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1.
PLoS One ; 14(10): e0223880, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31622395

RESUMEN

Longitudinal-zonation hypotheses generally predict gradual changes in fish composition from upstream to downstream due to changes in habitat conditions, but largely disregard downstream effects on upstream segments. Floodplains of large rivers represent areas of high connectivity during flood periods and can act as stable refuges in dry seasons, which may attenuate deterministic constraints imposed by local conditions on fish assemblages in surrounding habitats. In this study, we investigated the effects of proximity to large rivers on taxonomic- and functional-diversity patterns of stream-fish assemblages in an extensive region of Central Amazonia. We sampled 31 headwater-stream reaches in nine catchments in the Purus and Madeira Rivers interfluve between December 2014 and March 2015. Ninety seven fish species from seven orders and 19 families were captured. The results indicate that distance to large rivers is more important than distance among sites and local conditions in explaining functional and taxonomic diversity of stream-fish assemblages at large spatial scales. We also found a decrease in taxonomic and functional richness towards headwaters, mainly related to the loss of benthic and sedentary species along the distance gradient. These species may be favored by the proximity to refuge areas and high resource availability near the floodplain. In contrast, upstream assemblages were mainly occupied by small-sized, nektonic species with higher dispersal capacity, highly dependent of allochthonous resources. Downstream effects could be detected for many kilometers upstream in hydrographic catchments and this reinforces the crucial role of connectivity between fluvial habitats in maintenance of stream-fish diversity patterns in the region.

2.
Sci Data ; 6(1): 206, 2019 10 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31619686

RESUMEN

In Amazonia, the knowledge about Fungi remains patchy and biased towards accessible sites. This is particularly the case in French Guiana where the existing collections have been confined to few coastal localities. Here, we aimed at filling the gaps of knowledge in undersampled areas of this region, particularly focusing on the Basidiomycota. From 2011, we comprehensively collected fruiting-bodies with a stratified and reproducible sampling scheme in 126 plots. Sites of sampling reflected the main forest habitats of French Guiana in terms of soil fertility and topography. The dataset of 5219 specimens gathers 245 genera belonging to 75 families, 642 specimens are barcoded. The dataset is not a checklist as only 27% of the specimens are identified at the species level but 96% are identified at the genus level. We found an extraordinary diversity distributed across forest habitats. The dataset is an unprecedented and original collection of Basidiomycota for the region, making specimens available for taxonomists and ecologists. The database is publicly available in the GBIF repository ( https://doi.org/10.15468/ymvlrp ).

3.
PLoS Biol ; 17(10): e3000478, 2019 Oct.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31639139

RESUMEN

Genetic data indicate differences in speciation rate across latitudes, but underlying causes have been difficult to assess because a critical phase of the speciation process is initiated in allopatry, in which, by definition, individuals from different taxa do not interact. We conducted song playback experiments between 109 related pairs of mostly allopatric bird species or subspecies in Amazonia and North America to compare the rate of evolution of male discrimination of songs. Relative to local controls, the number of flyovers and approach to the speaker were higher in Amazonia. We estimate that responses to songs of relatives are being lost about 6 times more slowly in Amazonia than in North America. The slow loss of response holds even after accounting for differences in song frequency and song length. Amazonian species with year-round territories are losing aggressive responses especially slowly. We suggest the presence of many species and extensive interspecific territoriality favors recognition of songs sung by sympatric heterospecifics, which results in a broader window of recognition and hence an ongoing response to novel similar songs. These aggressive responses should slow the establishment of sympatry between recently diverged forms. If male responses to novel allopatric taxa reflect female responses, then premating reproductive isolation is also evolving more slowly in Amazonia. The findings are consistent with previously demonstrated slower recent rates of expansion of sister taxa into sympatry, slower rates of evolution of traits important for premating isolation, and slower rates of speciation in general in Amazonia than in temperate North America.

4.
Proc Biol Sci ; 286(1913): 20191724, 2019 Oct 23.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31640506

RESUMEN

Species' traits influence how populations respond to land-use change. However, even in well-characterized groups such as birds, widely studied traits explain only a modest proportion of the variance in response across species. Here, we show that associations with particular forest types strongly predict the sensitivity of forest-dwelling Amazonian birds to agriculture. Incorporating these fine-scale habitat associations into models of population response dramatically improves predictive performance and markedly outperforms the functional traits that commonly appear in similar analyses. Moreover, by identifying habitat features that support assemblages of unusually sensitive habitat-specialist species, our model furnishes straightforward conservation recommendations. In Amazonia, species that specialize on forests along a soil-nutrient gradient (i.e. both rich-soil specialists and poor-soil specialists) are exceptionally sensitive to agriculture, whereas species that specialize on floodplain forests are unusually insensitive. Thus, habitat specialization per se does not predict disturbance sensitivity, but particular habitat associations do. A focus on conserving specific habitats that harbour highly sensitive avifaunas (e.g. poor-soil forest) would protect a critically threatened component of regional biodiversity. We present a conceptual model to explain the divergent responses of habitat specialists in the different habitats, and we suggest that similar patterns and conservation opportunities probably exist for other taxa and regions.

5.
Ecol Lett ; 2019 Oct 22.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31642170

RESUMEN

Understory fires represent an accelerating threat to Amazonian tropical forests and can, during drought, affect larger areas than deforestation itself. These fires kill trees at rates varying from < 10 to c. 90% depending on fire intensity, forest disturbance history and tree functional traits. Here, we examine variation in bark thickness across the Amazon. Bark can protect trees from fires, but it is often assumed to be consistently thin across tropical forests. Here, we show that investment in bark varies, with thicker bark in dry forests and thinner in wetter forests. We also show that thinner bark translated into higher fire-driven tree mortality in wetter forests, with between 0.67 and 5.86 gigatonnes CO2 lost in Amazon understory fires between 2001 and 2010. Trait-enabled global vegetation models that explicitly include variation in bark thickness are likely to improve the predictions of fire effects on carbon cycling in tropical forests.

6.
Rev Med Suisse ; 15(666): 1802-1806, 2019 Oct 09.
Artículo en Francés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31599521

RESUMEN

Discovered in 1977, Hepatitis D is the most severe form of chronic hepatitis, with rapid development of cirrhosis, hepatic failure and hepatocellular carcinoma. Despite all this, it is still largely underdiagnosed and there is no standardised management. The current treatment options are scarce and bear frequent side-effects, but the early diagnosis and an optimal follow-up with identification of the patients suitable for treatment improve significantly their survival rate and quality of life. Moreover, new promising treatments are entering phase III trials and offer new perspectives for our patients.


Asunto(s)
Hepatitis D/terapia , Carcinoma Hepatocelular/virología , Ensayos Clínicos Fase III como Asunto , Hepatitis D/diagnóstico , Humanos , Cirrosis Hepática/virología , Neoplasias Hepáticas/virología , Tasa de Supervivencia
7.
Environ Res ; : 108720, 2019 Sep 07.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31627842

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: Mercury exposure related to artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) has raised environmental and public health concerns globally. Exposure to mercury, a potent neurotoxin that bioaccumulates in fish, is especially of concern to women of childbearing age (WCBA) and children in high-fish consuming populations. In Madre de Dios (MDD), Peru, an Amazon region with naturally occurring mercury and high ASGM activity, there is significant exposure concern among the mainly riverine, fish-consuming communities. The objective of this study was to conduct the first assessment of mercury exposure in a population-based sample of MDD, identify factors associated with elevated levels and compare the relationship between fish consumption and hair total mercury (H-THg) among persons living in ASGM affected and non-ASGM affected watersheds. METHODS: Hair samples and household demographic surveys, including a module on fish consumption, were collected from 723 participants across 46 communities within 10 km of the Interoceanic Highway in MDD, who were previously enrolled in the first population-based study in MDD spanning areas affected and unaffected by ASGM. H-THg concentration (natural log transformed) was evaluated for association with independent demographic variables through multilevel multivariate regression models accounting for clustering among households and communities. Samples from canned fish available at local stores were also tested for total mercury. RESULTS: Fish consumption (diversity and total consumed) varied spatially along the highway. 269 participants (37.2%) had elevated H-THg (>2.2 µg/g; median 1.60 µg/g; mean 2.24 µg/g), including 42.7% of WCBA and 20.0% of children under 5. Overall, H-THg was higher among people living in ASGM-affected areas. H-THg concentrations were strongly associated with fish consumption; however, in the multivariate models, household consumption of high trophic level fish was associated with elevated H-THg only in communities located in the ASGM-impacted watersheds. Similarly, the relationship between living in a household engaged in economic activities of fishing or Brazil nut harvesting was associated with higher H-THg, but only among households in the ASGM-affected area. In the non-ASGM affected areas, we observed a positive relationship between household daily fruit consumption and H-THg that was not observed in ASGM-affected areas. CONCLUSION: Diet, residential location, and occupation are strong predictors of mercury exposure in Madre de Dios, Peru. Canned fish may represent a previously overlooked source of dietary Hg exposure in the region. In accordance with the Minamata Convention on Mercury, the significant environmental health concern of mercury exposure in ASGM areas demands policy and programmatic attention.

8.
J Microbiol Methods ; 166: 105737, 2019 Oct 15.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31626894

RESUMEN

This study aimed to develop and evaluate a pooled antigen for use in the macroscopic slide agglutination test (MSAT) to detect cattle positive for the Sejroe serogroup. To this end, 193 bovine serum samples from different Pará State regions (Amazonia) were subjected to a reference microscopic agglutination test (MAT) for the serological diagnosis of leptospirosis using 11 serovars representing the Sejroe serogroup: Hardjo-prajitno; Hardjo-bovis; Sejroe; Wolffi; Guaricura (Bov.G.); Guaricura (M4/98); Ricardi; Gorgas; Recreo; Polonica and Medanensis. The three most prevalent serovars in the MAT were selected for the development of a pooled antigen for use in MSAT; subsequently, the 193 serum were assessed with the macroscopic slide agglutination test (MSAT) containing the developed antigen. The Kappa test was used to determine the general agreement between the MAT and MSAT results. As a result, of the 193 serum samples, 155 (80.3%) were reactive, and 38 (19.7%) were non-reactive in the MAT; Hardjo-prajitno, Wolffi and Medanensis were the three most prevalent serovars. Of the 193 serum samples tested in the MSAT using the developed pooled antigen, 114 were reactive (59.0%), and 79 (41.0%) were non-reactive; the Kappa coefficient was 0.52 (CI 95%, 0.40-0.63), indicating moderate agreement between the two tests. The MSAT with the pooled antigen including the most prevalent serovars detected bovines with the Sejroe serogroup exposure, mainly in animals with high titters in the MAT, and could be used to screen herds suspected of acute infection by this serogroup in Pará State.

9.
Am J Phys Anthropol ; 2019 Oct 29.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31663132

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVES: This study investigates bone density across the life course among Bolivian Tsimane and Ecuadorian Shuar of Amazonia. Both groups are rural, high-fertility forager-horticulturalists, with high lifetime physical activity levels. We test whether Tsimane and Shuar bone density patterns are different from each other, and if both groups are characterized by lower osteoporosis risk compared to U.S. references. METHODS: Anthropometric and calcaneal bone density data, obtained via quantitative ultrasonometry (QUS), were collected from 678 Tsimane and 235 Shuar (13-92 years old). Population and sex differences in QUS values (estimated bone mineral density, speed of sound, broadband ultrasound attenuation) by age group were assessed using Mann-Whitney U tests. Age-related change and age at peak QUS value were determined using polynomial regressions. One-way analyses of covariance assessed population-level differences in QUS values by age group adjusting for body mass index. Participants aged 50+ years at elevated osteoporosis risk were identified using a T score < -1.8; binomial tests assessed risk compared to U.S. references. RESULTS: Shuar males and females <50 years old have QUS values 3-36% higher than Tsimane, with differences evident in adolescence. Among Tsimane and Shuar, 49 and 23% of participants aged 50+ years old, respectively, are at high risk for osteoporosis, compared to 34% of Americans; Shuar osteoporosis risk is comparable to Americans, while Tsimane risk is elevated. CONCLUSIONS: Disparate patterns in QUS values are documented for Tsimane and Shuar, with pronounced differences early in life. Potential explanations for differences include gene-environment interactions and/or degree of market integration, which influences diet, activity profiles, pathogen exposures, and other lifestyle covariates. As Tsimane osteoporosis risk is greater than in the United States, findings point to alternative risk factors for low bone density that are not readily discernible in industrialized populations.

10.
BMC Evol Biol ; 19(1): 184, 2019 10 10.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31601183

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Neacomys genus is predominantly found in the Amazon region, and belongs to the most diverse tribe of the Sigmodontinae subfamily (Rodentia, Cricetidae, Oryzomyini). The systematics of this genus and questions about its diversity and range have been investigated by morphological, molecular (Cytb and COI sequences) and karyotype analysis (classic cytogenetics and chromosome painting), which have revealed candidate species and new distribution areas. Here we analyzed four species of Neacomys by chromosome painting with Hylaeamys megacephalus (HME) whole-chromosome probes, and compared the results with two previously studied Neacomys species and with other taxa from Oryzomyini and Akodontini tribes that have been hybridized with HME probes. Maximum Parsimony (MP) analyses were performed with the PAUP and T.N.T. software packages, using a non-additive (unordered) multi-state character matrix, based on chromosomal morphology, number and syntenic blocks. We also compared the chromosomal phylogeny obtained in this study with molecular topologies (Cytb and COI) that included eastern Amazonian species of Neacomys, to define the phylogenetic relationships of these taxa. RESULTS: The comparative chromosome painting analysis of the seven karyotypes of the six species of Neacomys shows that their diversity is due to 17 fusion/fission events and one translocation, pericentric inversions in four syntenic blocks, and constitutive heterochromatin (CH) amplification/deletion of six syntenic autosomal blocks plus the X chromosome. The chromosomal phylogeny is consistent with the molecular relationships of species of Neacomys. We describe new karyotypes and expand the distribution area for species from eastern Amazonia and detect complex rearrangements by chromosome painting among the karyotypes. CONCLUSIONS: Our phylogeny reflects the molecular relationships of the Akodontini and Oryzomyini taxa and supports the monophyly of Neacomys. This work presents new insights about the chromosomal evolution of this group, and we conclude that the karyotypic divergence is in accord with phylogenetic relationships.

11.
Toxicon ; 2019 Oct 16.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31628968

RESUMEN

BACKGROUND: The Alto Juruá region, located in the extreme western part of the Brazilian Amazonia, possesses an indigenous and riverine population which is involved in agricultural and forest extraction activities, and is a region that stands out for its high incidence of snakebites. OBJECTIVES: To assess the attitudes of the victims, the characteristics of the snakes and the circumstances of the snakebites which occurred in a region where human populations are highly exposed to snakes. METHODS: The study was conducted at the Regional Hospital of Juruá in the Municipality of Cruzeiro do Sul (Acre), which regularly attends victims of snakebites in the Alto Juruá region. The snakes that caused the envenomations were identified from clinical and epidemiological diagnosis of the symptoms and signs that patients presented during hospital, and by enzyme immunoassay for venom detection using serum samples of the patients, or by identification of the snake responsible for the envenomation when it was taken to the hospital or photographed. People who suffered or witnessed the snakebite were interviewed to assess the circumstances of the bite, the attitude adopted after the accident and whether they recognized the species of snake that caused the envenomation. RESULTS: There were 133 cases of snakebite (76.24 / 100.000 inhabitants), mainly involving male individuals living in the rural area and who had a low level of education. The most affected groups were farmers (48%) and children and teenagers (39%). It was observed that 8.3% of them presented a history of recurrence for bites. The lower limbs were the most affected anatomical region (84%). The Bothrops atrox snake, mainly small specimens (mostly juveniles), was the main species involved in the envenomations (83.4%). Snakebites occurred mainly in forest areas, backyards of houses in rural areas and near to aquatic environments, during activities (walking, farming, extractivism, hunting). Most of the time, the snake was on the ground and the bite occurred because of the approximation of the individual, either by trampling or by approximation of a hand. Half of the victims performed some kind of inadequate first aid (not drinking water, use of tourniquet, incision at the site of the bite, use of black stone, drinking a compound "Específico Pessoa"). CONCLUSIONS: Snakebite is an important cause of morbidity in the Alto Juruá region. Bothrops bites are mostly caused by small-sized specimens, probably due to the greater abundance of B. atrox juveniles, and also because small snakes are more difficult for people to see. People are more often bitten on the lower limbs probably due to the size of B. atrox (small and medium) and because the snakes are usually on the ground in most situations. Many victims resort to ineffective actions that can cause complications and also delay serotherapy. A low level of education is a factor that may contribute to worse outcomes in snakebites since it is associated with a lack of knowledge of preventive and first aid measures.

12.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 74: e1166, 2019.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31596339

RESUMEN

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the knowledge and acceptability of the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine among health professionals from western Amazonia. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted in the Sistema Assistencial è Saúde da Mulher e da Criança (Health Care System for Women and Children; SASMC) in Acre, Brazil, in 2017. The participants comprised 196 health professionals. The data collection instrument contained 31 questions about HPV, its clinical repercussions for women, and the HPV vaccine. Quantitative variables were presented as medians and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and p<0.05 was considered statistically significant. For the analyses, chi-square tests and Mann-Whitney tests were used. The collected data were analyzed using Stata®11.0. RESULTS: Of the 196 health professionals, 39.8% (n=76) were physicians and 61.2% (n=120) were other health professionals. The interviewees were mostly female (n=143, 73%, 95% CI 66.1 to 78.9%) who worked in the medical field (n=81, 41.3%, 95% CI 34.4 to 48.6%), and the median age was 38 years (95% CI 36.0 to 39.7). Physicians had increased knowledge regarding only the statement "cervical cancer is one of the main causes of cancer in women", with a proportion ratio of 0.88 (0.80; 0.97) and p<0.001. Regarding clinical knowledge of the HPV vaccine, a low proportion of correct answers was obtained for all the questions, and no significant differences were found between the groups. CONCLUSION: Acceptability and knowledge of HPV and its vaccine were similar among health professionals, with knowledge gaps in questions about the relation between smoking and cervical cancer and specific clinical knowledge.

13.
J Morphol ; 2019 Oct 21.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31633247

RESUMEN

The rodent Neoepiblema acreensis (Chinchilloidea: Neoepiblemidae) is member of a lineage that reached gigantic dimensions during the Late Miocene of South America-the Neoepiblemidae. In this paper, the cranial anatomy of this rodent is reviewed. Noninvasive imaging is used to reveal internal structures. Our review is based mainly on an almost complete cranium from the Upper Miocene deposits of the western Amazonia of Brazil. The cranium has an elongated rostrum, large frontal sinuses, a deep temporal fossa, well-developed sagittal, nuchal, medial occipital, and secondary crests, and a tympanic fenestra connected to the external acoustic meatus by a thin ventral cleft. Remarkably, the cranium shows the presence of fossae on the posterior region of the frontal and parietal bones, and a "W-shaped" fronto-parietal suture, which are not present in other analyzed chinchilloids. This study contributes to the knowledge of the morphology of this extinct rodent as well as to the phylogenetic relationships and paleobiology of neoepiblemids.

14.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46800

RESUMEN

Dia da Amazônia.


Asunto(s)
Ecología , Conservación de los Recursos Naturales , Ambiente
15.
Recurso de Internet en Portugués | LIS - Localizador de Información en Salud, LIS-fiocruz-SI | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-46801

RESUMEN

Dia da Amazônia.


Asunto(s)
Ecología
16.
Soc Sci Med ; 241: 112448, 2019 Nov.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481245

RESUMEN

This paper scrutinizes the assertion that knowledge gaps concerning health risks from climate change are unjust, and must be addressed, because they hinder evidence-led interventions to protect vulnerable populations. First, we construct a taxonomy of six inter-related forms of invisibility (social marginalization, forced invisibility by migrants, spatial marginalization, neglected diseases, mental health, uneven climatic monitoring and forecasting) which underlie systematic biases in current understanding of these risks in Latin America, and advocate an approach to climate-health research that draws on intersectionality theory to address these inter-relations. We propose that these invisibilities should be understood as outcomes of structural imbalances in power and resources rather than as haphazard blindspots in scientific and state knowledge. Our thesis, drawing on theories of governmentality, is that context-dependent tensions condition whether or not benefits of making vulnerable populations legible to the state outweigh costs. To be seen is to be politically counted and eligible for rights, yet evidence demonstrates the perils of visibility to disempowered people. For example, flood-relief efforts in remote Amazonia expose marginalized urban river-dwellers to the traumatic prospect of forced relocation and social and economic upheaval. Finally, drawing on research on citizenship in post-colonial settings, we conceptualize climate change as an 'open moment' of political rupture, and propose strategies of social accountability, empowerment and trans-disciplinary research which encourage the marginalized to reach out for greater power. These achievements could reduce drawbacks of state legibility and facilitate socially-just governmental action on climate change adaptation that promotes health for all.

17.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31481442

RESUMEN

In South America, Plasmodium vivax resistance to chloroquine was recently reported in Brazil and Bolivia. The objective of this study was to collect data on chloroquine resistance in French Guiana by associating a retrospective evaluation of therapeutic efficacy with an analysis of recurrent parasitemia from any patients. Patients with P. vivax infection, confirmed by microscopy and a body temperature of ≥37.5°C, were retrospectively identified at Cayenne Hospital between 2009 and 2015. Follow-up and treatment responses were performed according to the World Health Organization protocol. Parasite resistance was confirmed after dosage of a plasma concentration of chloroquine and microsatellite characterization. The pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes were analyzed for sequence and gene copy number variation. Among the 172 patients followed for 28 days, 164 presented adequate clinical and parasitological responses. Eight cases of treatment failures were identified (4.7%; n = 8/172), all after 14 days. The therapeutic efficacy of chloroquine was estimated at 95.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 92.5 to 98.1%; n = 164/172). Among the eight failures, five were characterized: two cases were true P. vivax chloroquine resistance (1.2%; 95% CI, 0 to 2.6%; n = 2/172), and three cases were found with subtherapeutic concentrations of chloroquine. No particular polymorphism in the Plasmodium vivax pvmdr1 and pvcrt-o genes was identified in the resistant parasites. This identified level of resistance of P. vivax to chloroquine in French Guiana does not require a change in therapeutic recommendations. However, primaquine should be administered more frequently to limit the spread of resistance, and there is still a need for a reliable molecular marker to facilitate the monitoring of P. vivax resistance to chloroquine.

18.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 116(39): 19318-19323, 2019 Sep 24.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31501347

RESUMEN

The emissions, deposition, and chemistry of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are thought to be influenced by underlying landscape heterogeneity at intermediate horizontal scales of several hundred meters across different forest subtypes within a tropical forest. Quantitative observations and scientific understanding at these scales, however, remain lacking, in large part due to a historical absence of canopy access and suitable observational approaches. Herein, horizontal heterogeneity in VOC concentrations in the near-canopy atmosphere was examined by sampling from an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) flown horizontally several hundred meters over the plateau and slope forests in central Amazonia during the morning and early afternoon periods of the wet season of 2018. Unlike terpene concentrations, the isoprene concentrations in the near-canopy atmosphere over the plateau forest were 60% greater than those over the slope forest. A gradient transport model constrained by the data suggests that isoprene emissions differed by 220 to 330% from these forest subtypes, which is in contrast to a 0% difference implemented in most present-day biosphere emissions models (i.e., homogeneous emissions). Quantifying VOC concentrations, emissions, and other processes at intermediate horizontal scales is essential for understanding the ecological and Earth system roles of VOCs and representing them in climate and air quality models.

19.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 13822, 2019 Sep 25.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31554920

RESUMEN

Tropical forests are known for their high diversity. Yet, forest patches do occur in the tropics where a single tree species is dominant. Such "monodominant" forests are known from all of the main tropical regions. For Amazonia, we sampled the occurrence of monodominance in a massive, basin-wide database of forest-inventory plots from the Amazon Tree Diversity Network (ATDN). Utilizing a simple defining metric of at least half of the trees ≥ 10 cm diameter belonging to one species, we found only a few occurrences of monodominance in Amazonia, and the phenomenon was not significantly linked to previously hypothesized life history traits such wood density, seed mass, ectomycorrhizal associations, or Rhizobium nodulation. In our analysis, coppicing (the formation of sprouts at the base of the tree or on roots) was the only trait significantly linked to monodominance. While at specific locales coppicing or ectomycorrhizal associations may confer a considerable advantage to a tree species and lead to its monodominance, very few species have these traits. Mining of the ATDN dataset suggests that monodominance is quite rare in Amazonia, and may be linked primarily to edaphic factors.

20.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 91(suppl 3): e20190396, 2019 Sep 12.
Artículo en Inglés | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31531554

RESUMEN

Amazonia is often cited as having the most diverse flora on the planet. However, the total number of species of higher plants in the region has been largely a matter of guesswork. Some recent publications have estimated the total number of species present, which indicate a lower overall diversity than was estimated in the past. However, analysis of the sampling density across the region, and data from various sources suggest that there may be reason why the recent figures may be considerable underestimates. I believe that much more investment in extensive collecting of quality plant specimens is needed to encounter the very large number of rare and local species that might never have been collected. Unfortunately the tendencies of investment in botany, in terms of geography and types of project, suggest that we will probably not be able to accurately assess the real diversity of the region.


Asunto(s)
Biodiversidad , Plantas/clasificación , Brasil , Bosques , Geografía , Magnoliopsida/clasificación , Sapotaceae/clasificación , Especificidad de la Especie
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