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1.
Cells ; 10(6)2021 05 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34070971

RESUMO

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has refocused attention to the betacoronaviruses, only eight years after the emergence of another zoonotic betacoronavirus, the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV). While the wild source of SARS-CoV-2 may be disputed, for MERS-CoV, dromedaries are considered as source of zoonotic human infections. Testing 100 immune-response genes in 121 dromedaries from United Arab Emirates (UAE) for potential association with present MERS-CoV infection, we identified candidate genes with important functions in the adaptive, MHC-class I (HLA-A-24-like) and II (HLA-DPB1-like), and innate immune response (PTPN4, MAGOHB), and in cilia coating the respiratory tract (DNAH7). Some of these genes previously have been associated with viral replication in SARS-CoV-1/-2 in humans, others have an important role in the movement of bronchial cilia. These results suggest similar host genetic pathways associated with these betacoronaviruses, although further work is required to better understand the MERS-CoV disease dynamics in both dromedaries and humans.


Assuntos
Imunidade Adaptativa/genética , Camelus/virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/imunologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Imunidade Inata/genética , Zoonoses/imunologia , Animais , Anticorpos Antivirais , Brônquios/citologia , Brônquios/fisiologia , 59585/genética , 59585/imunologia , 59585/virologia , Camelus/genética , Camelus/imunologia , Cílios/fisiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/genética , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/genética , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Feminino , Predisposição Genética para Doença , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/genética , Interações entre Hospedeiro e Microrganismos/imunologia , Humanos , Masculino , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/imunologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/patogenicidade , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Mucosa Respiratória/fisiologia , 59565/imunologia , 59565/patogenicidade , Emirados Árabes Unidos , Replicação Viral/genética , Replicação Viral/imunologia , Zoonoses/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
2.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 235, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34046140

RESUMO

Introduction: rabies is a vaccine-preventable viral zoonotic disease. Once clinical symptoms appear, rabies is fatal in almost 100% of cases. The objective of this study was to evaluate the knowledge, attitudes and practices of students at the University of Abomey-Calavi in Benin on rabies in order to explore the factors that promote the occurrence of this zoonosis. Methods: for this purpose, a descriptive cross-sectional survey was conducted among 263 randomly-selected students. The collected data were analyzed by R software with logistic regression. Results: out of all the 263 respondents, 53.2% (n=140) of the students claimed to have heard of canine rabies, compared to 47.5% (n=125) for human rabies. Stray dogs were recognized by 49.0% (n=129) as a prevailing source of rabies infection in people; bites from these dogs were considered as a means of rabies contagion (41.4%; n=109) and vaccination of dogs was considered by 32.7% (n=86) as a means of rabies control in both people and dogs. In case of a dog bite, 60.5% (n=159) of respondents would visit a western medicine human clinic first. For the fate of the biting dog, 18.6% (n=49) and 27.4% (n=72) of respondents, respectively, prefer to euthanize the dog or take the dog to the veterinarian for observation. Regarding the perceived consequences of inaction after a dog bite, 58.2% (n=140) mentioned the risk of rabies. Students in human or animal health were 3 times more aware on rabies. Conclusion: this study identifies the gaps in students´ knowledge, attitudes and practices about effective rabies prevention and control. It will therefore be necessary to intensify awareness and education campaigns among students who could be a good relay of information to other members in their communities.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Vacinas Antirrábicas/administração & dosagem , Raiva/prevenção & controle , Estudantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Animais , Benin , Mordeduras e Picadas/complicações , Mordeduras e Picadas/virologia , Estudos Transversais , Doenças do Cão/prevenção & controle , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Raiva/transmissão , Inquéritos e Questionários , Universidades , Adulto Jovem , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
3.
Infect Dis Poverty ; 10(1): 66, 2021 May 08.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33964965

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The ongoing transmission of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) in the Middle East and its expansion to other regions are raising concerns of a potential pandemic. An in-depth analysis about both population and molecular epidemiology of this pathogen is needed. METHODS: MERS cases reported globally as of June 2020 were collected mainly from World Health Organization official reports, supplemented by other reliable sources. Determinants for case fatality and spatial diffusion of MERS were assessed with Logistic regressions and Cox proportional hazard models, respectively. Phylogenetic and phylogeographic analyses were performed to examine the evolution and migration history of MERS-CoV. RESULTS: A total of 2562 confirmed MERS cases with 150 case clusters were reported with a case fatality rate of 32.7% (95% CI: 30.9‒34.6%). Saudi Arabia accounted for 83.6% of the cases. Age of ≥ 65 years old, underlying conditions and ≥ 5 days delay in diagnosis were independent risk factors for death. However, a history of animal contact was associated with a higher risk (adjusted OR = 2.97, 95% CI: 1.10-7.98) among female cases < 65 years but with a lower risk (adjusted OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.18-0.51) among male cases ≥ 65 years old. Diffusion of the disease was fastest from its origin in Saudi Arabia to the east, and was primarily driven by the transportation network. The most recent sub-clade C5.1 (since 2013) was associated with non-synonymous mutations and a higher mortality rate. Phylogeographic analyses pointed to Riyadh of Saudi Arabia and Abu Dhabi of the United Arab Emirates as the hubs for both local and international spread of MERS-CoV. CONCLUSIONS: MERS-CoV remains primarily locally transmitted in the Middle East, with opportunistic exportation to other continents and a potential of causing transmission clusters of human cases. Animal contact is associated with a higher risk of death, but the association differs by age and sex. Transportation network is the leading driver for the spatial diffusion of the disease. These findings how this pathogen spread are helpful for targeting public health surveillance and interventions to control endemics and to prevent a potential pandemic.


Assuntos
Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/transmissão , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Evolução Molecular , Feminino , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Epidemiologia Molecular , Mortalidade , Filogenia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Análise de Sobrevida , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
4.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 17.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802857

RESUMO

The recent SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has brought many questions over the origin of the virus, the threat it poses to animals both in the wild and captivity, and the risks of a permanent viral reservoir developing in animals. Animal experiments have shown that a variety of animals can become infected with the virus. While coronaviruses have been known to infect animals for decades, the true intermediate host of the virus has not been identified, with no cases of SARS-CoV-2 in wild animals. The screening of wild, farmed, and domesticated animals is necessary to help us understand the virus and its origins and prevent future outbreaks of both COVID-19 and other diseases. There is intriguing evidence that farmed mink infections (acquired from humans) have led to infection of other farm workers in turn, with a recent outbreak of a mink variant in humans in Denmark. A thorough examination of the current knowledge and evidence of the ability of SARS-CoV-2 to infect different animal species is therefore vital to evaluate the threat of animal to human transmission and reverse zoonosis.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Animais Selvagens/virologia , /virologia , Humanos , /isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/transmissão
5.
J Gen Virol ; 102(4)2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855951

RESUMO

SARS-CoV-2 is thought to have originated in the human population from a zoonotic spillover event. Infection in humans results in a variety of outcomes ranging from asymptomatic cases to the disease COVID-19, which can have significant morbidity and mortality, with over two million confirmed deaths worldwide as of January 2021. Over a year into the pandemic, sequencing analysis has shown that variants of SARS-CoV-2 are being selected as the virus continues to circulate widely within the human population. The predominant drivers of genetic variation within SARS-CoV-2 are single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) caused by polymerase error, potential host factor driven RNA modification, and insertion/deletions (indels) resulting from the discontinuous nature of viral RNA synthesis. While many mutations represent neutral 'genetic drift' or have quickly died out, a subset may be affecting viral traits such as transmissibility, pathogenicity, host range, and antigenicity of the virus. In this review, we summarise the current extent of genetic change in SARS-CoV-2, particularly recently emerging variants of concern, and consider the phenotypic consequences of this viral evolution that may impact the future trajectory of the pandemic.


Assuntos
Adaptação Fisiológica/genética , /genética , Animais , Antígenos Virais/genética , Antígenos Virais/imunologia , /imunologia , Humanos , Evasão da Resposta Imune/genética , Mutação , RNA Viral/biossíntese , RNA Viral/genética , /patogenicidade , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/genética , Glicoproteína da Espícula de Coronavírus/metabolismo , Proteínas Virais/genética , Proteínas Virais/metabolismo , Internalização do Vírus , Replicação Viral , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
6.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 03 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33807288

RESUMO

Middle East respiratory syndrome-related coronavirus (MERS-CoV) is a persistent zoonotic pathogen with frequent spillover from dromedary camels to humans in the Arabian Peninsula, resulting in limited outbreaks of MERS with a high case-fatality rate. Full genome sequence data from camel-derived MERS-CoV variants show diverse lineages circulating in domestic camels with frequent recombination. More than 90% of the available full MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from camels are from just two countries, the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA) and United Arab Emirates (UAE). In this study, we employ a novel method to amplify and sequence the partial MERS-CoV genome with high sensitivity from nasal swabs of infected camels. We recovered more than 99% of the MERS-CoV genome from field-collected samples with greater than 500 TCID50 equivalent per nasal swab from camel herds sampled in Jordan in May 2016. Our subsequent analyses of 14 camel-derived MERS-CoV genomes show a striking lack of genetic diversity circulating in Jordan camels relative to MERS-CoV genome sequences derived from large camel markets in KSA and UAE. The low genetic diversity detected in Jordan camels during our study is consistent with a lack of endemic circulation in these camel herds and reflective of data from MERS outbreaks in humans dominated by nosocomial transmission following a single introduction as reported during the 2015 MERS outbreak in South Korea. Our data suggest transmission of MERS-CoV among two camel herds in Jordan in 2016 following a single introduction event.


Assuntos
Camelus/virologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Variação Genética , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/genética , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Genoma Viral , Jordânia/epidemiologia , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/classificação , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Arábia Saudita/epidemiologia , Emirados Árabes Unidos/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
8.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(4): 1015-1022, 2021 04.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770472

RESUMO

The ongoing global pandemic caused by coronavirus disease has once again demonstrated the role of the family Coronaviridae in causing human disease outbreaks. Because severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 was first detected in December 2019, information on its tropism, host range, and clinical manifestations in animals is limited. Given the limited information, data from other coronaviruses might be useful for informing scientific inquiry, risk assessment, and decision-making. We reviewed endemic and emerging infections of alphacoronaviruses and betacoronaviruses in wildlife, livestock, and companion animals and provide information on the receptor use, known hosts, and clinical signs associated with each host for 15 coronaviruses detected in humans and animals. This information can be used to guide implementation of a One Health approach that involves human health, animal health, environmental, and other relevant partners in developing strategies for preparedness, response, and control to current and future coronavirus disease threats.


Assuntos
Coronaviridae/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Zoonoses/virologia , Alphacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Animais , Animais Selvagens , Betacoronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Surtos de Doenças , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Pandemias , Zoonoses/epidemiologia
9.
Pan Afr Med J ; 38: 39, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33777307

RESUMO

There is an urgent need to properly understand the transmission dynamics of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the event of continuous rise in morbidity in both humans and animals as well as an increase in the mortality rate in man. Since the novel SARS-CoV-2 emerged in Wuhan, China with its global spread in over 200 countries, several studies have been published on the epidemiology of the virus in man with limited information on the roles of animals and the possibility of reverse zoonosis. We therefore collected published research literature on COVID-19 from public search engines for information on SARS-CoV-2 in animals and reverse zoonosis from man. A critical and thorough study appraisal/evaluation was performed to include recent quality publications that focus on the scope of this write-up including zoonosis and reverse zoonosis of SARS-CoV-2. We highlighted what is known about SARS-CoV-2 in animals, identify gaps for future research, summarized possible reverse zoonotic transmission of SARS-CoV-2 from man to animals and included the likely implications of our summary for Africa, despite the dearth of information in Africa on the key concepts of this study.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Zoonoses/transmissão , África , Animais , Humanos , Zoonoses/mortalidade , Zoonoses/virologia
10.
Arch Virol ; 166(4): 1007-1013, 2021 Apr.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33547957

RESUMO

Porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs) are integrated in the genome of all pigs, and they produce viral particles that are able to infect human cells and therefore pose a special risk for xenotransplantation. In contrast to other pig microorganisms that also pose a risk, such as porcine cytomegalovirus and hepatitis E virus, PERVs cannot be eliminated from pigs by vaccines, antiviral drugs, early weaning, or embryo transfer. Since PERVs are relevant for xenotransplantation, their biology and origin are of great interest. Recent studies have shown that PERVs are the result of a transspecies transmission of precursor retroviruses from different animals and further evolution in the pig genome. PERVs acquired different long terminal repeats (LTRs), and recombination took place. In parallel, it has been shown that the activity of the LTRs and recombination in the envelope are important for the transmissibility and pathogenesis of PERVs. Transspecies transmission of retroviruses is common, a well-known example being the transmission of precursor retroviruses from non-human primates to humans, resulting in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Here, recent findings concerning the origin of PERVs, their LTRs, and recombination events that occurred during evolution are reviewed and compared with other findings regarding transspecies transmission of retroviruses.


Assuntos
Retrovirus Endógenos/genética , Evolução Molecular , Suínos/virologia , Animais , Retrovirus Endógenos/classificação , Genoma Viral , Humanos , Prevalência , Recombinação Genética , Retroviridae/classificação , Retroviridae/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
11.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 02 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33562073

RESUMO

The contemporary surge in metagenomic sequencing has transformed knowledge of viral diversity in wildlife. However, evaluating which newly discovered viruses pose sufficient risk of infecting humans to merit detailed laboratory characterization and surveillance remains largely speculative. Machine learning algorithms have been developed to address this imbalance by ranking the relative likelihood of human infection based on viral genome sequences, but are not yet routinely applied to viruses at the time of their discovery. Here, we characterized viral genomes detected through metagenomic sequencing of feces and saliva from common vampire bats (Desmodus rotundus) and used these data as a case study in evaluating zoonotic potential using molecular sequencing data. Of 58 detected viral families, including 17 which infect mammals, the only known zoonosis detected was rabies virus; however, additional genomes were detected from the families Hepeviridae, Coronaviridae, Reoviridae, Astroviridae and Picornaviridae, all of which contain human-infecting species. In phylogenetic analyses, novel vampire bat viruses most frequently grouped with other bat viruses that are not currently known to infect humans. In agreement, machine learning models built from only phylogenetic information ranked all novel viruses similarly, yielding little insight into zoonotic potential. In contrast, genome composition-based machine learning models estimated different levels of zoonotic potential, even for closely related viruses, categorizing one out of four detected hepeviruses and two out of three picornaviruses as having high priority for further research. We highlight the value of evaluating zoonotic potential beyond ad hoc consideration of phylogeny and provide surveillance recommendations for novel viruses in a wildlife host which has frequent contact with humans and domestic animals.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Vírus/isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fezes/virologia , Genoma Viral/genética , Humanos , Aprendizado de Máquina , Metagenômica , Filogenia , Vírus da Raiva/classificação , Vírus da Raiva/genética , Vírus da Raiva/isolamento & purificação , Saliva/virologia , Vírus/classificação , Vírus/genética
12.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(2): 160-164, 2021 02 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539765

RESUMO

The emergence of alternate variants of SARS-CoV-2 due to ongoing adaptations in humans and following human-to-animal transmission has raised concern over the efficacy of vaccines against new variants. We describe human-to-animal transmission (zooanthroponosis) of SARS-CoV-2 and its implications for faunal virus persistence and vaccine-mediated immunity.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/veterinária , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , /transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/transmissão , Doenças Transmissíveis Emergentes/virologia , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Humanos , Imunidade , Vacinas Virais/imunologia
13.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33530620

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) caused by a new coronavirus (CoV), SARS-CoV-2, which is closely related to SARS-CoV that jumped the animal-human species barrier and caused a disease outbreak in 2003. SARS-CoV-2 is a betacoronavirus that was first described in 2019, unrelated to the commonly occurring feline coronavirus (FCoV) that is an alphacoronavirus associated with feline infectious peritonitis (FIP). SARS-CoV-2 is highly contagious and has spread globally within a few months, resulting in the current pandemic. Felids have been shown to be susceptible to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Particularly in the Western world, many people live in very close contact with their pet cats, and natural infections of cats in COVID-19-positive households have been described in several countries. In this review, the European Advisory Board on Cat Diseases (ABCD), a scientifically independent board of experts in feline medicine from 11 European Countries, discusses the current status of SARS-CoV infections in cats. The review examines the host range of SARS-CoV-2 and human-to-animal transmissions, including infections in domestic and non-domestic felids, as well as mink-to-human/-cat transmission. It summarises current data on SARS-CoV-2 prevalence in domestic cats and the results of experimental infections of cats and provides expert opinions on the clinical relevance and prevention of SARS-CoV-2 infection in cats.


Assuntos
/transmissão , Gatos/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/isolamento & purificação , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Vison/virologia , Prevalência , /isolamento & purificação , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
14.
Vet Res ; 52(1): 22, 2021 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33588935

RESUMO

COVID-19 is a zoonotic disease caused by SARS-CoV-2. Infections of animals with SARS-CoV-2 have recently been reported, and an increase of severe lung pathologies in domestic dogs has also been detected by veterinarians in Spain. Therefore, further descriptions of the pathological processes in those animals that show symptoms similar to those described in humans affected by COVID-19 would be highly valuable. The potential for companion animals to contribute to the continued transmission and community spread of this known human-to-human disease is an urgent issue to be considered. Forty animals with pulmonary pathologies were studied by chest X-ray, ultrasound analysis, and computed tomography. Nasopharyngeal and rectal swabs were analyzed to detect canine pathogens, including SARS-CoV-2. An additional twenty healthy dogs living in SARS-CoV-2-positive households were included. Immunoglobulin detection by several immunoassays was performed. Our findings show that sick dogs presented severe alveolar or interstitial patterns with pulmonary opacity, parenchymal abnormalities, and bilateral lesions. The forty sick dogs were negative for SARS-CoV-2 but Mycoplasma spp. was detected in 26 of 33 dogs. Five healthy and one pathological dog presented IgG against SARS-CoV-2. Here we report that despite detecting dogs with α-SARS-CoV-2 IgG, we never obtained a positive RT-qPCR for SARS-SoV-2, not even in dogs with severe pulmonary disease; suggesting that even in the case of canine infection, transmission would be unlikely. Moreover, dogs living in COVID-19-positive households could have been more highly exposed to infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Assuntos
/veterinária , Doenças do Cão/transmissão , Imunoglobulinas/sangue , Zoonoses/transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Doenças do Cão/virologia , Cães , Feminino , Imunidade Humoral , Masculino , Espanha , Zoonoses/virologia
15.
Euro Surveill ; 26(5)2021 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33541485

RESUMO

In June-November 2020, SARS-CoV-2-infected mink were detected in 290 of 1,147 Danish mink farms. In North Denmark Region, 30% (324/1,092) of people found connected to mink farms tested SARS-CoV-2-PCR-positive and approximately 27% (95% confidence interval (CI): 25-30) of SARS-CoV-2-strains from humans in the community were mink-associated. Measures proved insufficient to mitigate spread. On 4 November, the government ordered culling of all Danish mink. Farmed mink constitute a potential virus reservoir challenging pandemic control.


Assuntos
Animais Selvagens/virologia , /veterinária , Surtos de Doenças/veterinária , Reservatórios de Doenças/veterinária , Transmissão de Doença Infecciosa/veterinária , Vison/virologia , Pandemias/veterinária , /isolamento & purificação , /transmissão , Animais , /virologia , Dinamarca/epidemiologia , Surtos de Doenças/estatística & dados numéricos , Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Fazendas , Genes Virais , Humanos , Incidência , Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase , Saúde Pública , RNA Viral/análise , RNA Viral/genética , /virologia , Sequenciamento Completo do Genoma , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
16.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 28.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33525437

RESUMO

The establishment of selective colonies of potential vertebrate hosts for viruses would provide experimental models for the understanding of pathogen-host interactions. This paper briefly surveys the reasons to conduct such studies and how the results might provide information that could be applied to disease prevention activities.


Assuntos
Reservatórios de Doenças/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Animais , /transmissão , Quirópteros/virologia , Coronavirus/classificação , Coronavirus/genética , Coronavirus/patogenicidade , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , /genética , Zoonoses/prevenção & controle , Zoonoses/virologia
17.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 12.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33436435

RESUMO

Despite being nearly 10 months into the COVID-19 (coronavirus disease 2019) pandemic, the definitive animal host for SARS-CoV-2 (severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2), the causal agent of COVID-19, remains unknown. Unfortunately, similar problems exist for other betacoronaviruses, and no vouchered specimens exist to corroborate host species identification for most of these pathogens. This most basic information is critical to the full understanding and mitigation of emerging zoonotic diseases. To overcome this hurdle, we recommend that host-pathogen researchers adopt vouchering practices and collaborate with natural history collections to permanently archive microbiological samples and host specimens. Vouchered specimens and associated samples provide both repeatability and extension to host-pathogen studies, and using them mobilizes a large workforce (i.e., biodiversity scientists) to assist in pandemic preparedness. We review several well-known examples that successfully integrate host-pathogen research with natural history collections (e.g., yellow fever, hantaviruses, helminths). However, vouchering remains an underutilized practice in such studies. Using an online survey, we assessed vouchering practices used by microbiologists (e.g., bacteriologists, parasitologists, virologists) in host-pathogen research. A much greater number of respondents permanently archive microbiological samples than archive host specimens, and less than half of respondents voucher host specimens from which microbiological samples were lethally collected. To foster collaborations between microbiologists and natural history collections, we provide recommendations for integrating vouchering techniques and archiving of microbiological samples into host-pathogen studies. This integrative approach exemplifies the premise underlying One Health initiatives, providing critical infrastructure for addressing related issues ranging from public health to global climate change and the biodiversity crisis.


Assuntos
Pesquisa Biomédica/normas , Doenças Transmissíveis/patologia , História Natural/normas , Zoonoses/patologia , Animais , Biodiversidade , Pesquisa Biomédica/tendências , /virologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/microbiologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/parasitologia , Doenças Transmissíveis/virologia , Interações Hospedeiro-Patógeno , Humanos , Museus/normas , /fisiologia , Manejo de Espécimes , Zoonoses/microbiologia , Zoonoses/parasitologia , Zoonoses/virologia
18.
Viruses ; 13(1)2021 Jan 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33467206

RESUMO

Our recent study identified seven key microRNAs (miR-8066, 5197, 3611, 3934-3p, 1307-3p, 3691-3p, 1468-5p) similar between SARS-CoV-2 and the human genome, pointing at miR-related mechanisms in viral entry and the regulatory effects on host immunity. To identify the putative roles of these miRs in zoonosis, we assessed their conservation, compared with humans, in some key wild and domestic animal carriers of zoonotic viruses, including bat, pangolin, pig, cow, rat, and chicken. Out of the seven miRs under study, miR-3611 was the most strongly conserved across all species; miR-5197 was the most conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and rat; miR-1307 was most strongly conserved in pangolin, pig, cow, bat, and human; miR-3691-3p in pangolin, cow, and human; miR-3934-3p in pig and cow, followed by pangolin and bat; miR-1468 was most conserved in pangolin, pig, and bat; while miR-8066 was most conserved in pangolin and pig. In humans, miR-3611 and miR-1307 were most conserved, while miR-8066, miR-5197, miR-3334-3p and miR-1468 were least conserved, compared with pangolin, pig, cow, and bat. Furthermore, we identified that changes in the miR-5197 nucleotides between pangolin and human can generate three new miRs, with differing tissue distribution in the brain, lung, intestines, lymph nodes, and muscle, and with different downstream regulatory effects on KEGG pathways. This may be of considerable importance as miR-5197 is localized in the spike protein transcript area of the SARS-CoV-2 genome. Our findings may indicate roles for these miRs in viral-host co-evolution in zoonotic hosts, particularly highlighting pangolin, bat, cow, and pig as putative zoonotic carriers, while highlighting the miRs' roles in KEGG pathways linked to viral pathogenicity and host responses in humans. This in silico study paves the way for investigations into the roles of miRs in zoonotic disease.


Assuntos
Coevolução Biológica , MicroRNAs/genética , /genética , Animais , /virologia , Galinhas , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Genoma/genética , Especificidade de Hospedeiro , Humanos , Mamíferos , MicroRNAs/química , MicroRNAs/metabolismo , /fisiologia , Alinhamento de Sequência , Distribuição Tecidual , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia
19.
mBio ; 12(1)2021 01 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33468689

RESUMO

Bats host many viruses pathogenic to humans, and increasing evidence suggests that rotavirus A (RVA) also belongs to this list. Rotaviruses cause diarrheal disease in many mammals and birds, and their segmented genomes allow them to reassort and increase their genetic diversity. Eighteen out of 2,142 bat fecal samples (0.8%) collected from Europe, Central America, and Africa were PCR-positive for RVA, and 11 of those were fully characterized using viral metagenomics. Upon contrasting their genomes with publicly available data, at least 7 distinct bat RVA genotype constellations (GCs) were identified, which included evidence of reassortments and 6 novel genotypes. Some of these constellations are spread across the world, whereas others appear to be geographically restricted. Our analyses also suggest that several unusual human and equine RVA strains might be of bat RVA origin, based on their phylogenetic clustering, despite various levels of nucleotide sequence identities between them. Although SA11 is one of the most widely used reference strains for RVA research and forms the backbone of a reverse genetics system, its origin remained enigmatic. Remarkably, the majority of the genotypes of SA11-like strains were shared with Gabonese bat RVAs, suggesting a potential common origin. Overall, our findings suggest an underexplored genetic diversity of RVAs in bats, which is likely only the tip of the iceberg. Increasing contact between humans and bat wildlife will further increase the zoonosis risk, which warrants closer attention to these viruses.IMPORTANCE The increased research on bat coronaviruses after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) allowed the very rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2. This is an excellent example of the importance of knowing viruses harbored by wildlife in general, and bats in particular, for global preparedness against emerging viral pathogens. The current effort to characterize bat rotavirus strains from 3 continents sheds light on the vast genetic diversity of rotaviruses and also hints at a bat origin for several atypical rotaviruses in humans and animals, implying that zoonoses of bat rotaviruses might occur more frequently than currently realized.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Infecções por Rotavirus/transmissão , Infecções por Rotavirus/virologia , Rotavirus/genética , Zoonoses/transmissão , Zoonoses/virologia , Animais , /virologia , Diarreia/virologia , Variação Genética , Genoma Viral , Genótipo , Cavalos , Humanos , Metagenômica , Coronavírus da Síndrome Respiratória do Oriente Médio/isolamento & purificação , Filogenia , /isolamento & purificação
20.
Viruses ; 13(2)2021 01 23.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33498685

RESUMO

Nipah virus is a bat-borne paramyxovirus that produces yearly outbreaks of fatal encephalitis in Bangladesh. Understanding the ecological conditions that lead to spillover from bats to humans can assist in designing effective interventions. To investigate the current and historical processes that drive Nipah spillover in Bangladesh, we analyzed the relationship among spillover events and climatic conditions, the spatial distribution and size of Pteropus medius roosts, and patterns of land-use change in Bangladesh over the last 300 years. We found that 53% of annual variation in winter spillovers is explained by winter temperature, which may affect bat behavior, physiology, and human risk behaviors. We infer from changes in forest cover that a progressive shift in bat roosting behavior occurred over hundreds of years, producing the current system where a majority of P. medius populations are small (median of 150 bats), occupy roost sites for 10 years or more, live in areas of high human population density, and opportunistically feed on cultivated food resources-conditions that promote viral spillover. Without interventions, continuing anthropogenic pressure on bat populations similar to what has occurred in Bangladesh could result in more regular spillovers of other bat viruses, including Hendra and Ebola viruses.


Assuntos
Quirópteros/virologia , Comportamento Alimentar , Infecções por Henipavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Henipavirus/veterinária , Vírus Nipah/genética , Animais , Bangladesh/epidemiologia , Quirópteros/fisiologia , Surtos de Doenças , Florestas , Humanos , Modelos Lineares , Estações do Ano , Zoonoses/epidemiologia , Zoonoses/virologia
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