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1.
BMC Pediatr ; 21(1): 400, 2021 09 13.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34517872

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: We report here on the management and outcomes of neonates born to mothers with active perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection. STUDY DESIGN: In this prospective study, eligible neonates were enrolled in a database to track in-hospital outcomes and followed up outpatient periodically till 2 months of age to assess for late onset symptoms of infection. RESULTS: From April 2020 to February 2021, 67 mothers with perinatal SARS-CoV-2 infection and 70 at-risk neonates were included. Two neonates (3%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 within 48 h of life but remained asymptomatic during hospitalization and at all follow-up periods. Three infants were reported to have a febrile illness in 2 months follow up period, none of which was attributable to SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Our data supports the emerging evidence which describes a probable low risk of vertical transmission of SARS-CoV-2. We also demonstrate a low risk of post-natal transmission or late-onset symptomatic infection with SARS-CoV-2.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Embarazo , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo/diagnóstico , Estudios Prospectivos , SARS-CoV-2
2.
Front Public Health ; 9: 706830, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490191

RESUMEN

Background: Adequate understanding and precautionary behaviors are of vital importance to contain the spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To date, the knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) toward COVID-19 among different populations have been reported, whereas such information is unavailable in teachers. We aimed to investigate the KAP of teachers associated with COVID-19 during the global outbreak. Methods: A large-scale population-based survey was conducted to gather information on COVID-19-related KAP among Chinese teachers using a self-administered questionnaire. We received 10,658 responses in April 2020, out of which 8,248 were enrolled in the final analysis. Participants responded to a self-administered questionnaire concerning demographic characteristics and KAP associated with COVID-19. Results: This work included 4,252 (51.6%) teachers in kindergartens, 2,644 (32.1%) teachers in primary schools, and 1,352 (16.4%) teachers in secondary schools. The knowledge level (mean: 4.46 out of seven points) was relatively lower than the levels of attitudes (mean: 3.27 out of four points) and practices (mean: 4.29 out of five points) toward COVID-19. Knowledge scores significantly varied by the collected demographic variables except education worksite (p < 0.05), whereas practice scores significantly differed in age groups (p < 0.05), education level (p < 0.001), education worksite (p < 0.001), and years of teaching (p < 0.001). The multivariate logistic analysis indicated that poor knowledge related to COVID-19 was common among men, younger, and less-educated teachers. In contrast, female teachers and those with higher education levels tend to have good practices against COVID-19. Conclusion: The present work suggested the knowledge gaps regarding COVID-19 were needed to be corrected immediately in teachers. Given the critical role of teachers in the education system, health authorities should take gender, age, and education level into account when developing suitable health interventions.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Conocimientos, Actitudes y Práctica en Salud , China/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Bull World Health Organ ; 99(9): 614-615, 2021 Sep 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34475597

RESUMEN

The psychological repercussions of COVID-19 have engendered multiple ad hoc initiatives and raised awareness of the need for investment in mental health services. Tatum Anderson reports.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/psicología , Salud Mental , Pandemias , COVID-19/epidemiología , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , SARS-CoV-2
4.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(234): 152-155, 2021 Feb 28.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34506472

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: COVID-19 is a beta coronavirus that is transmitted by physical interaction or close contact. This Coronavirus Pandemic has also created stress and anxiety among pregnant women all over the world. The disease was first identified in Wuhan city, China, in late December 2019 and was declared pandemic by the World Health Organization on 11th March 2020. Concern and stress in pregnancy are associated with pre-eclampsia, intrauterine growth restriction, preterm labour, depression etc. Pregnancy is an immune-compromised state and poses a high risk to this risk. This study aims to identify anxiety about the coronavirus infection among pregnant women visiting a tertiary care centre in Kathmandu, Nepal, during this COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: This is a descriptive cross-sectional study conducted at Kathmandu Medical College and Teaching Hospital from 15th July 2020 to 30th July 2020 after taking the ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Committee of Kathmandu Medical College (reference no. 207202002). Convenient sampling method was used. All the data were entered in Statistical Package for the Social Sciences data 20.0 and analyzed. Data was presented in frequencies, charts and percentage. RESULTS: Among the total 273 cases, only 2 (0.73%) cases had a score between 25-30 corresponding to moderate to severe anxiety, 21 (7.69%) had a score between 18-24, which corresponds to mild to moderate anxiety and 250 (91.57%) had score 0-17 which corresponds mild status. CONCLUSIONS: Most of the participants in the study reported a mild status of anxiety. Very few participants reported moderate to severe anxiety.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemias , Ansiedad/epidemiología , Estudios Transversales , Depresión/epidemiología , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Nepal/epidemiología , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atención Terciaria
5.
JNMA J Nepal Med Assoc ; 59(239): 667-671, 2021 Jul 30.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34508498

RESUMEN

INTRODUCTION: Nepal is one of the countries which has been hit hard by the COVID-19 pandemic and has resulted in high morbidity and mortality across all age groups including neonates. There has been a paucity of studies regarding maternal to neonatal COVID-19 transmission and the published studies also have a poor sample size to reach any definite conclusion. Hence this study was carried out to see the clinical profiles of neonates born to COVID-19 mothers. METHODS: It was a descriptive cross-sectional study. The study was conducted at a tertiary care centre over the period of one year from April 2020 to March 2021 after taking ethical clearance from the Institutional Review Committee with reference number drs2105211526. Convenient sampling was done. All neonates born to COVID-19 positive mothers who were diagnosed by a real-time polymerase chain reaction of the nasopharyngeal swab during the time of delivery were included in the study. Data analysis was done using Statistical Package for Social Sciences 20 using appropriate tools. RESULTS: A total of 105 babies born to COVID-19 positive mothers who were tested for COVID-19 infection were included in the study. Ten (9.5%) (3.89-15.10 at 95% Confidence Interval) of neonates born to COVID-19 positive mothers were positive for the COVID-19 virus. All the neonates born to COVID-19 positive mothers were discharged home except one case who had other comorbidities. Fever was present in four (40%) of COVID-19 positive neonates. CONCLUSIONS: There is a possibility of vertical transmission of coronavirus in neonates although the outcome is favourable.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Complicaciones Infecciosas del Embarazo , Estudios Transversales , Femenino , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Madres , Pandemias , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2 , Centros de Atención Terciaria
6.
Mil Med ; 186(12 Suppl 2): 74-80, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34469524

RESUMEN

During the coronavirus-19 pandemic, limited information existed about the risks and consequences of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection associated with maternal transmission to neonates. With rapidly evolving evidence, Air Force Neonatal Intensive Care Unit nurses at U.S. Naval Hospital Okinawa, Japan, adapted their standard operating procedures to safeguard their at-risk neonatal patients. This interview describes an Air Force NICU nurse's view of neonatal transport and nursing care during the coronavirus-19 pandemic.


Asunto(s)
Ambulancias Aéreas , COVID-19 , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Transmisión Vertical de Enfermedad Infecciosa , Pandemias , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 67(4): 542-548, 2021 Apr.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34495058

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To compare the computed tomography (CT) imaging findings of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) by gender and age groups. METHODS: The patients with COVID-19 (n=1,024) were divided into nine age groups (0-9 years, 10-19 years, 20-29 years, 30-39 years, 40-49 years, 50-59 years, 60-69 years, 70-79 years, and 80 years and above). The CT findings were retrospectively analyzed according to the age groups and gender. RESULTS: Under 20 years of age, except for the ground-glass opacity and consolidation, no other finding was observed. Airway changes and crazy-paving pattern were more common over 80 years. While the tree-in-bud pattern was more common in the 20-29 age group than in other age groups, the halo sign was mostly seen at the age of 30-39 years. Unlike other groups, the thin reticular pattern was more common in patients aged 60-79 years. When the findings were compared by gender, the rates of centrilobular nodules (p=0.006), airway changes (p=0.004), and tree-in-bud pattern (p=0.050) were significantly higher in males than in females. CONCLUSION: The chest CT findings of COVID-19 show significant changes according to age and gender. The findings that are more common in elderly and male patients should be carefully evaluated in terms of the prognosis of the disease.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Anciano , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Pulmón , Masculino , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomografía Computarizada por Rayos X
8.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34497055

RESUMEN

We describe the successful treatment of a 24-week pregnant, 44-year-old woman with COVID-19. Management of this complex case required multidisciplinary collaboration and included prolonged invasive mechanical ventilation and prone positioning. Caesarean section delivery was delayed for 32 days, with no monitored fetal compromise, while stabilising the mother. To our knowledge, this is the longest reported duration of invasive ventilation while pregnant in a patient with COVID-19. COVID-19 has been shown to cause increased disease severity in pregnant women, and certain pregnancy-related physiological adaptations that occur could help explain this association. While COVID-19 has been shown to cause no increased adverse neonatal outcomes, clinicians should be aware that data show increased preterm birth in symptomatic pregnant women, thereby increasing the chance of prematurity-related complications. Further research on COVID-19 in pregnancy is crucial to facilitate better management, and full inclusion of pregnant women in therapeutic clinical trials will help achieve this.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Nacimiento Prematuro , Adulto , Cesárea , Femenino , Feto , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , Mujeres Embarazadas , Respiración Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
9.
PLoS Comput Biol ; 17(9): e1009288, 2021 09.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34473693

RESUMEN

Mass vaccination offers a promising exit strategy for the COVID-19 pandemic. However, as vaccination progresses, demands to lift restrictions increase, despite most of the population remaining susceptible. Using our age-stratified SEIRD-ICU compartmental model and curated epidemiological and vaccination data, we quantified the rate (relative to vaccination progress) at which countries can lift non-pharmaceutical interventions without overwhelming their healthcare systems. We analyzed scenarios ranging from immediately lifting restrictions (accepting high mortality and morbidity) to reducing case numbers to a level where test-trace-and-isolate (TTI) programs efficiently compensate for local spreading events. In general, the age-dependent vaccination roll-out implies a transient decrease of more than ten years in the average age of ICU patients and deceased. The pace of vaccination determines the speed of lifting restrictions; Taking the European Union (EU) as an example case, all considered scenarios allow for steadily increasing contacts starting in May 2021 and relaxing most restrictions by autumn 2021. Throughout summer 2021, only mild contact restrictions will remain necessary. However, only high vaccine uptake can prevent further severe waves. Across EU countries, seroprevalence impacts the long-term success of vaccination campaigns more strongly than age demographics. In addition, we highlight the need for preventive measures to reduce contagion in school settings throughout the year 2021, where children might be drivers of contagion because of them remaining susceptible. Strategies that maintain low case numbers, instead of high ones, reduce infections and deaths by factors of eleven and five, respectively. In general, policies with low case numbers significantly benefit from vaccination, as the overall reduction in susceptibility will further diminish viral spread. Keeping case numbers low is the safest long-term strategy because it considerably reduces mortality and morbidity and offers better preparedness against emerging escape or more contagious virus variants while still allowing for higher contact numbers (freedom) with progressing vaccinations.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19 , Vacunación Masiva , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , Unión Europea/estadística & datos numéricos , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Vacunación Masiva/legislación & jurisprudencia , Vacunación Masiva/estadística & datos numéricos , Persona de Mediana Edad , Adulto Joven
10.
BMJ Case Rep ; 14(9)2021 Sep 14.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34521745

RESUMEN

Most reports of COVID-19 in neonates suggest that they are infected postnatally and present with gastrointestinal or respiratory symptoms. We describe a neonate who had community-acquired COVID-19, and presented with late-onset sepsis and developed dyselectrolytemia. The 26-day-old male baby had fever, feed refusal and shock. Rapid antigen test for SARS-CoV-2 by nasopharyngeal swab was positive and levels of circulating inflammatory markers were high. The baby was supported with antibiotics, and inotropic and vasopressor drugs. He had seizures and bradycardia due to dyselectrolytemia on day 2 of admission. On day 3, he had respiratory distress, with non-specific chest radiographic findings, and was managed with non-invasive support for 24 hours. The baby was discharged after 8 days. On serial follow-up, he was breastfeeding well and gaining weight appropriately with no morbidity. Our report highlights a unique presentation of COVID-19, with late-onset infection and shock-like features along with dyselectrolytemia and seizures.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Choque , Fiebre , Hospitalización , Humanos , Recién Nacido , Masculino , SARS-CoV-2 , Choque/etiología
11.
J Korean Med Sci ; 36(35): e248, 2021 Sep 06.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34490756

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prediction of mortality in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a key to improving the clinical outcomes, considering that the COVID-19 pandemic has led to the collapse of healthcare systems in many regions worldwide. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with COVID-19 mortality and to develop a nomogram for predicting mortality using clinical parameters and underlying diseases. METHODS: This study was performed in 5,626 patients with confirmed COVID-19 between February 1 and April 30, 2020 in South Korea. A Cox proportional hazards model and logistic regression model were used to construct a nomogram for predicting 30-day and 60-day survival probabilities and overall mortality, respectively in the train set. Calibration and discrimination were performed to validate the nomograms in the test set. RESULTS: Age ≥ 70 years, male, presence of fever and dyspnea at the time of COVID-19 diagnosis, and diabetes mellitus, cancer, or dementia as underling diseases were significantly related to 30-day and 60-day survival and mortality in COVID-19 patients. The nomogram showed good calibration for survival probabilities and mortality. In the train set, the areas under the curve (AUCs) for 30-day and 60-day survival was 0.914 and 0.954, respectively; the AUC for mortality of 0.959. In the test set, AUCs for 30-day and 60-day survival was 0.876 and 0.660, respectively, and that for mortality was 0.926. The online calculators can be found at https://koreastat.shinyapps.io/RiskofCOVID19/. CONCLUSION: The prediction model could accurately predict COVID-19-related mortality; thus, it would be helpful for identifying the risk of mortality and establishing medical policies during the pandemic to improve the clinical outcomes.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/mortalidad , Nomogramas , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Modelos Logísticos , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Probabilidad , Modelos de Riesgos Proporcionales , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Adulto Joven
12.
Public Health Res Pract ; 31(3)2021 Sep 08.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34494077

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: To describe local operational aspects of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) response during the first three waves of outbreaks in New South Wales (NSW), Australia, which began in January, July and December 2020. Type of program or service: Public health outbreak response. METHODS: Narrative with epidemiological linking and genomic testing. RESULTS: Epidemiological linking and genomic testing found that during the first wave of COVID-19 in NSW, a large number of community transmissions went undetected because of limited testing for the virus and limited contact tracing of cases. The second wave of COVID-19 in NSW emerged following reintroduction from the second wave in Victoria, Australia in July 2020, and the third wave followed undetected introduction from overseas. By the second and third waves, cases could be more effectively detected and isolated through an increased ability to test and contact trace, and to rapidly genomic sequence severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) isolates, allowing most cases to be identified and epidemiologically linked. This greater certainty in understanding chains of transmission resulted in control of the outbreaks despite less stringent restrictions on the community, by using a refined strategy of targeted shutdown, restrictions on cases, their close contacts, identified hotspots and venues of concern rather than a whole of community lockdown. Risk assessments of potential transmission sites were constantly updated through our evolving experience with transmission events. However, this refined strategy did leave the potential for large point source outbreaks should any cases go undetected. [Addendum] A fourth wave that began in Sydney in June 2021 challenged this strategy due to the more transmissible nature of the Delta variant of SARS-CoV-2. LESSONS LEARNT: A wave of COVID-19 infections can develop quickly from one infected person. The community needs to remain vigilant, adhering to physical distancing measures, signing in to venues they visit, and getting tested if they have any symptoms. Signing out of venues on exit allows public health resources to be used more efficiently to respond to outbreaks.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/estadística & datos numéricos , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/diagnóstico , Prueba de COVID-19/métodos , Niño , Preescolar , Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles/organización & administración , Trazado de Contacto/métodos , Brotes de Enfermedades/prevención & control , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Nueva Gales del Sur/epidemiología , Distanciamiento Físico , Salud Pública , Cuarentena/métodos , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Victoria/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
13.
J Trop Pediatr ; 67(4)2021 08 27.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34471924

RESUMEN

Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has been shown to affect all age groups. The data in the literature usually admit a milder form of disease in infants and newborns than adults. COVID-19 is rarely seen in newborns and an urgent diagnosis should be made in any suspicious situation. A 6-day-old female newborn was admitted to our hospital with fever and dyspnea without cough. A rapid reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction COVID-19 showed a positive result. Chest computed tomography revealed bilateral and widespread pulmonary involvement. After support therapy, the newborn was successfully discharged. We should carefully consider the new type of coronavirus as an agent for pneumonia in newborns with fever and dyspnea together with non-symptomatic family history. Our case was one of the interesting reported cases of severe pneumonia presenting in the perinatal period.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19 , Adulto , Tos , Disnea , Femenino , Fiebre/etiología , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Embarazo , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 100(35): e27166, 2021 Sep 03.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34477174

RESUMEN

ABSTRACT: In 2019, the Coronavirus disease 2019 (Covid-19) was reported in Wuhan, China. Governments in various countries had taken many safeguards. This study investigated the incidence of orthopedic trauma in a rural region epidemiologically and guided source distribution and medical professionals to sustain healthcare systems.Between December 2019 and August 2020, 1651 patients admitted to orthopedics and traumatology clinics with trauma were evaluated in this study. Patients were grouped into 3 groups: pre-covid, restriction, and permitted groups. Age, sex, and fracture types of patients were recorded.The number of patients in the pre-covid period was 629 (38.1%), those were 334 (20.2%) in the restriction period, and 688 (41.7%) patients were admitted in the permitted period. A total of 1203 (72.9%) patients with upper extremity fractures, 383 (23.2%) patients with lower extremity fractures, and 65 (3.9%) patients with axial skeleton and pelvic ring fractures were included in the study. The lowest rates were found in the restriction period when all fractures were evaluated according to the admission periods. There were significant differences between admission dates and the fractures (P < .001).In this study, a decrease in orthopedic trauma rates was observed by half in the restriction period compared with the other 2 periods. Public health precautions had led to a reduction in the incidence of orthopedic trauma in all age groups.


Asunto(s)
Control de Enfermedades Transmisibles , Fracturas Óseas/epidemiología , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/prevención & control , Niño , Preescolar , Femenino , Humanos , Incidencia , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Pandemias , Estudios Retrospectivos , SARS-CoV-2 , Turquia/epidemiología , Adulto Joven
15.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1249-1254, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499628

RESUMEN

Although COVID-19 generally results in milder disease in children and adolescents than in adults, severe illness from COVID-19 can occur in children and adolescents and might require hospitalization and intensive care unit (ICU) support (1-3). It is not known whether the B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant,* which has been the predominant variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) in the United States since late June 2021,† causes different clinical outcomes in children and adolescents compared with variants that circulated earlier. To assess trends among children and adolescents, CDC analyzed new COVID-19 cases, emergency department (ED) visits with a COVID-19 diagnosis code, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 among persons aged 0-17 years during August 1, 2020-August 27, 2021. Since July 2021, after Delta had become the predominant circulating variant, the rate of new COVID-19 cases and COVID-19-related ED visits increased for persons aged 0-4, 5-11, and 12-17 years, and hospital admissions of patients with confirmed COVID-19 increased for persons aged 0-17 years. Among persons aged 0-17 years during the most recent 2-week period (August 14-27, 2021), COVID-19-related ED visits and hospital admissions in the states with the lowest vaccination coverage were 3.4 and 3.7 times that in the states with the highest vaccination coverage, respectively. At selected hospitals, the proportion of COVID-19 patients aged 0-17 years who were admitted to an ICU ranged from 10% to 25% during August 2020-June 2021 and was 20% and 18% during July and August 2021, respectively. Broad, community-wide vaccination of all eligible persons is a critical component of mitigation strategies to protect pediatric populations from SARS-CoV-2 infection and severe COVID-19 illness.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Servicio de Urgencia en Hospital/estadística & datos numéricos , Utilización de Instalaciones y Servicios/tendencias , Hospitalización/tendencias , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Cobertura de Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
16.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(36): 1255-1260, 2021 Sep 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34499627

RESUMEN

Although COVID-19-associated hospitalizations and deaths have occurred more frequently in adults,† COVID-19 can also lead to severe outcomes in children and adolescents (1,2). Schools are opening for in-person learning, and many prekindergarten children are returning to early care and education programs during a time when the number of COVID-19 cases caused by the highly transmissible B.1.617.2 (Delta) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, is increasing.§ Therefore, it is important to monitor indicators of severe COVID-19 among children and adolescents. This analysis uses Coronavirus Disease 2019-Associated Hospitalization Surveillance Network (COVID-NET)¶ data to describe COVID-19-associated hospitalizations among U.S. children and adolescents aged 0-17 years. During March 1, 2020-August 14, 2021, the cumulative incidence of COVID-19-associated hospitalizations was 49.7 per 100,000 children and adolescents. The weekly COVID-19-associated hospitalization rate per 100,000 children and adolescents during the week ending August 14, 2021 (1.4) was nearly five times the rate during the week ending June 26, 2021 (0.3); among children aged 0-4 years, the weekly hospitalization rate during the week ending August 14, 2021, was nearly 10 times that during the week ending June 26, 2021.** During June 20-July 31, 2021, the hospitalization rate among unvaccinated adolescents (aged 12-17 years) was 10.1 times higher than that among fully vaccinated adolescents. Among all hospitalized children and adolescents with COVID-19, the proportions with indicators of severe disease (such as intensive care unit [ICU] admission) after the Delta variant became predominant (June 20-July 31, 2021) were similar to those earlier in the pandemic (March 1, 2020-June 19, 2021). Implementation of preventive measures to reduce transmission and severe outcomes in children is critical, including vaccination of eligible persons, universal mask wearing in schools, recommended mask wearing by persons aged ≥2 years in other indoor public spaces and child care centers,†† and quarantining as recommended after exposure to persons with COVID-19.§§.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , COVID-19/terapia , Hospitalización/estadística & datos numéricos , Hospitalización/tendencias , Adolescente , COVID-19/prevención & control , Vacunas contra la COVID-19/administración & dosificación , Niño , Preescolar , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , SARS-CoV-2/aislamiento & purificación , Índice de Severidad de la Enfermedad , Estados Unidos/epidemiología , Vacunación/estadística & datos numéricos
18.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 42(5): 378-385, 2021 09 01.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34474707

RESUMEN

Background: Infectious diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. As of 2018, the total world population of children < 5 years of age was roughly estimated at 679 million. Of these children, an estimated 5.3 million died of all causes in 2018, with an estimated 700,000 who died of vaccine-preventable infectious diseases; 99% of the children who died had lived in low- and middle-income countries. The infectious diseases that remain major causes of mortality for which vaccines have been shown to provide proven preventive success include, in order of prevalence, are those caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Rotavirus, Bordetella pertussis, measles virus, Haemophilus influenzae type b and influenza virus. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to address the global burden of these six vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in children < 5 years of age, together with implications for the prevention of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection in children. Methods: The current immunization strategies for the prevention of the six vaccine-preventable infectious diseases in children are reviewed as a framework for new strategies of vaccine prevention of COVID-19 in children. Results: The burden of addressing vaccine prevention of future infectious disease in children can be effectively pursued through knowledge gained from past experiences with vaccine usage in these six vaccine-preventable childhood infectious diseases. Conclusion: Issues with regard to the burden of disease mortality, disease transmission, and available vaccines as well as vaccine successes and shortcomings for specific pathogens can serve as important landmarks for effective use of future vaccines. Although much success has been made globally in preventing these childhood deaths, much remains to be done.


Asunto(s)
Vacunas contra la COVID-19 , COVID-19/prevención & control , Salud Global/estadística & datos numéricos , Vacunación Masiva , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/epidemiología , COVID-19/epidemiología , Mortalidad del Niño , Preescolar , Costo de Enfermedad , Países en Desarrollo , Femenino , Accesibilidad a los Servicios de Salud , Humanos , Lactante , Mortalidad Infantil , Recién Nacido , Masculino , Prevalencia , Negativa a la Vacunación , Enfermedades Prevenibles por Vacunación/prevención & control
19.
PLoS One ; 16(9): e0255401, 2021.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34492022

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Prolonged periods of confined living on a cruise ship increase the risk for respiratory disease transmission. We describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of a SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in Australian passengers on the Diamond Princess cruise ship and provide recommendations to mitigate future cruise ship outbreaks. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective cohort study of Australian passengers who travelled on the Diamond Princess from 20 January until 4 February 2020 and were either hospitalised, remained in Japan or repatriated. The main outcome measures included an epidemic curve, demographics, symptoms, clinical and radiological signs, risk factors and length of time to clear infection. RESULTS: Among 223 Australian passengers, 56 were confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive. Forty-nine cases had data available and of these over 70% had symptoms consistent with COVID-19. Of symptomatic cases, 17% showed signs and symptoms before the ship implemented quarantine and a further two-thirds had symptoms within one incubation period of quarantine commencing. Prior to ship-based quarantine, exposure to a close contact or cabin mate later confirmed SARS-CoV-2 positive was associated with a 3.78 fold (95% CI, 2.24-6.37) higher risk of COVID-19 acquisition compared to non-exposed passengers. Exposure to a positive cabin mate during the ship's quarantine carried a relative risk of 6.18 (95% CI, 1.96-19.46) of developing COVID-19. Persistently asymptomatic cases represented 29% of total cases. The median time to the first of two consecutive negative PCR-based SARS-CoV-2 assays was 13 days for asymptomatic cases and 19 days for symptomatic cases (p = 0.002). CONCLUSION: Ship based quarantine was effective at reducing transmission of SARS-CoV-2 amongst Australian passengers, but the risk of infection was higher if an individual shared a cabin or was a close contact of a confirmed case. Managing COVID-19 in cruise ship passengers is challenging and requires enhanced health measures and access to onshore quarantine and isolation facilities.


Asunto(s)
COVID-19/epidemiología , SARS-CoV-2/patogenicidad , Adolescente , Adulto , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Australia/epidemiología , Niño , Preescolar , Brotes de Enfermedades , Femenino , Humanos , Lactante , Recién Nacido , Japón/epidemiología , Masculino , Persona de Mediana Edad , Cuarentena , Estudios Retrospectivos , Navíos , Viaje , Adulto Joven
20.
Goiânia; SES-GO; 27 ago 2021. 1-74 p. ilus, tab, graf.
No convencional en Portugués | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1284457

RESUMEN

O Relatório de Indicadores Estratégicos ­ 2020, visa apresentar indicadores de saúde não relacionados à infecção causada pelo Novo Corona Vírus (COVID-19). Foram consideradas situações metodológicas, analíticas e estruturais. Utilizaram-se modelos de regressão linear simples para realizar as análises de tendência. Fez-se a modelagem do resultado do indicador em função do ano. O processo de modelagem levou em consideração os dados observados nas séries históricas dos indicadores até o ano de 2019. Optou-se por não considerar o ano de 2020 em virtude de ter sido um ano atípico em razão da pandemia. O ano de 2020 não representa o comportamento esperado dos indicadores na maioria dos casos analisados para este relatório, visto que muitos indicadores apresentaram comportamento distinto daquele que se seguia ao longo do tempo, que não reflete um comportamento natural dos dados. Foi utilizada como medida estatística de explicação da qualidade do ajuste do modelo para a linha de tendência o R-quadrado (R2).


The Strategic Indicators Report ­ 2020 aims to present health indicators not related to the infection caused by the Novo Corona Virus (COVID-19). Methodological, analytical and structural situations were considered. Simple linear regression models were used to perform trend analyses. The indicator result was modeled as a function of the year. The modeling process took into account the data observed in the historical series of indicators up to the year 2019. It was decided not to consider the year 2020 because it was an atypical year due to the pandemic. The year 2020 does not represent the expected behavior of the indicators in most of the cases analyzed for this report, since many indicators showed a different behavior from that which followed over time, which does not reflect a natural behavior of the data. The R-squared (R2) was used as a statistical measure to explain the goodness of fit of the model for the trend line.


Asunto(s)
Humanos , Masculino , Femenino , Embarazo , Recién Nacido , Lactante , Preescolar , Niño , Adolescente , Adulto , Persona de Mediana Edad , Anciano , Anciano de 80 o más Años , Adulto Joven , Indicadores de Salud , Indicadores de Gestión/estadística & datos numéricos
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