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1.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 289-295, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130069

ABSTRACT

Within the monolithic racial category of "Asian American," health determinants are often hidden within each subgroup's complex histories of indigeneity, colonialism, migration, culture, and socio-political systems. Although racism is typically framed to underscore the ways in which various institutions (for example, employment and education) disproportionately disadvantage Black/Latinx communities over White people, what does structural racism look like among Filipinx/a/o Americans (FilAms), the third-largest Asian American group in the US? We argue that racism defines who is visible. We discuss pathways through which colonialism and racism preserve inequities for FilAms, a large and overlooked Asian American subgroup. We bring to light historical and modern practices inhibiting progress toward dismantling systemic racial barriers that impinge on FilAm health. We encourage multilevel strategies that focus on and invest in FilAms, such as robust accounting of demographic data in heterogeneous populations, explicitly naming neocolonial forces that devalue and neglect FilAms, and structurally supporting community approaches to promote better self- and community care.


Subject(s)
Racism , Colonialism , Humans , United States
2.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 41(2): 163-170, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35130075

ABSTRACT

Research related to racism and health has evolved in recent decades, with a growing appreciation of the centrality of the social determinants of health, life-course approaches and structural racism, and other upstream factors as drivers of health inequities. Examining how race, class, and structural racism relate to each other and combine over the life course to affect health can facilitate a clearer understanding of the determinants of health. Yet there is ongoing discomfort in many public health and medical circles about research on racism, including opposition to the use of racial terminology. Similarly, most major national reports on racial and ethnic inequities in health have given limited attention to the role of racism. We conclude that there is a need to acknowledge the central role of racism in the national discourse on racial inequities in health, and paradigmatic shifts are needed to inform equity-driven policy and practice innovations that would tackle the roots of the problem of racism and dismantle health inequities.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Racism , Humans , Policy
3.
Int J Equity Health ; 21(1): 152, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36324144

ABSTRACT

The health inequities faced by populations experiencing racial discrimination, including indigenous peoples and people of African descent, Roma, and other ethnic minorities, are an issue of global concern. Health systems have an important role to play in tackling these health inequities. Health systems based on comprehensive Primary Health Care (PHC) are best placed to tackle health inequities because PHC encompasses a whole-of-society approach to health. PHC includes actions to address the wider social determinants of health, multisectoral policy and action, intercultural and integrated healthcare services, community empowerment, and a focus on addressing health inequities. PHC can also serve as a platform for introducing specific actions to tackle racial discrimination and can act to drive wider societal change for tackling racial and ethnic health inequities.


Subject(s)
Racism , Humans , Racism/prevention & control , Health Inequities , Health Status Disparities , Ethnicity , Primary Health Care
4.
Med Law Rev ; 2022 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36399065

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic exacerbated profound inequalities in the conditions in which people live, work, and age. Law plays a critical role in shaping these structural health inequalities, which have existed for decades. This dynamic can be observed at the local level, with cities operating as environments unequally distributing the risks of non-communicable diseases between population groups. This article first focuses on urban development to explore the conceptual links between health inequalities and the role of law. I expand this observation and I posit that the social determinants of health are about human rights. With that in mind, I argue that human rights are necessary to address the issue of unequally unhealthy urban environments, hence recognising that people are entitled to a minimum essential level of the conditions in which they live, work, and age, which the State is responsible to fulfil. By way of strengthening my argument, I lay out how a human rights framework can improve these conditions and ameliorate unfair inequalities. Finally, I recognise and respond to the limits of a human rights approach.

5.
J Law Med Ethics ; 50(3): 401-408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36398648

ABSTRACT

The sheer gamut of issues impacting transgender health equity may seem overwhelming. This article seeks to introduce readers to the breadth of topics addressed in this symposium edition, exemplifying that transgender health equity is a global issue that demands an interdisciplinary approach.


Subject(s)
Health Equity , Transgender Persons , Humans
6.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115470, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36327636

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This article compares research on biological embedding and the embodiment of social experiences, two concepts proposed in the 1990s to introduce a new perspective on the social production of health inequalities. We draw on Ludwig Fleck's concept of 'thought style' (1935/2008) to question the possible emergence of a common research program around the processes by which the social becomes biological. METHODS: We compiled a corpus of 322 articles referring to either biological embedding or to the embodiment of social experiences, identified in the Web of Science core collection and published from 1990 to 2021. We analyzed the articles' use of these concepts using scientometric indicators and qualitative content analysis. RESULTS: Initial differences between the research agendas associated with biological embedding and embodiment are strengthened as both concepts circulate around scientific communities studying the social production of health inequalities. Thought styles formed around embedding and embodiment differ significantly in terms of shared references, sets of methods and research questions, and policy recommendations. Research on biological embedding forms a thought style shared by researchers in the biomedical and public health sciences. Conversely, the concept of embodiment of social experiences connects perspectives from biomedical, public health, human and social sciences, and gathers three thought styles, one identical to that of biological embedding and two formed in social epidemiology and in medical anthropology. CONCLUSIONS: Acknowledging the differences between the concepts and divergences in their evolution provides an opportunity for identification of topics where thought styles are either complementary or in tension.


Subject(s)
Health Status Disparities , Social Sciences , Humans , Anthropology, Medical , Public Health , Research Personnel
7.
Soc Sci Med ; 314: 115472, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36334495

ABSTRACT

Qualitative Geographic Information Systems (QGIS) represent an emerging geospatial and qualitative approach to comprehensively understand health issues. This scoping review gathers evidence from 38 articles to illuminate when and how QGIS is used to address health issues. QGIS can contribute to recent health-related studies focusing on determinants of health and health equity at the community rather than individual level, highlight relationships between place and health, and encourage participation from people and communities in health-decision making. If more studies attempt to specify detailed data analysis methods and develop ways to use rich contexts of qualitative data, QGIS can provide greater scope for those working to solve health problems.


Subject(s)
Geographic Information Systems , Health Equity , Humans , Data Accuracy , Research Design
8.
Stroke ; 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36345822

ABSTRACT

Sleep is essential to human survival and overall vascular health. Sleep health encompasses the objective and subjective qualities associated with one's daily pattern of sleep and wakefulness and has become a growing clinical and public health concern. Impaired sleep duration and quality can increase stroke risk and mediate the relationship between the physical aspects of an individual's environment and disparities in stroke incidence. Here, we review observational studies evaluating the association between sleep health and cerebrovascular disease. We assess the influence on sleep of the physical environment, including the ambient environment with noise levels and the built environment. We also describe the influences on sleep health and stroke risk of social determinants of health, including the chronic stressor of racial discrimination. Finally, we discuss how changes in historical neighborhood characteristics or societal policies can influence the social factors affecting sleep health and stroke risk among socioeconomically disadvantaged groups or ethnic and racial minorities. Given the regional and racial or ethnic differences in stroke risk across the United States, an understanding of novel vascular risk factors, such as the multifaceted role of sleep health, will be critical to develop effective public policies to improve population health.

11.
JAMA Ophthalmol ; 2022 Nov 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36326732

ABSTRACT

Importance: Approximately 13% of US adults are affected by visual disability, with disproportionately higher rates in groups impacted by certain social determinants of health (SDOH). Objective: To evaluate SDOH associated with severe visual impairment (SVI) to ultimately guide targeted interventions to improve ophthalmic health. Design, Setting, and Participants: This quality improvement study used cross-sectional data from a telephone survey from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) that was conducted in the US from January 2019 to December 2020. Participants were noninstitutionalized adult civilians who were randomly selected and interviewed and self-identified as "blind or having serious difficulty seeing, even while wearing glasses." Exposures: Demographic and health care access factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was risk of SVI associated with various factors as measured by odds ratios (ORs) and 95% CIs. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed using the Web Enabled Analysis Tool in the BRFFS. Results: During the study period, 820 226 people (53.07% female) participated in the BRFSS survey, of whom 42 412 (5.17%) self-identified as "blind or having serious difficulty seeing, even while wearing glasses." Compared with White, non-Hispanic individuals, risk of SVI was increased among American Indian/Alaska Native (OR, 1.63; 95% CI, 1.38-1.91), Black/African American (OR, 1.50; 95% CI, 1.39-1.62), Hispanic (OR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.53-1.79), and multiracial (OR, 1.33; 95% CI, 1.15-1.53) individuals. Lower annual household income and educational level (eg, not completing high school) were associated with greater risk of SVI. Individuals who were out of work for 1 year or longer (OR, 1.78; 95% CI, 1.54-2.07) or who reported being unable to work (OR, 2.90; 95% CI, 2.66-3.16) had higher odds of SVI compared with the other variables studied. Mental health diagnoses and 14 or more days per month with poor mental health were associated with increased risk of SVI (OR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.73-2.02). Health care access factors associated with increased visual impairment risk included lack of health care coverage and inability to afford to see a physician. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, various SDOH were associated with SVI, including self-identification as being from a racial or ethnic minority group; low socioeconomic status and educational level; long-term unemployment and inability to work; divorced, separated, or widowed marital status; poor mental health; and lack of health care coverage. These disparities in care and barriers to health care access should guide targeted interventions.

12.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-18, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321438

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity on college campuses is a major public health problem and has been documented for the last decade. Sufficient food access is a crucial social determinant of health, thus campuses across the country have implemented various programs, systems and policies to enhance access to food which have included food pantries, campus gardens, farmers' markets, meal share or voucher programs, mobile food applications, campus food gleaning, food recovery efforts, meal deliveries, and task force/working groups. However, little is understood about how to best address food insecurity and support students who are struggling with basic needs. The impact of food insecurity on students' academic and social success, in addition to their overall well-being, should be investigated and prioritized at each higher education institution. This is especially true for marginalized students, such as minority or first-generation students, who are at heightened risk for food insecurity. In order to create a culture of health equity, in which most at-risk students are provided resources and opportunities to achieve optimal well-being, higher education institutions must prioritize mitigating food insecurity on the college campus. Higher education institutions could benefit from adopting comprehensive and individualized approaches to promoting food security for marginalized students in order to facilitate equal opportunity for optimal scholastic achievement among students of all socio demographic backgrounds.

13.
J Periodontol ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36321899

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Population studies consistently demonstrate greater prevalence of chronic diseases, including oral diseases, among underrepresented minorities. The objectives of this retrospective study were to measure and describe the prevalence and extent of periodontitis among adults seeking dental care within an academic practice-based network (PBN) in rural North Carolina. METHODS: This study used deidentified electronic health record (EHR) data from adult dentate patients (≥30 years) of record (2011-2017) seeking dental care who received a comprehensive periodontal examination at one of nine networked clinical centers. Periodontitis prevalence was calculated using CDC/AAP case definitions, along with extent (%) scores for periodontal parameters. Comparisons focused on age, gender, race, ethnicity, tobacco use, diabetes status, payer or insurance status, plaque scores, and number of teeth. RESULTS: EHR data for 10,544 adult patients (60.5% female) indicated 79.8% having some form of periodontitis. This patient population was diverse: 22.6% Black, 4.4% American Indians, and 53.8% Whites, with 4.8% self-identified as Hispanic. Patients 50 years and older showed greater mean extent scores for clinical attachment levels relative to patients 30-49 years. Males exhibited greater periodontitis than females (p = 0.001). Blacks showed significantly (p<0.001) greater periodontitis prevalence relative to Whites. Hispanics also showed greater prevalence of periodontitis (p<0.001) relative to Non-Hispanics. Significantly greater periodontitis was also noted for tobacco users (p<0.001) but not for diabetes or payer status. A multiple logistic regression analysis of periodontitis prevalence confirmed significant associations for periodontitis for age, sex, race, ethnicity, tobacco use, high plaque scores, and number of teeth (p<0.001) but not diabetes or payer status. CONCLUSIONS: The data document that racial and ethnic inequalities in periodontal health occur within the population of adults residing in rural communities in North Carolina and seeking dental care. SUMMARY: Periodontal health disparities occur among adults seeking dental care from rural North Carolina communities with Blacks and Hispanics demonstrating greater prevalence of periodontitis relative to Whites and Non-Hispanics. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

14.
Headache ; 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36322009

ABSTRACT

There is a critical need to diagnose and treat headache disorders in primary care settings. This is especially true for those who face systemic barriers to healthcare access due to racism or poverty. In order to target those at higher risk of disability associated with neurologic disease in our healthcare system, we embedded a specialized headache and neurology clinic within the Brigham and Women's Hospital Southern Jamaica Plain Community Health Center in Boston, MA. The goal was to create a sustainable, integrated clinic consistent with the CHC's racial justice mission, with an emphasis on equitable care, awareness of structural barriers to care, improved communication with primary care and inclusion of trainees as important members of a healthcare team. In its' first year, the clinic had over 400 patient visits, with a near-perfect rate of completion of consults. In addition to improved access to tertiary care headache services, successes have included improving continuity of care, cultivating a model of shared care with primary care practitioners and stimulating interest in headache medicine among staff and trainees. Challenges have included the use of staff time to complete prior authorizations, and the need to find or develop Spanish-language and culturally appropriate patient educational resources. By providing care within the patient's medical home, the headache specialist gains a deeper appreciation of a patient's social determinants of health and can readily access resources to navigate barriers. The personal and professional fulfillment that headache specialists may experience while doing this important work could help protect against burnout. Sustainability depends on ensuring equitable provider reimbursement; departmental and institutional support is essential. We believe this clinic can serve as a model for specialists throughout the United States who wish to improve the delivery of care to patient populations who face access barriers.

15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36361356

ABSTRACT

Indigenous people and communities are establishing social enterprises to address social disadvantage and overcome health inequities in their communities. This review sought to characterize the spectrum of Indigenous social enterprises in Australia, New Zealand, Canada, and the United States to identify the operational models and cultural values that underpin them and their impact on Indigenous health and wellbeing. The scoping review followed Arksey and O'Malley's six-stage methodological framework with recommended enhancements by Levac et al. underpinned by Indigenous Standpoint Theory, and an Indigenous advisory group to provide cultural oversight and direction. Of the 589 documents screened 115 documents were included in the review. A conceptual framework of seven different operational models of Indigenous social enterprises was developed based on differing levels of Indigenous ownership, control, and management: (1) individual, (2) collective, (3) delegative, (4) developmental, (5) supportive, (6) prescriptive and (7) paternalistic. Models with 100% Indigenous ownership and control were more likely to contribute to improved health and wellbeing by increasing self-determination and strengthening culture and promoting healing than others. Indigenous social enterprises could offer a more holistic and sustainable approach to health equity and health promotion than the siloed, programmatic model common in public health policy.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Health Equity , United States , Humans , Health Promotion , Australia , Canada
16.
J Diabetes Metab Disord ; : 1-8, 2022 Nov 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36373156

ABSTRACT

Objective: COVID-19 burden the health system by influencing several aspects of social determinants of health (SDH). We review SDH inequity in Iran with notice on COVID-19 pandemic and sanctions. Method: The Databases such as MEDLINE, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched. The SDH components were extracted regarding the effect of COVID-19 and sanctions. Global burden of disease was used to evaluate the impact of sanctions on mortality in Iran. Result: The literacy rate improved over the last decades but, there is still inequality between provinces. Age and regional inequity exists, regarding NCD mortality. Food insecurity varies in different regions between 20% and 60%.Providing care for a growing aging population, with a large burden of NCDs and disabilities will be the major issue in the next decade. The decrease slop of mortality rate due to NCDs, have become smoother since impose of sanctions, while, cancer mortality have changed upwards. COVID-19, and sanctions negatively impacts lower socioeconomically vulnerable groups due to preexisting conditions which wider the existing inequity in SDH are adding a heavy burden of inequity in Iran. Conclusion: Iran, similar to large numbers of countries, face inequity at regional level in different SDH related issues. The COVID-19 pandemic showed that economic status and health are aligned. Sanctions superimposed on the COVID-19 pandemic cause harm to millions of innocent people. One of the main goals of health authorities is to reduce SDH inequity in order to achieve the goal of "health for all". To tackle these inequities, prompt action is needed.

17.
Semin Pediatr Surg ; 31(5): 151221, 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36347129

ABSTRACT

A child's social determinants of health (SDH), including their neighborhood environment, insurance status, race and ethnicity, English language proficiency and geographic location, all significantly impact their risk of injury and outcomes after injury. Children from socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods experience overall higher rates of injury and different types of injuries, including higher rates of motor vehicle-, firearm-, and violence-related injuries. Similarly, children with public insurance or no insurance, as a proxy for lower socioeconomic status, experience higher rates of injuries including firearm-related injuries and non-accidental trauma, with overall worse outcomes. Race and associated racism also impact a child's risk of injury and care received after injury. Black children, Hispanic children, and those from other minority groups disproportionately experience socioeconomic disadvantage with sequelae of injury risk as described above. Even after controlling for socioeconomic status, there are still notable disparities with further evidence of racial inequities and bias in pediatric trauma care after injury. Finally, where a child lives geographically also significantly impacts their risk of injury and available care after injury, with differences based on whether a child lives in a rural or urban area and the degree of state laws regarding injury prevention. There are clear inequities based on a child's SDH, most predominantly in a child's risk of injury and the types of injuries they experience. These injuries are preventable and the SDH provide potential upstream targets in injury prevention efforts.

18.
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem ; 30(spe): e3756, 2022.
Article in English, Portuguese, Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36351089

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: highlight health inequalities of homeless adolescents based on the conceptual framework of social determinants of health. METHOD: this is a convergent parallel mixed-methods study. The population consisted of adolescents who are homeless, with purposeful sampling and data saturation. Quantitative data were obtained with a questionnaire and qualitative data through semi-structured interviews. RESULTS: 19 homeless adolescents participated in the study, 13 (68.4%) aged 16 to 19 years; 11 (57.9%) were male, 3 (15.8%) were female, and 5 (26.3%) were transgender adolescents. Participants experienced different levels of exposure and vulnerabilities to conditions that affect health and were directly related to intermediate determinants of health. CONCLUSION: this study provides an understanding of the inequalities related to the health of homeless adolescents and shows evidence that supports strategies to promote equity and dignity in health care. KEYPOINTS: (1) Contribute with strategies towards equal access to health services and dignity in adolescent care. (2) Understand the health needs of homeless adolescents. (3) Reflect on adolescent health care. (4) Support the health system and reduce health inequities.


Subject(s)
Health Services Accessibility , Homeless Persons , Adolescent , Male , Female , Humans , Health Status Disparities , Surveys and Questionnaires
20.
Sex Res Social Policy ; : 1-6, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36406660

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Despite increased legal rights for lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer-identifying (LGBTQ +) people in the USA over the past 30 years, there has been an increasing number of anti-LGBTQ + laws proposed and passed at the state level. One of the most notorious laws, Florida's HB 1557, also known as the "Don't Say Gay" law, garnered substantial national attention for prohibiting discussions of sexual orientation or gender identity in public school classrooms. Other states quickly proposed similar laws, but little scholarship exists on the potential impacts of these laws. Methods: We explore the potential health equity ramifications of laws like Florida's HB 1557, focusing on the individual, interpersonal, and broader policy and practice implications. Examining these policies through the lens of political determinants of health, we identify theoretical and methodological approaches needed to address recent "Don't Say Gay" policies. Results: Theoretical approaches emphasizing power, intersectionality, and the role of politics in health should guide research examining the impacts of recent anti-LGBTQ + policies. Laws like Florida's HB 1557 emphasize the need for methodological approaches that emphasize collaborative engagement between researchers and community members, and future research may be needed to understand how stressors created by law and policy can have individual and interpersonal consequences. Conclusions: Public health researchers have a role to play in reversing policies that negatively affect LGBTQ + individuals and undermine health equity. Research combating harmful policies may require theoretical approaches attentive to power differences and methodological approaches that squarely focus on disrupting power imbalances.

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