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1.
Food Chem ; 367: 130708, 2022 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34352692

RESUMO

In this study, we explored structural differences of five commercial samples of yeast ß-glucan. Samples were assayed for their ß-glucan content and the yeast storage carbohydrate, glycogen. The ß-glucan content ranged from 74% to 86%, the glycogen content varied from 0 to 20%. The linkage pattern of each sample was measured by the partially methylated alditol acetate method. This method showed that the samples varied from 1.9% to 9.2% branching. The side chain length distribution for each sample was analyzed by an alkaline degradation assay followed by ion chromatography. The side length distributions of the samples were shown to be similar. The samples were also analyzed by FT-IR and 1HNMR spectroscopy but it was difficult to derive quantitative differences in the samples by these methods. Our findings confirm that each proprietary source of yeast ß-glucan has a unique purity profile, branching, and linkage patterns that determine the chemical structure and composition.


Assuntos
Saccharomyces cerevisiae , beta-Glucanas , Parede Celular , Glucanos , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier
2.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(36): 10630-10637, 2021 Sep 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473491

RESUMO

In this study, ß-glucan interaction with lentil and yellow pea proteins and the effect on in vitro protein digestibility were investigated. Proteins were mixed with ß-glucan at mass ratios of 1:0.5, 1:1, and 1:2. The interaction between ß-glucan and the proteins was demonstrated by the decrease in transmittance and surface charge and the increase in particle size of the complexes. Bright-field microscopy showed the formation of aggregates between the biopolymers, although increased molecular size was not observed by discontinuous native polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Fluorescence microscopy indicated that ß-glucan formed aggregates with lentil proteins, while the interaction with yellow pea proteins appeared as distinct phases of protein within the ß-glucan network. The in vitro protein digestibility of lentil and pea protein decreased by 27.3 and 34.5%, respectively, in the presence of a ß-glucan mass ratio of 1:2. The findings confirm the possibility to modulate protein digestibility by changing the physical characteristics of a food matrix.


Assuntos
Lens (Planta) , Proteínas de Ervilha , beta-Glucanas , Alérgenos , Ervilhas
3.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 5373, 2021 09 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508078

RESUMO

Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a type of rheumatic disease characterized by chronic inflammation and pathological osteogenesis in the entheses. Previously, we demonstrated that enhanced osteogenic differentiation of MSC from AS patients (AS-MSC) resulted in pathological osteogenesis, and that during the enhanced osteogenic differentiation course, AS-MSC induced TNF-α-mediated local inflammation. However, whether TNF-α in turn affects AS-MSC remains unknown. Herein, we further demonstrate that a high-concentration TNF-α treatment triggers enhanced directional migration of AS-MSC in vitro and in vivo, which enforces AS pathogenesis. Mechanistically, TNF-α leads to increased expression of ELMO1 in AS-MSC, which is mediated by a METTL14 dependent m6A modification in ELMO1 3'UTR. Higher ELMO1 expression of AS-MSC is found in vivo in AS patients, and inhibiting ELMO1 in SKG mice produces therapeutic effects in this spondyloarthritis model. This study may provide insight into not only the pathogenesis but also clinical therapy for AS.


Assuntos
Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/genética , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/patologia , Osteogênese/genética , Espondilite Anquilosante/patologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Transdução de Sinal/metabolismo , Adenosina/análogos & derivados , Adenosina/metabolismo , Animais , Biópsia , Medula Óssea/patologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Diferenciação Celular/genética , Movimento Celular/genética , Metilação de DNA , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Epigênese Genética , Feminino , Células HEK293 , Voluntários Saudáveis , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Cultura Primária de Células , Espondilite Anquilosante/induzido quimicamente , Espondilite Anquilosante/diagnóstico , Espondilite Anquilosante/genética , Microtomografia por Raio-X , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/efeitos adversos
4.
Molecules ; 26(16)2021 Aug 06.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34443340

RESUMO

The oat ß-glucan (OG) was added into set-type yogurt as a functional ingredient, in order to evaluate effects on the rheological characteristics and microstructure of set-type yogurt. When the OG concentration increased from 0 to 0.3%, the WHC gradually increased. At 0.3% OG, the set-type yogurt had the highest WHC of 94.67%. Additionally, the WHC continuously decreased, reaching the lowest WHC (about 80%) at 0.5% OG. When 0.3% OG was added, the highest score of sensory evaluation was about 85. The rheological result showed that the fermentation process went through the changes as follows: solid → liquid → solid → liquid. The addition of 0.3% OG decreased the fermentation time of set-type yogurt by about 16 min, making yogurt more inclined to be liquid. The acidity of set-type yogurt with OG was slightly higher. The result of microstructure showed that the addition of OG destroyed the three-dimensional network structure of yogurt, and some spherical aggregate particles could be clearly observed at 0.3% OG. Overall, this study provided a theoretical basis for the application of OG in set-type yogurt.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Reologia , Iogurte/análise , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Fermentação/efeitos dos fármacos
5.
Appl Microbiol Biotechnol ; 105(18): 6887-6898, 2021 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34448899

RESUMO

To improve ß-1,3-1,6-D-glucan (ß-glucan) production by Aureobasidium pullulans, an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation method was developed to screen a mutant A. pullulans CGMCC 19650. Based on thermal asymmetric-interlaced PCR detection, DNA sequencing, BLAST analysis, and quantitative real-time PCR assay, the T-DNA was identified to be inserted in the coding region of mal31 gene, which encodes a sugar transporter involved in pullulan biosynthesis in the mutant. The maximal biomass and ß-glucan production under batch fermentation were significantly increased by 47.6% and 78.6%, respectively, while pullulan production was decreased by 41.7% in the mutant, as compared to the parental strain A. pullulans CCTCC M 2012259. Analysis of the physiological mechanism of these changes revealed that mal31 gene disruption increased the transcriptional levels of pgm2, ugp, fks1, and kre6 genes; increased the amounts of key enzymes associated with UDPG and ß-glucan biosynthesis; and improved intracellular UDPG contents and energy supply, all of which favored ß-glucan production. However, the T-DNA insertion decreased the transcriptional levels of ags2 genes, and reduced the biosynthetic capability to form pullulan, resulting in the decrease in pullulan production. This study not only provides an effective approach for improved ß-glucan production by A. pullulans, but also presents an accurate and useful gene for metabolic engineering of the producer for efficient polysaccharide production. KEY POINTS: • A mutant A. pullulans CGMCC 19650 was screened by using the ATMT method. • The mal31 gene encoding a sugar transporter was disrupted in the mutant. • ß-Glucan produced by the mutant was significantly improved.


Assuntos
Ascomicetos , beta-Glucanas , Ascomicetos/genética , Aureobasidium , DNA Bacteriano , Glucanos
6.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Aug 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444949

RESUMO

The prevalence of gastritis in humans is constantly growing and a prediction of an increase in this health problem is observed in many countries. For this reason, effective dietary therapies are sought that can alleviate the course of this disease. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of chemically pure oat beta-glucan preparations with different molar masses, low or high, used for 30 days in patients with histologically diagnosed chronic gastritis. The study enrolled 48 people of both genders of different ages recruited from 129 patients with a gastritis diagnosis. Before and after the therapy, hematological, biochemical, immunological and redox balance parameters were determined in the blood and the number of lactic acid bacteria and SCFA concentrations in the feces. Our results demonstrated a beneficial effect of oat beta-glucans with high molar mass in chronic gastritis in humans, resulting in reduced mucosal damage and healthy changes in SCFA fecal concentration and peripheral blood serum glutathione metabolism and antioxidant defense parameters. This fraction of a highly purified oat beta-glucan is safe for humans. Its action is effective after 30 days of use, which sheds new light on the nutritional treatment of chronic gastritis.


Assuntos
Avena , Gastrite/dietoterapia , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Adulto , Idoso , Doença Crônica , Método Duplo-Cego , Ácidos Graxos Voláteis/metabolismo , Fezes/química , Fezes/microbiologia , Feminino , Gastrite/microbiologia , Humanos , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Concentração Osmolar , Resultado do Tratamento , Adulto Jovem
7.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(32): 9287-9298, 2021 Aug 18.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34347479

RESUMO

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by marked imbalances in lipid storage and metabolism. Because the beneficial health effects of cereal ß-glucan (BG) include lowering cholesterol and regulating lipid metabolism, BG may alleviate the imbalances in lipid metabolism observed during NAFLD. The aim of our study was to investigate whether BG from highland barley has an effect on western diet-induced NAFLD in mice. Using lipidomics, we investigated the underlying mechanisms of BG intervention, and identified potential lipid biomarkers. The results reveal that BG (300 mg/kg body weight) significantly alleviated liver steatosis. Lipidomics analysis demonstrated that BG also altered lipid metabolic patterns. We were able to identify 13 differentially regulated lipid species that may be useful as lipid biomarkers. Several genes in the hepatic lipid and cholesterol metabolism pathways were also modulated. These findings provide evidence that BG ameliorates NAFLD by altering liver lipid metabolites and regulating lipid metabolism-related genes.


Assuntos
Hordeum , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Dieta Ocidental , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Hordeum/genética , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos , Lipidômica , Fígado/metabolismo , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/etiologia , Hepatopatia Gordurosa não Alcoólica/genética , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
8.
FASEB J ; 35(9): e21778, 2021 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34383971

RESUMO

As a result of the relatively few available antifungals and the increasing frequency of resistance to them, the development of novel antifungals is increasingly important. The plant natural product poacic acid (PA) inhibits ß-1,3-glucan synthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and has antifungal activity against a wide range of plant pathogens. However, the mode of action of PA is unclear. Here, we reveal that PA specifically binds to ß-1,3-glucan, its affinity for which is ~30-fold that for chitin. Besides its effect on ß-1,3-glucan synthase activity, PA inhibited the yeast glucan-elongating activity of Gas1 and Gas2 and the chitin-glucan transglycosylase activity of Crh1. Regarding the cellular response to PA, transcriptional co-regulation was mediated by parallel activation of the cell-wall integrity (CWI) and high-osmolarity glycerol signaling pathways. Despite targeting ß-1,3-glucan remodeling, the transcriptional profiles and regulatory circuits activated by caspofungin, zymolyase, and PA differed, indicating that their effects on CWI have different mechanisms. The effects of PA on the growth of yeast strains indicated that it has a mode of action distinct from that of echinocandins, suggesting it is a unique antifungal agent.


Assuntos
Antifúngicos/farmacologia , Parede Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Ácidos Cumáricos/farmacologia , Glicerol/metabolismo , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/efeitos dos fármacos , Estilbenos/farmacologia , Transcrição Genética/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Caspofungina/farmacologia , Parede Celular/genética , Parede Celular/metabolismo , Quitina/farmacologia , Equinocandinas/farmacologia , Proteínas Fúngicas/genética , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação Fúngica da Expressão Gênica/genética , Concentração Osmolar , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/metabolismo , Transdução de Sinais/efeitos dos fármacos , Transdução de Sinais/genética , Transcrição Genética/genética
9.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 117: 179-187, 2021 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34391940

RESUMO

The association of vaccines with immunostimulants such as ß-glucan, promote the production of cytokines, competent immune cells and antibodies. However, differences between ß-glucan types and trials make it difficult to understand ß-glucan's mechanism of action. In this study, three trials were carried out with control and fish fed ß-glucan, the first trial occurred at 15 days; the second trial occurred at 30 days when we associated ß-glucan and vaccine; and the third trial occurred at 15 days post-challenge with Streptococcus agalactiae in tilapia (O. niloticus) in order to investigate immune-related gene expression in the head kidney and spleen using real-time qPCR. We found increases in HSP70, IL-6, IL-1ß, TNF-α, IL-10, Lys and C3 predominantly in the head kidney, except for IgM expression, which prevailed in the spleen, under vaccinated + ß-glucan action. This demonstrates the trade-off presented by the head kidney and spleen after immunostimulation in order to produce acquired immunity, as well as an increase in HSP70 expression in vaccinated + ß-glucan fish. The results suggest that ß-glucan stimulates the immune response through damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) recognition. Therefore, these dynamics of the immune response promote a more robust defense against disease.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ciclídeos/imunologia , Rim Cefálico/efeitos dos fármacos , Baço/efeitos dos fármacos , Vacinas Estreptocócicas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Imunidade Adaptativa , Animais , Ciclídeos/genética , Ciclídeos/microbiologia , Citocinas/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/genética , Doenças dos Peixes/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/prevenção & controle , Proteínas de Peixes/genética , Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Proteínas de Choque Térmico HSP70/genética , Rim Cefálico/imunologia , Muramidase/imunologia , Transdução de Sinais , Baço/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/genética , Infecções Estreptocócicas/imunologia , Infecções Estreptocócicas/prevenção & controle , Infecções Estreptocócicas/veterinária , Streptococcus agalactiae
10.
Nutrients ; 13(8)2021 Jul 26.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34444720

RESUMO

Beta glucan is a type of soluble dietary fibre found in oats and barley with known cholesterol-lowering benefits. Many countries globally have an approved beta glucan health claim related to lowering blood cholesterol, an important biomarker for cardiovascular disease. However, the use of these claims has not been examined. The aim of this study was to explore the range and variety of oat and barley products in the Australian and global market within a defined range of grain food and beverage categories and examine the frequency of beta glucan health claims. Australian data were collected via a recognised nutrition audit process from the four major Australian supermarkets in metropolitan Sydney (January 2018 and September 2020) and Mintel Global New Product Database was used for global markets where a claim is permitted. Categories included breakfast cereals, bread, savoury biscuits, grain-based muesli bars, flour, noodles/pasta and plant-based milk alternatives and information collected included ingredients lists and nutrition and health claims. Products from Australia (n = 2462) and globally (n = 44,894) were examined. In Australia, 37 products (1.5%) made use of the beta glucan claim (84% related to oat beta glucan and 16% related to barley beta glucan, specifically BARLEYmax®). Of products launched globally, 0.9% (n = 403) displayed beta glucan cholesterol-lowering claims. Despite the number of products potentially eligible to make beta glucan claims, their use in Australia and globally is limited. The value of dietary modification in cardiovascular disease treatment and disease progression deserves greater focus, and health claims are an opportunity to assist in communicating the role of food in the management of health and disease. Further assessment of consumer understanding of the available claims would be of value.


Assuntos
Avena , Colesterol/sangue , Rotulagem de Alimentos , Alimentos , Hordeum , Grãos Integrais , beta-Glucanas , Austrália , Bebidas , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Fibras na Dieta , Alimentos/normas , Abastecimento de Alimentos , Humanos
11.
J Immunol ; 207(3): 923-937, 2021 08 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34301842

RESUMO

Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a primary immunodeficiency caused by genetic defects in leukocyte NADPH oxidase, which has both microbicidal and immunomodulatory roles. Hence, CGD is characterized by recurrent bacterial and fungal infections as well as aberrant inflammation. Fungal cell walls induce neutrophilic inflammation in CGD; yet, underlying mechanisms are incompletely understood. This study investigated the receptors and signaling pathways driving aberrant proinflammatory cytokine production in CGD neutrophils activated by fungal cell walls. Although cytokine responses to ß-glucan particles were similar in NADPH oxidase-competent and NADPH oxidase-deficient mouse and human neutrophils, stimulation with zymosan, a more complex fungal particle, induced elevated cytokine production in NADPH oxidase-deficient neutrophils. The dectin-1 C-type lectin receptor, which recognizes ß-glucans (1-3), and TLRs mediated cytokine responses by wild-type murine neutrophils. In the absence of NADPH oxidase, fungal pathogen-associated molecular patterns engaged additional collaborative signaling with Mac-1 and TLRs to markedly increase cytokine production. Mechanistically, this cytokine overproduction is mediated by enhanced proximal activation of tyrosine phosphatase SHP2-Syk and downstream Card9-dependent NF-κB and Card9-independent JNK-c-Jun. This activation and amplified cytokine production were significantly decreased by exogenous H2O2 treatment, enzymatic generation of exogenous H2O2, or Mac-1 blockade. Similar to zymosan, Aspergillus fumigatus conidia induced increased signaling in CGD mouse neutrophils for activation of proinflammatory cytokine production, which also used Mac-1 and was Card9 dependent. This study, to our knowledge, provides new insights into how NADPH oxidase deficiency deregulates neutrophil cytokine production in response to fungal cell walls.


Assuntos
Aspergillus fumigatus/fisiologia , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/imunologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Antígeno de Macrófago 1/metabolismo , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Neutrófilos/imunologia , Receptores de Reconhecimento de Padrão/metabolismo , Animais , Antígenos de Fungos/imunologia , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/metabolismo , Doença Granulomatosa Crônica/genética , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Camundongos Knockout , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , NF-kappa B/metabolismo , Ativação de Neutrófilo , Padrões Moleculares Associados a Patógenos/imunologia , Receptor Cross-Talk , Transdução de Sinais , beta-Glucanas/imunologia
12.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 821-831, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34216670

RESUMO

Curdlan is a water-insoluble exopolysaccharide produced by Agrobacterium species under nitrogen starvation. The curdlan production in the ΔmdeA, ΔmetA, ΔmetH, and ΔmetZ mutants of methionine biosynthesis pathway of Agrobacterium sp. CGMCC 11546 were significantly impaired. Fermentation profiles of four mutants showed that the consumption of ammonia and sucrose was impaired. Transcriptome analysis of the ΔmetH and ΔmetZ mutants showed that numerous differentially expressed genes involved in the electron transfer chain (ETC) were significantly down-regulated, suggesting that methionine biosynthesis pathway affected the production of energy ATP during the curdlan biosynthesis. Furthermore, metabolomics analysis of the ΔmetH and ΔmetZ mutants showed that ADP and FAD were significantly accumulated, while acetyl-CoA was diminished, suggesting that the impaired curdlan production in the ΔmetH and ΔmetZ mutants might be caused by the insufficient supply of energy ATP. Finally, the addition of both dibasic sodium succinate as a substrate of FAD recycling and methionine significantly restored the curdlan production of four mutants. In conclusion, methionine biosynthesis pathway plays an important role in curdlan biosynthesis in Agrobacterium sp. CGMCC 11546, which affected the sufficient supply of energy ATP from the ETC during the curdlan biosynthesis.


Assuntos
Agrobacterium/fisiologia , Vias Biossintéticas , Metionina/metabolismo , Mutação , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Trifosfato de Adenosina/metabolismo , Agrobacterium/genética , Proteínas de Bactérias/genética , Fermentação , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Regulação Bacteriana da Expressão Gênica , Metabolômica , Nitrogênio/metabolismo
13.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 185: 876-889, 2021 Aug 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34237364

RESUMO

The integrity of the epidermal barrier and the maintenance of barrier homeostasis depend on the dynamic balance between the proliferation and differentiation of keratinocytes. Calcium (Ca2+) plays a crucial role in maintaining a balance of these two processes as well as in the formation of an epidermal permeability barrier. In this study, we showed that topical application of oat ß-glucan (OG) could ameliorate epidermal hyperplasia and accelerate the recovery of the epidermal barrier by promoting epidermal differentiation. Mechanistic studies revealed a positive interaction between OG and the dectin-1 receptor, and this interaction could lead to an upregulated expression of the calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) via activation of the downstream ERK and p38 pathways. This consequently increased the sensitivity of keratinocytes to extracellular Ca2+ under the condition of calcium loss following the disruption of the epidermal barrier, resulting in the maintenance of normal keratinocyte differentiation in the epidermis, and ultimately promoting the recovery of the epidermal barrier. These findings clearly demonstrated the healing effect of OG on a physically damaged epidermal barrier. Thus, OG could be considered a valuable component in the development of skin repair agents.


Assuntos
Avena/química , Queratinócitos/citologia , Lectinas Tipo C/metabolismo , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/efeitos adversos , Animais , Cálcio/metabolismo , Diferenciação Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Células HaCaT , Humanos , Hiperplasia , Queratinócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Queratinócitos/metabolismo , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Sistema de Sinalização das MAP Quinases/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Receptores de Detecção de Cálcio/genética , Regulação para Cima , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7680-7686, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34196548

RESUMO

With the basic understanding and broad application prospects of luminescent materials, the emission mechanism of unconventional luminescent agents has been revealed gradually. Here, we report a non-conjugated biomass material, oat ß-glucan (oat-ß-Glu), which actually does not emit light in a dilute solution but emits significantly when forming aggregates. Inherently visible emission of oat-ß-Glu from the concentrated solutions and solid state could be observed. In addition, we have observed room temperature phosphorescence in oat-ß-Glu powders, which is also unusual in pure organic materials. It can be proposed that the luminescence property of oat-ß-Glu originates from the spatial conjugation of the oxygen atoms of oat-ß-Glu. This clustering-triggered emission mechanism may well be expanded to other unconventional biomacromolecules, inspiring the rational design of luminescent agents. Due to its good biocompatibility and intrinsic emission characteristics, oat-ß-Glu has shown great potential application prospects in bioimaging and biosensors.


Assuntos
beta-Glucanas , Avena , Alimentos , Luminescência
15.
J Agric Food Chem ; 69(27): 7581-7592, 2021 Jul 14.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34197112

RESUMO

There is growing evidence that prevention of metabolic syndrome (MS) by dietary fibers is intricately linked to gut microbiota. In the present work, the mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) and orally treated with yeast ß-glucan to further examine the effects of ß-glucan on MS and gut microbiota and the potential relationship between gut microbiota and its activity. After intervention for 10 weeks, it was found that the treatment of yeast ß-glucan could significantly improve the HFD-induced MS. Furthermore, pro-inflammatory cytokines in plasma including IL-6 and IL-1ß were decreased. Yeast ß-glucan could regulate the diversity and composition of HFD-induced gut microbiota. Moreover, the relative abundances of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus, having significant positive correlation with metabolic changes, were decreased by ß-glucan, which might play a critical role in attenuation of MS. Our findings suggest that yeast ß-glucan shows promising application as a prebiotic for preventing MS and regulating gut microbiota.


Assuntos
Microbioma Gastrointestinal , Síndrome Metabólica , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Proliferação de Células , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Lactobacillus , Lactococcus , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/genética
16.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(11)2021 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34205910

RESUMO

To overcome the limitations of the Limulus amebocyte lysate (LAL) assay method for the diagnosis of invasive fungal infection, we applied a reaction system combining recombinant ß-glucan binding proteins and a scanning single-molecule counting (SSMC) method. A novel (1→3)-ß-D-glucan recognition protein (S-BGRP) and a (1→6)-ß-glucanase mutant protein were prepared and tested for the binding of (1→6)-branched (1→3)-ß-D-glucan from fungi. S-BGRP and (1→6)-ß-glucanase mutant proteins reacted with ß-glucan from Candida and Aspergillus spp. Although LAL cross-reacted with plant-derived ß-glucans, the new detection system using the SSMC method showed low sensitivity to plant (1→3)-ß-D-glucan, which significantly improved the appearance of false positives, a recognized problem with the LAL method. Measurement of ß-glucan levels by the SSMC method using recombinant ß-glucan-binding proteins may be useful for the diagnosis of fungal infections. This study shows that this detection system could be a new alternative diagnostic method to the LAL method.


Assuntos
Técnicas Biossensoriais , Endotoxinas/isolamento & purificação , Micoses/diagnóstico , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/química , Aspergillus/isolamento & purificação , Aspergillus/patogenicidade , Candida/química , Candida/isolamento & purificação , Candida/patogenicidade , Endotoxinas/química , Humanos , Micoses/microbiologia , Imagem Individual de Molécula , beta-Glucanas/química
17.
Molecules ; 26(12)2021 Jun 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34200882

RESUMO

The occurrence of microbial challenges in commercial poultry farming causes significant economic losses. Antibiotics have been used to control diseases involving bacterial infection in poultry. As the incidence of antibiotic resistance turns out to be a serious problem, there is increased pressure on producers to reduce antibiotic use. With the reduced availability of antibiotics, poultry producers are looking for feed additives to stimulate the immune system of the chicken to resist microbial infection. Some ß-glucans have been shown to improve gut health, to increase the flow of new immunocytes, increase macrophage function, stimulate phagocytosis, affect intestinal morphology, enhance goblet cell number and mucin-2 production, induce the increased expression of intestinal tight-junctions, and function as effective anti-inflammatory immunomodulators in poultry. As a result, ß-glucans may provide a new tool for producers trying to reduce or eliminate the use of antibiotics in fowl diets. The specific activity of each ß-glucan subtype still needs to be investigated. Upon knowledge, optimal ß-glucan mixtures may be implemented in order to obtain optimal growth performance, exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activity, and optimized intestinal morphology and histology responses in poultry. This review provides an extensive overview of the current use of ß glucans as additives and putative use as antibiotic alternative in poultry.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Carne , Aves Domésticas
18.
Nutrients ; 13(7)2021 Jun 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34202377

RESUMO

Mushroom cell walls are rich in ß-glucans, long or short-chain polymers of glucose subunits with ß-1,3 and ß-1,6 linkages, that are responsible for the linear and branching structures, respectively. ß-glucans from cereals, at variance, have no 1,6 linkages nor branching structures. Both immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory effects of mushrooms have been described using purified ß-glucans or fungi extracts on cellular and experimental models; their potential clinical use has been tested in different conditions, such as recurrent infections of the respiratory tract or complications of major surgery. Another promising application of ß-glucans is on cancer, as adjuvant of conventional chemotherapy. ß-glucans may protect the cardiovascular system, ameliorating glucose, lipid metabolism, and blood pressure: these activities, observed for oat and barley ß-glucans, require confirmation in human studies with mushroom ß-glucans. On the other hand, mushrooms may also protect the cardiovascular system via a number of other components, such as bioactive phenolic compounds, vitamins, and mineral elements. The growing knowledge on the mechanism(s) and health benefits of mushrooms is encouraging the development of a potential clinical use of ß-glucans, and also to further document their role in preserving health and prevent disease in the context of healthy lifestyles.


Assuntos
Agaricales/química , Plantas Comestíveis/química , Substâncias Protetoras/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Humanos
19.
Int J Mol Sci ; 22(12)2021 Jun 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34208769

RESUMO

Early changes in hemocyte proteins in freshwater crayfish Pacifastacus leniusculus, in response to an injection with the fungal pattern recognition protein ß-1,3-glucan (laminarin) were investigated, as well as changes after saline (vehicle) injection and in naïve animals. Injection of saline resulted in rapid recruitment of granular hemocytes from surrounding tissues, whereas laminarin injection on the other hand induced an initial dramatic drop of hemocytes. At six hours after injection, the hemocyte populations therefore were of different composition. The results show that mature granular hemocytes increase in number after saline injection as indicated by the high abundance of proteins present in granular cell vesicles, such as a vitelline membrane outer layer protein 1 homolog, mannose-binding lectin, masquerade, crustin 1 and serine protease homolog 1. After injection with the ß-1,3-glucan, only three proteins were enhanced in expression, in comparison with saline-injected animals and uninjected controls. All of them may be associated with immune responses, such as a new and previously undescribed Kazal proteinase inhibitor. One interesting observation was that the clotting protein was increased dramatically in most of the animals injected with laminarin. The number of significantly affected proteins was very few after a laminarin injection when compared to uninjected and saline-injected crayfish. This finding may demonstrate some problematic issues with gene and protein expression studies from other crustaceans receiving injections with pathogens or pattern recognition proteins. If no uninjected controls are included and no information about hemocyte count (total or differential) is given, expressions data for proteins or mRNAs are very difficult to properly interpret.


Assuntos
Astacoidea/efeitos dos fármacos , Astacoidea/metabolismo , Hemócitos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , Animais , Proteínas de Artrópodes/genética , Proteínas de Artrópodes/metabolismo , Astacoidea/genética , Biomarcadores , Expressão Gênica , Hemócitos/citologia , Proteoma , Proteômica/métodos , RNA Mensageiro/genética
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