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1.
Arch Public Health ; 80(1): 16, 2022 Jan 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34983653

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic increased the need for new valid scientific evidence to support urgent clinical and policy decision making; as well as improved processes for the rapid synthesis, uptake and application of that evidence. Evidence informed policymaking (EIPM) can be considered as a way to access and use the results of evidence in practice. This study aimed to determine what effects COVID-19 had on the way Iranian health managers and policymakers use evidence in their decisions. METHODS: This study was conducted in 2021 applying a qualitative research design. Data was collected through semi-structured interviews. Thirty health care managers, policy makers and medical university faculty members were recruited as the study participants, initially via a purposive sample, followed by snowballing. A conventional content analysis presented by Hsieh and Shannon (2005) was applied for data analysis. RESULTS: Ten main themes emerged from the data including: 1) roles and duties of knowledge brokers (KBs); 2-5) the roles, benefits, barriers and necessities of applying Knowledge Translation Exchange (KTE) tools; 6-8) the facilitators, benefits and barriers to the application of evidence during COVID-19; 9) challenges of rapid evidence production evidence during COVID-19 and 10) consequences of not applying evidence during COVID-19. According to the present conceptual framework, KBs act as an intermediator between the large amounts of knowledge produced and decision makers. KTE tools should be applied to enhance EIPM during COVID-19. Attention should be paid to the facilitators, barriers, benefits and necessities of evidence application during COVID-19 to avoid negative consequences for the health system. CONCLUSIONS: Results of this study show that developing KTE tools and activating KBs can be among the main strategies to produce applied actionable messages for policymakers to move toward EIPM; and that this applies even when rapid decision making is required, such as during the COVID-19 pandemic. It is strongly recommended to reinforce the local capacities through supporting scientific networks and relationships between research centers and local and national policymakers. At the same time, attention to local barriers to and facilitators of the application of evidence while facing a pandemic can pave the way to better identification of health system`s problems and rapid responses.

2.
Glob Public Health ; : 1-17, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34996335

ABSTRACT

Bringing evidence into policy and practice discussions is political; more so when evidence from health studies or programme data are deemed controversial or unexpected, or when results are manipulated and misrepresented. Furthermore, opinion and misinformation in recent years has challenged our notions about how to achieve evidence-informed decision-making (EIDM). Health policy and systems (HPS) researchers and practitioners are battling misrepresentation that only serves to detract from important health issues or, worse, benefit powerful interests. This paper describes cases of politically and socially controversial evidence presented by researchers, practitioners and journalists during the Health Systems Research Symposium 2020. These cases cut across global contexts and range from public debates on vaccination, comprehensive sexual education, and tobacco to more inward debates around performance-based financing and EIDM in refugee policy. The consequences of engaging in controversial research include threats to commercial profit, perceived assaults on moral beliefs, censorship, fear of reprisal, and infodemics. Consequences for public health include research(er) hesitancy, contribution to corruption and leakage, researcher reflexivity, and ethical concerns within the HPS research and EIDM fields. Recommendations for supporting researchers, practitioners and advocates include better training and support structures for responding to controversy, safe spaces for sharing experiences, and modifying incentive structures.

3.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 20(1): 1, 2022 Jan 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34980147

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: An expanding body of literature shows that pharmacists' interventions improve health outcomes and are cost-saving. However, diverse state regulations of pharmacists' scope of practice create a discrepancy between what pharmacists are trained to do and what they legally can do. This study investigated how stakeholders utilized research evidence when developing expanded scope of practice policies in their respective states. METHODS: Using autonomous pharmacist prescriptive authority as a surrogate for general pharmacist scope of practice, a general policy document analysis was performed to understand the scope of practice landscape for pharmacists across the United States. Next, semi-structured interviews with policy-makers and pharmacy advocates were conducted to explore how the identified states in the policy document analysis utilized evidence during the policy-making process. Investigators analysed findings from the transcribed interviews through application of the SPIRIT Action Framework. Resulting codes were summarized across themes, and recommendations to researchers about increasing utilization of research evidence were crafted. RESULTS: Sixteen states with 27 autonomous pharmacist prescriptive authority policies were identified. Public health need and safety considerations motivated evidence engagement, while key considerations dictating utilization of research included perceptions of research, access to resources and experts, and the successful implementation of similar policy. Research evidence helped to advocate for and set terms for pharmacist prescribing. Barriers to research utilization include stakeholder opposition to pharmacist prescribing, inability to interpret research, and a lack of relevant evidence. Recommendations for researchers include investigating specific metrics to evaluate scope of practice policy, developing relationships between policy-makers and researchers, and leveraging pharmacy practice stakeholders. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, alignment of researcher goals and legislative priorities, coupled with timely communication, may help to increase research evidence engagement in pharmacist scope of practice policy. By addressing these factors regarding research engagement identified in this study, researchers can increase evidence-based scope of practice, which can help to improve patient outcomes, contain costs, and provide pharmacists with the legal infrastructure to practise at the top of their license.


Subject(s)
Pharmacists , Pharmacy , Group Processes , Humans , Professional Role , United States
4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886163

ABSTRACT

Earth's life-supporting ecosystems are integral to human and planetary health. Ecosystem services connect ecosystem functions to human wellbeing. The complex, multifaceted socio-ecological challenges of ecosystem decline necessitate a transdisciplinary approach, including the active and meaningful engagement and participation of local communities. Communities uniquely possess expert local knowledge, which, when integrated into policy development and community planning, has the potential to enhance and sustain ecosystem benefits for health and wellbeing. Community-informed mapping tools provide an opportunity for integrating science, policy, and public participation in data collection. However, there is a dearth of community-informed mapping tools demonstrating the interconnection of the ecological and social determinants of health at a place-based level. This paper presents a study that employs a community-based participatory research approach to mapping local knowledge systems on EcoHealth. The study seeks to develop a community mapping tool for shared dialogue and decision-making on EcoHealth between local communities and policymakers. The participatory research methods used to explore community awareness and knowledge regarding ecosystem services, health, and sustainability in the local area are described. The process of co-producing a Community EcoHealth Toolkit, based on the integration of different knowledge systems into local policy and planning, is discussed.

5.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 140, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34865640

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The use of research evidence as an input for health decision-making is a need for most health systems. There are a number of approaches for promoting evidence use at different levels of the health system, but knowledge of their effectiveness is still scarce. The objective of this overview was to evaluate the effectiveness of knowledge communication and dissemination interventions, strategies or approaches targeting policy-makers and health managers. METHODS: This overview of systematic reviews used systematic review methods and was conducted according to a predefined and published protocol. A comprehensive electronic search of 13 databases and a manual search in four websites were conducted. Both published and unpublished reviews in English, Spanish or Portuguese were included. A narrative synthesis was undertaken, and effectiveness statements were developed, informed by the evidence identified. RESULTS: We included 27 systematic reviews. Three studies included only a communication strategy, while eight only included dissemination strategies, and the remaining 16 included both. None of the selected reviews provided "sufficient evidence" for any of the strategies, while four provided some evidence for three communication and four dissemination strategies. Regarding communication strategies, the use of tailored and targeted messages seemed to successfully lead to changes in the decision-making practices of the target audience. Regarding dissemination strategies, interventions that aimed at improving only the reach of evidence did not have an impact on its use in decisions, while interventions aimed at enhancing users' ability to use and apply evidence had a positive effect on decision-making processes. Multifaceted dissemination strategies also demonstrated the potential for changing knowledge about evidence but not its implementation in decision-making. CONCLUSIONS: There is limited evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions targeting health managers and policy-makers, as well as the mechanisms required for achieving impact. More studies are needed that are informed by theoretical frameworks or specific tools and using robust methods, standardized outcome measures and clear descriptions of the interventions. We found that passive communication increased access to evidence but had no effect on uptake. Some evidence indicated that the use of targeted messages, knowledge-brokering and user training was effective in promoting evidence use by managers and policy-makers.

6.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 154, 2021 Dec 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34969398

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Evidence suggests that implementing an accountability mechanism such as the accountability framework for routine immunization in Nigeria (AFRIN) will improve routine immunization (RI) performance. The fact that the AFRIN, which was developed in 2012, still had not been operationalized at the subnational level (Ebonyi State) by 2018 may in part account for the poor RI coverage (33%) in 2017. Knowledge translation (KT) is defined as the methods for closing the gaps from knowledge to practice. Policy briefs (useful in communicating research findings to policy-makers) and policy dialogues (that enable stakeholders to understand research evidence and create context-resonant implementation plans) are two KT tools. This study evaluated their usefulness in enabling policy-makers to contextualize AFRIN in Ebonyi State, Nigeria. METHODS: The study design was cross-sectional descriptive with mixed-methods data collection. A policy brief developed from AFRIN guided deliberations in a 1-day multi-stakeholder policy dialogue by 30 policy actors. The usefulness of the KT tools in contextualizing policy recommendations in the AFRIN was assessed using validated questionnaires developed at McMaster University, Canada. RESULTS: At the end of the policy dialogue, the policy options in the policy brief were accepted but their implementation strategies were altered to suit the local context. The respondents' mean ratings (MNR) of the overall usefulness of the policy brief and the policy dialogue in contextualizing the implementation strategies were 6.39 and 6.67, respectively, on a seven-point Likert scale (very useful). The MNR of the different dimensions of the policy brief and policy dialogue ranged from 6.17 to 6.60 and from 6.10 to 6.83, respectively (i.e. moderately helpful to very helpful). CONCLUSION: The participants perceived the KT tools (policy brief and policy dialogue) as being very useful in contextualizing policy recommendations in a national policy document into state context-resonant implementable recommendations. We recommend the use of these KT tools in operationalizing AFRIN at the subnational level in Nigeria.


Subject(s)
Policy Making , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Policy , Humans , Nigeria , Social Responsibility , Vaccination
7.
J Educ Health Promot ; 10: 394, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34912930

ABSTRACT

Despite the importance and position of evidence-based policymaking in the proper management of the health system, studies show that the lack or improper and untimely use of evidence are still one of the main challenges of health systems. Knowledge translation as a solution to this challenge is a process that includes a period of time that starts of decision to choose the research topic and continue to publish of research results, in which the interaction of the researchers and stakeholders is the key factor and the main axis of the process. Since the recognition and promotion of knowledge translation processes resulting from research in health system policy-making will lead to the improvement of the health system, this review protocol was designed to identify factors affecting knowledge translation implementation, including barriers and facilitators of this process. Identifying these factors can be used as a guide for health system decision-makers and research managers in planning to select appropriate policies for deployment of the knowledge translation process to increase the use of research results in the health system.

8.
Health Res Policy Syst ; 19(1): 153, 2021 Dec 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963496

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Globally, policy-makers face challenges to using evidence in health decision-making, particularly lack of interaction between research and policy. Knowledge-brokering mechanisms can fill research-policy gaps and facilitate evidence-informed policy-making. In Myanmar, the need to promote evidence-informed policy is significant, and thus a mechanism was set up for this purpose. This paper discusses lessons learned from the development of the Knowledge Broker Group-Myanmar (KBG-M), supported by the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health's Applied Mental Health Research Group (JHU) and Community Partners International (CPI). METHODS: Sixteen stakeholders were interviewed to explore challenges in formulating evidence-informed policy. Two workshops were held: the first to further understand the needs of policy-makers and discuss knowledge-brokering approaches, and the second to co-create the KBG-M structure and process. The KBG-M was then envisioned as an independent body, with former officials of the Ministry of Health and Sports (MoHS) and representatives from the nongovernmental sector actively engaging in the health sector, with an official collaboration with the MoHS. RESULTS: A development task force that served as an advisory committee was established. Then, steps were taken to establish the KBG-M and obtain official recognition from the MoHS. Finally, when the technical agreement with the MoHS was nearly complete, the process stopped because of the military coup on 1 February 2021, and is now on hold indefinitely. CONCLUSIONS: Learning from this process may be helpful for future or current knowledge-brokering efforts, particularly in fragile, conflict-affected settings. Experienced and committed advisory committee members enhanced stakeholder relationships. Responsive coordination mechanisms allowed for adjustments to a changing bureaucratic landscape. Coordination with similar initiatives avoided overlap and identified areas needing technical support. Recommendations to continue the work of the KBG-M itself or similar platforms include the following: increase resilience to contextual changes by ensuring diverse partnerships, maintain advisory committee members experienced and influential in the policy-making process, ensure strong organizational and funding support for effective functioning and sustainability, have budget and timeline flexibility to allow sufficient time and resources for establishment, organize ongoing needs assessments to identify areas needing technical support and to develop responsive corrective approaches, and conduct information sharing and collaboration between stakeholders to ensure alignment.


Subject(s)
Health Policy , Policy Making , Administrative Personnel , Humans , Myanmar , Public Health
9.
Interface Focus ; 11(6): 20210013, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956589

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has disrupted the lives of billions across the world. Mathematical modelling has been a key tool deployed throughout the pandemic to explore the potential public health impact of an unmitigated epidemic. The results of such studies have informed governments' decisions to implement non-pharmaceutical interventions to control the spread of the virus. In this article, we explore the complex relationships between models, decision-making, the media and the public during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (UK). Doing so not only provides an important historical context of COVID-19 modelling and how it has shaped the UK response, but as the pandemic continues and looking towards future pandemic preparedness, understanding these relationships and how they might be improved is critical. As such, we have synthesized information gathered via three methods: a survey to publicly list attendees of the Scientific Advisory Group for Emergencies, the Scientific Pandemic Influenza Group on Modelling and other comparable advisory bodies, interviews with science communication experts and former scientific advisors, and reviewing some of the key COVID-19 modelling literature from 2020. Our research highlights the desire for increased bidirectional communication between modellers, decision-makers and the public, as well as the need to convey uncertainty inherent in transmission models in a clear manner. These aspects should be considered carefully ahead of the next emergency response.

10.
Interface Focus ; 11(6): 20210022, 2021 Dec 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34956594

ABSTRACT

The global COVID-19 pandemic of 2020-2021 required politicians to work alongside and depend on scientists more closely than any other event in recent times. It also saw science unfold in real time under intense public scrutiny. As a result, it highlighted as never before the ways in which science interacts with policy-making and with society, showing with sometimes painful clarity that science does not operate in a social or political vacuum. With the advent of vaccines against the coronavirus that has caused the pandemic, science has come to be seen as something of a saviour. But at other times and in other contexts it has also been cast as a villain and an inconvenience, and has run into stark conflict with political leadership. In this article, I consider these issues with particular reference to the situation in the UK-which, as with any nation, illustrated some considerations of more general applicability but also had aspects unique to this country. I argue that there are many lessons to be learnt, and that, as this is surely not the last infectious-disease crisis of such magnitude that the world will face, we must hope they will be heeded.

11.
AEM Educ Train ; 5(4): e10714, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34966882

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Successful implementation of any new technology requires extensive engagement with front-line staff. We explored the perceptions of emergency department and trauma staff about a trauma video review program (TVR) prior to implementation of the first such program in Canada at our level I trauma center. Methods: We conducted semi-structured individual interviews and in situ small group interviews with 35 multidisciplinary ED and trauma staff members of a teaching and research hospital in Toronto, Canada. We sought maximum variation in the sample of purposively selected participants. Interviews were recorded with audiotapes or detailed field notes, transcribed verbatim, coded, and analyzed using standard thematic analysis techniques. Results: Participants expressed overall support for the concept of TVR, but there is a core sense of unease that influenced overall staff perceptions. Despite several departmental presentations, very few participants actually had a solid understanding of how the TVR worked. Many were apprehensive about their own professional privacy, deeply concerned about vulnerable patients being filmed without consent, and questioned how video data would be used. Despite significant hesitancy, ED and trauma staff identified positive opportunities that TVR could bring, including providing an evidence base for quality improvement. Conclusions: TVR is an evolving approach to evaluate quality and patient safety in the trauma bay. As such it brings with it natural concerns and apprehension from staff regarding privacy, confidentiality, and how data will be captured and used. There is opportunity for these types of concerns to be addressed with a robust knowledge translation plan and engagement of staff throughout the implementation process.

12.
Open educational resource in Portuguese | CVSP - Regional | ID: oer-3982

ABSTRACT

Encontro da Rede de Referencistas Serviços e Produtos - BVS


Subject(s)
GRADE Approach , Evidence-Informed Policy , Translational Medical Research
14.
Front Psychol ; 12: 705245, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34803798

ABSTRACT

Social media is a prominent communication platform. Its active usage permeates all generations and it is imperative that the platform be fully optimized for knowledge transfer and innovation diffusion. However, there are several considerations regarding platform usage, including media affordances. Social media affordances enable users to interact with the world around them through features of modality, agency, interactivity, and navigation. Previous studies have indicated that social media affordances significantly influence user behavior and usage. However, research exploring the effect of social media affordances on knowledge acquisition and the reduction of decision-making complexities is limited. Therefore, focusing on 179 paddy farmers in Malaysia, this study examined the effect of social media affordances on information quality, knowledge acquisition, and complexity reduction regarding innovation adoption decisions using a quantitative approach. This study's findings reveal that social media affordances have a significant effect on perceived information quality, knowledge acquisition, and complexity reduction.

15.
Front Hum Neurosci ; 15: 713692, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34759806

ABSTRACT

As a complex cognitive activity, knowledge transfer is mostly correlated to cognitive processes such as working memory, behavior control, and decision-making in the human brain while engineering problem-solving. It is crucial to explain how the alteration of the functional brain network occurs and how to express it, which causes the alteration of the cognitive structure of knowledge transfer. However, the neurophysiological mechanisms of knowledge transfer are rarely considered in existing studies. Thus, this study proposed functional connectivity (FC) to describe and evaluate the dynamic brain network of knowledge transfer while engineering problem-solving. In this study, we adopted the modified Wisconsin Card-Sorting Test (M-WCST) reported in the literature. The neural activation of the prefrontal cortex was continuously recorded for 31 participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). Concretely, we discussed the prior cognitive level, knowledge transfer distance, and transfer performance impacting the wavelet amplitude and wavelet phase coherence. The paired t-test results showed that the prior cognitive level and transfer distance significantly impact FC. The Pearson correlation coefficient showed that both wavelet amplitude and phase coherence are significantly correlated to the cognitive function of the prefrontal cortex. Therefore, brain FC is an available method to evaluate cognitive structure alteration in knowledge transfer. We also discussed why the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and occipital face area (OFA) distinguish themselves from the other brain areas in the M-WCST experiment. As an exploratory study in NeuroManagement, these findings may provide neurophysiological evidence about the functional brain network of knowledge transfer while engineering problem-solving.

16.
Health Policy ; 2021 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34810011

ABSTRACT

Knowledge translation (KT) is increasingly acknowledged to have the potential to improve policy-making. The value of health information (HI), as part of the KT context, is now also increasingly understood. This paper aims to identify existing tools for the translation of HI into policy-making and to develop a related framework facilitating future application of these identified tools. Updating and building upon a scoping review undertaken for the Health Evidence Network (HEN) Synthesis Report No. 54, commissioned by the World Health Organization (WHO) Regional Office for Europe in 2017, a literature search was conducted using the same databases (PubMed and Scopus) and the same keywords as in the WHO/HEN scoping review. All papers elaborating on tools enhancing the use of HI in policy-making were included. Of the 2549 records screened, 17 publications were included in this study. This review identified four different types of tools: 1) Visualisation and modelling tools, 2) Information packaging and synthesis tools, 3) Communication and dissemination tools and 4) Information linkage and exchange tools. The distinctions between these are fluid as different tools can be combined or incorporated into one another to complement each other. Our framework shows that communication/dissemination or linkage tools are crucial to effectively inform policy decisions through HI. This study helps to understand and guide the processes of KT of HI.

17.
J Public Health Policy ; 42(4): 622-634, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34811464

ABSTRACT

For decades, corporate undermining of scientific consensus has eroded the scientific process worldwide. Guardrails for protecting science-informed processes, from peer review to regulatory decision making, have suffered sustained attacks, damaging public trust in the scientific enterprise and its aim to serve the public good. Government efforts to address corporate attacks have been inadequate. Researchers have cataloged corporate malfeasance that harms people's health across diverse industries. Well-known cases, like the tobacco industry's efforts to downplay the dangers of smoking, are representative of transnational industries, rather than unique. This contribution schematizes industry tactics to distort, delay, or distract the public from instituting measures that improve health-tactics that comprise the "disinformation playbook." Using a United States policy lens, we outline steps the scientific community should take to shield science from corporate interference, through individual actions (by scientists, peer reviewers, and editors) and collective initiatives (by research institutions, grant organizations, professional associations, and regulatory agencies).

18.
Can Urol Assoc J ; 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34812727

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In the past year, due to the COVID-19 pandemic, in-person clinical activities have been drastically restricted, driving the already growing interest in the use of telemedicine in the urban setting to reduce unnecessary commute. Therefore, there has been a rapid shift to telephone and video consultations in outpatient practice. We sought to conduct a pilot trial to establish feasibility and acceptability of video consultations as an alternative to telephone consultations in urology patients to inform the design of a future randomized controlled trial. METHODS: We conducted a single-center, prospective, non-randomized pilot trial comparing telephone consultations (TC) vs. video consultations (VC) for urology outpatient visits. Two patient questionnaires were used to collect demographic information, as well as data about acceptability, feasibility, satisfaction, cost, and issues with telemedicine. Questions were identical for both VC and TC except for certain questions inquiring about issues specific to each technology. RESULTS: Forty-eight TC patients and 66 VC urology patients were included in this study. Patients believed that telemedicine visits did not significantly hinder their ability to communicate with their urologists and that these visits would be associated with cost savings. There was 1/48 (2.1%) failed TC and 16/66 (24.2%) failed VC. VC failures were concentrated at the beginning of the trial prior to giving feedback to the VC platform creators, with only one failure occurring thereafter. When comparing TC to VC, differences between the two patient groups were small but tended to be in favor of VC. Patients' satisfaction was greater with VC compared to TC. Both modalities were associated with many cost benefits for patients. CONCLUSIONS: Despite more technical issues with VC, this modality is feasible and acceptable to patients, likely due to improved shared decision-making with VC. Future considerations for trials comparing VC and TC should include adequate Wi-Fi infrastructure and choice of platform. For the VC, continuous knowledge transfer between investigators and platform engineers plays an important role in limiting failed encounters.

19.
PeerJ ; 9: e12245, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34721971

ABSTRACT

Evidence-based decision-making is most effective with comprehensive access to scientific studies. If studies face significant publication delays or barriers, the useful information they contain may not reach decision-makers in a timely manner. This represents a potential problem for mission-oriented disciplines where access to the latest data is required to ensure effective actions are undertaken. We sought to analyse the severity of publication delay in conservation science-a field that requires urgent action to prevent the loss of biodiversity. We used the Conservation Evidence database to assess the length of publication delay (time from finishing data collection to publication) in the literature that tests the effectiveness of conservation interventions. From 7,447 peer-reviewed and non-peer-reviewed studies of conservation interventions published over eleven decades, we find that the raw mean publication delay was 3.2 years (±2SD = 0.1) and varied by conservation subject. A significantly shorter delay was observed for studies focused on Bee Conservation, Sustainable Aquaculture, Management of Captive Animals, Amphibian Conservation, and Control of Freshwater Invasive Species (Estimated Marginal Mean range from 1.4-1.9 years). Publication delay was significantly shorter for the non-peer-reviewed literature (Estimated Marginal Mean delay of 1.9 years ± 0.2) compared to the peer-reviewed literature (i.e., scientific journals; Estimated Marginal Mean delay of 3.0 years ± 0.1). We found publication delay has significantly increased over time (an increase of ~1.2 years from 1912 (1.4 years ± 0.2) to 2020 (2.6 years ± 0.1)), but this change was much weaker and non-significant post-2000s; we found no evidence for any decline. There was also no evidence that studies on more threatened species were subject to a shorter delay-indeed, the contrary was true for mammals, and to a lesser extent for birds. We suggest a range of possible ways in which scientists, funders, publishers, and practitioners can work together to reduce delays at each stage of the publication process.

20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(12): 4221-4230, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34624540

ABSTRACT

Optimal evidence-based clinical practice requires systematic summaries of the best available evidence, including ratings of the quality of that evidence, and is facilitated by the availability of trustworthy guidelines. In this review, we describe the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) approach to rating quality of evidence and moving from evidence to recommendations using examples from allergy-immunology. GRADE focuses on systematic summaries of the best evidence, systematic reviews and trustworthy guidelines, and emphasizes a structured approach to determining quality (certainty) of bodies of evidence, absolute magnitude of effects of desirable and undesirable consequences (benefits and harms), and use of evidence to develop clinical recommendations. Adopted by over 110 organizations worldwide, including the American Academy of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology/American College of Allergy, Asthma, and Immunology Joint Task Force on Practice Parameters, GRADE is foundational to the optimal interpretation of research evidence and its application in clinical practice. This review supports the clinician's ability to find and use the information in GRADE guidelines to help care for patients in the clinic.

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