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4.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 637-638, May-June 2019. graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012310

RESUMO

Abstract Vasitis or inflammation of the vas deferens is a rarely described condition categorized as either generally asymptomatic vasitis nodosa or the acutely painful infectious vasitis. Vasitis nodosa, the commonly described inflammation of the vas deferens, is benign and usually associated with a history of vasectomy. Clinically, patients present with a nodular mass and are often asymptomatic and require no specific treatment.

6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 459-467, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012312

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT imaging is a promising modality for the staging of recurrent prostate cancer (PCa). Current evidence suggests limited diagnostic value of the 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PSA-levels ≤0.3ng/mL. Experimental data have demonstrated an increase in PSMA-expression in PCa metastases by androgen deprivation in vitro. The aim of the current study was to investigate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA with low-dose androgen deprivation in patients with BCR and low PSA-levels. Materials and Methods: Five patients with PCa and BCR, following radical prostatectomy, underwent 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT. A consecutive 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was performed 6 to 11 days after injection of 80mg of Degarelix (Firmagon®). We recorded PSA and testosterone serum-levels and changes of PSMA-uptake in 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT images. Results: Median PSA prior 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT was 0.27ng/mL. All patients had a decrease in testosterone serum levels from median 2.95μg/l to 0.16μg/l following Degarelix injection. We observed an increase in the standardized uptake value (SUV) in PSMA-positive lymphogenous and osseous lesions in two patients following androgen deprivation. In another two patients, no PSMA positive signals were detected in either the first or the second scan. Conclusion: Our preliminary results of this feasibility assessment indicate a possible enhancing effect of PSMA-imaging induced by low-dose ADT. Despite several limitations and the small number of patients, this could be a new approach to improve staging by 68Ga-PSMA PET/CT in PCa patients with BCR after primary therapy. Further prospective studies with larger number of patients are needed to validate our findings.

7.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 523-530, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012313

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the relationship between vitamin D status, using circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25 (OH) D], and renal cell carcinoma (RCC) risk in a case-control study, because the association between the two is unclear in China. Materials and Methods: A total of 135 incident RCC cases were matched with 135 controls by age and sex. The blood samples were collected on the first day of hospitalization before surgery to measure plasma 25 (OH) D. Logistic regression analyses were used to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) with adjustment for several confounders (e.g. age, gender, smoking and season of blood draw). Furthermore, the association of RCC with 25 (OH) D in units of 10 ng / mL as a continuous variable were also examined. Results: The average plasma 25 (OH) D concentrations in RCC were significantly lower compared with those of the controls (21.5 ± 7.4 ng / mL vs. 24.1 ± 6.6 ng / mL, respectively; P = 0.003). In the adjusted model, inverse associations were observed between circulating 25 (OH) D levels and RCC risk for 25 (OH) D insufficiency (20-30 ng / mL) with OR of 0.50 (95% CI: 0.29-0.88; P = 0.015) and a normal 25 (OH) D level (≥ 30 ng / mL) with OR of 0.30 (95% CI: 0.13-0.72; P = 0.007), compared with 25 (OH) D deficiency (< 20 ng / mL). Furthermore, results with 25 (OH) D as a linear variable indicated that each 10 ng / mL increment of plasma 25 (OH) D corresponded to a 12% decrease in RCC risk. Conclusions: This case-control study on a Chinese Han population supports the protective effect of a higher circulating concentration of 25 (OH) against RCC, whether the confounding factors are adjusted or not.

8.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 549-559, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012314

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To study the expression patterns of long noncoding RNA (lncRNA) colon cancer-associated transcript 1 (CCAT1) and the changes in cell proliferation, apoptosis, migration and invasion induced by silencing CCAT1 in bladder cancer cells. Materials and Methods: The expression levels of CCAT1 were determined using realtime quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cancerous tissues and paired normal tissues from 34 patients with bladder cancer. The relationship between clinical characteristics and CCAT1 expression was analyzed. And then we conducted cell experiments. Bladder urothelial carcinoma cell lines T24 and 5637 cells were transfected with CCAT1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) or scramble siRNA. Cell proliferation and apoptosis changes were determined using a Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assay and a flow cytometry assay. Migration and invasion changes were measured using a wound healing assay and a trans-well assay. microRNAs (miRNAs) were predicted by Starbase 2.0, and their differential expression levels were studied. Results: CCAT1 was significantly upregulated in bladder cancer (P < 0.05). CCAT1 upregulation was positively related to tumor stage (P = 0.004), tumor grade (P = 0.001) and tumor size (P = 0.042). Cell proliferation, migration and invasion were promoted by abnormally expressed CCAT1. miRNAs miR-181b-5p, miR-152-3p, miR-24-3p, miR-148a-3p and miR-490-3p were potentially related to the aforementioned functions of CCAT1. Conclusion: CCAT1 plays an oncogenic role in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. In addition, CCAT1 may be a potential therapeutic target in this cancer.

9.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 605-614, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012315

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: To cross-culturally adapt and check for the reliability and validity of the neurogenic bladder symptom score questionnaire to Brazilian Portuguese, in patients with spinal cord injury and multiple sclerosis. Materials and Methods: The questionnaire was culturally adapted according to international guidelines. The Brazilian version was applied in patients diagnosed with neurogenic bladder due to spinal cord injury or multiple sclerosis, twice in a range of 7 to 14 days. Psychometric properties were tested such as content validity, construct validity, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability. Results: Sixty-eight patients participated in the study. Good internal consistency of the Portuguese version was observed, with Cronbach α of 0.81. The test-retest reliability was also high, with an Intraclass Correlation Coefficient of 0.86 [0.76 - 0.92] (p<0.0001). In the construct validity, the Pearson Correlation revealed a moderate correlation between the Portuguese version of the NBSS and the Qualiveen-SF questionnaire (r = 0.66 [0.40-0.82]; p <0.0001). Conclusions: The process of cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the NBSS questionnaire for the Brazilian Portuguese in patients with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction was concluded.

10.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 572-580, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012316

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To better characterize metabolic stone risk in patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies (NDMD) by determining how patient characteristics relate to renal calculus composition and 24-hour urine parameters. Materials and Methods: We performed a retrospective cohort study of adult patients with neurologically derived musculoskeletal deficiencies presenting to our multidisciplinary Kidney Stone Clinic. Patients with a diagnosis of NDMD, at least one 24-hour urine collection, and one chemical stone analysis were included in the analysis. Calculi were classified as primarily metabolic or elevated pH. We assessed in clinical factors, demographics, and urine metabolites for differences between patients who formed primarily metabolic or elevated pH stones. Results: Over a 16-year period, 100 patients with NDMD and nephrolithiasis were identified and 41 met inclusion criteria. Thirty percent (12 / 41) of patients had purely metabolic calculi. Patients with metabolic calculi were significantly more likely to be obese (median body mass index 30.3kg / m2 versus 25.9kg / m2), void spontaneously (75% vs. 6.9%), and have low urine volumes (100% vs. 69%). Patients who formed elevated pH stones were more likely to have positive preoperative urine cultures with urease splitting organisms (58.6% vs. 16.7%) and be hyperoxaluric and hypocitraturic on 24-hour urine analysis (37mg / day and 265mg / day versus 29mg / day and 523mg / day). Conclusions: Among patients with NDMD, metabolic factors may play a more significant role in renal calculus formation than previously believed. There is still a high incidence of carbonate apatite calculi, which could be attributed to bacteriuria. However, obesity, low urine volumes, hypocitraturia, and hyperoxaluria suggest an underrecognized metabolic contribution to stone formation in this population.

11.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 621-628, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012317

RESUMO

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the relationship between 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25 (OH) D) levels and acquired premature ejaculation (PE). Materials and Methods: A total of 97 patients with acquired PE and 64 healthy men as a control group selected from volunteers without PE attending our Andrology Outpatient Clinic between November 2016 and April 2017 were included the study. All patients were considered to have acquired PE if they fulfilled the criteria of the second Ad Hoc International Society for Sexual Medicine Committee. Premature ejaculation diagnostic tool questionnaires were used to assessment of PE and all participants were instructed to record intravaginal ejaculatory latency time. Vitamin D levels were evaluated in all participants using high performance liquid chromatography method included in the study. Results: Compared to men without PE, the patients with acquired PE had significantly lower 25 (OH) D levels (12.0 ± 4.5 ng/mL vs. 18.2 ± 7.4 ng/mL, p < 0.001). In the logistic regression analysis, 25 (OH) D was found to be an independent risk factor for acquired PE, with estimated odds ratios (95% CI) of 0.639 (0.460-0.887, p = 0.007) and the area under curve of the ROC curve of 25 (OH) D diagnosing acquired PE was 0.770 (95% CI: 0.695 to 0.844, p < 0.001). The best cut-off value was 16 ng/mL with a sensitivity of 60.9%, specificity of 83.5%, PPV of 70.9%, and NPV of 76.4% to indicate acquired PE. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that lower vitamin D levels are associated with the acquired PE. The result of our study showed that the role of serum vitamin D levels should be investigate in the etiology of acquired PE. Perhaps supplementation of vitamin D in men with acquired PE will ameliorate the sexual health of these patients.

12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 486-494, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012318

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: To identify the group of patients who could safely avoid prostate biopsy based on the findings of multiparametric prostate resonance imaging (MRmp), parameterized with PI-RADS v2, using prostate biopsy as reference test and to assess the sensitivity and specificity of mpMR in identifying clinically significant prostate cancer using prostate biopsy as a reference test. Patients and Methods: Three hundred and forty two patients with suspected prostate cancer were evaluated with mpMR and prostate biopsy. Agreement between imaging findings and histopathological findings was assessed using the Kappa index. The accuracy of mpMR in relation to biopsy was assessed by calculations of sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV). Results: A total of 342 biopsies were performed. In 201 (61.4%), mpMR had a negative result for cancer, which was confirmed on biopsy in 182 (53%) of the cases, 17 (4.9%) presented non-clinically significant cancer and only 2 (0.5%) clinically significant cancer. 131 (38.3%) patients had a positive biopsy. Clinically significant cancer corresponded to 83 (34.2%), of which 81 (97.5%) had a positive result in mpMR. Considering only the clinically significant cancers the mpMR had a sensitivity of 97.6%, specificity of 76.8%, PPV 57.4% and VPN of 99%. Conclusions: mpMR is a useful tool to safely identify which patients at risk for prostate cancer need to undergo biopsy and has high sensitivity and specificity in identifying clinically significant prostate cancer.

13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 514-522, May-June 2019. tab
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012319

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To investigate risk factors for complications in patients undergoing adrenalectomy. Materials and Methods: A retrospective search of our institutional database was performed of patients who underwent adrenalectomy, between 2014 and 2018. Clinical parameters and adrenal disorder characteristics were assessed and correlated to intra and post-operative course. Complications were analyzed within 30-days after surgery. A logistic regression was performed in order to identify independent predictors of morbidity in patients after adrenalectomy. Results: The files of 154 patients were reviewed. Median age and Body Mass Index (BMI) were 52-years and 27.8kg/m2, respectively. Mean tumor size was 4.9±4cm. Median surgery duration and estimated blood loss were 140min and 50mL, respectively. There were six conversions to open surgery. Minor and major post-operative complications occurred in 17.5% and 8.4% of the patients. Intra-operative complications occurred in 26.6% of the patients. Four patients died. Mean hospitalization duration was 4-days (Interquartile Range: 3-8). Patients age (p=0.004), comorbidities (p=0.003) and pathological diagnosis (p=0.003) were independent predictors of post-operative complications. Tumor size (p<0.001) and BMI (p=0.009) were independent predictors of intra-operative complications. Pathological diagnosis (p<0.001) and Charlson score (p=0.013) were independent predictors of death. Conclusion: Diligent care is needed with older patients, with multiple comorbidities and harboring unfavorable adrenal disorders (adrenocortical carcinoma and pheocromocytoma), who have greater risk of post-operative complications. Patients with elevated BMI and larger tumors have higher risk of intra, but not of post-operative complications.

14.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 503-513, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012320

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: The purposes of the present study were to evaluate growth rate of nonfunctioning adrenal incidentalomas (AIs) and their development to hormonal hypersecretion on follow-up. Materials and methods: A retrospective study was conducted from the electronic medical records. A total of 314 patients were diagnosed with adrenal tumors between 2000 and 2016. After excluding patients who had overt adrenal endocrine disorders or whose adrenal tumors were clinically diagnosed as metastatic malignancies, we investigated 108 patients with nonfunctioning AIs including characteristics, the treatment, the way of follow-up and pathology. Results: Fifteen patients received immediate adrenalectomy because of the initial tumor size or patient's preference. Pathological examination revealed malignancy in 2 patients. In the remaining 93 patients, radiological examinations were performed periodically. Tumor enlargement of ≥ 1.0cm was observed in 8.6% of the patients who were followed up as nonfunctioning AIs with a median follow-up period of 61.5 months (range: 4-192). Eleven patients underwent adrenalectomy. On the pathological examinations, all of the tumors, which showed a size increase, were diagnosed as benign tumors. Regarding the followed up patients without adrenalectomy, only 2.4% of the patients had tumor enlargement during the prolonged follow-up. Furthermore, none of the patients developed hormonal hypersecretion or clinical signs such as obesity, glucose intolerance or poorly controlled hypertension. Conclusions: Tumor enlargement of AIs did not correlate with malignancy. The value of repeat radiological and hormonal examinations may be limited in the long-term follow-up of patients whose AIs are not enlarged.

15.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 560-571, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012321

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To introduce our experience with intracorporeal ileal conduit and evaluate the safety and feasibility of this endoscopic urinary diversion. Materials and Methods: Between March 2014 and July 2017, thirty-six consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic radical cystectomy with intracorporeal ileal conduit. Patients' demographic data, perioperative data, 90-days postoperative outcomes and complications were collected. This cohort were divided into two groups of 18 patients each by chronological order of the operations to facilitate comparison of clinical data. Data were evaluated using the students' T test, Mann-Whitney test and Fisher's Exact test. Results: All surgeries were completed successfully with no conversion. Median total operating time and median intracorporeal urinary diversion time were 304 and 105 minutes, respectively. Median estimated blood loss was 200 mL, and median lymph node yield was 21. Twenty-six Clavien grade < 3 complications occurred within 30-days and 9 occurred within 30-90 days. Five Clavien grade 3-5 complications occurred within 30 days. No statistically significant differences were found between the two groups except for intracorporeal urinary diversion time. At median follow-up of 17.5 (range 3-42) months, 6 patients experienced tumor recurrence/metastasis and 4 of these patients died. Conclusions: Intracorporeal ileal conduit following laparoscopic radical cystectomy is safe, feasible and reproducible. With the accumulation of experience, the operation time can be controlled at a satisfactory level.

16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 541-548, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012322

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: To investigate whether Glasgow Prognostic Score has prognostic significance in patients with upper urinary urothelial carcinoma. Patients and methods: We retrospectively reviewed the clinical records of 74 patients with upper urinary urothelial carcinoma. We set the cut-off value for C-reactive protein as 1.0mg/dL, and 3.5mg/dL for albumin as Glasgow Prognostic Score. Their blood data including albumin and C-reactive protein for Glasgow Prognostic Score and cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 as a tumor marker were measured before starting treatment. The patients were stratified into three groups with Glasgow Prognostic Score: The Group-1, albumin ≥3.5g/dL and C-reactive protein < 1.0mg/dL; Group-2, albumin < 3.5g/dL or C-reactive protein ≥1.0mg/dL; Group-3, albumin < 3.5g/dL and C-reactive protein ≥1.0mg/dL. Results: The median follow-up for all patients was 26.9 months (range: 10.9-91.1 months), during which 37 (50%) patients died. There was a significant difference in the estimated survival rate among the 3 groups stratified by Glasgow Prognostic Score. The estimated survival rate in the Group-1 was significantly higher than those in Groups 2 and 3. In the univariate analysis C-reactive protein, serum cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 and Glasgow Prognostic Score were significant predictors of overall survival. On the multivariate analysis, serum cytokeratin 19 fragment 21-1 and Glasgow Prognostic Score were independently associated with shorter overall survival. Conclusion: Our review suggests Glasgow Prognostic Score may play as a prognostic predictor for upper urinary urothelial carcinoma.

17.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 478-485, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012323

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate the trend of use of Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) for screening of prostate cancer (PC) among Brazilian doctors, from the beginning of its regular availability in clinical laboratories. Material and Methods: A serial cross-sectional study was performed using data obtained from a large database between 1997 and 2016. The general PSA screening trend during this period, adjusted for the total number of exams performed in men, was analyzed. Time-series analysis was performed through observation of the general regression curve using the generalized least squares method, and the impact of the recommendations was assessed with autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) models. Results: During the period studied 2,521,383 PSA determinations were done. The age of the participants ranged from 21 to 111 years, with an average of 56.7 ± 22.7 years. The relative number of PSA tests/100.000 exams in males showed a constant reduction since 2001, and this trend was more evident in the group aged 55-69 years. Although statistically significant, the impact of reduced PSA screening after the 2012 USPSTF publication was clinically irrelevant. Conclusions: Our results indicated a continuous reduction in the use of PSA screening over time, regardless of the publication of recommendations or clinical guidelines. The fact that this trend was more pronounced among those with a greater benefit potential (55-69 years), relative to groups with a greater damage potential due to overdiagnosis and overtreatment (aged >74 years and <40 years), is a matter of concern. Follow-up studies of these trends are advisable.

18.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 435-448, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012324

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objectives: Prostate cancer is the most common and fatal cancer amongst Brazilian males. The quality of prostate cancer care in Brazil was systematically reviewed and compared to United Kingdom (UK) National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines, which are considered an international benchmark in care, to deter- mine any treatment gaps in Brazilian practice. Materials and Methods: A systematic review of Brazilian and UK literature was under- taken. Additionally, quality of life scores was measured using a FACT-P questionnaire of 36 prostate cancer patients attending the Farmácia Universitária da Universidade de São Paulo (FARMUSP). These scores were compared against NICE care measures for patient safety, clinical efficacy and quality of life indicators determined by either quantitative or qualitative methods. Key findings: The quality of prostate cancer care in Brazil was considered good when compared to NICE guidelines. However, FACT-P data strongly indicated a poor under- standing of treatment received by Brazilian patients and that their mental health needs were not being met. Conclusions: NICE quality statements that address the holistic needs of patients should be implemented into Brazilian outpatient care plans. Addressing the non-medical concerns of patients may improve quality of life and can be easily rolled-out through existing Brazilian pharmacy services at no financial cost to the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS).

19.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 617-620, May-June 2019.
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012325

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Objective: Pyeloplasty is considered the gold standard treatment for ureteropelvic junction obstruction (UPJO). However, the failure rate of pyeloplasty is as high as 10% and repeat pyeloplasty is more difficult. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of balloon dilatation for failed pyeloplasty in children. Materials and Methods: Between 2011 and 2017, 15 patients, aged 6 months to 14 years, were treated with balloon dilation for restenosis of UPJO after a failed pyeloplasty. Ultrasound and intravenous urography were used to evaluate the primary outcome. Success was defined as the relief of symptoms and improvement of hydronephrosis, which was identified by ultrasound at the last follow-up. Results: All patients successfully completed the operation, 13 patients by retrograde approach and 2 patients by antegrade approach. Thirteen patients were followed for a median of 15 (4 to 57) months and 2 patients were lost to follow-up. Resolution of the hydronephrosis was observed in 5 cases. The anteroposterior diameter (APD) of the pelvis decreased by an average of 12.4 ± 14.4mm. Eight patients needed another surgery. The average postoperative hospital stay was 1.78 ± 1.4 days. Two patients experienced fever after balloon dilation. No other complications were found. Conclusions: Balloon dilatation surgery is safe for children, but it is not recommended for failed pyeloplasty in that group of patients, owing to the low success rate.

20.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 45(3): 495-502, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Artigo em Inglês | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1012326

RESUMO

ABSTRACT Background: Our study investigates whether Native Thiol, Total Thiol and disulphide levels measured in serum of patients with prostate cancer and prostatitis and of healthy subjects, have any role in differential diagnosis. Materials and Methods: Patients followed up for histopathologically verified diagnosis of prostate cancer and prostatitis in 2016-2017 at the Medicalpark Gaziantep Hospital Urology Clinic were included in the study. Native Thiol (NT), Total Thiol (TT), Dynamic Disulphide (DD) levels in serum were measured by a novel automated method. Results: NT, TT, DD, NT / TT ratios, DD / TT ratio and DD / NT ratio were measured as 118.4 ± 36.8μmoL / L, 150.3 ± 45.3μmoL / L, 15.9 ± 7μmoL / L, 78.8 ± 7μmoL / L, 10.5 ± 3.5μmoL / L, 13.8 ± 5.8μmoL / L respectively in patients with prostate cancer; as 116.4 ± 40.5μmoL / L, 147.5 ± 50.1μmoL / L, 15.5 ± 8.7μmoL / L, 79.7 ± 9μmoL / L, 10.1 ± 4.5μmoL / L, 13.5 ± 7.2μmoL / L in patients with prostatitis and as 144.1 ± 21.2μmoL / L, 191 ± 32.3μmoL / L, 23.4 ± 10.1μmoL / L, 76.1 ± 98.3μmoL / L, 11.9 ± 4.1μmoL / L, 16.4 ± 6.9μmoL / L in healthy subjects. Significant difference was detected between groups of NT, TT and DD levels (p = 0.008, p = 0.001, p = 0.002). No significant difference was detected in terms of the NT / TT, DD / TT and DD / NT rates (p = 0.222, p = 0.222, p = 0.222). Conclusions: Serum NT, TT, DD levels in patients with prostatitis and prostate cancer were found significantly lower compared to the control group. This indicates that just as inflammation, prostate cancer also increases oxidative stress on tissues.

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