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1.
J Biol Regul Homeost Agents ; 35(3 Suppl. 1): 205-212, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34289680

RESUMO

The aim of this clinical study is to evaluate, through some clinical and radiographic tests, the different biological responses of hard and soft tissues adjacent to the standard or to reduced-length implants in smokers, non-smokers and former smokers. This study was a comparative analysis of three groups of patients. Patients were eligible if they needed an implant in the posterior areas of the maxilla and mandible, both with a sufficient amount of bone, using implants that are standard or with small heights, and using small implants so that they could avoid any regenerative bone therapy aimed at increasing vertical size. The clinical and X-ray assessment was performed after 4/6 months (T1) and after one year (T2). The main results were recordings of clinical aspects such as presence of inflammation, color and gum appearance assessments, and X-ray assessment differentiating maxilla and mandible implants. Averages were conducted to estimate differences between study groups. One-hundred patients were included, with a total of 200 implants: 100 standard sized implants and 100 short implants. In the individual study groups, there is no difference between the types of implants, and we have favorable and unfavorable conditions. The reported data and the analyzed studies are insufficient to define the influence of smoking in the assessment of the long-term predictability of implants.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Seguimentos , Humanos , Mandíbula/diagnóstico por imagem , Mandíbula/cirurgia , Maxila/diagnóstico por imagem , Maxila/cirurgia , não Fumantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fumantes
2.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34207895

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Second-hand smoke is associated with more than 1.2 million deaths per year among non-smokers. Smoking in public places is prohibited in The Gambia but there is no information on the level of exposure to second-hand smoke among adolescents and adults 15-64 years. The aim of this study was to assess the level and predictors of exposure to second-hand smoke in public places and compliance with smoke-free regulations in The Gambia. METHODS: A population-based survey was conducted in an established Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS). A total of 4547 participants (15-64 years) from households within the Farafenni HDSS were interviewed at their homes but only 3343 were included in our analysis. Factors associated with exposure to second-hand smoke in public places were assessed by three different multivariable regression models. RESULTS: Exposure to tobacco smoke in public places was high (66.1%), and higher in men (79.9%) than women (58.7%). Besides being male, less education, lower household income, urban residence and not aware of smoke-free regulations were strongly associated with exposure to second-hand smoke. CONCLUSION: Despite existing smoke-free regulations, reported exposure to second-hand smoke remains high in public places in The Gambia. The Ministry of Health should continue to strengthen their advocacy and sensitization programs to ensure smoke-free regulations are fully implemented. Some population subgroups are at a higher risk of exposure and could be targeted by interventions; and settings where these subgroups are exposed should be targeted by enforcement efforts.


Assuntos
Política Antifumo , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adolescente , Adulto , Escolaridade , Feminino , Gâmbia/epidemiologia , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/análise
3.
Indian J Dent Res ; 32(1): 74-78, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34269241

RESUMO

Background: It has been speculated that the pathogenesis of diseases prompted by cigarette smoking includes oxidative damage by free radicals. Though, definitive evidence that smoking may cause the oxidative modification of target molecules in vivo is lacking. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to estimate and compare the levels of salivary Thiocyanate (SCN) and power of hydrogen (pH) in the saliva of smokers and nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis (ChP). Materials and Methods: A study population consisted of 60 male systemically healthy subjects in the age group of 20-65 years that was further divided into three groups: Group 1: 20 Healthy nonsmokers, who never smoked. Group 2: 20 nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis. Group 3: 20 smokers with chronic periodontitis. Unstimulated saliva was collected for at least 5 mins and clinical parameters; salivary pH and SCN thiocyanate levels were assessed using the spectrophotometric method. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Inc 21.0, Chicago, II, United States of America. Results: Data showed that the mean salivary SCN level, periodontal parameters were higher in smokers with chronic periodontitis as compared to nonsmokers with chronic periodontitis and healthy subjects (P < 0.05.) Post Hoc tests multiple comparisons Tukey Honest Significant Difference (HSD) among three groups were statistically significant (p < 0.05). Conclusion: Salivary thiocyanate levels remain increased by smoking in addition to the impact of periodontitis, and these results also indicated a significant change in the pH depending on the severity of the periodontal condition in smokers. Thus, the measurement of salivary thiocyanate may prove to be useful in the early detection of periodontal disease. The salivary pH shows significant changes and, consequently, relevant to the severity of the periodontal disease. Salivary pH may thus be used as a quick chairside diagnostic biomarker.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Saliva , Adulto , Idoso , Humanos , Hidrogênio , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Tiocianatos , Adulto Jovem
4.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(23): e26266, 2021 Jun 11.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34115020

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Waon therapy (WT) has been used as a thermal therapy in chronic heart failure patients. However, its effect in patients with hypertension is unclear. This study aimed to reveal the hypotensive effect of WT in patients with hypertension. WT was performed on 31 patients with hypertension (63.9 ±â€Š11.9 years, male: 17) on standard hypertension treatment focusing on lifestyle modification and medication. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures were measured before and after WT using an upper arm automated sphygmomanometer. We investigated the effect of single and repeated (1 time/d, >5 times) WT sessions on blood pressure and further compared its effect between current smoking (n = 11, 55.4 ±â€Š6.4 years, 8.5 ±â€Š2.4 times) and non-smoking (n = 11, 66.9 ±â€Š8.5 years, 12.2 ±â€Š5.9 times) groups. A total of 370 sessions of WT were conducted. Systolic and diastolic blood pressures significantly decreased after a single WT session (systolic blood pressure: 118.5 ±â€Š10.1 to 115.1 ±â€Š9.0 mm Hg, P < .001; diastolic blood pressure: 70.5 ±â€Š6.4 to 65.9 ±â€Š5.3 mm Hg, P < .001). The blood pressure decrease following repeated WT was not significant when all participants were considered (systolic blood pressure: 122.3 ±â€Š15.2 to 116.9 ±â€Š19.6 mm Hg; diastolic blood pressure: 73.8 ±â€Š16.7 to 68.2 ±â€Š13.2 mm Hg); however, it was significant in the non-smoking group (systolic blood pressure: 124.2 ±â€Š11.3 to 108.8 ±â€Š13.4 mm Hg, P < .001; diastolic blood pressure: 73.6 ±â€Š4.9 to 62.1 ±â€Š7.6 mm Hg, P < .001). Repeated WT (at least 5 sessions) decreased blood pressure in patients with hypertension, especially in non-smokers. WT is a simple method to reduce blood pressure in non-smoking patients with hypertension.


Assuntos
Determinação da Pressão Arterial/métodos , Hipertensão , Hipertermia Induzida/métodos , Fumar , Pressão Sanguínea/fisiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Hipertensão/diagnóstico , Hipertensão/fisiopatologia , Hipertensão/psicologia , Hipertensão/terapia , Japão , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Monitorização Fisiológica , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/fisiopatologia , Resultado do Tratamento
6.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 187-194, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33976549

RESUMO

Background: Ideal cardiovascular health behaviour (CVHB) measures four ideal health behaviours (non-smoking, body mass index <85th Percentile, healthy diet, and physical activity). This study aimed to determine the prevalence, distribution, and correlates of ideal CVHB among adolescents in the Caribbean. Methods: Nationally representative cross-sectional data of 2016 or 2017 with complete CVHB measurements were analysed from 7556 school adolescents from four Caribbean countries. Results: The prevalence of 0-1 ideal metrics CVHB was 20.4%, 2 ideal metrics 48.7%, and 3-4 ideal metrics 30.8%. Only 5.0% had all 4 ideal CVHB metrics, 41.0% intermediate CVH (≥1 metric in the intermediate category and none in the poor category), and 54.0% had poor CVH (≥1 metric in poor category). In adjusted logistic regression analysis, compared to students from Dominican Republic, students from Jamaica (Adjusted Odds Ratio-AOR: 1.36, 95% confidence interval-CI: 1.01-1.85), students from Trinidad and Tobago (AOR: 1.46, 95% CI: 1.17-1.82) and male sex (AOR: 1.35, 95% CI: 1.11-1.64) were positively associated with meeting 3-4 ideal CVHB metrics. In addition, in unadjusted analysis, rarely or sometimes experiencing hunger was negatively and high peer and parent support were positively associated with meeting 3-4 ideal CVHB metrics. Conclusion: The proportion of meeting 3-4 ideal CVHB metrics was low among adolescents in four Caribbean countries. Both high-risk and school-wide intervention programmes should be implemented in aiding to improve CVHB in Caribbean countries. Several factors associated with ideal CVHB were identified, which can be targeted in school health interventions.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Índice de Massa Corporal , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , República Dominicana/epidemiologia , Exercício Físico , Feminino , Inquéritos Epidemiológicos , Fatores de Risco de Doenças Cardíacas , Humanos , Jamaica/epidemiologia , Masculino , não Fumantes , Medição de Risco , Suriname/epidemiologia , Trinidad e Tobago/epidemiologia
7.
Appetite ; 164: 105260, 2021 09 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33848592

RESUMO

Nicotine has been shown to decrease appetite, food intake (FI) and body weight, but the mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this review was to examine research on the effects of nicotine on energy balance by exploring physiological mechanisms and hormone regulation related to FI, subjective appetite and energy expenditure (EE). We searched PubMed and MEDLINE, and included articles investigating the effects of nicotine on central appetite regulation, FI, leptin, peptide-YY (PYY), ghrelin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1), adiponectin, cholecystokinin (CCK), orexin, and EE. A total of 65 studies were included in the qualitative synthesis and review. Our findings suggest that the decrease in appetite and FI may be attributed to nicotinic alterations of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) but the effect of nicotine on FI remains unclear. Furthermore, nicotine increases resting EE (REE) and physical activity EE (PAEE) in both smokers and non-smokers; and these increases may be a result of the catecholaminergic effect of nicotine. Decreases in body weight and appetite experienced by nicotine users results from increased EE and changes in the central hypothalamic regulation of appetite. There is not enough evidence to implicate a relationship between peripheral hormones and changes in appetite or FI after nicotine use. Although nicotine increases REE and PAEE, the effect of nicotine on other components of EE warrants further research. We conclude that further research evaluating the effect of nicotine on appetite hormones, FI and EE in humans is warranted.


Assuntos
Apetite , Metabolismo Energético , Nicotina , Regulação do Apetite , Ingestão de Energia , Grelina/metabolismo , Humanos , não Fumantes , Peptídeo YY/metabolismo , Fumantes
8.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 430, 2021 Apr 20.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33879128

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Research suggests having an oral and pharyngeal cancer (OPC) examination for early diagnosis can increase survival rate. However, the OPC screening rate is low in certain populations. To improve OPC screening rate, this study identified factors that are associated with having an OPC examination. METHODS: Participants with landlines and aged 25 years and older were recruited from six northern Florida counties. Bivariate and logistic regressions were used to predict the outcome of whether the participants had ever had an OPC examination as well as whether participants had ever heard of an OPC examination. RESULTS: Of 2260 participants with a mean age of 55.9 ± 15.0 years, the majority of participants never smoked (53.4%), self-identified as Whites (70.6%), and had some college or 2-year degree education (30.3%). Smokers were significantly less likely to have ever heard of an OPC examination than those who never smoked. Significant interaction between smoking status and race, and smoking status and social support interaction were found. Whites who never smoked were more likely to have had an OPC examination than non-Whites who never smoked. Former and current smokers with greater social support were more likely to have had an OPC examination than those with lower social support. CONCLUSION: The findings from this study inform the need to enhance the awareness of having an OPC examination among smokers and to reduce barriers for racial minority populations to receive an OPC examination. Future research is warranted to develop interventions to target certain populations to improve the rate of OPC examination.


Assuntos
Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , não Fumantes , População Rural , Fumantes , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Detecção Precoce de Câncer , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Programas de Rastreamento , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/diagnóstico , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Razão de Chances
10.
Vasc Health Risk Manag ; 17: 103-109, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33790567

RESUMO

Introduction: Smoking can cause vascular damage in the form of an inflammatory reaction characterized by endothelial activation. Endothelial activation forms a pathological adaptation pattern so that it can induce the atherogenesis process. Several markers, such as E-selectin, platelet-derived micro particles (PMPs) and hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) can identify the activation of endothelial in circulating blood. Therefore, the deviation of vascular adaptation due to smoking can be detected early through the feedback mechanism between E-selectin, PMPs, and HSC. Purpose: This study aims to analyze the initial picture of the negative impact of smoking on vascular adaptation by measuring E-selectin, PMPs, and HSC in the peripheral blood circulation. Participant criteria and methods: Peripheral blood samples (5 mL) were taken from each participant, both the smoking group (n = 30) and the non-smoker group (n = 31) to obtain peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMNC). PBMNC was isolated using ficoll-based gradient centrifugation. The flow cytometry assay method used to measure the E-selectin, PMPs and hematopoietic stem cells. Results: The mean of circulating E-selectin in smokers was higher than that of non-smokers. On the other hand, the average number of PMPs and HSCs in smokers was lower than non-smokers. Conclusion: Smoking increases the risk of accelerated vascular block formation, as indicated by an increase in the amount of circulating E-selectin. The increase in E-selectin in the blood vessels mediates the increased adhesion of PMPs in the vascular area so that the number of circulating PMPs in smokers decreases. The decrease in circulating PMPs decreases the signal of vascular repair, which is characterized by a decline in the number of HSCs.


Assuntos
Plaquetas/metabolismo , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Micropartículas Derivadas de Células/metabolismo , Selectina E/sangue , Células Endoteliais/metabolismo , Células-Tronco Hematopoéticas/metabolismo , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Biomarcadores/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/sangue , Doenças Cardiovasculares/etiologia , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Estudos Transversais , Diagnóstico Precoce , Células Endoteliais/patologia , Humanos , não Fumantes , Valor Preditivo dos Testes , Fumar/sangue , Fatores de Tempo
11.
BMJ Open ; 11(3): e045603, 2021 03 30.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33785493

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To review and summarise the current evidence on the uptake of combustible cigarette smoking following e-cigarette use in non-smokers-including never-smokers, people not currently smoking and past smokers-through an umbrella review, systematic review and meta-analysis. DESIGN: Umbrella review, systematic review and meta-analysis. DATA SOURCES: PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, PsychINFO (Ovid), Medline (Ovid) and Wiley Cochrane Library up to April 2020. RESULTS: Of 6225 results, 25 studies of non-smokers-never, not current and former smokers-with a baseline measure of e-cigarette use and an outcome measure of combustible smoking uptake were included. All 25 studies found increased risk of smoking uptake with e-cigarette exposure, although magnitude varied substantially. Using a random-effects model, comparing e-cigarette users versus non-e-cigarette users, among never-smokers at baseline the OR for smoking initiation was 3.25 (95% CI 2.61 to 4.05, I2 85.7%) and among non-smokers at baseline the OR for current smoking was 2.87 (95% CI 1.97 to 4.19, I2 90.1%). Among former smokers, smoking relapse was higher in e-cigarette users versus non-users (OR=2.40, 95% CI 1.50 to 3.83, I2 12.3%). CONCLUSIONS: Across multiple settings, non-smokers who use e-cigarettes are consistently more likely than those avoiding e-cigarettes to initiate combustible cigarette smoking and become current smokers. The magnitude of this risk varied, with an average of around three times the odds. Former smokers using e-cigarettes have over twice the odds of relapse as non-e-cigarettes users. This study is the first to our knowledge to review and pool data on the latter topic. PROSPERO REGISTRATION NUMBER: CRD42020168596.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros , Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Produtos do Tabaco , Vaping , Humanos , não Fumantes , Recidiva , Fumantes , Fumar , Tabaco
12.
Addict Behav ; 118: 106886, 2021 07.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33714035

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Substance use causes attentional biases for substance-related stimuli. Both bottom-up (preferential processing) and top-down (inhibitory control) processes are involved in attentional biases. We explored these aspects of attentional bias by using dependent and non-dependent cigarette smokers in order to see whether these two groups would differ in terms of general inhibitory control, bottom-up attentional bias, and top-down attentional biases. This enables us to see whether consumption behaviour would affect these cognitive responses to smoking-related stimuli. METHODS: Smokers were categorised as either dependent (N = 26) or non-dependent (N = 34) smokers. A further group of non-smokers (N = 32) were recruited to act as controls. Participants then completed a behavioural inhibition task with general stimuli, a smoking-related eye tracking version of the dot-probe task, and an eye-tracking inhibition task with smoking-related stimuli. RESULTS: Results indicated that dependent smokers had decreased inhibition and increased attentional bias for smoking-related stimuli (and not control stimuli). By contrast, a decreased inhibition for smoking-related stimuli (in comparison to control stimuli) was not observed for non-dependent smokers. CONCLUSIONS: Preferential processing of substance-related stimuli may indicate usage of a substance, whereas poor inhibitory control for substance-related stimuli may only emerge if dependence develops. The results suggest that how people engage with substance abuse is important for top-down attentional biases.


Assuntos
Viés de Atenção , Atenção , Sinais (Psicologia) , Humanos , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Fumar
14.
Pac Symp Biocomput ; 26: 316-327, 2021.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33691028

RESUMO

Environmental exposure pathophysiology related to smoking can yield metabolic changes that are difficult to describe in a biologically informative fashion with manual proprietary software. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy detects compounds found in biofluids yielding a metabolic snapshot. We applied our semi-automated NMR pipeline for a secondary analysis of a smoking study (MTBLS374 from the MetaboLights repository) (n = 112). This involved quality control (in the form of data preprocessing), automated metabolite quantification, and analysis. With our approach we putatively identified 79 metabolites that were previously unreported in the dataset. Quantified metabolites were used for metabolic pathway enrichment analysis that replicated 1 enriched pathway with the original study as well as 3 previously unreported pathways. Our pipeline generated a new random forest (RF) classifier between smoking classes that revealed several combinations of compounds. This study broadens our metabolomic understanding of smoking exposure by 1) notably increasing the number of quantified metabolites with our analytic pipeline, 2) suggesting smoking exposure may lead to heterogenous metabolic responses according to random forest modeling, and 3) modeling how newly quantified individual metabolites can determine smoking status. Our approach can be applied to other NMR studies to characterize environmental risk factors, allowing for the discovery of new biomarkers of disease and exposure status.


Assuntos
não Fumantes , Fumantes , Biologia Computacional , Humanos , Espectroscopia de Ressonância Magnética , Metabolômica
15.
Cancer Med ; 10(5): 1880-1888, 2021 03.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33595913

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of rapidly increased non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) among never-smoking Chinese women has not been elucidated. Ovarian sex steroid hormones have been suggested to counteract lung cancer development, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) is essential in sex hormones regulation. This study aims to exploring single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genomic regions associated with SHBG concentrations that contributed to never-smoking female NSCLC. METHODS: Candidate genes were selected by a genome-wide association (GWAS) meta-analysis and gene expression profiles of never-smoking NSCLC of Chinese women. The candidate SNPs limited to common minor allele frequency (MAF), missense variant, ethnic heterogeneous distribution, and SNPs were genotyped using the TaqMan method. A two-stage case-control design was adopted for exploration and validation of associations between candidate SNPs and risk of NSCLC. All participants were never-smoking Chinese women. Chi-square test and multivariate logistic regression were applied. RESULTS: Beginning with 12 genomic regions associated with circulating SHBG concentrations and gene expression profiles from never-smoking NSCLC in Chinese women, candidate SNP rs12233719 and rs7439366 both located in candidate gene UGT2 B7, which may be related to circulating SHBG concentrations and cancer risk, were identified. A two-stage case-control study was conducted in Shenyang and Tianjin represented as the training stage and validation stage, respectively. Under the dominant model, compared to individuals with the wild G/G genotype, the adjusted OR of those with the T allele was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.15-2.16) in Chinese Shenyang training set, and was 1.49 (95% CI: 1.02-2.18) in Chinese Tianjin validation set, both accompanied with a significant trend relationship consistently. UGT2B7 was upregulated in female NSCLC patients' tumor tissues and was associated with a poor prognosis in NSCLC. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicated that a sex hormones regulation-related SNP rs12233719 was associated with never-smoking female lung cancer risk, which might partially explain NSCLC-susceptibility in Chinese women.


Assuntos
Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/genética , Glucuronosiltransferase/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , não Fumantes , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/genética , Adulto , Alelos , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/sangue , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/metabolismo , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Distribuição de Qui-Quadrado , China , Feminino , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica , Frequência do Gene , Estudo de Associação Genômica Ampla , Glucuronosiltransferase/metabolismo , Humanos , Modelos Logísticos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/sangue , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Mutação de Sentido Incorreto , Razão de Chances , RNA Mensageiro/metabolismo , Globulina de Ligação a Hormônio Sexual/análise , Regulação para Cima
16.
Nutr Metab Cardiovasc Dis ; 31(4): 1286-1292, 2021 04 09.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33558093

RESUMO

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Ideal cardiovascular health (CVH) behaviors in adolescents are defined by body mass index (BMI), diet, physical activity and smoking, and are directly associated with better health in later life. To further improve health prevention programs we investigated the prevalence of these behaviors in a cohort of healthy adolescents and focused on the associations with sex, age, and education. METHODS AND RESULTS: The Early Vascular Aging Tyrol study is a cross-sectional study assessing 14- to 19-year-old pupils and apprentices in Western Austria and South Tyrol. Between May 2015 and July 2018 2047 adolescents (43.6% males, mean age 16.4 years) with complete data for all 4 health behaviors were included. The prevalence of ideal body mass index (BMI) was 78.3%, of ideal physical activity 42.5%, of non-smoking 70.4% and of ideal diet 8.1%. Females showed a higher smoking prevalence and a lower physical activity, but better dietary habits than males. Older adolescents of both sexes had lower prevalence of ideal smoking and diet. Apprentices and pupils of vocational schools had a higher BMI and a less favorable diet compared to secondary academic school students. Smoking prevalence was highest in apprentices. Non-ideal BMI was independently associated with smoking. CONCLUSION: In our cohort, only a minority showed ideal CVH behaviors which were best in adolescents younger than 16 years. We observed significant differences between males and females and a clear impact of school education with apprentices being at risk for non-ideal CVH behaviors. CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT03929692, clinicaltrials.gov.


Assuntos
Comportamento do Adolescente , Doenças Cardiovasculares/prevenção & controle , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Conhecimentos, Atitudes e Prática em Saúde , Estilo de Vida Saudável , Comportamento de Redução do Risco , Adolescente , Fatores Etários , Áustria/epidemiologia , Doenças Cardiovasculares/diagnóstico , Doenças Cardiovasculares/epidemiologia , Estudos Transversais , Dieta Saudável , Escolaridade , Exercício Físico , Comportamento Alimentar , Feminino , Nível de Saúde , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Estudos Prospectivos , Medição de Risco , Fatores de Risco , Comportamento Sedentário , Fatores Sexuais , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/epidemiologia , Adulto Jovem
17.
J Endod ; 47(5): 755-761, 2021 May.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33548327

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this study was to compare the immunoexpression of biomarkers interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6, and IL-1ß in primary chronic apical periodontitis in smokers and nonsmokers. METHODS: Teeth with primary chronic apical periodontitis indicated for extraction in 16 cigarette smokers and 16 nonsmokers were selected. Silanized sections of tissue were used for immunohistochemical analysis after being stained with hematoxylin-eosin for histopathologic categorization. Subsequently, the images were analyzed with an optical microscope, and each slide was subdivided into 5 high-magnification fields, with scores (0-2) being assigned according to the amount of staining for each antibody. RESULTS: The qualitative analysis of IL-17 cytokine expression showed no focal expression in 5.8%, weak to moderate expression in 17.6%, and strong expression in 76.4% of the smokers and no focal expression in 78.5% and weak to moderate expression in 21.4% of the nonsmokers. IL-6 expression was negative to focal in 13.3%, weak to moderate in 53.3%, and strong in 33.3% of the smokers and negative to focal in 33.3%, weak to moderate in 25%, and strong in 41.6% of the nonsmokers. IL-1ß expression was weak to moderate in 87.5% and negative to focal expression in 12.5% of the smokers and negative to focal expression in 100% of the nonsmokers. Quantitative evaluation of the data using the Mann-Whitney U test showed a significant difference in the immunoexpression of IL-17 (P < .0001) and IL-1ß (P < .0001) and no significant difference in the immunoexpression of IL-6 (P = .46) between the 2 groups (P < .05). CONCLUSIONS: The cytokines IL-17 and IL-1ß were more highly expressed in smokers than nonsmokers, whereas IL-6 expression was similar in the 2 groups.


Assuntos
Periodontite Crônica , Periodontite Periapical , Humanos , Interleucina-17 , Interleucina-1beta , Interleucina-6 , Interleucina-8 , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Fumar/efeitos adversos
18.
J Periodontal Res ; 56(3): 547-557, 2021 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33522612

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: An increasing number of patients with chronic periodontitis (CP) have received implant restoration. However, very few studies have evaluated the probable risk indicators of implant loss in patients with CP. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to evaluate implant long-term survival rates in patients with CP. The results are analyzed to discern potential risk indicators of implant loss. METHODS: A total of 1549 implants were inserted in 827 non-smokers and systemically healthy CP patients between March 2011 and March 2019. Clinical variables (age; sex; implant location; implant diameter; implant length; implant type; bone quality; bone graft, periodontal disease status, and insertion torque) were recorded. Kaplan-Meier survival curves illustrated the cumulative survival rate. The relationship between variables and implant loss was discerned by univariate analysis. Further multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was carried out for the variables with P < 0.2. RESULTS: The cumulative survival rates were 98.8% after 3 months, 97.9% after 6 months, 97.7% after 1 year, and 97.4% after 2 to 9 years. After adjusting possible confounders, the multivariable Cox regression model revealed statistically significant influences of implant location, history of bone graft, and insertion torque on implant loss. Implants with history of bone graft were more likely to loss. Implants inserted in the anterior area had a higher implant loss risk; insertion torque of <15 Newton-centimeter (Ncm) showed a relatively high risk of being lost. CONCLUSIONS: The study represented public hospital insight into long-term implant results of patients with CP. Under the premise of strict periodontal control, patients with the history of CP exhibited relatively high implant survival rate. Anterior implant location, history of bone graft, and insertion torque <15 Ncm are associated with a lower implant survival rate and could be considered at a higher risk of implant failure in patients with CP.


Assuntos
Perda do Osso Alveolar , Implantes Dentários , Perda do Osso Alveolar/diagnóstico por imagem , Perda do Osso Alveolar/epidemiologia , Implantes Dentários/efeitos adversos , Falha de Restauração Dentária , Seguimentos , Humanos , não Fumantes , Estudos Retrospectivos , Taxa de Sobrevida
19.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(5): e23871, 2021 Feb 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33592842

RESUMO

ABSTRACT: Although the incidence of oral cavity cancer (OCC) in young never smoker females is increasing worldwide, there has been little research on the etiologies and characteristics of these patients to date. In this study, we sought to evaluate the annual increase in OCC incidence in young never smoker females (YNSF) in our hospital as well as to investigate their clinicopathological characteristics and different disease courses compared with those of other OCC patients. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who were diagnosed and treated at our tertiary referral hospital from 2006 to 2016. The annual incidence of OCC and proportion of YNSF (never smoker females aged 45 years or younger at the time of diagnosis) among the enrolled OCC patients were evaluated. The characteristics and prognosis of the YNSF group were analyzed using their clinicopathological and survival data. Among the OCC patients primarily enrolled in this study, the proportion of YNSF did not show significant annual increase. There were 32 YNSF among 354 OCC patients (9%), who were ultimately included for the analyses of clinicopathological characteristics and survival. However, YNSF showed no significant differences compared with other OCC patients, even in subgroup analyses for overall survival. Our study did not demonstrate significant changes in the annual proportion of YNSF among OCC patients. In addition, differences in neither clinicopathological characteristics nor survival were noted between YNSF and other OCC patients.


Assuntos
Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/epidemiologia , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/patologia , Neoplasias Bucais/epidemiologia , Neoplasias Bucais/patologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Adulto , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Carcinoma de Células Escamosas/etiologia , Feminino , Humanos , Incidência , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Neoplasias Bucais/etiologia , Estudos Retrospectivos , Adulto Jovem
20.
Chem Biol Interact ; 335: 109370, 2021 Feb 01.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33422520

RESUMO

The aberrant expression level of SARS-CoV-2 cell receptor gene ACE2 was reported in lung adenocarcinoma (LUAD) comorbidity of COVID-19. However, the association of ACE2 expression levels with immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming in LUAD remains lacking. We investigated the expression level of ACE2, an association of ACE2 expression level with various types of immune signatures, immune ratios, and pathways. We employed a weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) R package to identify the gene modules and investigated prognostic roles of hub genes in LUAD. Overexpression of ACE2 level was found in LUAD and ACE2 expression was negatively associated with various types of immune signatures including CD8+ T cells, CD4+ regulatory T cells, NK cells, and T cell activation. Besides, ACE2 upregulation was not only associated with CD8+ T cell/CD4+ regulatory T cell ratios but also linked with downregulation of immune-markers including CD8A, KLRC1, GZMA, GZMB, NKG7, CCL4, and IFNG. Moreover, the ACE2 expression level was found to be associated with the enrichment level of various metabolic pathways and it was also found that the metabolic pathways are directly positively correlated with the increased expression levels of ACE2, indicating that the overexpression of ACE2 is associated with metabolic reprogramming in LUAD. Furthermore, WGCNA based analysis revealed the gene modules in the high-ACE2-expression-level group of LUAD and identified GCLC and SLC7A11 hub genes which are not only highly expressed in lung adenocarcinoma but also correlated with the poor survival prognosis. Our analysis of ACE2 in LUAD tissues suggests that ACE2 is not only a receptor but is also associated with immunosuppression and metabolic reprogramming. This study underlines the clue for understanding the clinical significance of ACE2 in COVID-19 patients with LUAD comorbidity.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/metabolismo , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/metabolismo , Imunidade Celular/genética , Imunidade Inata/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/metabolismo , Adenocarcinoma de Pulmão/epidemiologia , Sistema y+ de Transporte de Aminoácidos/genética , Enzima de Conversão de Angiotensina 2/genética , COVID-19/epidemiologia , Comorbidade , Biologia Computacional , Bases de Dados Genéticas/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Regulação Neoplásica da Expressão Gênica , Glutamato-Cisteína Ligase/genética , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/epidemiologia , Ativação Linfocitária/genética , Masculino , não Fumantes , Mapas de Interação de Proteínas/genética , SARS-CoV-2 , Fumantes , Linfócitos T/metabolismo , Transcriptoma , Regulação para Cima
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