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1.
Vet Microbiol ; 244: 108693, 2020 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32402329

RESUMO

The recent pandemic caused by the novel human coronavirus, referrred to as severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), not only is having a great impact on the health care systems and economies in all continents but it is also causing radical changes of common habits and life styles. The novel coronavirus (CoV) recognises, with high probability, a zoonotic origin but the role of animals in the SARS-CoV-2 epidemiology is still largely unknown. However, CoVs have been known in animals since several decades, so that veterinary coronavirologists have a great expertise on how to face CoV infections in animals, which could represent a model for SARS-CoV-2 infection in humans. In the present paper, we provide an up-to-date review of the literature currently available on animal CoVs, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that are responsible for the emergence of novel CoV strains with different antigenic, biologic and/or pathogenetic features. A full comprehension of the mechanisms driving the evolution of animal CoVs will help better understand the emergence, spreading, and evolution of SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Coronaviridae/classificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronaviridae/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
Rev Med Inst Mex Seguro Soc ; 58(1): 1-2, 2020 Jan 01.
Artigo em Espanhol | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32412715

RESUMO

Every time a pandemic occurs, dozens of theories emerge to attribute the origin of the event to different facts. The COVID-19 pandemic that has hit virtually all the globe has been no exception. What is known so far about the origin of the virus that causes COVID 19? The first investigations on the origin of this disease have determined that it is a new type of virus, the origin of which is most likely zoonotic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Pneumonia Viral/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/patologia
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 16(5): e1008421, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32407364

RESUMO

The outbreak of a novel corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the city of Wuhan, China has resulted in more than 1.7 million laboratory confirmed cases all over the world. Recent studies showed that SARS-CoV-2 was likely originated from bats, but its intermediate hosts are still largely unknown. In this study, we assembled the complete genome of a coronavirus identified in 3 sick Malayan pangolins. The molecular and phylogenetic analyses showed that this pangolin coronavirus (pangolin-CoV-2020) is genetically related to the SARS-CoV-2 as well as a group of bat coronaviruses but do not support the SARS-CoV-2 emerged directly from the pangolin-CoV-2020. Our study suggests that pangolins are natural hosts of Betacoronaviruses. Large surveillance of coronaviruses in pangolins could improve our understanding of the spectrum of coronaviruses in pangolins. In addition to conservation of wildlife, minimizing the exposures of humans to wildlife will be important to reduce the spillover risks of coronaviruses from wild animals to humans.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Coronaviridae/classificação , Coronaviridae/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Homologia de Sequência do Ácido Nucleico , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
8.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1678-1685, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226285

RESUMO

An ongoing outbreak of pneumonia caused by a novel coronavirus, currently designated as the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), was reported recently. However, as SARS-CoV-2 is an emerging virus, we know little about it. In this review, we summarize the key events occurred during the early stage of SARS-CoV-2 outbreak, the basic characteristics of the pathogen, the signs and symptoms of the infected patients as well as the possible transmission pathways of the virus. Furthermore, we also review the current knowledge on the origin and evolution of the SARS-CoV-2. We highlight bats as the potential natural reservoir and pangolins as the possible intermediate host of the virus, but their roles are waiting for further investigation. Finally, the advances in the development of chemotherapeutic options are also briefly summarized.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Ensaios Clínicos como Assunto , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/fisiopatologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças , Evolução Molecular , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/fisiopatologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão
9.
Int J Biol Sci ; 16(10): 1686-1697, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32226286

RESUMO

Mutation and adaptation have driven the co-evolution of coronaviruses (CoVs) and their hosts, including human beings, for thousands of years. Before 2003, two human CoVs (HCoVs) were known to cause mild illness, such as common cold. The outbreaks of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and the Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS) have flipped the coin to reveal how devastating and life-threatening an HCoV infection could be. The emergence of SARS-CoV-2 in central China at the end of 2019 has thrusted CoVs into the spotlight again and surprised us with its high transmissibility but reduced pathogenicity compared to its sister SARS-CoV. HCoV infection is a zoonosis and understanding the zoonotic origins of HCoVs would serve us well. Most HCoVs originated from bats where they are non-pathogenic. The intermediate reservoir hosts of some HCoVs are also known. Identifying the animal hosts has direct implications in the prevention of human diseases. Investigating CoV-host interactions in animals might also derive important insight on CoV pathogenesis in humans. In this review, we present an overview of the existing knowledge about the seven HCoVs, with a focus on the history of their discovery as well as their zoonotic origins and interspecies transmission. Importantly, we compare and contrast the different HCoVs from a perspective of virus evolution and genome recombination. The current CoV disease 2019 (COVID-19) epidemic is discussed in this context. In addition, the requirements for successful host switches and the implications of virus evolution on disease severity are also highlighted.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Evolução Molecular , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , China , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral , Roedores/virologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave
10.
Nature ; 581(7807): 221-224, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32225175

RESUMO

A novel severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS)-like coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) recently emerged and is rapidly spreading in humans, causing COVID-191,2. A key to tackling this pandemic is to understand the receptor recognition mechanism of the virus, which regulates its infectivity, pathogenesis and host range. SARS-CoV-2 and SARS-CoV recognize the same receptor-angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2)-in humans3,4. Here we determined the crystal structure of the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2 (engineered to facilitate crystallization) in complex with ACE2. In comparison with the SARS-CoV RBD, an ACE2-binding ridge in SARS-CoV-2 RBD has a more compact conformation; moreover, several residue changes in the SARS-CoV-2 RBD stabilize two virus-binding hotspots at the RBD-ACE2 interface. These structural features of SARS-CoV-2 RBD increase its ACE2-binding affinity. Additionally, we show that RaTG13, a bat coronavirus that is closely related to SARS-CoV-2, also uses human ACE2 as its receptor. The differences among SARS-CoV-2, SARS-CoV and RaTG13 in ACE2 recognition shed light on the potential animal-to-human transmission of SARS-CoV-2. This study provides guidance for intervention strategies that target receptor recognition by SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/química , Peptidil Dipeptidase A/metabolismo , Receptores Virais/química , Receptores Virais/metabolismo , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Betacoronavirus/efeitos dos fármacos , Betacoronavirus/metabolismo , Sítios de Ligação , China/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/química , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Cristalização , Cristalografia por Raios X , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Eutérios/virologia , Humanos , Modelos Moleculares , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/tratamento farmacológico , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Ligação Proteica , Domínios Proteicos , Estabilidade Proteica , Vírus da SARS/química , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
11.
J Clin Microbiol ; 58(5)2020 04 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32161092

RESUMO

The new decade of the 21st century (2020) started with the emergence of a novel coronavirus known as SARS-CoV-2 that caused an epidemic of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) in Wuhan, China. It is the third highly pathogenic and transmissible coronavirus after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) emerged in humans. The source of origin, transmission to humans, and mechanisms associated with the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 are not yet clear, however, its resemblance to SARS-CoV and several other bat coronaviruses was recently confirmed through genome sequencing-related studies. The development of therapeutic strategies is necessary in order to prevent further epidemics and cure infections. In this review, we summarize current information about the emergence, origin, diversity, and epidemiology of three pathogenic coronaviruses with a specific focus on the current outbreak in Wuhan, China. Furthermore, we discuss the clinical features and potential therapeutic options that may be effective against SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/terapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/terapia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Zoonoses/terapia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/patologia , Surtos de Doenças , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/patologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/patologia
12.
J Autoimmun ; 109: 102433, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32113704

RESUMO

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) is caused by SARS-COV2 and represents the causative agent of a potentially fatal disease that is of great global public health concern. Based on the large number of infected people that were exposed to the wet animal market in Wuhan City, China, it is suggested that this is likely the zoonotic origin of COVID-19. Person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 infection led to the isolation of patients that were subsequently administered a variety of treatments. Extensive measures to reduce person-to-person transmission of COVID-19 have been implemented to control the current outbreak. Special attention and efforts to protect or reduce transmission should be applied in susceptible populations including children, health care providers, and elderly people. In this review, we highlights the symptoms, epidemiology, transmission, pathogenesis, phylogenetic analysis and future directions to control the spread of this fatal disease.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Humanos , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Saúde Pública , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
J Infect Public Health ; 13(4): 644-646, 2020 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32199792

RESUMO

The outbreak of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) causing novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia (NCIP), has affected the lives of 71,429 people globally. Originating in China, the disease has a rapid progression to other countries. Research suggests remarkable genomic resemblance of 2019-nCoV with Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS) which has a history of a pandemic in 2002. With evidence of nosocomial spread, a number of diligent measures are being employed to constrain its propagation. Hence, the Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC) has been established by the World Health Organization (WHO) with strategic objectives for public health to curtail its impact on global health and economy.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Animais , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Saúde Global/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Pandemias/estatística & dados numéricos , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Vírus da SARS , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/virologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Cell ; 181(2): 223-227, 2020 Apr 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220310

RESUMO

The ongoing pandemic of a new human coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, has generated enormous global concern. We and others in China were involved in the initial genome sequencing of the virus. Herein, we describe what genomic data reveal about the emergence SARS-CoV-2 and discuss the gaps in our understanding of its origins.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/genética , Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens , China , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , DNA Ambiental , Genoma Viral , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , Análise de Sequência de RNA , Zoonoses/virologia
16.
J Autoimmun ; 109: 102434, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32143990

RESUMO

The 2019-nCoV is officially called SARS-CoV-2 and the disease is named COVID-19. This viral epidemic in China has led to the deaths of over 1800 people, mostly elderly or those with an underlying chronic disease or immunosuppressed state. This is the third serious Coronavirus outbreak in less than 20 years, following SARS in 2002-2003 and MERS in 2012. While human strains of Coronavirus are associated with about 15% of cases of the common cold, the SARS-CoV-2 may present with varying degrees of severity, from flu-like symptoms to death. It is currently believed that this deadly Coronavirus strain originated from wild animals at the Huanan market in Wuhan, a city in Hubei province. Bats, snakes and pangolins have been cited as potential carriers based on the sequence homology of CoV isolated from these animals and the viral nucleic acids of the virus isolated from SARS-CoV-2 infected patients. Extreme quarantine measures, including sealing off large cities, closing borders and confining people to their homes, were instituted in January 2020 to prevent spread of the virus, but by that time much of the damage had been done, as human-human transmission became evident. While these quarantine measures are necessary and have prevented a historical disaster along the lines of the Spanish flu, earlier recognition and earlier implementation of quarantine measures may have been even more effective. Lessons learned from SARS resulted in faster determination of the nucleic acid sequence and a more robust quarantine strategy. However, it is clear that finding an effective antiviral and developing a vaccine are still significant challenges. The costs of the epidemic are not limited to medical aspects, as the virus has led to significant sociological, psychological and economic effects globally. Unfortunately, emergence of SARS-CoV-2 has led to numerous reports of Asians being subjected to racist behavior and hate crimes across the world.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/história , Animais , Betacoronavirus/genética , Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , China/epidemiologia , Técnicas de Laboratório Clínico , Infecções por Coronavirus/diagnóstico , Infecções por Coronavirus/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Coronavirus/economia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Genoma Viral , História do Século XXI , Humanos , Disseminação de Informação , Pandemias/economia , Pandemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/diagnóstico , Pneumonia Viral/economia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Piroptose , Quarentena , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
18.
Vet Q ; 40(1): 68-76, 2020 Dec.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32036774

RESUMO

Coronaviruses are the well-known cause of severe respiratory, enteric and systemic infections in a wide range of hosts including man, mammals, fish, and avian. The scientific interest on coronaviruses increased after the emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) outbreaks in 2002-2003 followed by Middle East Respiratory Syndrome CoV (MERS-CoV). This decade's first CoV, named 2019-nCoV, emerged from Wuhan, China, and declared as 'Public Health Emergency of International Concern' on January 30th, 2020 by the World Health Organization (WHO). As on February 4, 2020, 425 deaths reported in China only and one death outside China (Philippines). In a short span of time, the virus spread has been noted in 24 countries. The zoonotic transmission (animal-to-human) is suspected as the route of disease origin. The genetic analyses predict bats as the most probable source of 2019-nCoV though further investigations needed to confirm the origin of the novel virus. The ongoing nCoV outbreak highlights the hidden wild animal reservoir of the deadly viruses and possible threat of spillover zoonoses as well. The successful virus isolation attempts have made doors open for developing better diagnostics and effective vaccines helping in combating the spread of the virus to newer areas.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Quirópteros/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Animais , Betacoronavirus/classificação , Betacoronavirus/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/prevenção & controle , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Pandemias , Filogenia , Pneumonia Viral , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
19.
Int Health ; 12(2): 77-85, 2020 02 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040190

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Strategies are urgently needed to mitigate the risk of zoonotic disease emergence in southern China, where pathogens with zoonotic potential are known to circulate in wild animal populations. However, the risk factors leading to emergence are poorly understood, which presents a challenge in developing appropriate mitigation strategies for local communities. METHODS: Residents in rural communities of Yunnan, Guangxi and Guangdong provinces were recruited and enrolled in this study. Data were collected through ethnographic interviews and field observations, and thematically coded and analysed to identify both risk and protective factors for zoonotic disease emergence at the individual, community and policy levels. RESULTS: Eighty-eight ethnographic interviews and 55 field observations were conducted at nine selected sites. Frequent human-animal interactions and low levels of environmental biosecurity in local communities were identified as risks for zoonotic disease emergence. Policies and programmes existing in the communities provide opportunities for zoonotic risk mitigation. CONCLUSIONS: This study explored the relationship among zoonotic risk and human behaviour, environment and policies in rural communities in southern China. It identifies key behavioural risk factors that can be targeted for development of tailored risk-mitigation strategies to reduce the threat of novel zoonoses.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Surtos de Doenças/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/transmissão , População Rural , Viroses/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Betacoronavirus , China/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/epidemiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Humanos , Entrevistas como Assunto , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Pesquisa Qualitativa , Fatores de Risco , Síndrome Respiratória Aguda Grave , Viroses/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
20.
Microbes Infect ; 22(2): 86-91, 2020 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32088333

RESUMO

Only a month after the outbreak of pneumonia caused by 2019-nCoV, more than forty-thousand people were infected. This put enormous pressure on the Chinese government, medical healthcare provider, and the general public, but also made the international community deeply nervous. On the 25th day after the outbreak, the Chinese government implemented strict traffic restrictions on the area where the 2019-nCoV had originated-Hubei province, whose capital city is Wuhan. Ten days later, the rate of increase of cases in Hubei showed a significant difference (p = 0.0001) compared with the total rate of increase in other provinces of China. These preliminary data suggest the effectiveness of a traffic restriction policy for this pandemic thus far. At the same time, solid financial support and improved research ability, along with network communication technology, also greatly facilitated the application of epidemic prevention measures. These measures were motivated by the need to provide effective treatment of patients, and involved consultation with three major groups in policy formulation-public health experts, the government, and the general public. It was also aided by media and information technology, as well as international cooperation. This experience will provide China and other countries with valuable lessons for quickly coordinating and coping with future public health emergencies.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus/patogenicidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/prevenção & controle , Epidemias/prevenção & controle , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/prevenção & controle , Animais , China , Quirópteros/virologia , Comunicação , Governo , Humanos , Saúde Pública/métodos , Viagem , Zoonoses/virologia
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