongly associated, and that mitigation measures should prioritize species with the highest risk of carrying zoonotic viruses. Curbing the sales of wildlife products and developing principles that support the sustainable and healthy trade of wildlife could be cost-effective investments given the potential risk and consequences of zoonotic outbreaks.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Comércio , Mamíferos/virologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Desenvolvimento Sustentável , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Sci Immunol ; 6(61)2021 07 29.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34326184

RESUMO

The spillover of animal coronaviruses (aCoVs) to humans has caused SARS, MERS, and COVID-19. While antibody responses displaying cross-reactivity between SARS-CoV-2 and seasonal/common cold human coronaviruses (hCoVs) have been reported, potential cross-reactivity with aCoVs and the diagnostic implications are incompletely understood. Here, we probed for antibody binding against all seven hCoVs and 49 aCoVs represented as 12,924 peptides within a phage-displayed antigen library. Antibody repertoires of 269 recovered COVID-19 patients showed distinct changes compared to 260 unexposed pre-pandemic controls, not limited to binding of SARS-CoV-2 antigens but including binding to antigens from hCoVs and aCoVs with shared motifs to SARS-CoV-2. We isolated broadly reactive monoclonal antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients that bind a shared motif of SARS-CoV-2, hCoV-OC43, hCoV-HKU1, and several aCoVs, demonstrating that interspecies cross-reactivity can be mediated by a single immunoglobulin. Employing antibody binding data against the entire CoV antigen library allowed accurate discrimination of recovered COVID-19 patients from unexposed individuals by machine learning. Leaving out SARS-CoV-2 antigens and relying solely on antibody binding to other hCoVs and aCoVs achieved equally accurate detection of SARS-CoV-2 infection. The ability to detect SARS-CoV-2 infection without knowledge of its unique antigens solely from cross-reactive antibody responses against other hCoVs and aCoVs suggests a potential diagnostic strategy for the early stage of future pandemics. Creating regularly updated antigen libraries representing the animal coronavirome can provide the basis for a serological assay already poised to identify infected individuals following a future zoonotic transmission event.


Assuntos
Anticorpos Antivirais/imunologia , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Coronavirus/imunologia , Biblioteca de Peptídeos , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Reações Cruzadas , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses
16.
Parasite ; 28: 57, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283021

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an obligate intracellular parasitic fungi that infects a wide range of mammalian hosts. However, the literature is lacking information regarding the presence and diversity of E. bieneusi genotypes in domesticated dogs in Northwestern China. Fecal samples from 604 pet dogs were obtained in 5 cities (Urumqi, Korla, Hotan, Aksu, and Shihezi) in Xinjiang. Screening for E. bieneusi was performed, and isolates were genotyped via nested-PCR amplification of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) of nuclear ribosomal DNA. The infection rate of E. bieneusi was 6.3% (38/604). The prevalence of E. bieneusi infections in adult animals (>1 year, 10.3%, 15/145) was higher than that in younger (≤1 year) dogs (5.0%, 23/459), which was statistically significant (p = 0.021). No significant difference was observed between the different collection sites or between sexes. Eight distinct genotypes were identified, including 5 known genotypes (PtEb IX, EbpC, D, CD9, and Type IV) and 3 novel genotypes (CD11, CD12, CD13). The most prevalent was genotype PtEb IX, being observed in 50.0% (19/38) of the samples, followed by EbpC (31.6%, 12/38), D (5.3%, 2/38), and the remaining genotypes (CD9, Type IV, CD11, CD12, and CD13) were observed in 1 sample (2.6%, 1/38) each. These findings suggest that genotypes PtEb IX and CD9 are canine host-adapted, and likely pose little risk of zoonotic transmission. Moreover, known zoonotic genotypes EbpC, D, and Type IV represent a public health concern and should undergo further molecular epidemiological investigation.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon , Microsporidiose , Animais , China/epidemiologia , DNA Espaçador Ribossômico/genética , Cães , Enterocytozoon/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Microsporidiose/veterinária , Filogenia , Prevalência , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
17.
Microb Pathog ; 158: 105096, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34273476

RESUMO

Cryptosporidiosis is an important zoonosis caused by Cryptosporidium. This disease causes a global public health problem. The cat is considered to be one of the potential hosts for transmitting Cryptosporidium to humans. In this study, a global meta-analysis for Cryptosporidium infection in cats was performed. The articles related to Cryptosporidium infection in cats were systematically searched in databases China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), Wanfang data, VIP Chinese Journal Database, PubMed, and ScienceDirect. Finally, 92 articles published from 1988 to 2021, which met the criteria of systematic review and meta-analysis, were collected. During the selected period, the overall prevalence of Cryptosporidium among cats was identified to be 6.0%. The prevalence of Cryptosporidium detected by microscopy, coproantigens, and molecular biology methods were 4.2%, 8.2%, and 5.0%, respectively. Among 9 species/genotypes (C. felis, C. parvum, C. muris, Cryptosporidium rat genotype IV, C. baileyi, C. ryanae, C. hominis, Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III and most closely related to Cryptosporidium sp. rat genotype III), the prevalence of C. parvum (4.2%) was significantly higher than that of other species/genotypes. Among five continents, the prevalence of Cryptosporidium in Africa (30.5%) was significantly higher than in other continents. We also analyzed the effects of different geographical factors (longitude, latitude, altitude, mean temperature, precipitation, and humidity) on Cryptosporidium infection among cats. The results showed that cryptosporidiosis was common in cats all over the world. This systematic review and meta-analysis has systematically introduced the global epidemiology of Cryptosporidium in cats and correlated risk factors. Health authorities, doctors, veterinarians and cat owners' awareness of the prevalence, risk factors and complications of Cryptosporidium are important for the development of effective prevention strategies for cryptosporidiosis.


Assuntos
Criptosporidiose , Cryptosporidium , Animais , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Cryptosporidium/genética , Fezes , Genótipo , Humanos , Prevalência , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
18.
Sensors (Basel) ; 21(13)2021 Jul 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34283108

RESUMO

Emerging and recurrent outbreaks caused by zoonotic agents pose a public health risk. They result in morbidity and mortality in humans and significant losses in the livestock and food industries. This highlights the need for rapid surveillance methods. Despite the high reliability of conventional pathogen detection methods, they have high detection limits and are time-consuming and not suitable for on-site analysis. Furthermore, the unpredictable spread of zoonotic infections due to a complex combination of risk factors urges the development of innovative technologies to overcome current limitations in early warning and detection. Biosensing, in particular, is highlighted here, as it offers rapid and cost-effective devices for use at the site of infection while increasing the sensitivity of detection. Portuguese research in biosensors for zoonotic pathogens is the focus of this review. This branch of research produces exciting and innovative devices for the study of the most widespread pathogenic bacteria. The studies presented here relate to the different classes of pathogens whose characteristics and routes of infection are also described. Many advances have been made in recent years, and Portuguese research teams have increased publications in this field. However, biosensing still needs to be extended to other pathogens, including potentially pandemic viruses. In addition, the use of biosensors as part of routine diagnostics in hospitals for humans, in animal infections for veterinary medicine, and food control has not yet been achieved. Therefore, a convergence of Portuguese efforts with global studies on biosensors to control emerging zoonotic diseases is foreseen for the future.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Vírus , Animais , Humanos , Portugal , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Zoonoses/diagnóstico
19.
Front Public Health ; 9: 624574, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34249829

RESUMO

Brazil has been promoting essential improvements in health indicators by implementing free-access health programs, which successfully reduced the prevalence of neglected zoonosis in urban areas, such as rabies. Despite constant efforts from the authorities to monitor and control the disease, sylvatic rabies is a current issue in Amazon's communities. The inequalities among Amazon areas challenge the expansion of high-tech services and limit the implementation of active laboratory surveillance to effectively avoid outbreaks in human and non-human hosts, which also reproduces a panorama of vulnerability in risk communities. Because rabies is a preventable disease, the prevalence in the particular context of the Amazon area highlights the failure of surveillance strategies to predict spillovers and indicates the need to adapt the public policies to a "One Health" approach. Therefore, this work assesses the distribution of free care resources and facilities among Pará's regions in the oriental Amazon; and discusses the challenges of implanting One Health in the particular context of the territory. We indicate a much-needed strengthening of the sylvatic and urban surveillance networks to achieve the "Zero by 30" goal, which is inextricable from multilateral efforts to combat the progressive biome's degradation.


Assuntos
Saúde Única , Vírus da Raiva , Raiva , Animais , Brasil/epidemiologia , Raiva/epidemiologia , Zoonoses
20.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(7)2021 Jul 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34257108

RESUMO

As a greater number of households have pets, the likelihood of zoonotic infections can rise too. Although in most healthy individuals these infections are self-limiting, they are more serious and can lead to adverse outcomes in the immunocompromised. There is minimal information available for the immunocompromised patient who are pet owners or on pet handling. We report a case of cat scratch disease-related sepsis in an immunocompromised patient. This case illustrates the need for a detailed history, including a pet history, in immunocompromised patients presenting with fever of unknown origin and the need for UK-based information for the immunocompromised on pet care and risks associated with having a pet.


Assuntos
Doença da Arranhadura de Gato , Sepse , Animais , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/diagnóstico , Doença da Arranhadura de Gato/tratamento farmacológico , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Animais de Estimação , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses
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