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1.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237734, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817681

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Over the last decades, health systems worldwide have faced a decline in public trust. For marginalized minority populations, who generally suffer from poverty and political exclusion, the roots of this trend go much deeper, establishing a state of bi-directional distrust between them and health institutions. Although studied to a lesser extent compared to trust, distrust does impede health initiatives, such as infectious diseases prevention programs, mostly of so-called Neglected Zoonotic Diseases (NZDs). Where distrust prevails, even trust building actions such as defining rights and obligations, prioritizing "the greater good" and increasing transparency, are prone to failure. In this study, we deepen the understanding of the concept of distrust through a unique case study of Brucellosis, a prevalent bacterial zoonotic disease endemic to disadvantaged Bedouin communities in southern Israel. METHODS: In the years 2015-2019, we qualitatively studied socio-political aspects in a governmental Brucellosis control campaign in southern Israel. We used in-depth interviews with 38 governmental and private health workers, agriculture and nature preservation workers, livestock owners and community leaders. Further, we conducted participant observation in 10 livestock pens and in policymaking meetings, and collected policy and media documents in order to triangulate the results. RESULTS: We conceptualize three different types of distrust between authorities and marginalized communities-"intention-based distrust", "values-based distrust" and "circular distrust"-to better explain how distrust originates and reinforces itself, reproducing the endemicity of NZDs. Based on that, we portray a practical framework to reduce distrust in health policies, by reframing local discourses, reshaping disease monitoring schemes from enforcement-based to participation-based, and promoting political inclusion of disadvantaged communities. CONCLUSIONS: The suggested analysis and framework redirect health policy objectives to not only acknowledge, contain and reduce the consequences of distrust, but also to strive for societal justice as a tool for health promotion.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Programas Governamentais , Política de Saúde , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Árabes/psicologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Relações Interpessoais , Israel/epidemiologia , Masculino , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Formulação de Políticas , Confiança/psicologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0232305, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32785271

RESUMO

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) that cause severe disease predominantly carry the toxin gene variant stx2a. However, the role of Shiga toxin in the ruminant reservoirs of this zoonotic pathogen is poorly understood and strains that cause severe disease in humans (HUSEC) likely constitute a small and atypical subset of the overall STEC flora. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of stx2a in samples from cattle and to isolate and characterize stx2a-positive E. coli. In nationwide surveys in Sweden and Norway samples were collected from individual cattle or from cattle herds, respectively. Samples were tested for Shiga toxin genes by real-time PCR and amplicon sequencing and stx2a-positive isolates were whole genome sequenced. Among faecal samples from Sweden, stx1 was detected in 37%, stx2 in 53% and stx2a in 5% and in skin (ear) samples in 64%, 79% and 2% respectively. In Norway, 79% of the herds were positive for stx1, 93% for stx2 and 17% for stx2a. Based on amplicon sequencing the most common stx2 types in samples from Swedish cattle were stx2a and stx2d. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) of 39 stx2a-positive isolates collected from both countries revealed substantial diversity with 19 different sequence types. Only a few classical LEE-positive strains similar to HUSEC were found among the stx2a-positive isolates, notably a single O121:H19 and an O26:H11. Lineages known to include LEE-negative HUSEC were also recovered including, such as O113:H21 (sequence type ST-223), O130:H11 (ST-297), and O101:H33 (ST-330). We conclude that E. coli encoding stx2a in cattle are ranging from strains similar to HUSEC to unknown STEC variants. Comparison of isolates from human HUS cases to related STEC from the ruminant reservoirs can help identify combinations of virulence attributes necessary to cause HUS, as well as provide a better understanding of the routes of infection for rare and emerging pathogenic STEC.


Assuntos
Bovinos/microbiologia , Toxina Shiga II/genética , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/genética , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/epidemiologia , Infecções por Escherichia coli/microbiologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Bacteriano , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/epidemiologia , Síndrome Hemolítico-Urêmica/microbiologia , Humanos , Tipagem de Sequências Multilocus , Noruega/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase em Tempo Real , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/citologia , Escherichia coli Shiga Toxigênica/isolamento & purificação , Suécia/epidemiologia , Virulência/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
3.
Nature ; 584(7821): 398-402, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32759999

RESUMO

Land use change-for example, the conversion of natural habitats to agricultural or urban ecosystems-is widely recognized to influence the risk and emergence of zoonotic disease in humans1,2. However, whether such changes in risk are underpinned by predictable ecological changes remains unclear. It has been suggested that habitat disturbance might cause predictable changes in the local diversity and taxonomic composition of potential reservoir hosts, owing to systematic, trait-mediated differences in species resilience to human pressures3,4. Here we analyse 6,801 ecological assemblages and 376 host species worldwide, controlling for research effort, and show that land use has global and systematic effects on local zoonotic host communities. Known wildlife hosts of human-shared pathogens and parasites overall comprise a greater proportion of local species richness (18-72% higher) and total abundance (21-144% higher) in sites under substantial human use (secondary, agricultural and urban ecosystems) compared with nearby undisturbed habitats. The magnitude of this effect varies taxonomically and is strongest for rodent, bat and passerine bird zoonotic host species, which may be one factor that underpins the global importance of these taxa as zoonotic reservoirs. We further show that mammal species that harbour more pathogens overall (either human-shared or non-human-shared) are more likely to occur in human-managed ecosystems, suggesting that these trends may be mediated by ecological or life-history traits that influence both host status and tolerance to human disturbance5,6. Our results suggest that global changes in the mode and the intensity of land use are creating expanding hazardous interfaces between people, livestock and wildlife reservoirs of zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Biodiversidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Aves/microbiologia , Aves/parasitologia , Aves/virologia , Humanos , Mamíferos/microbiologia , Mamíferos/parasitologia , Mamíferos/virologia , Especificidade da Espécie , Zoonoses/transmissão
4.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845922

RESUMO

Modeling the behavior of zoonotic pandemic threats is a key component of their control. Many emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Nipah, and Hendra, mutated from their wild type while circulating in an intermediate host population, usually a domestic species, to become more transmissible among humans, and this transmission route will only become more likely as agriculture and trade intensifies around the world. Passage through an intermediate host enables many otherwise rare diseases to become better adapted to humans, and so understanding this process with accurate mathematical models is necessary to prevent epidemics of emerging zoonoses, guide policy interventions in public health, and predict the behavior of an epidemic. In this paper, we account for a zoonotic disease mutating in an intermediate host by introducing a new mathematical model for disease transmission among three species. We present a model of these disease dynamics, including the equilibria of the system and the basic reproductive number of the pathogen, finding that in the presence of biologically realistic interspecies transmission parameters, a zoonotic disease with the capacity to mutate in an intermediate host population can establish itself in humans even if its R0 in humans is less than 1. This result and model can be used to predict the behavior of any zoonosis with an intermediate host and assist efforts to protect public health.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0231801, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817657

RESUMO

The cricetine rodent Peromyscus leucopus is an important reservoir for several human zoonoses, including Lyme disease, in North America. Akin to hamsters, the white-footed deermouse has been unevenly characterized in comparison to the murid Mus musculus. To further understanding of P. leucopus' total genomic content, we investigated gut microbiomes of an outbred colony of P. leucopus, inbred M. musculus, and a natural population of P. leucopus. Metagenome and whole genome sequencing were combined with microbiology and microscopy approaches. A focus was the genus Lactobacillus, four diverse species of which were isolated from forestomach and feces of colony P. leucopus. Three of the species-L. animalis, L. reuteri, and provisionally-named species "L. peromysci"-were identified in fecal metagenomes of wild P. leucopus but not discernibly in samples from M. musculus. L. johnsonii, the fourth species, was common in M. musculus but absent or sparse in wild P. leucopus. Also identified in both colony and natural populations were a Helicobacter sp. in feces but not stomach, and a Tritrichomonas sp. protozoan in cecum or feces. The gut metagenomes of colony P. leucopus were similar to those of colony M. musculus at the family or higher level and for major subsystems. But there were multiple differences between species and sexes within each species in their gut metagenomes at orthologous gene level. These findings provide a foundation for hypothesis-testing of functions of individual microbial species and for interventions, such as bait vaccines based on an autochthonous bacterium and targeting P. leucopus for transmission-blocking.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal/genética , Peromyscus/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Humanos , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Doença de Lyme/epidemiologia , Doença de Lyme/etiologia , América do Norte , Peromyscus/genética , Zoonoses/genética
6.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236007, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32668449

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is a re-emerging zoonotic disease of high medical importance that affects humans worldwide. Humans or animals acquire an infection with pathogenic leptospires either by direct contact with infected animals or by indirect contact to contaminated environment. Survival of Leptospira spp. in the environment after having been shed via animal urine is thus a key factor to estimate the risk of infection, but not much is known about the tenacity of pathogenic leptospires. Here, the survival time of both a laboratory strain and a field strain of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa in animal urine and their tenacity while drying was investigated and compared at different temperatures (15°C-37°C). Leptospira spp. are also often found in rivers and ponds. As the infection risk for humans and animals also depends on the spreading and survival of Leptospira spp. in these environments, the survival of L. kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa was investigated using a 50-meter-long hose system simulating a water stream. Both strains did not survive in undiluted cattle or dog urine. Comparing different temperatures and dilution media, the laboratory strain survived the longest in diluted cattle urine with a slightly alkaline pH value (3 days), whilst the field strain survived in diluted dog urine with a slightly acid pH value up to a maximum of 24 h. Both strains did not survive drying on a solid surface. In a water stream, leptospires were able to move faster or slower than the average velocity of the water due to their intrinsic mobility but were not able to survive the mechanical damage caused by running water in the hose system. From our results we conclude, that once excreted via animal urine, the leptospires immediately need moisture or a water body to survive and stay infectious.


Assuntos
Doenças do Cão/epidemiologia , Leptospira/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Urina/microbiologia , Poluentes da Água/análise , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Bovinos , Doenças do Cão/microbiologia , Cães , Feminino , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmitidas pela Água/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
7.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet ; 29(3): e012220, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32667504

RESUMO

In this commentary, the authors highlight the importance of basic research in the field of public health regarding the recent pandemic Covid-19, using tick-borne rickettsioses as an example. In addition, they alert politicians, government officials and managers of research funding agencies to increase the allocated financial resources to enhance basic research on public health in Brazil.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Infecções por Rickettsia/epidemiologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Brasil
8.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(6): e0008419, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32603325

RESUMO

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is a human pathogen with a broad range of animal hosts. Initially, E. bieneusi was considered an emerging opportunistic pathogen in immunocompromised, mainly HIV-infected patients, but it has been increasingly reported in apparently healthy individuals globally. As in other African countries, the molecular epidemiology of E. bieneusi in Mozambique remains completely unknown. Therefore, we undertook a study to investigate the occurrence and genetic diversity of E. bieneusi infections in children with gastrointestinal symptoms as well as in asymptomatic children in Mozambique. Individual stool specimens were collected from 1,247 children aged between 0 and 14 years-old living in urban and rural settings in Zambézia (n = 1,097) and Maputo (n = 150) provinces between 2016 and 2019. Samples were analysed for E. bieneusi by nested-PCR targeting the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region of the rRNA gene. All positive amplicons were confirmed and genotyped. Penalised logistic regression (Firth) was used to evaluate risk associations. The overall prevalence of E. bieneusi in this children population was 0.7% (9/1,247). A 10-fold higher prevalence was found in Maputo (4.0%; 6/150) than in Zambézia (0.3%; 3/1,097). All E. bieneusi-positive samples were from children older than 1-year of age, and most (8/9) from asymptomatic children. Nucleotide sequence analysis of the ITS region revealed the presence of four genotypes, three previously reported (Peru11, n = 1; Type IV, n = 2, and S2, n = 2) and a novel genotype (named HhMzEb1, n = 4). Novel genotype HhMzEb1 was identified in both asymptomatic (75%, 3/4) and symptomatic (25%, 1/4) children from a rural area in Maputo province in southern Mozambique. Genotypes HhMzEb1, Peru11, S2, and Type IV belonged to the Group 1 that includes genotypes with low host specificity and the potential for zoonotic and cross-species transmission. Being infected by enteric protozoan parasites and no handwashing were identified as risk associations for E. bieneusi infection. This study reports the first investigation of E. bieneusi genotypes in Mozambique with the identification of three previously reported genotypes in humans as well as a novel genotype (HhMzEb1). Findings highlight the need to conduct additional research to elucidate the epidemiology of E. bieneusi in the country, especially in rural areas where poor hygiene conditions still prevail. Special attention should be paid to the identification of suitable animal and environmental reservoirs of this parasite and to the characterization of transmission pathways.


Assuntos
Enterocytozoon/genética , Enterocytozoon/isolamento & purificação , Genótipo , Microsporidiose/microbiologia , Epidemiologia Molecular , Adolescente , África/epidemiologia , Animais , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Estudos Transversais , DNA Fúngico/análise , Enterocytozoon/classificação , Feminino , Variação Genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Lactente , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Microsporidiose/epidemiologia , Moçambique/epidemiologia , Filogenia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Estudos Prospectivos , População Rural , Análise de Sequência , População Urbana , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
9.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(7): e0008437, 2020 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32701971

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Leptospirosis is one of the most significant zoonoses across the world not only because of its impact on human and animal health but also because of the economic and social impact on agrarian communities. Leptospirosis is endemic in Sri Lanka where paddy farming activities, the use of draught animals in agriculture, and peridomestic animals in urban and rural areas play important roles in maintaining the infection cycle of pathogenic Leptospira, especially concerning animals as a potential reservoir. In this study, an environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding methodology was applied in two different agro-ecological regions of Sri Lanka to understand the eco-epidemiology of leptospirosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Irrigation water samples were collected in Kandy District (wet zone mid-country region 2) and Girandurukotte, Badulla District (intermediate zone low-country region 2); and analysed for the presence of pathogenic Leptospira, associated microbiome and the potential reservoir animals. Briefly, we generated PCR products for high-throughput sequencing of multiple amplicons through next-generation sequencing. The analysis of eDNA showed different environmental microbiomes in both regions and a higher diversity of Leptospira species circulating in Kandy than in Girandurukotte. Moreover, the number of sequence reads of pathogenic Leptospira species associated with clinical cases such as L. interrogans was higher in Kandy than in Girandurukotte. Kandy also showed more animal species associated with pathogenic bacterial species than Girandurukotte. Finally, several pathogenic bacterial species including Arcobacter cryaerophilus, responsible for abortion in animals, was shown to be associated with pathogenic Leptospira. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Leptospirosis has been considered to be endemic in wet regions, consistently, leptospiral sequences were detected strongly in Kandy. The great Leptospira species diversity in Kandy observed in this study shows that the etiological agents of leptospirosis in Sri Lanka might be underestimated. Furthermore, our eDNA metabarcoding can be used to discriminate bacterial and animal species diversity in different regions and to explore environmental microbiomes to identify other associated bacterial pathogens in the environment.


Assuntos
Água Doce/microbiologia , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , Irrigação Agrícola , Animais , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Ambiental/genética , Humanos , Leptospira/classificação , Leptospira/genética , Filogenia , Sri Lanka/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
10.
Int J Food Microbiol ; 331: 108716, 2020 Oct 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32521375

RESUMO

Q fever is a common zoonotic disease with worldwide distribution. The causative agent of Q fever is Coxiella burnetii, a gram-negative and polymorphic rod bacterium. Sheep and goats are the primary reservoirs of this disease, although a variety of animal species can be infected. The main route of Q fever transmission from animals to humans is the inhalation of contaminated aerosols with C. burnetii. The bacterium is excreted in milk of infected animals and therefore; the consumption of unpasteurized milk and dairy products might be a route of coxiella burnetii transmission from animals to humans. The present study was conducted to determine the prevalence of C. burnetii in milk samples collected from sheep and goats in west Azerbaijan province, Iran. During 2018, a total number of 420 milk samples were collected from sheep (n = 210) and goats (n = 210) of different regions of the province. All milk samples were subjected to DNA extraction and examined by a highly and specific nested-PCR method. The results showed that 51 (12.1%) (95% CI: 9.3%-15.6%) examined samples [sheep; n = 16 (7.6%) and goat; n = 35 (16.6%)] were positive for C. burnetii. The prevalence of C. burnetii in goat milk samples was significantly higher than sheep milk samples (P < 0.05). The shedding of C. burnetii in milk was significantly higher in summer (25%) (P < 0.05, 95% CI: 17.7%-34%) than the other seasons. It was concluded that sheep and goat populations in west Azerbaijan play an important role in the epidemiology of Q fever.


Assuntos
Coxiella burnetii/genética , Doenças das Cabras/microbiologia , Leite/microbiologia , Febre Q/microbiologia , Doenças dos Ovinos/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Coxiella burnetii/isolamento & purificação , DNA Bacteriano/genética , DNA Bacteriano/isolamento & purificação , Doenças das Cabras/transmissão , Cabras , Humanos , Irã (Geográfico)/epidemiologia , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Prevalência , Febre Q/epidemiologia , Ovinos , Doenças dos Ovinos/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
11.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(6): e1007806, 2020 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497104

RESUMO

Coagulase-positive staphylococci, which frequently colonize the mucosal surfaces of animals, also cause a spectrum of opportunistic infections including skin and soft tissue infections, urinary tract infections, pneumonia, and bacteremia. However, recent advances in bacterial identification have revealed that these common veterinary pathogens are in fact zoonoses that cause serious infections in human patients. The global spread of multidrug-resistant zoonotic staphylococci, in particular the emergence of methicillin-resistant organisms, is now a serious threat to both animal and human welfare. Accordingly, new therapeutic targets that can be exploited to combat staphylococcal infections are urgently needed. Enzymes of the methylerythritol phosphate pathway (MEP) of isoprenoid biosynthesis represent potential targets for treating zoonotic staphylococci. Here we demonstrate that fosmidomycin (FSM) inhibits the first step of the isoprenoid biosynthetic pathway catalyzed by deoxyxylulose phosphate reductoisomerase (DXR) in staphylococci. In addition, we have both enzymatically and structurally determined the mechanism by which FSM elicits its effect. Using a forward genetic screen, the glycerol-3-phosphate transporter GlpT that facilitates FSM uptake was identified in two zoonotic staphylococci, Staphylococcus schleiferi and Staphylococcus pseudintermedius. A series of lipophilic ester prodrugs (termed MEPicides) structurally related to FSM were synthesized, and data indicate that the presence of the prodrug moiety not only substantially increased potency of the inhibitors against staphylococci but also bypassed the need for GlpT-mediated cellular transport. Collectively, our data indicate that the prodrug MEPicides selectively and robustly inhibit DXR in zoonotic staphylococci, and further, that DXR represents a promising, druggable target for future development.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla , Pró-Fármacos , Infecções Estafilocócicas , Staphylococcus , Zoonoses , Animais , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/efeitos dos fármacos , Farmacorresistência Bacteriana Múltipla/genética , Humanos , Pró-Fármacos/química , Pró-Fármacos/farmacologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções Estafilocócicas/genética , Infecções Estafilocócicas/metabolismo , Staphylococcus/genética , Staphylococcus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Zoonoses/tratamento farmacológico , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/metabolismo , Zoonoses/microbiologia
12.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008228, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32463813

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Mycobacterium ulcerans is an environmental mycobacterium responsible for an opportunistic, noncontagious tropical infection named Buruli ulcer that necrotizes the skin and the subcutaneous tissues. M. ulcerans is thought to penetrate through breached skin after contact with contaminated wetland environments, yet the exact biotopes where M. ulcerans occurs remain elusive, hence obscuring the epidemiological chain of transmission of this opportunistic pathogen. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Polymerase chain reaction investigations detected M. ulcerans in 39/46 (84.7%) rhizosphere specimens collected in 13 Buruli ulcer-endemic areas in Côte d'Ivoire and 3/20 (15%) specimens collected in a nonendemic area (P = 5.73.E-7); only 3/63 (4.7%) sediment specimens from sediment surrounding the rhizospheres were positive in endemic area (P = 6.51.E-12). High-throughput sequencing further detected three PCR-positive plants, Croton hirtus, Corton kongensis and Oriza sativa var. japonica (rice), in the rectal content of two M. ulcerans-positive wild Thryonomys swinderianus grasscutters that were hunted in Buruli ulcer-endemic areas, while no PCR-positive plants were detected in the rectal content of two negative control animals that were farmed in a nonendemic area. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our data suggest an alimentary chain of transmission of M. ulcerans from plants to T. swinderianus grasscutters and people that utilize T. swinderianus as bush meat in Buruli ulcer-endemic areas in Côte d'Ivoire. Guidance to adopt protective measures and avoid any direct contact with potentially contaminated rhizospheres and with grasscutter intestinal content when preparing the animals for cooking should be established for at-risk populations.


Assuntos
Úlcera de Buruli/microbiologia , Úlcera de Buruli/transmissão , Mycobacterium ulcerans/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Úlcera de Buruli/epidemiologia , Costa do Marfim/epidemiologia , Croton/microbiologia , Fezes/microbiologia , Sedimentos Geológicos/microbiologia , Humanos , Mycobacterium ulcerans/classificação , Mycobacterium ulcerans/genética , Mycobacterium ulcerans/fisiologia , Saúde Única , Poaceae/microbiologia , Roedores/microbiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
13.
PLoS One ; 15(4): e0225873, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32352968

RESUMO

Black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens L.) larvae can convert fresh pig manure into protein and fat-rich biomass, which can then be used as aquafeed for select species. Currently, BSF is the only approved insect for such purposes in Canada, USA, and the European Union. Pig manure could serve as a feed substrate for BSF; however, it is contaminated with zoonotic pathogens (e.g., Staphylococcus aureus and Salmonella spp.). Fortunately, BSF larvae inhibit many of these zoonotic pathogens; however, the mechanisms employed are unclear. We employed RNAi, qRT-PCR, and Illumina MiSeq 16S rDNA high-throughput sequencing to examine the interaction between two immune genes (Duox in Duox-reactive oxygen species [ROS] immune system and TLR3 in the Toll signaling pathway) and select pathogens common in pig manure to decipher the mechanisms resulting in pathogen suppression. Results indicate Bsf Duox-TLR3 RNAi increased bacterial load but decreased relative abundance of Providencia and Dysgonomonas, which are thought to be commensals in the BSF larval gut. Bsf Duox-TLR3 RNAi also inactivated the NF-κB signaling pathway, downregulated the expression of antimicrobial peptides, and diminished inhibitory effects on zoonotic pathogen. The resulting dysbiosis stimulated an immune response by activating BsfDuox and promoting ROS, which regulated the composition and structure of the gut bacterial community. Thus, BsfDuox and BsfTLR3 are important factors in regulating these key gut microbes, while inhibiting target zoonotic pathogens.


Assuntos
Oxidases Duais/imunologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Proteínas de Insetos/imunologia , Esterco/microbiologia , Simuliidae/imunologia , Receptor 3 Toll-Like/imunologia , Animais , Homeostase , Humanos , Larva/imunologia , Larva/microbiologia , Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/imunologia , Infecções por Salmonella/microbiologia , Transdução de Sinais , Simuliidae/microbiologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estafilocócicas/microbiologia , Staphylococcus aureus/imunologia , Suínos , Zoonoses/imunologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
14.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 55, 2020 May 24.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32448394

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a neglected zoonosis. It causes acute febrile illness and a potentially debilitating chronic infection in humans, and livestock infection has substantial socioeconomic impact. Over the past two decades, improvements have been made to better understand the various aspects of human and animal brucellosis. Meanwhile, especially in the developing world, immense challenges that remain in controlling and eradicating brucellosis are novel diagnostics tools and efficacious vaccines. Here, we will focus on the remarkable issues on epidemiological survey, as well as the priority and challenge of brucellosis in China. Brucellosis will be controlled with meaningful collaboration between local and public partnerships effectively applying a One Health framework.


Assuntos
Brucelose , Doenças Negligenciadas , Zoonoses , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Brucelose/prevenção & controle , China , Humanos , Doenças Negligenciadas/diagnóstico , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/microbiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Saúde Única , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 14(5): e0008071, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32437346

RESUMO

Brucellosis is a bacterial endemic zoonotic disease of global significance with detrimental impacts on public health and food animal production. It is caused by Brucella spp., an expanding group of pathogens able to infect various host species. Bovines and small ruminants, which excrete the bacteria in milk and in reproductive discharges, are major sources of infection for humans and other animals. Contact with contaminated animals and consumption of unpasteurized dairy products are the main routes for human infection. In spite of the considerable progress of knowledge gained and success achieved in brucellosis control in the developed world, this disease continues to be an important burden in the Middle East (ME). Common risk factors implicated in the difficulty and complexity of brucellosis control within the region include (1) social and political instabilities; (2) insufficient resources and infrastructure for appropriate diagnosis, reporting, and implementation of control measures; (3) variation of livestock husbandry systems and their commingling with other livestock and wildlife; and (4) traditional cultural practices, including consumption of unpasteurized dairy products. Development of core interdisciplinary competencies is required for a true One Health-based endeavor against the disease. National awareness and educational programs addressing all population sectors from consumers to decision-makers seem to be the next logical, sustainable, and economically viable approach toward improving disease status in this region. In the present review, we describe the current situation of brucellosis in the ME, focusing on the major limitations and shortcomings regarding disease control. We propose a regional approach toward public awareness of brucellosis as the first step in mitigating the disease and discuss the potential benefits, and components of such a strategy, which can further be used as a model for other endemic zoonotic diseases.


Assuntos
Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/veterinária , Animais , Brucella/classificação , Brucella/genética , Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucella/fisiologia , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/microbiologia , Humanos , Gado/microbiologia , Oriente Médio/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
16.
Parasit Vectors ; 13(1): 110, 2020 Feb 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32111251

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Camel production in Saudi Arabia is severely affected by various diseases and by inadequate veterinary services. Ticks and tick-borne pathogens (TBPs) affect the health and wellbeing of camels consequently diminishing their productivity and performances. In addition, camels may act as hosts for TBPs (e.g. Anaplasma phagocytophilum) causing diseases in humans. The current study aimed to determine the prevalence of ixodid ticks and molecularly investigate the associated pathogens in camels from Saudi Arabia. METHODS: Blood and tick samples were collected from camels (n = 170) in Riyad Province of Saudi Arabia. Ticks were morphologically identified, and blood of camels were molecularly screened for apicomplexan (i.e. Babesia spp., Theileria spp., Hepatozoon spp.) and rickettsial parasites (i.e. Ehrlichia spp. and Anaplasma spp.). RESULTS: Of the 170 camels examined, 116 (68.2%; 95% CI: 60.9-75.1%) were infested by ticks with a mean intensity of 2.53 (95% CI: 2.4-2.6). In total of 296 ticks collected, Hyalomma dromedarii was the most prevalent (76.4%), followed by Hyalomma impeltatum (23.3%) and Hyalomma excavatum (0.3%). Of the tested animals, 13 (7.6%; 95% CI: 4.3-12.8%) scored positive to at least one TBP, with Anaplasma platys (5.3%; 95% CI: 2.7-9.9%) being the most prevalent species, followed by Anaplasma phagocytophilum, Anaplasma sp., Ehrlichia canis and Hepatozoon canis (0.6% each; 95% CI: 0.04-3.4%). None of the camels were found to be co-infected with more than one pathogen. All samples tested negative for Babesia spp. and Theileria spp. CONCLUSIONS: The present study reveals the occurrence of different tick species and TBPs in camels from Saudi Arabia. Importantly, these camels may carry A. phagocytophilum and A. platys, representing a potential risk to humans.


Assuntos
Camelus/microbiologia , Camelus/parasitologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/microbiologia , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/parasitologia , Carrapatos/microbiologia , Carrapatos/parasitologia , Anaplasma/classificação , Anaplasma phagocytophilum , Animais , Babesia , Ehrlichia , Ehrlichia canis , Feminino , Humanos , Ixodidae/classificação , Ixodidae/parasitologia , Masculino , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Theileria , Doenças Transmitidas por Carrapatos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia
17.
Sci Data ; 7(1): 75, 2020 03 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32127544

RESUMO

Zoonotic Salmonella causes millions of human salmonellosis infections worldwide each year. Information about the source of the bacteria guides risk managers on control and preventive strategies. Source attribution is the effort to quantify the number of sporadic human cases of a specific illness to specific sources and animal reservoirs. Source attribution methods for Salmonella have so far been based on traditional wet-lab typing methods. With the change to whole genome sequencing there is a need to develop new methods for source attribution based on sequencing data. Four European datasets collected in Denmark (DK), Germany (DE), the United Kingdom (UK) and France (FR) are presented in this descriptor. The datasets contain sequenced samples of Salmonella Typhimurium and its monophasic variants isolated from human, food, animal and the environment. The objective of the datasets was either to attribute the human salmonellosis cases to animal reservoirs or to investigate contamination of the environment by attributing the environmental isolates to different animal reservoirs.


Assuntos
Intoxicação Alimentar por Salmonella , Salmonella typhimurium/genética , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Animais , Dinamarca , Reservatórios de Doenças , Microbiologia Ambiental , França , Alemanha , Humanos , Reino Unido
18.
Epidemiol Infect ; 148: e55, 2020 03 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172700

RESUMO

Prospective, population-based surveillance to systematically ascertain exposures to food production animals or their environments among Minnesota residents with sporadic, domestically acquired, laboratory-confirmed enteric zoonotic pathogen infections was conducted from 2012 through 2016. Twenty-three percent (n = 1708) of the 7560 enteric disease cases in the study reported an animal agriculture exposure in their incubation period, including 60% (344/571) of Cryptosporidium parvum cases, 28% (934/3391) of Campylobacter cases, 22% (85/383) of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) O157 cases, 16% (83/521) of non-O157 STEC cases, 10% (253/2575) of non-typhoidal Salmonella enterica cases and 8% (9/119) of Yersinia enterocolitica cases. Living and/or working on a farm accounted for 61% of cases with an agricultural exposure, followed by visiting a private farm (29% of cases) and visiting a public animal agriculture venue (10% of cases). Cattle were the most common animal type in agricultural exposures, reported by 72% of cases. The estimated cumulative incidence of zoonotic enteric infections for people who live and/or work on farms with food production animals in Minnesota during 2012-2016 was 147 per 10 000 population, vs. 18.5 per 10 000 for other Minnesotans. The burden of enteric zoonoses among people with animal agriculture exposures appears to be far greater than previously appreciated.


Assuntos
Animais Domésticos , Surtos de Doenças , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae , Exposição Ocupacional/estatística & dados numéricos , Zoonoses , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Animais , Bovinos , Criança , Pré-Escolar , Criptosporidiose/diagnóstico , Criptosporidiose/epidemiologia , Criptosporidiose/parasitologia , Criptosporidiose/transmissão , Cryptosporidium , Enterobacteriaceae , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/diagnóstico , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/epidemiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/microbiologia , Infecções por Enterobacteriaceae/transmissão , Feminino , Humanos , Lactente , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Minnesota , Estudos Prospectivos , Vigilância em Saúde Pública , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
19.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(1): 222-227, 2020 Mar 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212567

RESUMO

Leptospirosis is the most common zoonotic disease worldwide and is considered endemic in countries with tropical climates. It is caused by 10 species of the Leptospira genus and by more than 275 serovars which can affect a wide range of vertebrates. In the Americas, 122 species of four classes of vertebrates have been reported to be infected or exposed to many Leptospira species. Many of these reports are from zoos and rehabilitation centers. Mexico has one single study that reported antibody titers against Leptospira in zoo animals. The purpose of this research was to identify the degree of exposure of some captive mammals and reptiles in Veracruz, a Mexican state with endemic leptospirosis, through microagglutination using 14 live strains of five Leptospira species. Sera samples were collected from 55 animals of 11 species from two classes (Mammalia and Reptilia), four orders (Primates, Artiodactyla, Carnivora, Crocodilia), and nine genera. The more prevalent serovars were Icterohaemorrhagiae and Tarassovi and the highest titers were reactive to the serovar Icterohaemorrhagiae with a value of 1: 51,200.


Assuntos
Jacarés e Crocodilos , Artiodáctilos , Carnívoros , Leptospira/isolamento & purificação , Leptospirose/veterinária , Primatas , Animais , Animais de Zoológico , Leptospirose/epidemiologia , Leptospirose/microbiologia , México/epidemiologia , Prevalência , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
20.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0229741, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32134953

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Brucellosis is a ubiquitous zoonotic disease globally. It is endemic among bovines, sheep, and goats in Albania. The national control and eradication programs for brucellosis has been applied on sheep and goat farms as well as large dairy cattle farms, i.e., those with more than ten milking cows. The current study aims at estimating the herd and average individual animal prevalence of brucellosis in the national beef cattle herds, the missing information that was essential to propose the most appropriate control measures for this sub-population. Rose Bengal Test (RBT), Fluorescence Polarization Assay (FPA), and Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) were used as serological tests and classical bacteriology for isolation. Results were also used to investigate the difference in sensitivity between the assays used. METHODOLOGY: In total, 655 animals from 38 beef cattle herds from six southern districts of Albania were sampled. Sera were tested using RBT, FPA, and ELISA. Fifteen positive cows and a bull from eight high-prevalence positive herds were slaughtered, and particular tissue samples were collected for bacteriology. RESULTS: The overall herd seroprevalence in the tested beef cattle population was 55%, while the overall average within-herd prevalence (including only positive herds) was 38.3%, 42.7%, and 45.6% determined by the RBT, ELISA, and FPA, respectively. FPA was used for the first time in the diagnosis of bovine brucellosis in Albania, and its sensitivity was higher than RBT and ELISA. Three B. abortus strains were identified, two from the supra-mammary lymph node of two cows and one from the epididymis of a seropositive bull. CONCLUSION: Brucellosis was highly prevalent in beef cattle in the southern part of Albania, and B. abortus was isolated from this subpopulation. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first statistically based survey of bovine brucellosis in beef herds in Albania. Using the FPA in parallel with other serological tests improved overall diagnostic sensitivity. Test and slaughter policy is not a rational approach for the control of brucellosis in beef cattle in Albania, and vaccination is only applicable, including strict control of the movement of animals.


Assuntos
Brucella/isolamento & purificação , Brucelose/veterinária , Bovinos/microbiologia , Albânia/epidemiologia , Animais , Brucelose/diagnóstico , Brucelose/epidemiologia , Brucelose/microbiologia , Bovinos/sangue , Feminino , Masculino , Estudos Soroepidemiológicos , Zoonoses/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/microbiologia
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