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1.
Food Chem ; 404(Pt A): 134508, 2023 Mar 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36219965

RESUMO

The aim of this study was to determine the applicability of commonly used dyes (CWS and CFB) to stain different types of ß-glucans in water and selected, most popular, dairy products for CLSM imaging analysis. Structurally different pure ß-glucan preparations: curdlan-CU, oat ß-glucan-OG and scleroglucan-SC were tested. Our study showed for the first time that CWS is a dye with a specific affinity for all analyzed ß-glucans, while CFB is suitable for curdlan labeling only. Despite the technological processes, ß-glucans structures in dairy products are similar to those in aqueous suspension forms; each of the ß-glucans forms a different and characteristic structure, ranging from spindle-shaped and branched till granular. The presented results for the first time systematize the knowledge on CWS and CFB applicability in ß-glucan CLSM staining and allow future researchers to correctly analyze simultaneously stained ß-glucan, fat, and protein in a complex matrix as dairy products.


Assuntos
Água , beta-Glucanas , beta-Glucanas/química , Corantes Fluorescentes , Laticínios , Lasers
2.
Food Chem ; 401: 134168, 2023 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36099829

RESUMO

Soy protein-glucan-tannic acid (S-G-T) complex coacervates were prepared by high-intensity ultrasonic processing (US), subcritical water (SW) treatment, and microfluidization homogenization with different pressures (DHPM 500 and 1000) to stabilize Pickering high internal phase emulsions (HIPEs). Our results show that different treatments affect the microstructure and interfacial properties of ternary coacervates by modifying the intermolecular associations between components. In particular, US and DHPM 500 resulted in the formation of ternary complexes with smaller particle sizes and compact network structures. These properties facilitate the capture of oil droplets. S-G-T (US)- and S-G-T (DHPM500)-stabilized HIPEs exhibit gel-like structures, good creaming stability, and high friction coefficients due to the formation of a three-dimensional network in the continuous phase. However, a more uniform droplet distribution, higher viscoelasticity, and reduced friction were observed after storage for 60 days. These results provide a strategy to improve the sensory characteristics of emulsion-based foods after processing.


Assuntos
Proteínas de Soja , beta-Glucanas , Emulsões/química , Proteínas de Soja/química , Taninos , Canais Epiteliais de Sódio , Tamanho da Partícula , Água/química
3.
Food Chem ; 402: 134207, 2023 Feb 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36126575

RESUMO

In this work, a sequential fractionation protocol (cold and hot aqueous and alkaline extractions) and detailed compositional analysis (gross composition, monosaccharide analysis, FTIR, TGA) was applied to three relevant mushrooms in terms of global production (Grifola frondosa, Lentinula edodes and Pleurotus ostreatus) aiming to understand what is preferentially extracted during fractionation and how ß-glucan extraction is affected by mushroom source. Room temperature aqueous extracts showed highest overall yields (56.3-82%) consisting of proteins, sugars and polyphenols. ß-glucan content was highest in P. ostreatus and was concentrated in the more soluble fractions. On the contrary, a recalcitrant ß-glucan in G. frondosa was mainly present in the residue (7.38%). L. edodes showed ß-glucan populations distributed along aqueous and alkaline extracts, higher abundance of non-glucan polysaccharides and higher chitin purity (47.78%) in the residue. This work sets the basis for the rational design of extraction processes aiming to valorise mushroom biomass.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Cogumelos Shiitake , beta-Glucanas , Agaricales/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/química , Cogumelos Shiitake/química , Polissacarídeos/química , Monossacarídeos , Água , Quitina
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 300: 120248, 2023 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36372508

RESUMO

To resolve the major obstacles of poor water solubility and few functional derivatives in the practical utilization of curdlan, we prepared highly soluble and thermal-responsively alkylated curdlan with different degrees of substitution (DS) via homogeneous reaction. The properties of these derivatives were investigated by rheology, inline attenuated total reflective-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy, micro-differential scanning calorimetry, dynamic light scattering, and in vitro cytotoxicity assay. The newly developed methylated and ethylated curdlan can form thermal reversible heat-set hydrogels accompanied by volume shrinkage due to syneresis. Their gelation temperatures depend strongly on the DS, size of hydrophobic groups, and the order of the Hofmeister series salts added. Experimental results indicated that the gel network was induced by the enhanced hydrophobic interaction among macromolecular chains and weakened hydrogen bonding between the polymer and water on heating, leading to phase separation and gelation.


Assuntos
Éteres , beta-Glucanas , beta-Glucanas/química , Reologia , Espectroscopia de Infravermelho com Transformada de Fourier , Hidrogéis , Água/química
5.
Sci Adv ; 8(45): eadd1596, 2022 11 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36367939

RESUMO

Mixed-linkage (1,3;1,4)-ß-glucans, which are widely distributed in cell walls of the grasses, are linear glucose polymers containing predominantly (1,4)-ß-linked glucosyl units interspersed with single (1,3)-ß-linked glucosyl units. Their distribution in cereal grains and unique structures are important determinants of dietary fibers that are beneficial to human health. We demonstrate that the barley cellulose synthase-like CslF6 enzyme is sufficient to synthesize a high-molecular weight (1,3;1,4)-ß-glucan in vitro. Biochemical and cryo-electron microscopy analyses suggest that CslF6 functions as a monomer. A conserved "switch motif" at the entrance of the enzyme's transmembrane channel is critical to generate (1,3)-linkages. There, a single-point mutation markedly reduces (1,3)-linkage formation, resulting in the synthesis of cellulosic polysaccharides. Our results suggest that CslF6 monitors the orientation of the nascent polysaccharide's second or third glucosyl unit. Register-dependent interactions with these glucosyl residues reposition the polymer's terminal glucosyl unit to form either a (1,3)- or (1,4)-ß-linkage.


Assuntos
Hordeum , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Hordeum/genética , Microscopia Crioeletrônica , Glucanos
6.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 94(4): e20200913, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36449894

RESUMO

ß-Glucan is an essential component of the cell walls of grains such as oats and barley. 1,3-1,4-ß-D-glucan 4-glucanhydrolase (ß-glucanase or lichenase) (EC 3.2.1.73) is an enzyme with the ability to hydrolyze ß-glucans. In this research, ß-Glucan which is a good source of feed additive fish probiotics, was used in order to benefit from feed quality in fishery products, to increase live weight gain and to strengthen the immune system. In this study, recombinant vector pNW33N carrying the ß-(1,3-1,4) glucanase (lichenase) gene of Streptococcus bovis genome was transferred to Bacillus subtilis RSKK246 (CMCase+) strain by electroporation. Subsequently, electrotransformation was performed on LB-agar plates containing lichenan and enzymatic activity regions of recombinant B. subtilis RSKK246 colonies were observed by staining with Congo red. In addition, the DNA from the recombinant plasmid pNW33N+Lichenase (pNW33NLic) was cut on both the BamHI and HindIII endonucleases and observed on the lichenase gene (1800 bp) agarose gel. On the other hand, the protein band corresponding to 26 kDa of the recombinant enzyme was observed by zymogram analysis. These results indicate that the ß-(1,3-1,4) glucanase gene has been successfully expressed to the B. subtilis strain RSKK246.


Assuntos
Probióticos , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Bacillus subtilis/genética , Aquicultura , Clonagem Molecular
7.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1023235, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36341406

RESUMO

The use of functional feeds for farmed fish is now regarded as a key factor in improving fish health and performance against infectious disease. However, the mechanisms by which these nutritional components modulate the immune response are not fully understood. The present study was undertaken to identify the suitability of both primary gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) leucocyte cells and established rainbow trout cell lines as potential alternative methods to test functional feed ingredients prior to full fish feeding trials that can take months to complete. In addition to the primary GALT culture cells, the two rainbow cell lines RTS11 and RTgutGC which are from macrophage and gut epithelial cells, respectively. The cells were stimulated with a variety of pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) (PHA and Poly I:C) and recombinant rainbow trout IL-1ß (rIL-1ß), a proinflammatory cytokine, additionally two forms of ß-glucan, a prebiotic commonly used aquafeeds were used as stimulants. From this, the suitability of cell models as a health screen for functional feeds was assessed. GALT leucocytes were deemed most effective to act as a health screen over the 4hr time point demonstrating responses to Poly I:C, PHA, and rIL-1ß. RTS11 and RTgutGC also responded to the stimulants but did not give a strong T-cell response, most likely reflecting the nature of the cell type as opposed to the mixed cell populations from the primary GALT cell cultures. When stimulated with both forms of ß-glucan, GALT leucocytes demonstrated a strong proinflammatory and T-cell response.


Assuntos
Oncorhynchus mykiss , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Linhagem Celular , Poli I-C/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Tecido Linfoide
8.
Int J Nanomedicine ; 17: 5303-5314, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406639

RESUMO

Aim: This study focuses on constructing of an anti-inflammatory drug delivery system by encapsulation of berberine in the ß-glucan nanoparticles and evaluates its effect on treating ulcerative colitis. Methods: ß-Glucan and the anti-inflammatory drug berberine (BER) are self-assembled into nanoparticles to construct a drug delivery system (GLC/BER). The interaction between the drug and the carrier was characterized by circular dichroism, ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, and dynamic light scattering. The anti-inflammatory effect of the GLC/BER was evaluated through a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammation model and a sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced C57BL/6 mouse ulcerative colitis model. Results: The GLC/BER nanoparticles have a particle size of 80-120 nm and a high encapsulation efficiency of 37.8±4.21%. In the LPS-induced RAW264.7 macrophage inflammation model, GLC/BER significantly promoted the uptake of BER by RAW264.7 cells. RT-PCR and ELISA assay showed that it could significantly inhibit the inflammatory factors including IL-1ß, IL-6 and COX-2. Furthermore, GLC/BER shows inhibiting effect on the secretion of pro-inflammatory factors such as IL-1ß and IL-6, down-regulating the production of nitrite oxide; in animal studies, GLC/BER was found to exert a relieving effect on mice colitis. Conclusion: The study found that GLC/BER has an anti-inflammatory effect in vitro and in vivo, and the GLC carrier improves the potency and bioavailability of BER, providing a new type of nanomedicine for the treatment of colitis.


Assuntos
Berberina , Colite Ulcerativa , Colite , Nanopartículas , beta-Glucanas , Camundongos , Animais , Berberina/farmacologia , Berberina/uso terapêutico , Colite Ulcerativa/induzido quimicamente , Colite Ulcerativa/tratamento farmacológico , Lipopolissacarídeos , Interleucina-6 , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Macrófagos , Colite/induzido quimicamente , Anti-Inflamatórios/farmacologia , Anti-Inflamatórios/uso terapêutico , Inflamação/tratamento farmacológico
9.
J Clin Invest ; 132(22)2022 11 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36377664

RESUMO

Subcutaneous phaeohyphomycosis typically affects immunocompetent individuals following traumatic inoculation. Severe or disseminated infection can occur in CARD9 deficiency or after transplantation, but the mechanisms protecting against phaeohyphomycosis remain unclear. We evaluated a patient with progressive, refractory Corynespora cassiicola phaeohyphomycosis and found that he carried biallelic deleterious mutations in CLEC7A encoding the CARD9-coupled, ß-glucan-binding receptor, Dectin-1. The patient's PBMCs failed to produce TNF-α and IL-1ß in response to ß-glucan and/or C. cassiicola. To confirm the cellular and molecular requirements for immunity against C. cassiicola, we developed a mouse model of this infection. Mouse macrophages required Dectin-1 and CARD9 for IL-1ß and TNF-α production, which enhanced fungal killing in an interdependent manner. Deficiency of either Dectin-1 or CARD9 was associated with more severe fungal disease, recapitulating the human observation. Because these data implicated impaired Dectin-1 responses in susceptibility to phaeohyphomycosis, we evaluated 17 additional unrelated patients with severe forms of the infection. We found that 12 out of 17 carried deleterious CLEC7A mutations associated with an altered Dectin-1 extracellular C-terminal domain and impaired Dectin-1-dependent cytokine production. Thus, we show that Dectin-1 and CARD9 promote protective TNF-α- and IL-1ß-mediated macrophage defense against C. cassiicola. More broadly, we demonstrate that human Dectin-1 deficiency may contribute to susceptibility to severe phaeohyphomycosis by certain dematiaceous fungi.


Assuntos
Feoifomicose , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Humanos , Masculino , Camundongos , Proteínas Adaptadoras de Sinalização CARD/genética , Lectinas Tipo C/genética , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Feoifomicose/microbiologia , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética
10.
Nutrients ; 14(22)2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36432463

RESUMO

Hypertension (HTN) is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cognitive decline. Elevations in blood pressure (BP) leading to HTN can be found in young adults with increased prevalence as people age. Oats are known to decrease CVD risk via an established effect of ß-glucan on the attenuation of blood cholesterol. Many past studies on CVD and oats have also reported a decrease in BP; however, a thorough assessment of oats and BP has not been conducted. Moreover, oats deliver several beneficial dietary components with putative beneficial effects on BP or endothelial function, such as ß-glucan, γ-amino butyric acid (GABA), and phytochemicals such as avenanthramides. We conducted a comprehensive search for systematic reviews, meta-analyses, and clinical intervention studies on oats and BP and identified 18 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and three meta-analyses that supported the role of oats in decreasing BP. Emerging data also suggest oat consumption may reduce the use of anti-hypertensive medications. The majority of these studies utilized whole oats or oat bran, which include a vast array of oat bioactives. Therefore, we also extensively reviewed the literature on these bioactives and their putative effect on BP-relevant mechanisms. The data suggest several oat components, such as GABA, as well as the delivery of high-quality plant protein and fermentable prebiotic fiber, may contribute to the anti-HTN effect of oats. In particular, GABA is enhanced in oat sprouts, which suggests this food may be particularly beneficial for healthy BP management.


Assuntos
Doenças Cardiovasculares , Hipertensão , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Avena , Pressão Sanguínea , Revisões Sistemáticas como Assunto , Grão Comestível , Fibras na Dieta/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/farmacologia , Anti-Hipertensivos/uso terapêutico , Hipertensão/prevenção & controle , Hipertensão/tratamento farmacológico , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/tratamento farmacológico , Ácido gama-Aminobutírico
11.
Arch Microbiol ; 204(11): 681, 2022 Oct 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36316590

RESUMO

Facing the critical issue of high production costs for cellulase, numerous studies have focused on improving the efficiency of cellulase production by potential cellulolytic microorganisms using agricultural wastes as substrates, extremophilic cellulases, in particular, are crucial in the biorefinery process because they can maintain activity under harsh environmental conditions. This study aims to investigate the ability of a potential carboxymethylcellulose-hydrolyzing bacterial strain H1, isolated from an Algerian saline soil and identified as Bacillus velezensis, to use untreated olive mill wastes as a substrate for the production of an endo-1,4-ß-glucanase. The enzyme was purified 44.9 fold using only two steps: ultrafiltration concentration and ion exchange chromatography, with final recovery of 80%. Its molecular mass was estimated to be 26 kDa by SDS-PAGE. Enzyme identification by LC-MS analysis showed 40% identity with an endo-1,3-1,4-ß-glucanase of GH-16 family. The highest enzymatic activity was significantly measured on barley ß-glucan (604.5 U/mL) followed by lichenan and carboxymethylcellulose as substrates, confirming that the studied enzyme is an endo-1,4-ß-glucanase. Optimal enzymatic activity was at pH 6.0-6.5 and at 60-65 °C. It was fairly thermotolerant, retaining 76.9% of the activity at 70 °C, and halotolerant, retaining 70% of its activity in the presence of 4 M NaCl. The enzyme had a Vmax of 625 U/min/mL and a high affinity with barley ß-glucan resulting a Km of 0.69 mg/mL. It also showed a significant ability to release cello-oligosaccharides. Based on such data, the H1 endo-1,4-ß-glucanase may have significant commercial values for industry, argo-waste treatment, and other biotechnological applications.


Assuntos
Celulase , Olea , beta-Glucanas , Celulase/metabolismo , Carboximetilcelulose Sódica , Sequência de Aminoácidos , Concentração de Íons de Hidrogênio , Especificidade por Substrato
12.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 6857, 2022 Nov 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36369287

RESUMO

Programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) has been shown to be inducibly expressed on neutrophils to suppress host immunity during polymicrobial sepsis, virus and parasite infections. However, the role of PD-L1 on neutrophil-mediated antifungal immunity remains wholly unknown. Here, we show that the expression of PD-L1 on murine and human neutrophils was upregulated upon the engagement of C-type lectin receptor Dectin-1 with its ligand ß-glucans, exposed on fungal pathogen Candida albicans yeast. Moreover, ß-glucan stimulation induced PD-L1 translocation into nucleus to regulate the production of chemokines CXCL1 and CXCL2, which control neutrophil mobilization. Importantly, C. albicans infection-induced expression of PD-L1 leads to neutrophil accumulation in bone marrow, through mediating their autocrine secretion of CXCL1/2. Furthermore, neutrophil-specific deficiency of PD-L1 impaired CXCL1/2 secretion, which promoted neutrophil migration from bone marrow into the peripheral circulation, thereby conferring host resistance to C. albicans infection. Finally, either PD-L1 blockade or pharmacological inhibition of PD-L1 expression significantly increased neutrophil release from bone marrow to enhance host antifungal immunity. Our data together indicate that activation of Dectin-1/PD-L1 cascade by ß-glucans inhibits neutrophil release from bone marrow reserve, contributing to the negative regulation of antifungal innate immunity, which functions as a potent immunotherapeutic target against life-threatening fungi infections.


Assuntos
Neutrófilos , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Camundongos , Humanos , Antígeno B7-H1/genética , Antígeno B7-H1/metabolismo , Antifúngicos/metabolismo , Medula Óssea , Candida albicans/fisiologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo
13.
Int J Med Mushrooms ; 24(12): 19-36, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36374979

RESUMO

This study aims to analyze the peach palm by-product (shells) bioconversion by culinary-medicinal mushroom Lentinula edodes to obtain a food ingredient for dietary supplementation containing high contents of dietary fiber, protein, and ß-glucans. The ß-glucans production by L. edodes mycelium was optimized through a solid-state fermentation, checking the influence of the heart of palm shells and supplements (rice bran, manioc flour, and sorghum flour) through an experimental mixing plan. The cultivation treatment that presented the highest tendency for ß-glucans production was analyzed by the centesimal composition and in vivo biological activity. Treatments 4 (with shells, rice bran, and manioc flour) and 6 (with shells, sorghum flour, and manioc flour) presented the highest ß-glucans content. A flour was obtained with high dietary fiber and protein content, and low lipids and carbohydrates content, and low caloric value. The in vivo biological activity demonstrated high protein quality and promoted a lower elevation of the glycemic curve. Thus, technology for the transformation of peach palm shells into a food ingredient was made feasible. It could generate a gluten-free and lactose-free dietary supplement that is both nutritive and bioactive, enhancing human health and well-being as well as environmental sustainability.


Assuntos
Agaricales , Arecaceae , Basidiomycota , Ingredientes de Alimentos , Cogumelos Shiitake , beta-Glucanas , Humanos , Brasil , Fibras na Dieta , Grão Comestível
14.
J Agric Food Chem ; 70(45): 14559-14570, 2022 Nov 16.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36382383

RESUMO

Dietary fiber has long been known to be an essential component of a healthy diet, and recent investigations into the gut microbiome-health paradigm have identified fiber as a prime determinant in this interaction. Further, fiber is now known to impact the gut microbiome in a structure-specific manner, conferring differential bioactivities to these specific structures. However, current analytical methods for food carbohydrate analysis do not capture this important structural information. To address this need, we utilized rapid-throughput LC-MS methods to develop a novel analytical pipeline to determine the structural composition of soluble and insoluble fiber fractions from two AOAC methods (991.43 and 2017.16) at the total monosaccharide, glycosidic linkage, and free saccharide level. Two foods were chosen for this proof-of-concept study: oats and potato starch. For oats, both AOAC methods gave similar results. Insoluble fiber was found to be comprised of linkages corresponding to ß-glucan, arabinoxylan, xyloglucan, and mannan, while soluble fiber was found to be mostly ß-glucan, with small amounts of arabinogalactan. For raw potato starch, each AOAC method gave markedly different results in the soluble fiber fractions. These observed differences are attributable to the resistant starch content of potato starch and the different starch digestion conditions used in each method. Together, these tools are a means to obtain the complex structures present within dietary fiber while retaining "classical" determinations such as soluble and insoluble fiber. These efforts will provide an analytical framework to connect gravimetric fiber determinations with their constituent structures to better inform gut microbiome and clinical nutrition studies.


Assuntos
Glicômica , beta-Glucanas , Fibras na Dieta/análise , Carboidratos/análise , Amido/química , Grão Comestível/química
15.
J Appl Oral Sci ; 30: e20220158, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36350873

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a member of the carcinoembryonic antigen family. Although its expression has been found in chronic oral inflammatory epithelium, this study aimed to know whether CEACAM1 in oral keratinocytes participates in host immune response against Candida albicans . METHODOLOGY: We investigated CEACAM1 expression in oral keratinocytes induced by C. albicans as well as by Candida cell wall component ß-glucan particles (ß-GPs). Furthermore, the effects of CEACAM1 on ß-GPs-induced heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) expression and its related signals were examined. RESULTS: Fluorescence staining showed CEACAM1 expression in oral keratinocytes (RT7) cells, whereas quantitative reverse transcription (RT)-PCR indicated that both live and heat-killed C. albicans increased CEACAM1 mRNA expression in RT7 cells. Examinations using quantitative RT-PCR and western blotting indicated that CEACAM1 expression was also increased by ß-GPs derived from C. albicans . Specific siRNA for CEACAM1 decreased HO-1 expression induced by ß-GPs from C. albicans as well as the budding yeast microorganism Saccharomyces cerevisiae . Moreover, knockdown of CEACAM1 decreased ß-GPs-induced ROS activity in the early phase and translocation of Nrf2 into the nucleus. CONCLUSION: CEACAM1 in oral keratinocytes may have a critical role in regulation of HO-1 for host immune defense during Candida infection.


Assuntos
Heme Oxigenase-1 , beta-Glucanas , Heme Oxigenase-1/metabolismo , Heme Oxigenase-1/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/metabolismo , Antígeno Carcinoembrionário/farmacologia , Molécula 1 de Adesão Celular/metabolismo , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Candida , Queratinócitos , Candida albicans/fisiologia
16.
Ultrason Sonochem ; 90: 106210, 2022 Nov.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327922

RESUMO

Yeast ß-glucan (YG) possess an extensive range of biological activities, such as the inhibition of oxidation, but the poor water solubility of macromolecular YG limits its application. In this study, through the combined degradation of ultrasonic waves and H2O2, and the optimization of the main process parameters for solubilizing YG by response surface methodology (RSM), a new product of YGUH was generated. The molecular weight, structural characteristics and degradation kinetics before and after solubilization were evaluated. The results showed that the optimal solubilization conditions were reaction time: 4 h, ultrasonic power: 3 W/mL, H2O2 concentration: 24 %. Under these conditions, ultrasound-assisted H2O2 increased the solubility (from 13.60 % to 70.00 %) and reduced molecular weight (from 6.73 × 106 Da to 1.22 × 106 Da). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), Congo red (CR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that ultrasound-assisted H2O2 increased the conformation's flexibility greatly, without changing the main structure of YG. More importantly, solubilization of YG improved free radical scavenging activity with YGUH exhibiting the highest levels of DPPH and ABTS+ free radical scavenging activity. These results revealed that ultrasound-assisted H2O2 degradation could be a suitable way to increase the solubility of YG for producing value-added YG.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes , beta-Glucanas , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/química , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Peróxido de Hidrogênio , Solubilidade
17.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1018768, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36389790

RESUMO

Soybean meal evokes diet-induced intestinal inflammation in certain fishes. Although the molecular aspects of soybean-induced intestinal inflammation in zebrafish are known, the impact of the inflammatory diet on fish behavior remain largely underexplored. We fed zebrafish larvae with three diets - control, soybean meal and soybean meal with ß-glucan to gain deeper insight into the behavioral changes associated with the soybean meal-induced inflammation model. We assessed the effect of the diets on the locomotor behavior, morphological development, oxygen consumption and larval transcriptome. Our study revealed that dietary soybean meal can reduce the locomotor activity, induce developmental defects and increase the oxygen demand in zebrafish larvae. Transcriptomic analysis pointed to the suppression of genes linked to visual perception, organ development, phototransduction pathway and activation of genes linked to the steroid biosynthesis pathway. On the contrary, ß-glucan, an anti-inflammatory feed additive, counteracted the behavioral and phenotypic changes linked to dietary soybean. Although we did not identify any differentially expressed genes from the soybean meal alone fed group vs soybean meal + ß-glucan-fed group comparison, the unique genes from the comparisons of the two groups with the control likely indicate reduction in inflammatory cytokine signaling, inhibition of proteolysis and induction of epigenetic modifications by the dietary glucan. Furthermore, we found that feeding an inflammatory diet at the larval stage can lead to long-lasting developmental defects. In conclusion, our study reveals the extra-intestinal manifestations associated with soybean meal-induced inflammation model.


Assuntos
Peixe-Zebra , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Ração Animal/análise , Dieta/efeitos adversos , Inflamação/genética , Soja , Larva
18.
Front Immunol ; 13: 1031962, 2022.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36405758

RESUMO

ß-glucan has been used as immunostimulant for fish. However, the effect of yeast ß-glucan on viral infections has been less studied in fish. In this study, we investigated the effects of ß-glucan on the resistance of zebrafish against spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Zebrafish were fed with a control diet or diet supplemented with 0.01% and 0.025% ß-glucan for 2 weeks, and were challenged by SVCV. Zebrafish embryonic fibroblast (ZF4) cells were treated with 5 µg/mL ß-glucan and were infected by SVCV. We further investigated the effect of ß-glucan on autophagy level post SVCV infection. The intestinal microbiota was evaluated by 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 0.025% ß-glucan significantly increased survival rate of zebrafish compared with control group after SVCV challenge (P < 0.05). Dietary ß-glucan significantly increased the expression of genes related to type I IFN antiviral immune pathway in the spleen of zebrafish after viral infection, including type I IFN genes (ifnφ1, ifnφ2, ifnφ3), IFN-stimulated genes (mxb, mxc), as well as other genes involved in the IFN signaling pathway, including tlr7, rig1, mavs, irf3 and irf7. Morpholino knockdown of type I IFN receptors dampened the antiviral effect of ß-glucan in zebrafish larvae, indicating that ß-glucan-mediated antiviral function was at least partially dependent on IFN immune response. Furthermore, ß-glucan can inhibit the replication of SVCV in ZF4 cells. However, ß-glucan did not stimulate type I IFN antiviral response in ZF4 cells, and the antiviral effect of ß-glucan in ZF4 was independent of Myd88. Interestingly, ß-glucan induced autophagy in ZF4 cells after SVCV infection. Inhibition of autophagy blocked the antiviral effect of ß-glucan in ZF4 cells. Lastly, dietary ß-glucan changed the composition of intestinal microbiota in zebrafish, with reduced abundance of Proteobacteria and an enrichment of Fusobacteria and Firmicutes. To sum up, our results indicate that the ß-glucan enhanced resistance of zebrafish against SVCV and the mechanism involved stimulation of type I IFN antiviral immune response of fish after viral infection.


Assuntos
Carpas , Infecções por Rhabdoviridae , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Peixe-Zebra , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Viremia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , RNA Ribossômico 16S , Antivirais
19.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 222(Pt A): 1092-1100, 2022 Dec 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36183755

RESUMO

The immunostimulatory activity of polysaccharides can improve human immunity, but their activity is low and prompting the activity is a great challenge. Curdlan, is a linear beta-1,3-glucan and has the potential to induce immune responses. However, owing to its tight triple helix structure and insolubility in water, its immunostimulatory activity is weakened. The keyway to promote its immunostimulatory activity is to relax its tight triple helix structure. In this work, methoxypolyethylene glycol (mPEG) was grafted onto curdlan (curdlan-g-mPEG) to unwind its triple helix structure. With its grafting mPEG, the water solubility of curdlan was enhanced. Moreover, with curdlan-g-mPEG treatment, macrophages secreted more tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and interleukin (IL)-6 and exhibited favorable phagocytosis of bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa). These results reveal that curdlan-g-mPEG as an immunostimulant has potential applications in immunology and antibiotics.


Assuntos
beta-Glucanas , Humanos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/química , Polietilenoglicóis , Interleucina-6 , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa , Água
20.
Nutrients ; 14(19)2022 Oct 02.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36235754

RESUMO

The physiological or dietary advantages of germinated grains have been the subject of numerous discussions over the past decade. Around 23 million tons of oats are consumed globally, making up a sizeable portion of the global grain market. Oat seedlings contain more protein, beta-glucan, free amino acids, and phenolic compounds than seeds. The progressive neurodegenerative disorder of Alzheimer's is accompanied by worsening memory and cognitive function. A key indicator of this disorder is the unusual buildup of amyloid-beta protein (or Aß) in human brains. In this context, oat seedling extract (OSE) has been identified as a new therapeutic candidate for AD, due to its antioxidant activity and AD-specific mechanism of action. This study directly investigated how OSE affected AD and its impacts by examining the cognitive function and exploring the inflammatory response mechanism. The dried oat seedlings were grounded finely with a grinder, inserted with 50% fermented ethanol 10 times (w/v), and extracted by stirring for 10 h at 45 °C. After filtering the extract by 0.22 um filter, some of it was used for UHPLC analysis. The results indicated that the treatment with OSE protects against Aß25-35-induced cytotoxicity in BV2 cells. Tg-5Xfad AD mice had strong deposition of Aß throughout their brains, while WT mice did not exhibit any such deposition within their brains. A drastic reduction was observed in terms of numbers, as well as the size, of Aß plaques within Tg-5Xfad AD mice exposed to OSE. This study indicated OSE's neuroprotective impacts against neurodegeneration, synaptic dysfunction, and neuroinflammation induced by amyloid-beta. Our results suggest that OSE acts as a neuroprotective agent to combat AD-specific apoptotic cell death, neuroinflammation, amyloid-beta accumulation, as well as synaptic dysfunction in AD mice's brains. Furthermore, the study indicated that OSE treatment affects JNK/ERK/p38 MAPK signaling, with considerable inhibition in p-JNK, p-p38, and p-ERK levels seen in the brain of OSE-treated Tg-5Xfad AD mice.


Assuntos
Doença de Alzheimer , Fármacos Neuroprotetores , beta-Glucanas , Doença de Alzheimer/metabolismo , Aminoácidos/uso terapêutico , Peptídeos beta-Amiloides/metabolismo , Animais , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/uso terapêutico , Avena , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Etanol , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Transgênicos , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/uso terapêutico , Plântula/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Proteínas Quinases p38 Ativadas por Mitógeno
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