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1.
Food Chem ; 348: 129116, 2021 Jun 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33508610

RESUMO

ß-Glucan as a component of grain cell walls is consumed daily. However, little is known about whether ß-glucan is influenced by the gastrointestinal environment. In this study, we aim to investigate the integrated metabolic process of cereal ß-glucan. In vitro simulated digestion and fermentation combined with microbiome and metabolome analysis were used to profile the metabolism of ß-glucan. Intriguingly, we found that ß-glucan was not hydrolyzed by digestive enzymes but partially degraded by gastric acid environment during in vitro digestion. Moreover, ß-glucan was utilized by gut microbiota to produce acetate, propionate and butyrate, concurrently, the relative abundance of Lactobacillus significantly increased and Escherichia-Shigella significantly decreased. The correlation analysis between metabolomics datasets and microorganisms revealed that ß-glucan catabolism was also accompanied by amino acid catabolism and linoleic acid biosynthesis. Our study offered a forceful basis for the further exploration of the role of ß-glucan and gut microbiota in host health.


Assuntos
Avena/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/metabolismo , Animais , Técnicas de Cultura Celular por Lotes , Digestão , Análise Discriminante , Ácido Gástrico/química , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Hidrólise , Lactobacillus/genética , Lactobacillus/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Lactobacillus/metabolismo , Análise dos Mínimos Quadrados , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos C57BL , Análise de Componente Principal , RNA Ribossômico 16S/análise , RNA Ribossômico 16S/genética , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
2.
Life Sci ; 266: 118851, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310032

RESUMO

AIMS: Macrophage is known to readily engulf any particulate material they encounter, including invading microbes and nano- or micro-particles. While recent studies show that some microparticles (MP) are immunogenic even without drug-cargo, the mechanism underlying this phenomenon is yet unclear. Phagocytosis induces NADPH oxidase-2 (NOX-2) mediated ROS generation that is reported to regulate antibacterial autophagy. We therefore, investigated the role of NOX-2 derived ROS in phagosomal maturation and autophagy induction in response to phagocytic uptake of two kinds of polymeric biodegradable and biocompatible microparticles: yeast-derived ß-glucan particles (YDGP) and poly-(D, L-Lactic Acid) microparticles (PMP). MAIN METHODS: J774A.1 macrophage wereas exposed to polymeric particles and the immune responses: ROS, phagosomal maturation and autophagy induction, were examined by assays including NBT, DCFH-DA, NADPH-Oxidase activity, Lysotracker and Acridine Orange. Further, the LC3 and NOX-2 expression were validated by RT-PCR, immunofluorescence assay and Western blotting. Antimicrobial activity of both MP was examined by CFU counting after administration to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and Salmonella typhimurium infected macrophage. KEY FINDINGS: YDGP induces phagosomal maturation and acidic vesicle accumulation at 30 min and 24 h post-exposure, much more proficiently than that by PMP. YDGP exposure also induced NOX-2 dependent expression of light chain 3 (LC3-II), further confirmed as autophagy activation via autophagic flux assay with autophagolysosome inhibitor bafilomycin A1. Additionally, YDGP displayed superior anti-microbial activity than that by PMP. SIGNIFICANCE: The induction of NOX-2-dependent autophagy and antimicrobial activity exhibited by particulate glucans has significant implications in harnessing these drug delivery vehicles as potential 'value-added' autophagy-mediated therapeutics in future.


Assuntos
Autofagia , Macrófagos/patologia , Mycobacterium tuberculosis/efeitos dos fármacos , NADPH Oxidase 2/metabolismo , Fagocitose , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Lisossomos/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/metabolismo , Camundongos , NADPH Oxidase 2/genética , Oxirredução , Espécies Reativas de Oxigênio/metabolismo
3.
Res Vet Sci ; 134: 120-126, 2021 Jan.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33360572

RESUMO

Dairy cows undergo dramatic physiological changes during the transition from late pregnancy to early lactation, which make them vulnerable to metabolic stress and immune dysfunction. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of a commercial beta-1,3-glucan product (Aleta™, containing 50% beta-1,3-glucan) on productivity, immunity and antioxidative status in transition cows. Fifty-four multiparous Holstein cows received a control diet or a diet supplemented with 5 or 10 g of beta-1,3-glucan per cow per day from 21 days before expected calving to 21 days after parturition. Blood samples were collected at day -21, 1, and 21 relative to calving. Colostrum and milk were collected at day 1 and 21 after calving, respectively. Data showed that supplementation with beta-1,3-glucan had no effect on milk composition, but increased milk production. Beta-1,3-glucan treatment also improved the milk quality, as shown by reduced milk somatic cell count and increased immunoglobulin levels in colostrum. Notably, beta-1,3-glucan markedly reduced serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein, while elevated serum immunoglobulin levels, indicating its immunity enhancement in transition cows. Moreover, beta-1,3-glucan addition reduced the serum malondialdehyde level and enhanced the activities of serum superoxide dismutase and catalase, which enhanced the antioxidative capacity in transition cows. In summary, supplementation with beta-1,3-glucan improves productivity, immunity and antioxidative status in transition dairy cows.


Assuntos
Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Suplementos Nutricionais , Imunidade/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Bovinos , Contagem de Células/veterinária , Colostro , Dieta/veterinária , Feminino , Glucanos/metabolismo , Glucanos/farmacologia , Lactação , Malondialdeído/sangue , Leite/citologia , Gravidez
4.
Carbohydr Polym ; 253: 117258, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278940

RESUMO

Use of polysaccharides as carriers in drug delivery system is a hot topic, especially those with specific recognition of immune cells, enabling them to be applied in targeting delivery system. ß-d-glucans are naturally occurring non-digestible polysaccharides with immunomodulatory activities that have attracted increasing attention to serve as therapeutic agents or immune-adjuvants. Being able to be specifically recognized by immune cells like macrophages, ß-d-glucans can be developed as promising carriers for targeting delivery with stability, biocompatibility and specificity when applied in immunotherapy. Targeting tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) is an emerging strategy for cancer immunotherapy since it exerts anti-cancer effects based on modulating body immunity in tumor microenvironment (TME). This new strategy does not require high concentration of drugs to kill cancer cells directly and lessen tumor recurrence by creating unique immune memory for malignant cells. In this review, construction strategies of polysaccharide-based drug delivery system of three types of ß-d-glucan including non-yeast and yeast ß-d-glucans as well as hyper-branched ß-d-glucan are discussed with reference to their branching characteristics and conformation. The applications of these ß-d-glucans as nano-carrier for drug delivery targeting TAMs are also discussed.


Assuntos
Portadores de Fármacos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunoterapia/métodos , Neoplasias/imunologia , Neoplasias/terapia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/química , Conformação Molecular , Solubilidade , Microambiente Tumoral/efeitos dos fármacos , Microambiente Tumoral/imunologia , Leveduras/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/química
5.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 168: 279-288, 2021 Jan 31.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33310093

RESUMO

The effect of arabinoxylan (AX) combined with ß-glucan and xyloglucan on lipid metabolism by regulating bile acids and gut microbiota was investigated in mice fed with high-fat diet. Fifty male ICR/KM mice were randomly divided into five groups: control diet (CON) group, high-fat diet (HFD) group, high-fat diet with AX (HFAX) group, high-fat diet with AX and ß-glucan (HFAB) group, and high-fat diet with AX and xyloglucan (HFAG) group. After 8 weeks of feeding, the mice were sacrificed and samples were collected. In contrast to CON, HFD disturbed lipid metabolism, bile acids, and gut microbiota in mice. Mice in HFD group had increase in weight, blood lipids and liver fat, and circulating bile acid as well as abnormal liver tissue morphology and disordered gut microbiota. Compared with HFD, HFAB and HFAG mice had reduced body weight and cholesterol and triglyceride levels; Fxr was activated, Cyp7a1 was inhibited to reduce bile acids, the microbial species diversity increased, the number of beneficial bacteria increased, and the number of conditional pathogenic bacteria decreased. HFAG uniquely activated intestinal bile acid receptors (Fxr and Tgr5) and increased the abundance of Bacteroidetes and Akkermansia. In summary, the effect of AX compounded glucans (ß-glucan or xyloglucan) on lipid metabolism was better than that of single AX by regulating bile acid metabolism and gut microbiota possibly due to the more complex chemical structure of combined polysaccharides.


Assuntos
Glucanos/farmacologia , Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/efeitos dos fármacos , Xilanos/farmacologia , Animais , Ácidos e Sais Biliares/metabolismo , Peso Corporal , China , Colesterol/sangue , Dieta Hiperlipídica/efeitos adversos , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Glucanos/metabolismo , Transtornos do Metabolismo dos Lipídeos/metabolismo , Fígado/efeitos dos fármacos , Masculino , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Obesidade/metabolismo , Xilanos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
6.
Carbohydr Polym ; 252: 117177, 2021 Jan 15.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33183624

RESUMO

Polysaccharides from P. eryngii mushroom were selectively extracted using low-cost technologies (water at different conditions of temperature and pressure). Mannogalactan was the main polysaccharide in cold-water extracted fraction (CWEF), while a linear (1→6)-ß-d-glucan was the main polymer in hot-water extracted fraction (HWEF). Autoclave-extracted fraction (AEF) contained a mixture of at least four different α- and ß-glucans. The report of linear (1→6)-ß-glucan and linear (1→3)-ß-glucan is a new finding for P. eryngii fruiting bodies. The immunostimulatory properties of the fractions on THP-1 macrophages were studied. All fractions at 50, 250 and 500 µg/mL were not cytotoxic and produced different stimulus on NO, IL-1ß and IL-10 secretion by the cells. Thus, our results showed that it is possible to concentrate different P. eryngii polysaccharides in selected fractions using a simple and low-cost procedure. Since biological effects depends on the polysaccharide structure, this technique allows the obtainment of fractions with distinct immunomodulatory activities.


Assuntos
Carpóforos/química , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/farmacologia , Fatores Imunológicos , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Pleurotus/química , Polissacarídeos , beta-Glucanas , Misturas Complexas/química , Misturas Complexas/isolamento & purificação , Misturas Complexas/farmacologia , Polissacarídeos Fúngicos/isolamento & purificação , Humanos , Fatores Imunológicos/isolamento & purificação , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Imunomodulação , Estrutura Molecular , Polissacarídeos/isolamento & purificação , Polissacarídeos/farmacologia , Relação Estrutura-Atividade , Células THP-1 , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
7.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1782, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32760409

RESUMO

As the SARS-CoV-2 virus wreaks havoc on the populations, health care infrastructures and economies of nations around the world, finding ways to protect health care workers and bolster immune responses in the general population while we await an effective vaccine will be the difference between life and death for many people. Recent studies show that innate immune populations may possess a form of memory, termed Trained Immunity (TRIM), where innate immune cells undergo metabolic, mitochondrial, and epigenetic reprogramming following exposure to an initial stimulus that results in a memory phenotype of enhanced immune responses when exposed to a secondary, heterologous, stimulus. Throughout the literature, it has been shown that the induction of TRIM using such inducers as the BCG vaccine and ß-glucan can provide protection through altered immune responses against a range of viral infections. Here we hypothesize a potential role for ß-glucan in decreasing worldwide morbidity and mortality due to COVID-19, and posit several ideas as to how TRIM may actually shape the observed epidemiological phenomena related to COVID-19. We also evaluate the potential effects of ß-glucan in relation to the immune dysregulation and cytokine storm observed in COVID-19. Ultimately, we hypothesize that the use of oral ß-glucan in a prophylactic setting could be an effective way to boost immune responses and abrogate symptoms in COVID-19, though clinical trials are necessary to confirm the efficacy of this treatment and to further examine differential effects of ß-glucan's from various sources.


Assuntos
Antivirais/uso terapêutico , Betacoronavirus , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Fibras na Dieta/uso terapêutico , Memória Imunológica/efeitos dos fármacos , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Administração Oral , Adulto , Fatores Etários , Animais , Antivirais/administração & dosagem , Antivirais/imunologia , Antivirais/farmacologia , Vacina BCG/imunologia , Criança , Infecções por Coronavirus/sangue , Infecções por Coronavirus/virologia , Citocinas/sangue , Fibras na Dieta/administração & dosagem , Epigênese Genética/imunologia , Humanos , Imunidade Inata/efeitos dos fármacos , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/sangue , Pneumonia Viral/virologia , Profilaxia Pré-Exposição , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
8.
Front Immunol ; 11: 1548, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32733487

RESUMO

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has been causing varying severities of illness. Some are asymptomatic and some develop severe disease leading to mortality across ages. This contrast triggered us explore the causes, with the background that a vaccine for effective immunization or a drug to tackle COVID-19 is not too close to reality. We have discussed strategies to combat COVID-19 through immune enhancement, using simple measures including nutritional supplements. Discussion: A literature search on mortality-related comorbid conditions was performed. For those conditions, we analyzed the pro-inflammatory cytokines, which could cause the draining of the immune reservoir. We also analyzed the immune markers necessary for the defense mechanism/immune surveillance against COVID-19, especially through simple means including immune enhancing nutritional supplement consumption, and we suggest strategies to combat COVID-19. Major comorbid conditions associated with increased mortality include cardiovascular disease (CVD), diabetes, being immunocompromised by cancer, and severe kidney disease with a senile immune system. Consumption of Aureobasidium pullulans strain (AFO-202) beta 1,3-1,6 glucan supported enhanced IL-8, sFAS macrophage activity, and NK cells' cytotoxicity, which are major defense mechanisms against viral infection. Conclusion: People with co-morbid conditions who are more prone to COVID-19-related deaths due to immune dysregulation are likely to benefit from consuming nutritional supplements that enhance the immune system. We recommend clinical studies to validate AFO-202 beta glucan in COVID-19 patients to prove its efficacy in overcoming a hyper-inflammation status, thus reducing the mortality, until a definite vaccine is made available.


Assuntos
Betacoronavirus , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/epidemiologia , Infecções por Coronavirus/imunologia , Diabetes Mellitus/epidemiologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Neoplasias/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/epidemiologia , Pneumonia Viral/imunologia , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/epidemiologia , Actinobacteria/química , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/imunologia , Comorbidade , Infecções por Coronavirus/dietoterapia , Infecções por Coronavirus/mortalidade , Citocinas/sangue , Diabetes Mellitus/imunologia , Humanos , Hospedeiro Imunocomprometido , Neoplasias/imunologia , Pandemias , Pneumonia Viral/dietoterapia , Pneumonia Viral/mortalidade , Insuficiência Renal Crônica/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico
9.
J Anim Sci ; 98(6)2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32497185

RESUMO

The outer cell wall of yeast is characterized by high levels of ß-glucans and mannan-oligosaccharides (MOS), which have been linked with beneficial effects on intestinal health and immune status in dogs. In this study, a standardized in vitro simulation of the canine gastrointestinal tract (Simulator of the Canine Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem; SCIME) was used to evaluate the effect of a Saccharomyces cerevisiae-based product, consisting of 27.5% ß-glucans and 22.5% MOS, on the activity (as assessed by measurement of fermentative metabolites) and composition (as assessed by 16S-targeted Illumina sequencing) of canine intestinal microbiota. The S. cerevisiae-based product was tested at three different dosages, i.e., 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/d. A dose-dependent fermentation pattern was observed along the entire length of the colon, as shown by the increased production of the health-related acetate, propionate, and butyrate for the three concentrations tested (0.5, 1.0, and 2.0 g/d). A consistent finding for all three tested concentrations was the increased propionate production (P < 0.05) in the simulated proximal and distal colon. These changes in terms of fermentative metabolites could be linked to specific microbial alterations at the family level, such as the specific stimulation of the propionate-producing families Porphyromonadaceae and Prevotellaceae upon in vitro exposure to the S. cerevisiae-based product. Other consistent changes in community composition upon repeated exposure included the decrease in the Enterobacteriaceae and the Fusobacteriaceae families, which both contain several potentially opportunistic pathogens. Altogether, the generated data support a possible health-promoting role of a product high in ß-glucans and MOS when supplemented to the dogs' diet.


Assuntos
Suplementos Nutricionais/análise , Cães/fisiologia , Microbioma Gastrointestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Mananas/farmacologia , Oligossacarídeos/farmacologia , Saccharomyces cerevisiae/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Parede Celular/química , Dieta/veterinária , Cães/microbiologia , Enterobacteriaceae/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterobacteriaceae/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Fermentação , Fusobactérias/efeitos dos fármacos , Fusobactérias/crescimento & desenvolvimento , Trato Gastrointestinal/metabolismo , Trato Gastrointestinal/microbiologia , Fermento Seco/química
10.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0234076, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520965

RESUMO

This study investigated the effects of oral administration of ß-glucan 1,3 (pharmaceutical grade 10%) on growth performance and carcass traits in two breeds of weanling rabbits adapted to survive in Egypt, New Zealand White (NZW) and Animal Production Research Institute (APRI) rabbits, with special attention to relative mRNA expression of interleukins and antioxidant enzyme genes, biochemical, and histological alterations. Oral administration of ß-glucan with doses 0.25 and 0.5 ml per one-liter of drinking water significantly accelerated body weight gain (BWG) in both rabbits' breeds, reduced total feed consumption (FC), and reduced feed conversion ratio (FCR), especially the 0.5 ml per one-liter dose in both rabbit breeds. There are remarkable differences in all the growth performance traits due to breed effect. The interaction effect between ß-glucan and breed significantly improved BWG, FC, and FCR. There were non-significant differences in all carcass traits studied due to oral administration of ß-glucan with both doses, except in dressing percentages. The highest of the dressing percentages were observed at doses 0.25 ml per one-liter (51%) and 0.5 ml per one-liter (52%) compared with control (50%). Our findings show significant variations in the final BW, total daily gain, feed consumption, and total feed conversion ratio between NZW and APRI rabbits. Absence of significant differences in the hot carcass weight and dressing percentage between the genetic groups had been reported in this study. Supplementing NZW and APRI rabbits with ß-glucan increased blood total protein and globulin. The duodenal villi dimensions, splenic lymphoid diameter, muscular fiber diameter, and muscular glycogen areas were significantly increased by ß-glucan administration. Expression of intestinal interleukin-18 (IL-18) in NZW rabbits treated with 0.25 and 0.5 doses of ß-glucan was significantly upregulated and enhanced the immune response. ß-glucan upregulated the expression of intestinal occludin mRNA particularly at dose 0.5 ß-glucan as well as upregulated intestinal superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and glutathione peroxidase 1 (GPx1), which modulates anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties. In conclusion, oral administration of ß-glucan at a dose of 0.25 or 0.5 ml per one-liter drinking water provided beneficial effects in the growth performance and health status of rabbits.


Assuntos
Mucosa Intestinal/efeitos dos fármacos , Ganho de Peso/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Imunidade Adaptativa/efeitos dos fármacos , Administração Oral , Animais , Duodeno/metabolismo , Duodeno/patologia , Glutationa Peroxidase/genética , Glutationa Peroxidase/metabolismo , Interleucina-18/metabolismo , Mucosa Intestinal/metabolismo , Masculino , Ocludina/genética , Ocludina/metabolismo , Coelhos , Superóxido Dismutase-1/genética , Superóxido Dismutase-1/metabolismo , Regulação para Cima/efeitos dos fármacos
11.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233773, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32559198

RESUMO

In early life and around weaning, pigs are at risk of developing infectious diseases which compromise animal welfare and have major economic consequences for the pig industry. A promising strategy to enhance resistance against infectious diseases is immunomodulation by feed additives. To assess the immune stimulating potential of feed additives in vitro, bone marrow-derived dendritic cells were used. These cells play a central role in the innate and adaptive immune system and are the first cells encountered by antigens that pass the epithelial barrier. Two different feed additives were tested on dendritic cells cultured from fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow cells; a widely used commercial feed additive based on yeast-derived ß-glucans and the gram-negative probiotic strain E. coli Nissle 1917. E. coli Nissle 1917, but not ß-glucans, induced a dose-dependent upregulation of the cell maturation marker CD80/86, whereas both feed additives induced a dose-dependent production of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, including TNFα, IL-1ß, IL-6 and IL-10. Furthermore, E. coli Nissle 1917 consistently induced higher levels of cytokine production than ß-glucans. These immunomodulatory responses could be assessed by fresh as well as cryopreserved in vitro cultured porcine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells. Taken together, these results demonstrate that both ß-glucans and E. coli Nissle 1917 are able to enhance dendritic cell maturation, but in a differential manner. A more mature dendritic cell phenotype could contribute to a more efficient response to infections. Moreover, both fresh and cryopreserved bone marrow-derived dendritic cells can be used as in vitro pre-screening tools which enable an evidence based prediction of the potential immune stimulating effects of different feed additives.


Assuntos
Células da Medula Óssea/imunologia , Células Dendríticas/imunologia , Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Probióticos/farmacologia , Suínos/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal , Animais , Antígeno B7-1/genética , Antígeno B7-1/metabolismo , Antígeno B7-2/genética , Antígeno B7-2/metabolismo , Células da Medula Óssea/citologia , Células da Medula Óssea/efeitos dos fármacos , Diferenciação Celular , Células Cultivadas , Células Dendríticas/citologia , Células Dendríticas/efeitos dos fármacos , Escherichia coli , Fatores Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Interleucinas/genética , Interleucinas/metabolismo , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/genética , Fator de Necrose Tumoral alfa/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
12.
Anticancer Res ; 40(6): 3139-3145, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487608

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: The aim of this study was to directly compare the anti-infectious and anti-cancer effects of five commercially available glucans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We used five different glucans isolated from algae, yeast, bacteria, oat, and mushroom. We compared their effects on the stimulation of phagocytosis of blood cells, on the secretion of IL-2, and on the inhibition of melanoma and breast and lung cancers. In addition, we evaluated the effects of glucan supplementation on two experimental models of infection. RESULTS: Most of the tested glucans stimulated phagocytosis and IL-2 secretion, reduced cancer growth, and ameliorated some effects of experimental infections. CONCLUSION: Glucans can produce significant pleiotropic effects, but the activity varies among individual samples.


Assuntos
Anti-Infecciosos/uso terapêutico , Fagocitose/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/uso terapêutico , Animais , Anti-Infecciosos/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Feminino , Humanos , Camundongos , Camundongos Endogâmicos BALB C , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
13.
Carbohydr Polym ; 237: 116160, 2020 Jun 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32241445

RESUMO

Polysaccharides derived from microorganisms have received considerable attention in designing hydrogel materials. However, most microbial polysaccharide-constructed hydrogels evaluated in preclinical trials are not favorable candidates for biomedical applications owing to concerns regarding poor mechanical strength and complicated fabrication process. Herein, we describe a new polysaccharide hydrogel scaffold containing salecan together with gellan gum network as the polymeric matrix. Properly controlling the physical and chemical properties including swelling, water release, thermal stability, viscoelasticity and morphology of the resulting gel are easily achieved by simply changing the salecan/gellan gum ratios. Notably, these salecan/gellan gum scaffolds friendly support cell survival and proliferation. More significantly, we have systematically evaluated these developed hydrogels for the biocompatible experiments in vitro and in vivo and results indicated the products are non-toxic. Taken together, such hydrogels derived from microbial polysaccharides and readily synthesized through a one-step mixing protocol have translational potentials in the clinic serving as cell devices for tissue engineering.


Assuntos
Materiais Biocompatíveis , Hidrogéis , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos , Tecidos Suporte , beta-Glucanas , Animais , Materiais Biocompatíveis/química , Materiais Biocompatíveis/farmacologia , Linhagem Celular , Proliferação de Células/efeitos dos fármacos , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Elasticidade , Fibroblastos/efeitos dos fármacos , Humanos , Hidrogéis/química , Hidrogéis/farmacologia , Masculino , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/química , Polissacarídeos Bacterianos/farmacologia , Ratos Sprague-Dawley , Engenharia Tecidual , Viscosidade , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia
14.
Res Vet Sci ; 130: 212-221, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32203766

RESUMO

A trial was operated to assess the potential of using Lactobacillus plantarum L-137 (L-137) and/or ß-glucan (BG) in improving the resistance of Nile tilapia against Aeromonas hydrophila. Control diet and 3 diets supplemented with L-137, BG or L-137 + BG were prepared. Final body weight, specific growth rate, superoxide dismutase, and catalase showed considerably (P < .05) increased values in L-137 or L-137/BG groups, while glutathione peroxidase increased significantly (P < .05) only in L-137/BG group. Fish fed L-137 and/or BG diets showed that feed conversion ratio and malonaldehyde levels were significantly decreased (P < .05). Also, both L-137 and BG helped Nile tilapia to have high phagocytosis activity and relative expression of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1 beta (IL-1ß) and interferon-gamma (INF-γ) genes. After A. hydrophila challenge, the intestinal villi epithelium of the L-137/BG group was intact and denser than the other groups. The hepatopancreas and spleen of the control group displayed severe necrosis in hepatocytes and congestion of blood sinusoids in addition to diffuse vacuolation. Regarding the L-137, BG and L-137/BG groups, there was a moderate and normal degree of vacuolation with focal necrosis and mild to moderate degree of congestion of blood sinusoids. Red blood cells, hemoglobin, and albumin showed meaningfully (P < .05) increased values in L-137 or L-137/BG groups. TNF-α, IL-1ß, and INF-γ expressions were upregulated by L-137 and/or BG. The obtained results revealed the ability of L-137 and/or BG to protect Nile tilapia from the effects of A. hydrophila infection by the motivation of the immune, antioxidative, and antiinflammation responses.


Assuntos
Adjuvantes Imunológicos/farmacologia , Aeromonas hydrophila/fisiologia , Doenças dos Peixes/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/veterinária , Lactobacillus plantarum/química , Probióticos/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adjuvantes Imunológicos/administração & dosagem , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Dieta/veterinária , Resistência à Doença/imunologia , Doenças dos Peixes/microbiologia , Proteínas de Peixes/imunologia , Proteínas de Peixes/metabolismo , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/tratamento farmacológico , Infecções por Bactérias Gram-Negativas/microbiologia , Probióticos/administração & dosagem , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
15.
Asian Pac J Cancer Prev ; 21(3): 837-843, 2020 Mar 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32212815

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: ß-glucan, glucopyranosyl polymers of fungi cell wall, represent an immune stimulating effects with potential anti-cancer activity. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) have immunomodulating properties in cancer microenvironment. The aim of this study was to investigate the anti-cancer effect of Candida albicans (C. albicans) beta-glucan on MSCs supernatant for apoptosis assay of lung cancer cells in vitro. METHODS: Beta-glucan was extracted from cell wall of C.albicans. MSC isolated from adipose tissue of patients and confirmed using specific surface markers expression which examined by flow cytometry. MSCs treated with various concentrations of ß-glucans for 48 hours. Cytotoxic effect of ß-glucans was evaluated using MTT assay. MSC and lung cancer line cocultured and treated with ß-glucans and apoptosis assay was done by flow cytometry. RESULTS: Cytotoxicity findings showed a significant decrease in MSC viability during 48h, however it was dose-dependent (P<0.05). According to the obtained findings, supernatant of mesenchymal stem cells treated with ß-glucans increased cancer cells apoptosis (P<0.05). CONCLUSION: Beta glucan may highlight a potential and novel promising candidate in future strategies to cause apoptosis of cancer cells and consider as therapeutic  agent against tumor growth as well. Definitely, more in vitro and in vivo studies are required to understand its functions.


Assuntos
Candida albicans/química , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/efeitos dos fármacos , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Sobrevivência Celular/efeitos dos fármacos , Células Cultivadas , Humanos , Células-Tronco Mesenquimais/citologia
16.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces ; 12(10): 11363-11374, 2020 Mar 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32073249

RESUMO

Microglia polarization plays an important role in poststroke recovery. Inhibition of proinflammatory (M1) polarization and promotion of anti-inflammatory (M2) polarization of microglia are potential therapeutic strategies for inflammation reduction and neuronal recovery after stroke. Here, we evaluated the central nervous system (CNS)-targeted short interfering RNA (siRNA) delivery ability of functionalized curdlan nanoparticles (CMI) and investigated the nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 silencing efficiency of CMI-mediated siRNA in microglia, as well as the resulting neuroprotective effect of microglia polarization and neuroprotection in vitro and in vivo. The systemic delivery of NF-κB p65 siRNA (sip65) complexed to CMI nanoparticles in the mouse model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO) resulted in the distribution of siRNA in microglia and significant silencing in NF-κB p65 in the peri-infarct region. Knockdown of NF-κB p65 resulted in M1 to M2 phenotypic transition of microglia, evidenced by the change in the expression pattern of signature cytokines as well as inducible nitric oxide synthase and CD206. Moreover, the CMI-mediated silencing of p65 increased the density of neurons and decreased pyknosis and edema in the peri-infarct region. Assessment of the neurological deficit score on the Bederson scale revealed a significantly reduced score in the mouse model of tMCAO treated with the sip65/CMI complex. Collectively, our data suggest that CMI nanoparticles are a promising CNS-targeting siRNA delivery system, and NF-κB p65 may be a potential therapeutic target for inflammation reduction and poststroke recovery.


Assuntos
Microglia/efeitos dos fármacos , Nanopartículas/química , RNA Interferente Pequeno/farmacologia , Fator de Transcrição RelA/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/efeitos dos fármacos , Fenômenos Fisiológicos Celulares/genética , Células Cultivadas , Modelos Animais de Doenças , Sistemas de Liberação de Medicamentos , Técnicas de Silenciamento de Genes , Infarto da Artéria Cerebral Média/metabolismo , Camundongos , Microglia/citologia , Microglia/metabolismo , Fármacos Neuroprotetores/farmacologia , Interferência de RNA , RNA Interferente Pequeno/genética , Fator de Transcrição RelA/genética
17.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229287, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32084227

RESUMO

The Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is administered at birth in tuberculosis (TB) endemic countries. BCG vaccination is also associated with protective non-specific effects against non-tuberculous infections. This seems at least in part mediated through induction of innate immune memory in myeloid cells, a process termed trained immunity. ß-glucan, a component of the fungal cell wall from Candida albicans, induces a trained immunity phenotype in human monocytes with hyper-responsiveness against unrelated pathogens. We aimed to study the capacity of BCG and ß-glucan to induce a similar phenotype by examining cytokine production in cord blood monocytes following re-stimulation. We used a well-known model of in vitro induction of trained immunity. Adherent mononuclear cells from neonates and adults, which consist mainly of monocytes, were stimulated in vitro with BCG or ß-glucan for one day, after which the stimulus was washed away. Cells were rested for 5 days, then restimulated with LPS. Cytokine levels were measured using ELISA. Neonate and adult monocytes responded similarly in terms of cytokine production. BCG significantly increased IL-6 responses to LPS in both neonate and adult monocytes, while ß-glucan induced increases of IL-6, IL-10 and TNF production capacity. The BCG and ß-glucan induced increase in cytokine production, reminiscent of trained immunity, showed similar levelsin neonatal and adult monocytes. BCG mediated changes in cytokine production shows the feasibility of this in vitro assay for further studies regarding non-specific effects of vaccines.


Assuntos
Vacina BCG/farmacologia , Citocinas/biossíntese , Monócitos/metabolismo , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Criança , Humanos , Recém-Nascido , Masculino , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Vacinação
18.
Microb Pathog ; 140: 103955, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31899325

RESUMO

Eleusine coracana (Finger millet) has high nutritional value with numerous health benefits and is of low cost. Isolation of beta-glucan (ßG) from E. coracana (Ec-ßG) has gained increasing research attention. UV-vis spectroscopy used to measure the surface plasmon resonance at 361 nm to confirm the presence of polysaccharides (glucan molecules) in Ec-ßG. X-ray diffraction analysis of Ec-ßG displayed a crystalline nature and confirmed the presence of the ßG molecule. Further, the bioactive compounds of Ec-ßG were screened using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antibacterial activity of Ec-ßG against both Gram-positive (Lysinibacillus fusiformis, Enterococcus faecalis) and Gram-negative (Proteus vulgaris, Shigella sonnei) bacteria were assessed through minimum inhibitory concentrations <70 µg/ml of Ec-ßG. In addition, the antibiofilm activity and bacterial viability of Ec-ßG at 100 µg/ml was confirmed by light and confocal laser scanning microscopy. Furthermore, Ec-ßG inhibits α-amylase and α-glucosidase at an IC50 -value of 1.23 and 1.42 µg/ml, respectively. Superoxide anion scavenging activity at IC50-1.4 µg/ml and DPPH radical scavenging activity at IC50-1.2 µg/ml showed that Ec-ßG had potential antioxidant property. The in vitro hemolysis assay for biocompatibility of Ec-ßG at 200 µg/ml showed 0.06 ± 0.09%. Therefore, Ec-ßG has the potential to act as a suggestive agent for antibacterial, antidiabetic, and antioxidant activity.


Assuntos
Antibacterianos/farmacologia , Antioxidantes/farmacologia , Biofilmes/efeitos dos fármacos , Eleusine/química , Hipoglicemiantes/farmacologia , Extratos Vegetais/farmacologia , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Antibacterianos/química , Antibacterianos/isolamento & purificação , Antioxidantes/química , Antioxidantes/isolamento & purificação , Enterococcus faecalis/efeitos dos fármacos , Enterococcus faecalis/fisiologia , Inibidores Enzimáticos/química , Inibidores Enzimáticos/isolamento & purificação , Inibidores Enzimáticos/farmacologia , Humanos , Hipoglicemiantes/química , Hipoglicemiantes/isolamento & purificação , Testes de Sensibilidade Microbiana , Extratos Vegetais/química , Extratos Vegetais/isolamento & purificação , Shigella sonnei/efeitos dos fármacos , Shigella sonnei/fisiologia , alfa-Amilases/antagonistas & inibidores , alfa-Amilases/química , beta-Glucanas/química , beta-Glucanas/isolamento & purificação
19.
Fish Shellfish Immunol ; 98: 301-311, 2020 Mar.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31972291

RESUMO

The protective role of ß-glucan (BG) on liver function, histopathology, immune and antioxidant related gene expressions in Nile tilapia exposed to subacute deltamethrin (DLM) was investigated for 30 days. Fish (28.18 ± 1.34 g) of the 1st and 2nd groups fed the control diet, while the 3rd and 4th groups fed BG at 0.5 g/kg and the 2nd and 4th groups were exposed to DLM (15 µg/L) in rearing water. DLM-treated fish displayed a considerable increase in blood biochemical parameters (creatinine, urea and bilirubin) as well as hepatic enzymes (ALP, AST and ALT) (P < 0.05). Blood total protein, globulin, albumin, WBCs, RBCs, Hb, phagocytic index, phagocytic and lysozyme activities were significantly decreased in fish subjected to DLM (P < 0.05). Fish fed BG showed significantly the lowest cortisol and glucose levels, while fish exposed to DLM without feeding BG showed the highest cortisol and glucose levels (P < 0.05) after 15 and 30 days. Additionally, DLM toxicity caused downregulation in antioxidant (CAT and GPx) and immune (IL-1ß and IL-8) related gene expressions, while and IFN-γ, HSP70 and CASP3 were upregulated. The histopathological examination of Nile tilapia exposed to DLM revealed damage in gills, intestine, spleen and liver which confirmed the toxic effects. Conversely, BG presented protective effects and restored the above-mentioned parameters when fish exposed to DLM and fed BG. Thus, BG supplementation exhibited defensive effects against DLM toxicity in Nile tilapia through improving blood biochemical responses, immune, and antioxidant related gene expressions as well as histopathological effects.


Assuntos
Ciclídeos/imunologia , Suplementos Nutricionais , Inseticidas/toxicidade , Nitrilos/toxicidade , Piretrinas/toxicidade , Poluentes Químicos da Água/toxicidade , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Ração Animal/análise , Animais , Antioxidantes/metabolismo , Glicemia/efeitos dos fármacos , Citocinas/genética , Dieta/veterinária , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/efeitos dos fármacos , Regulação da Expressão Gênica/imunologia , Hidrocortisona/sangue , Inflamação/veterinária , beta-Glucanas/administração & dosagem
20.
Biol Pharm Bull ; 43(4): 629-638, 2020 Apr 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31983724

RESUMO

Sparassis crispa (SC; Japanese name: Hanabiratake) is a mushroom with high ß(1-3)-glucan content. We here studied the effects of SC and lactic acid bacteria-fermented SC (SCL) on innate immunity. In in vivo studies using mice, oral administration of SC or SCL enhanced the accumulation of macrophages, neutrophils, natural killer (NK) cells, and C-C chemokine receptor type 2- or phospho-Syk-expressing cells in the jejunum epithelial villi and spleen, with significantly higher cell numbers in the SCL group than in the SC group. In addition, mRNA levels of genes encoding tissue factor (TF) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α were increased in monocytes/macrophages from the peritoneal cavity of mice orally administered SCL. In in vitro studies using cultured human monocytes, SC and SCL enhanced the expression of gees involved in blood coagulation and inflammation, as well as those encoding various innate immune-related factors, such as TF, TNF-α, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1, monocyte chemotactic protein (MCP)-1, interleukin (IL)-1ß, IL-8, IL-12ß, and IL-17, in a dose-dependent manner. In particular, the expression levels of all these factors in monocytes were significantly higher with SCL treatment than with SC treatment. SCL significantly enhanced the phagocytosis of pH-sensitive fluorescent dye-labeled Escherichia coli by human monocytes compared to SC. The effect of SCL on phagocytosis was significantly reduced to approximately 30% by pre-digestion of SCL with ß-glucanase, suggesting that ß(1-3)-glucan in SCL is a major contributor to the effect. These data suggest that oral administration of SCL significantly enhances innate immunity in mice and possibly humans.


Assuntos
Fatores Imunológicos/farmacologia , Polyporales , beta-Glucanas/farmacologia , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Citocinas/genética , Fermentação , Humanos , Imunidade Inata , Fatores Imunológicos/análise , Mucosa Intestinal/citologia , Mucosa Intestinal/imunologia , Jejuno/citologia , Jejuno/imunologia , Lactobacillales/metabolismo , Macrófagos/efeitos dos fármacos , Macrófagos/imunologia , Masculino , Camundongos Endogâmicos ICR , Monócitos/efeitos dos fármacos , Monócitos/imunologia , Cavidade Peritoneal/citologia , Baço/citologia , Baço/imunologia , beta-Glucanas/análise
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