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1.
Pediatrics ; 146(4)2020 10.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32989082

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: We tested a Public Health Service 5As-based clinician-delivered smoking cessation counseling intervention with adolescent smokers in pediatric primary care practice. METHODS: We enrolled clinicians from 120 practices and recruited youth (age ≥14) from the American Academy of Pediatrics Pediatric Research in Office Settings practice-based research network. Practices were randomly assigned to training in smoking cessation (intervention) or social media counseling (attentional control). Youth recruited during clinical visits completed confidential screening forms. All self-reported smokers and a random sample of nonsmokers were offered enrollment and interviewed by phone at 4 to 6 weeks, 6 months, and 12 months after visits. Measures included adolescents' report of clinicians' delivery of screening and counseling, current tobacco use, and cessation behaviors and intentions. Analysis assessed receipt of screening and counseling, predictors of receiving 5As counseling, and effects of interventions on smoking behaviors and cessation at 6 and 12 months. RESULTS: Clinicians trained in the 5As intervention delivered more screening (ß = 1.0605, P < .0001) and counseling (ß = 0.4354, P < .0001). In both arms, clinicians more often screened smokers than nonsmokers. At 6 months, study arm was not significantly associated with successful cessation; however, smokers in the 5As group were more likely to have quit at 12 months. Addicted smokers more often were counseled, regardless of study arm, but were less likely to successfully quit smoking. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescent smokers whose clinicians were trained in 5As were more likely to receive smoking screening and counseling than controls, but the ability of this intervention to help adolescents quit smoking was limited.


Assuntos
Aconselhamento/educação , Motivação , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/psicologia , Adolescente , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Profissionais de Enfermagem/educação , Pediatras/educação , Assistentes Médicos/educação , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar
2.
PLoS One ; 15(8): e0236559, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32817636

RESUMO

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) poses a significant but heterogeneous burden to individuals and healthcare systems. Policymakers develop targeted policies to minimize this burden but need personalized tools to evaluate novel interventions and target them to subpopulations most likely to benefit. We developed a platform to identify subgroups that are at increased risk of emergency department visits, hospitalizations and mortality and to provide stratified patient input in economic evaluations of COPD interventions. We relied on administrative and survey data from Ontario, Canada and applied a combination of microsimulation and multi-state modeling methods. We illustrated the functionality of the platform by quantifying outcomes across smoking status (current, former, never smokers) and by estimating the effect of smoking cessation on resource use and survival, by comparing outcomes of hypothetical cohorts of smokers who quit at diagnosis and smokers that continued to smoke post diagnosis. The cumulative incidence of all-cause mortality was 37.9% (95% CI: 34.9, 41.4) for never smokers, 34.7% (95% CI: 32.1, 36.9) for current smokers, and 46.4% (95% CI: 43.6, 49.0) for former smokers, at 14 years. Over 14 years, smokers who did not quit at diagnosis had 16.3% (95% CI: 9.6, 38.4%) more COPD-related emergency department visits than smokers who quit at diagnosis. In summary, we combined methods from clinical and economic modeling to create a novel tool that policymakers and health economists can use to inform future COPD policy decisions and quantify the effect of modifying COPD risk factors on resource utilization and morality.


Assuntos
Aceitação pelo Paciente de Cuidados de Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Formulação de Políticas , Doença Pulmonar Obstrutiva Crônica/mortalidade , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Idoso , Análise Custo-Benefício , Feminino , Recursos em Saúde/economia , Hospitalização/estatística & dados numéricos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Modelos Teóricos , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Ontário , Estudos Retrospectivos , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
3.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235276, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32673331

RESUMO

Smoking cessation reduces the cardiovascular risk but increases body weight. We investigated the risk of subsequent myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke according to weight gain after smoking cessation, using a nationwide population based cohort. We enrolled 3,797,572 Korean adults aged over 40 years who participated in national health screenings between 2009 and 2010. Subjects who quit smoking were classified into three subgroups according to the weight change between baseline and 4 years prior. Myocardial infarctions and ischemic strokes were followed until the end of 2015. We compared the hazard ratios among smoking cessation subgroups, non-smokers, and current smokers. The mean changes in weight (1.5 ± 3.9 kg) of the smoking cessation group were higher than those of the other groups (p < 0.0001). A total of 31,277 and 46,811 subjects were newly diagnosed with myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke, respectively. Regardless of weight change, all subgroups of smoking cessation had significantly less risk than current smokers. The subgroup of smoking cessation with weight gain over 4kg showed the lowest risk for myocardial infarctions (hazard ratio 0.646, 95% confidence interval 0.583-0.714, p < 0.0001) and ischemic strokes (hazard ratio 0.648, 95% confidence interval 0.591-0.71, p < 0.0001) after multivariable adjustment. In conclusion, weight gain after smoking cessation did not adversely affect the cardiovascular protective effect.


Assuntos
Infarto Encefálico/epidemiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/epidemiologia , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Ganho de Peso , Adulto , Idoso , Infarto Encefálico/etiologia , Infarto Encefálico/prevenção & controle , Ex-Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Feminino , Seguimentos , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Infarto do Miocárdio/etiologia , Infarto do Miocárdio/prevenção & controle , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Modelos de Riscos Proporcionais , República da Coreia/epidemiologia , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
4.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(27): 33990-33997, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32557064

RESUMO

Both cadmium (Cd) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are known reproductive toxicants, but their co-exposure and interaction effect on semen quality particularly in nonsmokers remain unknown. We included 333 nonsmoking men and analyzed their urine and semen samples for heavy metals and PAH metabolites. Restricted cubic spline models were used to explore the dose-response relationship between each OH-PAHs, Cd, and semen quality parameters; the generalized linear model was performed to examine the interaction of each urinary OH-PAH metabolite and Cd concentration on semen quality. Also, stratified analysis was applied to further illustrate the independent effect of PAHs on semen quality parameters in low and high concentration Cd subgroups. The dose-response and interaction effect of PAHs and Cd on male semen quality was observed. Stratified analysis in the high concentration Cd subgroup showed a negative association of 1-OHPyr concentration with semen motility. Our findings indicate that Cd not only modifies the association between PAHs and semen quality but can also exacerbate the toxic effect of pyrene on semen quality parameters. However, further studies with larger samples are needed to confirm the findings.


Assuntos
Hidrocarbonetos Policíclicos Aromáticos , Análise do Sêmen , Cádmio , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Motilidade Espermática
5.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(28): 34978-34986, 2020 Oct.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32577980

RESUMO

Data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey for 1999-2016 were used to investigate variabilities in serum cotinine levels for US adult smokers (N = 8951) and nonsmokers (N = 28,205) aged ≥ 20 years across the stages of glomerular function (GF). Those with serum cotinine levels < 3.3 ng/mL and did not report using any tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as nonsmokers. Those with serum cotinine levels ≥ 3.3 ng/mL and reported using cigarettes, cigars, pipes, and/or water pipes with or without using e-cigarettes and/or smokeless tobacco products during the last 5 days were classified as nonsmokers. Those who had eGFR > 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF stage 1 or GF-1, those with 60 ≤ eGFR ≤ 90 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF-2, those with 45 ≤ eGFR < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF-3A, and those with 15 ≤ eGFR <45 mL/min/1.73 m2 were classified to be in GF-3B/4. Among nonsmokers, except for females and non-Hispanic blacks, adjusted levels of serum cotinine (AGM) decreased relatively sharply from GF-1 to GF-2, stayed relatively stable at GF-2 and GF-3A, and then rose moderately to GF-3B/4. For example, for non-Hispanic whites, AGMs were 0.042, 0.033, 0.031, and 0.037 ng/mL at GF-1, GF-2, GF-3A, and GF-3B/4 respectively. Among smokers, except for females and non-Hispanic blacks, AGMs increased relatively sharply from GF-1 to GF-2 and then decreased from GF-2 to GF-3/4. For example, for males, AGMs were 151.9, 192.0, and 162.9 ng/mL at GF-1, GF-2, and GF-3/4 respectively. AGMs for male smokers were lower than for female smokers at GF-3/4 (162.9 vs. 197.2 ng/mL, p < 0.01). The order of AGMs by race/ethnicity was non-Hispanic blacks > non-Hispanic whites > Hispanics and others at every GF stage. AGMs at GF-3/4 were higher than AGMs at GF-1 for smokers.


Assuntos
Sistemas Eletrônicos de Liberação de Nicotina , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco , Adulto , Cotinina , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Inquéritos Nutricionais , Fumantes , Fumar
6.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 99(23): e20667, 2020 Jun 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32502055

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is an uncommon type of non-small cell lung cancer, exhibiting aggressive behavior and resistance to the conventional chemoradiotherapy. To date, the optimal treatment for PSC has not been elucidated. PATIENT CONCERNS: Three male patients including a 69-year-old smoker (Case 1), a 45-year-old non-smoker (Case 2), and a 69-year-old smoker (Case 3) were admitted because of cough, back pain, and loss of body weight respectively. DIAGNOSES: Radiographical examinations in these patients showed bulky intrathoracic lesions, which were pathologically diagnosed as PSC staging III-IV by computed tomography-guided percutaneous biopsy and endoscopy. INTERVENTIONS: Immunotherapy was not covered by their health insurance and they refused immune checkpoint inhibitors for financial reasons. In addition, a radical resection was not appropriate due to the advanced staging of these lesions. Therefore, first-line albumin-bound paclitaxel (nab-paclitaxel, 260 mg/m of the body surface area) and carboplatin (area under curve 5) combined with oral apatinib (425 mg, daily) were administered empirically. OUTCOMES: Two patients achieved a partial response and the other case showed stable disease lasting for more than 6 months. However, 1 of them indicated progression on the 7-month follow up. LESSONS: Nab-paclitaxel/carboplatin plus apatinib showed limited short-term efficacy in advanced, unresectable PSC. The rapid resistance of PSC to the current therapeutic regimen necessitates further researches, as more effective agents are urgently needed.


Assuntos
Albuminas/administração & dosagem , Antineoplásicos/administração & dosagem , Carboplatina/administração & dosagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/tratamento farmacológico , Neoplasias Pulmonares/tratamento farmacológico , Paclitaxel/administração & dosagem , Piridinas/administração & dosagem , Idoso , Protocolos de Quimioterapia Combinada Antineoplásica/administração & dosagem , Biópsia , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/diagnóstico por imagem , Carcinoma Pulmonar de Células não Pequenas/patologia , Humanos , Neoplasias Pulmonares/diagnóstico por imagem , Neoplasias Pulmonares/patologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Tomografia Computadorizada por Raios X
7.
PLoS One ; 15(6): e0233861, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32520979

RESUMO

OBJECTIVES: The primary objective of the present study was to compare the prevalence and patterns of second-hand smoke (SHS) exposure in the home, workplace, public places, and at all three places amongst the non-smoker respondents between the two rounds of Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) in India. The secondary objectives were to assess the differences in various factors associated with SHS exposure among non-smokers. STUDY DESIGN: This secondary data analysis incorporated data generated from the previous two rounds of the cross-sectional, nationally representative GATS India, which covered 69,296 and 74,037 individuals aged 15 years and above. Exposure to the SHS at home, workplace, and public places amongst the non-smokers were the primary outcome variables. Standard definitions of the surveys were used. RESULTS: The overall weighted prevalence of exposure to SHS amongst the non-smokers inside the home and public places reduced. In contrast, the prevalence in the workplace increased marginally in round II compared to I. The proportion of adults who were exposed to SHS at all three places did not change much in two rounds of surveys. A decrease in the knowledge of the respondents exposed to SHS at home and public places was observed about the harmful effects of smoking in round II. Age, gender, occupation, place, and region of respondents were found to be significant determinants of SHS exposure at all the three places on multinomial logistic regression analysis. CONCLUSIONS: The study calls for focused interventions in India and stringent implementation of anti-tobacco legislation, especially in the workplaces for reducing the exposure to SHS amongst the non-smokers and to produce encouraging and motivating results by next round of the survey.


Assuntos
Exposição Ambiental/estatística & dados numéricos , não Fumantes , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco/epidemiologia , Adolescente , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Análise de Dados , Exposição Ambiental/prevenção & controle , Feminino , Habitação , Humanos , Índia/epidemiologia , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Instalações Privadas , Logradouros Públicos , Inquéritos e Questionários , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Fumar Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Local de Trabalho , Adulto Jovem
8.
DNA Cell Biol ; 39(9): 1657-1663, 2020 Sep.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32552051

RESUMO

Cell adhesion molecules (CAMs) play crucial roles in the genesis and progress of tumor. We investigated the effects of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of CAMs, neuronal growth regulator 1 (NEGR1), and Otoancorin (OTOA) on lung cancer susceptibility in Chinese nonsmoking females. Logistic regression and Cox regression analyses were conducted to investigate the effects of SNPs and environmental factors. For rs3102911, genotype TT carriers decreased the risk of lung cancer with an odds ratio (OR) of 0.635. AA genotypes of rs741718 increased the risk of lung cancer with an OR of 3.527. In stratified analysis, genotype AA carriers of rs741718 had a high susceptibility to lung adenocarcinoma compared with GG and AG genotypes. Analyses of association between SNPs and clinical characteristics revealed that rs3102911 as a protective factor and rs741718 as a risk factor influenced the lung cancer occurrence and progression in nonsmoking females.


Assuntos
Adenocarcinoma/genética , Moléculas de Adesão Celular Neuronais/genética , Proteínas Ligadas por GPI/genética , Neoplasias Pulmonares/genética , Polimorfismo de Nucleotídeo Único , Adulto , Idoso , China , Feminino , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos
9.
Ann Epidemiol ; 45: 5-11, 2020 05.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32439149

RESUMO

PURPOSE: Lung cancer mortality among never-smokers is an often overlooked yet important cause of adult mortality. Moreover, indirect approaches for estimating smoking-attributable mortality use never-smoker lung cancer death rates to approximate smoking burden. To date, though, most studies using indirect approaches import rates from the Cancer Prevention Study II (CPS-II), which is not representative of the U.S. METHODS: We use the nationally representative 1985-2015 National Health Interview Survey-Linked Mortality Files (NHIS-LMF) to calculate lung cancer death rates among never-smokers aged 50 years or older. We then import rates from NHIS-LMF and CPS-II into the Preston-Glei-Wilmoth indirect method to determine whether smoking-attributable fractions differ. RESULTS: Never-smokers account for 16% of U.S. lung cancer deaths among women and 11% among men. Lung cancer death rates among never-smokers are higher in NHIS-LMF than CPS-II for several age groups. Smoking-attributable fractions of mortality are slightly lower with NHIS-LMF rates (19% of male deaths and 16% of female deaths) than with CPS-II rates (21% of male deaths and 17% of female deaths). CONCLUSIONS: Fractions based on nonrepresentative CPS-II data may modestly overestimate smoking-attributable mortality. Thus, indirect methods should use never-smoker lung cancer death rates from such nationally representative datasets as NHIS-LMF.


Assuntos
Neoplasias Pulmonares/mortalidade , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Distribuição por Idade , Idoso , Idoso de 80 Anos ou mais , Causas de Morte , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Distribuição por Sexo , Fumar/epidemiologia , Estados Unidos/epidemiologia
10.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 2485, 2020 05 19.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32427931

RESUMO

Cigarette smoke first interacts with the lung through the cellularly diverse airway epithelium and goes on to drive development of most chronic lung diseases. Here, through single cell RNA-sequencing analysis of the tracheal epithelium from smokers and non-smokers, we generate a comprehensive atlas of epithelial cell types and states, connect these into lineages, and define cell-specific responses to smoking. Our analysis infers multi-state lineages that develop into surface mucus secretory and ciliated cells and then contrasts these to the unique specification of submucosal gland (SMG) cells. Accompanying knockout studies reveal that tuft-like cells are the likely progenitor of both pulmonary neuroendocrine cells and CFTR-rich ionocytes. Our smoking analysis finds that all cell types, including protected stem and SMG populations, are affected by smoking through both pan-epithelial smoking response networks and hundreds of cell-specific response genes, redefining the penetrance and cellular specificity of smoking effects on the human airway epithelium.


Assuntos
Células Epiteliais/metabolismo , Perfilação da Expressão Gênica/métodos , Pulmão/metabolismo , Mucosa Respiratória/metabolismo , Fumar/genética , Traqueia/metabolismo , Animais , Células Cultivadas , Técnicas de Inativação de Genes , Redes Reguladoras de Genes , Humanos , Pulmão/citologia , Camundongos , Células NIH 3T3 , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Mucosa Respiratória/citologia , Análise de Sequência de RNA/métodos , Análise de Célula Única/métodos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Traqueia/citologia
11.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0233749, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32469973

RESUMO

INTRODUCTION: Smoking is hazardous to health and places a heavy economic burden on individuals and their families. Clearly, smoking in China is prevalent since China is the largest consumer of tobacco in the world. Chinese smoking and nonsmoking households were compared in terms of the incidence and intensity of Catastrophic Health Expenditures (CHEs). The factors associated with catastrophic health expenditures were analyzed. METHODS: Data for this study were collected from two waves of panel data in 2011 and 2013 from the national China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study (CHARLS). A total of 8073 households with at least one member aged above 45 were identified each year. Catastrophic health expenditure was measured by the ratio of a household's out-of-pocket healthcare payments (OOP) to the household's Capacity to Pay (CTP). A panel logit random-effects model was used to examine correlates with catastrophic health expenditure. RESULTS: The incidence of catastrophic health expenditures for Chinese households with members aged 45 and above in 2011 and 2013 were 12.99% and 15.56%, respectively. The mean gaps (MGs) were 3.16% and 4.88%, respectively, and the mean positive gaps (MPGs) were 24.36% and 31.40%, respectively. The incidences of catastrophic health expenditures were 17.41% and 20.03% in former smoking households, 12.10% and 15.09% in current smoking households, and 12.72% and 13.64% in nonsmoking households. In the panel logit regression model analysis, former smoking households (OR = 1.444, P<0.001) were more prone to catastrophic health expenditures than nonsmoking households. Risk factors for catastrophic health expenditures included members with chronic diseases (OR = 4.359, P<0.001), hospitalized patients (OR = 8.60, P<0.001), elderly people aged above 65 (OR = 1.577, P<0.001), or persons with disabilities (OR = 1.275, P<0.001). Protective factors for catastrophic health expenditures included being in an urban household, having a larger family size, and having a higher household income. CONCLUSIONS: The incidence of catastrophic health expenditures in Chinese households is relatively high. Smoking is one of the primary risk factors for catastrophic health expenditures. Stronger interventions against smoking should be made in time to reduce the occurrence of health issues caused by smoking and the financial losses for individuals, families and society.


Assuntos
Doença Catastrófica/economia , Financiamento Pessoal/economia , Gastos em Saúde/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Tabaco , Idoso , China , Características da Família , Humanos , Estudos Longitudinais , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Fatores de Risco , Fumantes , Fumar Tabaco/efeitos adversos , Fumar Tabaco/economia
12.
PLoS One ; 15(5): e0232847, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32374768

RESUMO

RATIONALE: Probe-based confocal endomicroscopy provides real time videos of autoflourescent elastin structures within the alveoli. With it, multiple changes in the elastin structure due to different diffuse parenchymal lung diseases have previously been described. However, these evaluations have mainly relied on qualitative evaluation by the examiner and manually selected parts post-examination. OBJECTIVES: To develop a fully automatic method for quantifying structural properties of the imaged alveoli elastin and to perform a preliminary assessment of their diagnostic potential. METHODS: 46 patients underwent probe-based confocal endomicroscopy, of which 38 were divided into 4 groups categorizing different diffuse parenchymal lung diseases. 8 patients were imaged in representative healthy lung areas and used as control group. Alveolar elastin structures were automatically segmented with a trained machine learning algorithm and subsequently evaluated with two methods developed for quantifying the local thickness and structural connectivity. MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: The automatic segmentation algorithm performed generally well and all 4 patient groups showed statistically significant differences with median elastin thickness, standard deviation of thickness and connectivity compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Alveoli elastin structures can be quantified based on their structural connectivity and thickness statistics with a fully-automated algorithm and initial results highlight its potential for distinguishing parenchymal lung diseases from normal alveoli.


Assuntos
Broncoscopia/métodos , Elastina/ultraestrutura , Doenças Pulmonares Intersticiais/patologia , Microscopia Confocal/métodos , Microscopia de Vídeo/métodos , Alvéolos Pulmonares/ultraestrutura , Idoso , Algoritmos , Automação , Sistemas Computacionais , Elastina/análise , Desenho de Equipamento , Feminino , Humanos , Processamento de Imagem Assistida por Computador , Masculino , Microscopia Confocal/instrumentação , Microscopia de Vídeo/instrumentação , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Alvéolos Pulmonares/química , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Aprendizado de Máquina Supervisionado
13.
Chem Biol Interact ; 327: 109140, 2020 Aug 25.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442416

RESUMO

A liquid chromatograpy-nanoelectrospray ionization-high resolution tandem mass spectrometry (LC-NSI-HRMS/MS) method was developed for quantitation of the DNA adducts 7-(2'-carboxyethyl)guanine (7-2'-CEG) and N2-(1'-carboxyethyl)guanine (N2-1'-CEG), as their methyl esters, in human leukocyte DNA from smokers and non-smokers. 7-2'-CEG has been previously identified in all human liver samples analyzed and is formed from an unknown carboxyethylating agent while N2-1'-CEG is formed from the advanced glycation endproduct methyl glyoxal. The method was applied for the analysis of these two DNA adducts in leukocyte DNA from 20 smokers and 20 non-smokers, in part to test the hypothesis that 7-2'-CEG could be formed by endogenous nitrosation, as previously observed in rats treated with nitrosodihydrouracil and nitrite. Levels of 7-2'-CEG (mean ± S.D.) were 0.6 ± 0.2 pmol/µmol dG in smokers and 0.5 ± 0.2 pmol/µmol dG in non-smokers, while those of N2-1'-CEG were 4.5 ± 1.9 pmol/µmol dG in smokers and 4.6 ± 2 pmol/µmol dG in non-smokers. These results did not support our hypothesis that endogenous nitrosation of dihydrouracil in smokers leads to higher levels of 7-2'-CEG in leukocyte DNA than in non-smokers. However the study provides the first data on levels of these DNA adducts in human leukocyte DNA, and the LC-NSI-HRMS/MS method developed for their quantitation could be important for future studies of DNA damage by methyl glyoxal.


Assuntos
Adutos de DNA/sangue , Guanina/análogos & derivados , Leucócitos/química , Adolescente , Adulto , Idoso , Animais , Bovinos , Cromatografia Líquida de Alta Pressão , DNA/química , Feminino , Guanina/sangue , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes , Fumantes , Espectrometria de Massas por Ionização por Electrospray , Espectrometria de Massas em Tandem , Adulto Jovem
15.
Pneumologie ; 74(5): 294-299, 2020 May.
Artigo em Alemão | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32252110

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: Since September 2007, the Federal Nonsmoker Protection Act regulates a general legal ban on smoking in federal facilities, public transport vehicles and passenger stations. Other smoking bans are not uniformly regulated and vary from state to state. In addition to places of public interest, sports venues and the workplace, particular attention in political debates has always been paid to bars and restaurants, where smoking has always been part of the picture. The situation of the Südstadt pubs in Cologne considered in this paper is governed by the expanded law for the protection of non-smokers in North Rhine Westphalia (NRW) of December 20, 2007. METHODS: A survey using a specifically created questionnaire comprising 24 items was carried out. Persons over 26 years of age visiting selected bars were interviewed in order to ensure that at the time the Nonsmoker Protection Act was introduced, participants had reached the legal age for smoking. Data acquisition was carried out both by direct surveys of participants in selected pubs in Cologne's Südstadt and by means of online surveys, attention to which had been drawn in the press, television and through social media. RESULTS: A total of 1318 completed questionnaires were evaluated. Participants were on average 49 years old (±â€Š12.1). Of the 1318 respondents, 726 were active smokers in 2007 (55.1 %). In 2018, 518 (39.3 %) (p: < 0.001) respondents stated that they were still active smokers. Of the 726 active smokers, 289 (39.8 %) had been consuming more than 20 cigarettes a day in 2007. In 2018, 179 of 518 (34.6 %) (p: < 0.001) were heavy smokers. In 2007, 303 persons (41.7 % of smokers) fell into the group of medium smokers with 10 - 19 cigarettes per day, in 2018 there were 227 (43.8 %) (p: < 0.001). The group of people who smoked less and consumed 1 - 9 cigarettes per day included a total of 134 persons (18.5 %) in 2007 and 112 (21.6 %) in 2018 (p: < 0.001). Among active smokers, the smoking ban was the most relevant cause for a change in smoking behaviour in this survey. Among non-smokers or former smokers, health aspects as well as family and friends were the decisive factors in rejecting tobacco products. SUMMARY: Based on a sample of 1318 participants among pub visitors, the study showed that the number of active smokers had significantly and distinctly decreased since the introduction of the Nonsmoker Protection Act in 2007. Furthermore, the number of people with rather low cigarette consumption showed a significant increase.


Assuntos
não Fumantes , Política Pública , Política Antifumo , Abandono do Hábito de Fumar , Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/prevenção & controle , Adulto , Humanos , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Saúde Pública , Fumar/efeitos adversos , Fumar/legislação & jurisprudência , Prevenção do Hábito de Fumar , Poluição por Fumaça de Tabaco/legislação & jurisprudência
16.
Clin Implant Dent Relat Res ; 22(3): 380-386, 2020 Jun.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32346975

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: It is hypothesized that the levels of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are higher in the peri-implant sulcular fluid (PISF) of cigarette-smokers than nonsmokers with peri-implantitis. PURPOSE: The purpose was to compare the levels of AGEs in the PISF among moderate cigarette-smokers and nonsmokers with peri-implantitis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cigarette-smokers and nonsmokers with peri-implantitis and nonsmokers without peri-implantitis were included. A questionnaire was used to gather information related to smoking habit, duration of implants in function and demographic traits. In all groups, peri-implant plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI), crestal bone loss (CBL) and probing depth (PD). The PISF was collected and levels of AGEs were measured. Group comparisons were performed and P < .01 was nominated as pointer of statistical significance. RESULTS: Fourteen smokers with peri-implantitis (12 males and 2 females), 15 nonsmokers with peri-implantitis (14 males and 1 female) and 15 nonsmokers without peri-implantitis (13 males and 2 females) were included. Smokers with peri-implantitis had a smoking history of 22.7 ± 0.3 pack years. The mesial and distal CBL, PI, and PD were significantly higher in smokers with peri-implantitis than nonsmokers with (P < .01) and without peri-implantitis (P < .01). The GI was significantly higher in smokers (P < .01) and nonsmokers with peri-implantitis (P < .01) compared with nonsmokers without peri-implantitis. The levels of AGEs were significantly higher among smokers with peri-implantitis (552.8 ± 87.2 pg/mL) (P < .01) compared with nonsmokers with (141.6 ± 64.9 pg/mL) and without (88.1 ± 27.3 pg/mL) peri-implantitis. The levels of AGEs were significantly higher among nonsmokers with (141.6 ± 64.9 pg/mL) (P < .01) than without (88.1 ± 27.3 pg/mL) peri-implantitis. CONCLUSION: The levels of AGEs expressed in the PISF are higher among moderate cigarette-smokers than nonsmokers with peri-implantitis.


Assuntos
Implantes Dentários , Peri-Implantite , Índice de Placa Dentária , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , não Fumantes , Fumantes
18.
Acta Cytol ; 64(5): 471-476, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32316006

RESUMO

BACKGROUND/AIM: Cytogenetic biomarkers such as micronuclei (MN) are used for the evaluation of exposure to carcinogens and genotoxic effects in oral epithelial cells. Tobacco is one of the strongest carcinogens responsible for the development of cancer in oral mucosa. The aim of this study was to compare the genotoxic effect of waterpipe smoking with that of cigarette smoking. METHODS: This case-control study was performed on 30 waterpipe smokers, 30 cigarette smokers, and 30 nonsmokers. Buccal exfoliated cells were prepared using cytobrushes and stained with the Papanicolaou technique. The cytologic slides were examined under a light microscope for counting the number of MN and the number of cells with MN per 1,000 epithelial cells. RESULTS: The mean number ± standard deviation (SD) of MN in waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers was 7.55 ± 5.530, 4.95 ± 5.633, and 2.00 ± 2.406, respectively. The mean number ± SD of cells with MN in waterpipe smokers, cigarette smokers, and nonsmokers was 6.20 ± 4.830, 3.50 ± 3.832, and 1.45 ± 1.701, respectively. Numbers of cells with MN differed significantly between waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers (p = 0.04) and between waterpipe smokers and nonsmokers (p < 0.001). Numbers of MN differed significantly between waterpipe smokers and nonsmokers (p < 0.001). Numbers of MN did not differ significantly between waterpipe smokers and cigarette smokers (p = 0.10). Numbers of MN and of cells with MN did not differ significantly between cigarette smokers and nonsmokers (p = 0.06 and p = 0.052, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Waterpipe smoking is associated with a significantly higher frequency of MN, and it seems that waterpipe smoking has a greater genotoxic effect than cigarette smoking.


Assuntos
Fumar Cigarros/efeitos adversos , Dano ao DNA , Micronúcleos com Defeito Cromossômico/induzido quimicamente , Mucosa Bucal/patologia , não Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumantes/estatística & dados numéricos , Fumar Cachimbo de Água/efeitos adversos , Adulto , Estudos de Casos e Controles , Feminino , Humanos , Masculino , Mucosa Bucal/efeitos dos fármacos , Adulto Jovem
19.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0224860, 2020.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32187180

RESUMO

OBJECTIVE: To assess the effects of workplace exposure to hardwood dust on lung function and determine a prevalence of respiratory symptoms among wood workers. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional observational study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Two hundred seventy-six, non-smoker male wood workers and equal number of non-smoker male office workers, referred to pulmonology clinic included in this study. Evaluation of study participants included completion of a questionnaire regarding respiratory symptoms and baseline spirometry was measured according to the actual recommendations. RESULTS: Respiratory symptoms including cough, phlegm, chest tightness, and wheezing were significantly higher in wood workers than office workers (40.2% versus 29.3% for cough, p = 0.0073; 40.6% versus 23.6% for phlegm, p<0.0001; 38.0% versus 23.1% for chest tightness, p = 0.0001; 25.3% versus 14.5% for wheezing, p = 0.0014). No statistically significant differences were observed for Dyspnea, and upper respiratory tract symptoms among wood workers compared to office workers. While wood workers were more likely to require spirometry test than office workers (21.4% versus 5.4%, p<0.001) the obstructive changes were more prevalent on spirometry test in wood workers (71.4% obstructive pattern versus 28.6% restrictive pattern). Spirometry test revealed the mean values of FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio were significantly lower in the wood workers, compared to their mean values in the control group. CONCLUSION: Respiratory symptoms associated with work, are more prevalent among wood workers than office workers. Our data revealed that workplace exposure to hardwood dust may compromise respiratory function, indicating the importance and the need for optimizing preventive measures in workplace to protect the respiratory health among exposed workers. Obstructive changes on pulmonary function test is a dominant pathologic pattern in pulmonary function test among wood workers. Further investigation is required by current available tools such as nasal cytology to detect influence of wood dust exposure on the upper respiratory airway.


Assuntos
Poeira , não Fumantes , Exposição Ocupacional/efeitos adversos , Transtornos Respiratórios , Espirometria , Inquéritos e Questionários , Adulto , Estudos Transversais , Humanos , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , Prevalência , Transtornos Respiratórios/epidemiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/etiologia , Transtornos Respiratórios/fisiopatologia
20.
Health Qual Life Outcomes ; 18(1): 69, 2020 Mar 13.
Artigo em Inglês | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32169082

RESUMO

BACKGROUND: A novel approach suggested that cognitive and dispositional features may explain in depth the health behaviors adoption and the adherence to prevention programs. The Health Orientation Scale (HOS) has been extensively used to map the adoption of health and unhealthy behaviors according to cognitive and dispositional features. Coherently, the main aim of the current research was to assess the factor structure of the Italian version of the HOS using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis and testing the construct validity of the scale by assessing differences in health orientations between tobacco cigarette smokers and nonsmokers. METHOD: The research protocol was organized in two studies. Study 1 evaluated the dimensionality of the HOS in a sample of Northern Italian healthy people. Three hundred and twenty-one participants were enrolled; they were 229 women (71.3%) and 92 men (28.7%). In Study 2, the factor structure and construct validity of the HOS Italian version was assessed trough confirmatory factor analysis using a tobacco cigarette smokers and nonsmokers population. Two hundred and nineteen participants were enrolled; they were 164 women (75.2%) and 55 men (24.8%). RESULTS: In Study 1, a seven factors solution was obtained explaining 60% of cumulative variance instead of 10 factors solution of the original version of the HOS. In Study 2, the factor structure of the Italian version of the HOS was confirmed and applied to the smokers and nonsmokers; nonsmokers reported higher values than smokers in Factor 1 (MHPP) [t (208) = - 2.739 p < .007] (CI 95-4.96% to -.809), Factor 2 (HES) [t (209) = - 3.387 p < .001] (CI 95-3.93% to -. 1.03), Factor 3 (HIC) [t(213) = - 2.468 p < .014] (CI 95-2.56% to -.28) and Factor 7 (HEX) [t(217) = - 3.451 p < .001] (CI 95%- 1.45 to .39). CONCLUSIONS: Results of the Italian adaptation of HOS lead to a partial redistribution of items and confirmed 7 subscales to distinguish psycho-cognitive dispositional dimensions involved in health orientation styles.


Assuntos
Atitude Frente a Saúde , Comportamentos Relacionados com a Saúde , Adulto , Análise Fatorial , Feminino , Humanos , Itália , Masculino , Pessoa de Meia-Idade , não Fumantes/psicologia , Psicometria/métodos , Qualidade de Vida , Reprodutibilidade dos Testes , Fumantes/psicologia
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