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1.
Glob Public Health ; 16(1): 136-148, 2021 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33125297

RESUMO

At the end of 2019, a new virus named SARS-CoV-2 emerged in China, provoking coronavirus disease 2019 or COVID-19. Self-isolation and quarantine as key strategies to overcoming the spread of the disease have had major, micro, and macroscopic consequences. This commentary, therefore, seeks to review critical factors impacting the COVID-19 pandemic through the spectrum of levels, categorising effects in the WHO's ecological framework (individual, relational, community, and societal aspects). We further describe the management of the crisis at each level to help guide health personnel, communities, governments, and international policymakers in understanding how their actions fit into a larger picture as they seek to manage the crisis.


Assuntos
/epidemiologia , Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/organização & administração , Saúde Global , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Prática de Saúde Pública , Organização Mundial da Saúde , Animais , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Política , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
2.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 11 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33266124

RESUMO

Within the past two decades, three zoonotic betacoronaviruses have been associated with outbreaks causing severe respiratory disease in humans. Of these, Middle East respiratory s yndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is the only zoonotic coronavirus that is known to consistently result in frequent zoonotic spillover events from the proximate reservoir host-the dromedary camel. A comprehensive understanding of infection in dromedaries is critical to informing public health recommendations and implementing intervention strategies to mitigate spillover events. Experimental models of reservoir disease are absolutely critical in understanding the pathogenesis and transmission, and are key to testing potential dromedary vaccines against MERS-CoV. In this review, we describe experimental infections of dromedary camels as well as additional camelid models used to further understand the camel's role in MERS-CoV spillover to humans.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/fisiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Vacinação/veterinária , Eliminação de Partículas Virais , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
4.
Virol J ; 17(1): 143, 2020 10 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33008410

RESUMO

On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization (WHO) announced Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), a disease caused by a pathogen called Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), a pandemic. This ongoing pandemic has now been reported in 215 countries with more than 23 million confirmed cases and more than 803 thousand deaths worldwide as of August 22, 2020. Although efforts are undergoing, there is no approved vaccine or any specific antiretroviral drug to treat COVID-19 so far. It is now known that SARS-CoV-2 can affect not only humans but also pets and other domestic and wild animals, making it a one health global problem. Several published scientific evidence has shown that bats are the initial reservoir hosts of SARS-CoV-2, and pangolins are suggested as an intermediate hosts. So far, little is known concerning the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19. Therefore, updated knowledge about the potential role of pets in the current outbreak will be of paramount importance for effective prevention and control of the disease. This review summarized the current evidence about the role of pets and other animals in the transmission of COVID-19.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pandemias/veterinária , Animais de Estimação/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Saúde Global , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
5.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 140, 2020 Oct 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33028426

RESUMO

Most human pathogens originate from non-human hosts and certain pathogens persist in animal reservoirs. The transmission of such pathogens to humans may lead to self-sustaining chains of transmission. These pathogens represent the highest risk for future pandemics. For their prevention, the transmission over the species barrier - although rare - should, by all means, be avoided. In the current COVID-19 pandemic, surprisingly though, most of the current research concentrates on the control by drugs and vaccines, while comparatively little scientific inquiry focuses on future prevention. Already in 2012, the World Bank recommended to engage in a systemic One Health approach for zoonoses control, considering integrated surveillance-response and control of human and animal diseases for primarily economic reasons. First examples, like integrated West Nile virus surveillance in mosquitos, wild birds, horses and humans in Italy show evidence of financial savings from a closer cooperation of human and animal health sectors. Provided a zoonotic origin can be ascertained for the COVID-19 pandemic, integrated wildlife, domestic animal and humans disease surveillance-response may contribute to prevent future outbreaks. In conclusion, the earlier a zoonotic pathogen can be detected in the environment, in wildlife or in domestic animals; and the better human, animal and environmental surveillance communicate with each other to prevent an outbreak, the lower are the cumulative costs.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/epidemiologia , Doenças dos Animais/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Animais/transmissão , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Monitoramento Epidemiológico/veterinária , Humanos , Itália/epidemiologia , Saúde Única , Pandemias/economia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
7.
Hum Vaccin Immunother ; 16(12): 3043-3054, 2020 12 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32915100

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2, which causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), is suspected to have been first contracted via animal-human interactions; it has further spread across the world by efficient human-to-human transmission. Recent reports of COVID-19 in companion animals (dogs and cats) and wild carnivores such as tigers have created a dilemma regarding its zoonotic transmission. Although in silico docking studies, sequence-based computational studies, and experimental studies have shown the possibility of SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in cats, ferrets, and other domestic/wild animals, the results are not conclusive of infection under natural conditions. Identifying the potential host range of SARS-CoV-2 will not only help prevent the possibility of human-to-animal and animal-to-human transmission but also assist in identifying efficient animal models that can mimic the clinical symptoms, transmission potential, and pathogenesis of the disease. Such an efficient animal model will accelerate the process of development and evaluation of vaccines, immunotherapeutics, and other remedies for SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , /prevenção & controle , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Animais Domésticos/virologia , Animais Selvagens/virologia , Humanos , Zoonoses/transmissão
8.
Exp Parasitol ; 218: 107982, 2020 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32866584

RESUMO

Ancylostoma caninum is a gastrointestinal parasite that affect dogs and humans, considered a worldwide public health problem. The control of these parasitosis is increasingly difficult due to the development of multi-drug resistance. Bacillus thuringiensis is an insecticidal, spore forming bacterium, often species specific. The strain GP526 of B. thuringiensis has toxic effect on the cestode Dipylidium caninum and the trematode Centrocestus formosanus, both of them zoonotic parasites. The high degrees of specificity and environment safe make B. thuringiensis suitable for use against pathogen parasites, especially those resistant to synthetic chemical insecticides. The objective of the current work was to evaluate the in vitro effect of B. thuringiensis on Ancylostoma caninum. Spore-crystal mixture of the strains was co-incubated with 120 adult nematodes (males, non-pregnant females and pregnant females) or with 4800 eggs. GP526 showed a nematicidal effect with an LT50 of 35.8 h and an LC50 of 60 µg/ml. It also showed an ovicidal effect with an LC50 of 94.9 µg/ml. Histological analyses showed detachment of the cuticle and of the uterus in adult females, and vacuolization with destruction of the eggs. The effects of GP526 strain were comparable to those of albendazole, allowing us to propose GP526 for A. caninum control, in both, the adult stage at a gastrointestinal level, and in egg stage in the environment. In addition, GP526 can be proposed as a potential broad spectrum antiparasitic drug.


Assuntos
Ancylostoma/microbiologia , Ancilostomíase/prevenção & controle , Bacillus thuringiensis/fisiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Albendazol/farmacologia , Albendazol/uso terapêutico , Ancylostoma/efeitos dos fármacos , Animais , Antinematódeos/farmacologia , Antinematódeos/uso terapêutico , Bacillus thuringiensis/química , Proteínas de Bactérias/análise , Doenças do Cão/parasitologia , Cães , Eletroforese em Gel de Poliacrilamida , Feminino , Dose Letal Mediana , Masculino , Controle Biológico de Vetores/métodos , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
9.
OMICS ; 24(11): 645-648, 2020 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32986539

RESUMO

Health futures are not preordained, nor are they entirely predictable by extrapolation from the past. This is particularly relevant in an era of unprecedented uncertainties converging from the COVID-19 pandemic, multiple zoonotic outbreaks for the past two decades, and the climate crisis currently unfolding. Moreover, the Intergovernmental Science-Policy Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services cautioned in 2019 that around one million animal and plant species are threatened with extinction. Human existence and medical innovations are closely intertwined with preservation and sustainability of biodiversity. COVID-19 is a "dry run" for future ecological crises in the 21st century. We need new frames and ways of conceptualizing planetary health, biodiversity futures, and their principled governance post-COVID-19. In this article, I propose "One Nature" as a critically informed planetary health governance frame, and outline its key conceptual pillars. One Nature aims to transcend the socially constructed binaries between humans versus nature, humans versus nonhuman animals or inanimate objects in nature, among other false binaries, and thus, envisions nature as an overlapping, interdependent, and co-constitutive continuum among life forms and ecosystems. One Nature also recognizes animal sentience and agency of nonhuman animals. In doing so, the One Nature governance frame places a firm emphasis on the internal levers of social change and the human values essential to cultivate collective action to curb unchecked extraction of nature that placed human societies in harm's way for future health crises. One Nature is a governance frame and reflexive value system that can be transformative to correct the astigmatism we have long suffered, from the ways in which we have conceived, enacted on, and extracted the natural systems over the centuries. All in all, One Nature supports planetary health and biodiversity through a new vocabulary and post-anthropocentric critical governance lens, and shall help formulate progressive policies to prevent zoonotic outbreaks and future ecological crises.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Assistência à Saúde/tendências , Saúde Global/tendências , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Telemedicina/tendências , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Biodiversidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Ecossistema , Saúde Global/ética , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Política , Justiça Social/tendências , Teoria Social , Terminologia como Assunto
10.
Turkiye Parazitol Derg ; 44(3): 168-175, 2020 09 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32928726

RESUMO

Vector-borne zoonotic diseases (VBZDs) are a major problem for public health and animal welfare all over the world. In recent years, there has been an alarming increase in VBZDs, mainly caused by new or re-emerging arboviruses, bacteria and parasites. The World Health Organization enumerated 10 threats to global health for 2019, notably emphasizing climate change and emerging pathogens as growing priorities. It is important to review potential threats and develop new control programs for rising threats against human health and safety. Changes in host and vector population diversity and density may affect pathogen transmission patterns and influence VBZD emergence processes. In addition to environmental and climate-related changes, human and animal migratory patterns pose future threats. The geographic location and habitat features of Turkey support the establishment of many arthropod species as vectors of various diseases. To date, a total of 107 zoonotic infections have been reported originating from Turkey. Arthropods transmit 19 of 107 such infections, including 2 mosquito-borne, 9 tick-borne, 1 sandfly-borne, 3 flea-borne, 1 simuliid-borne, 1 mite-borne and 2 fly-borne diseases. In this review, we focus on the present status of knowledge on VBZDs as a rising threat to public health in Turkey to provide a foundation for future control efforts.


Assuntos
Mosquitos Vetores , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Ecossistema , Humanos , Saúde Pública , Turquia/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/etiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
12.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0237780, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32845922

RESUMO

Modeling the behavior of zoonotic pandemic threats is a key component of their control. Many emerging zoonoses, such as SARS, Nipah, and Hendra, mutated from their wild type while circulating in an intermediate host population, usually a domestic species, to become more transmissible among humans, and this transmission route will only become more likely as agriculture and trade intensifies around the world. Passage through an intermediate host enables many otherwise rare diseases to become better adapted to humans, and so understanding this process with accurate mathematical models is necessary to prevent epidemics of emerging zoonoses, guide policy interventions in public health, and predict the behavior of an epidemic. In this paper, we account for a zoonotic disease mutating in an intermediate host by introducing a new mathematical model for disease transmission among three species. We present a model of these disease dynamics, including the equilibria of the system and the basic reproductive number of the pathogen, finding that in the presence of biologically realistic interspecies transmission parameters, a zoonotic disease with the capacity to mutate in an intermediate host population can establish itself in humans even if its R0 in humans is less than 1. This result and model can be used to predict the behavior of any zoonosis with an intermediate host and assist efforts to protect public health.


Assuntos
Controle de Doenças Transmissíveis/métodos , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/microbiologia , Modelos Biológicos , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Animais , Animais Domésticos/microbiologia , Animais Selvagens/microbiologia , Bactérias/genética , Bactérias/patogenicidade , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Vetores de Doenças , Especificidade de Hospedeiro/genética , Humanos , Taxa de Mutação , Vírus/genética , Vírus/patogenicidade , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/transmissão
13.
Health Place ; 65: 102399, 2020 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32736203

RESUMO

This paper responds to the increasing concern regarding the role of non-human life in shaping urban space by exploring the public perception of urban companion animals during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in China. We argue that the public's perception of urban companion animals during emerging infectious disease outbreaks is related to medical and life science issues and reflects the political, economic, and emotional struggles involved in human-animal multispecies cohabitation. We find that the public has mainly followed and reconstructed medical discourses about the risk of companion animal-to-human transmission and discussed sustainable ethical animal practices in urban public health emergency management during the COVID-19 outbreak. Concerns regarding the risk of companion animal-related infection reflect the increasing prominence of more-than-human families, the pet industry, and multispecies leisure conflicts in public space in Chinese cities. The public's attention to animal ethics has prompted Chinese policy makers to adopt a more morally acceptable model for urban public health emergency management that can be sustained and supported by responsible non-governmental organizations and ethical urban residents.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Percepção , Animais de Estimação , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , China/epidemiologia , Emoções , Humanos , Pandemias , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
16.
J Neuropathol Exp Neurol ; 79(8): 823-842, 2020 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32647884

RESUMO

Biological evolution of the microbiome continually drives the emergence of human viral pathogens, a subset of which attack the nervous system. The sheer number of pathogens that have appeared, along with their abundance in the environment, demand our attention. For the most part, our innate and adaptive immune systems have successfully protected us from infection; however, in the past 5 decades, through pathogen mutation and ecosystem disruption, a dozen viruses emerged to cause significant neurologic disease. Most of these pathogens have come from sylvatic reservoirs having made the energetically difficult, and fortuitously rare, jump into humans. But the human microbiome is also replete with agents already adapted to the host that need only minor mutations to create neurotropic/toxic agents. While each host/virus symbiosis is unique, this review examines virologic and immunologic principles that govern the pathogenesis of different viral CNS infections that were described in the past 50 years (Influenza, West Nile Virus, Zika, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Hendra/Nipah, Enterovirus-A71/-D68, Human parechovirus, HIV, and SARS-CoV). Knowledge of these pathogens provides us the opportunity to respond and mitigate infection while at the same time prepare for inevitable arrival of unknown agents.


Assuntos
Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/epidemiologia , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , Aves , Viroses do Sistema Nervoso Central/prevenção & controle , Ecossistema , Humanos , Influenza Aviária/epidemiologia , Influenza Aviária/prevenção & controle , Influenza Aviária/transmissão , Influenza Humana/epidemiologia , Influenza Humana/prevenção & controle , Influenza Humana/transmissão , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/epidemiologia , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/prevenção & controle , Febre do Nilo Ocidental/transmissão , Infecção por Zika virus/epidemiologia , Infecção por Zika virus/prevenção & controle , Infecção por Zika virus/transmissão , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
19.
Am J Primatol ; 82(8): e23176, 2020 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32686188

RESUMO

The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in late 2019 and human responses to the resulting COVID-19 pandemic in early 2020 have rapidly changed many aspects of human behavior, including our interactions with wildlife. In this commentary, we identify challenges and opportunities at human-primate interfaces in light of COVID-19, focusing on examples from Asia, and make recommendations for researchers working with wild primates to reduce zoonosis risk and leverage research opportunities. First, we briefly review the evidence for zoonotic origins of SARS-CoV-2 and discuss risks of zoonosis at the human-primate interface. We then identify challenges that the pandemic has caused for primates, including reduced nutrition, increased intraspecific competition, and increased poaching risk, as well as challenges facing primatologists, including lost research opportunities. Subsequently, we highlight opportunities arising from pandemic-related lockdowns and public health messaging, including opportunities to reduce the intensity of problematic human-primate interfaces, opportunities to reduce the risk of zoonosis between humans and primates, opportunities to reduce legal and illegal trade in primates, new opportunities for research on human-primate interfaces, and opportunities for community education. Finally, we recommend specific actions that primatologists should take to reduce contact and aggression between humans and primates, to reduce demand for primates as pets, to reduce risks of zoonosis in the context of field research, and to improve understanding of human-primate interfaces. Reducing the risk of zoonosis and promoting the well-being of humans and primates at our interfaces will require substantial changes from "business as usual." We encourage primatologists to help lead the way.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Doenças dos Primatas/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Animais , Conservação dos Recursos Naturais/tendências , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Comportamento Alimentar/fisiologia , Humanos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Doenças dos Primatas/transmissão , Doenças dos Primatas/virologia , Primatas , Fatores de Risco , Zoonoses/transmissão
20.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 9(1): 86, 2020 Jul 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32646512

RESUMO

Emerging and re-emerging zoonotic diseases represent a public health challenge of international concern. They include a large group of neglected tropical diseases (NTDs), many of which are of zoonotic nature. Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), another emerging zoonotic disease, has just increased the stakes exponentially. Most NTDs are subject to the impact of some of the very same human-related activities triggering other emerging and re-emerging diseases, including COVID-19, severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), bird flu and swine flu. It is conceivable that COVID-19 will exacerbate the NTDs, as it will divert much needed financial and human resources. There is considerable concern that recent progress achieved with control and elimination efforts will be reverted. Future potential strategies will need to reconsider the determinants of health in NTDs in order to galvanize efforts and come up with a comprehensive, well defined programme that will set the stage for an effective multi-sectorial approach. In this Commentary, we propose areas of potential synergies between the COVID-19 pandemic control efforts, other health and non-health sector initiatives and NTD control and elimination programmes.


Assuntos
Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Doenças Negligenciadas/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Medicina Tropical/métodos , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Saúde Global , Humanos , Colaboração Intersetorial , Doenças Negligenciadas/epidemiologia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Alocação de Recursos , Medicina Tropical/tendências , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle
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