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1.
Arch. cardiol. Méx ; 94(2): 127-132, Apr.-Jun. 2024. graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556908

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Analyze sex hormone's influence during Chagas disease. Methods: Male and female BALB/c mice were divided into six groups, four experimental (sham, orchiectomized, orchiectomized and supplemented with estradiol, orchiectomized supplemented with testosterone, oophorectomized, oophorectomized and supplemented with estradiol, and oophorectomized and supplemented with testosterone), and two control (healthy and intraperitoneally with T. cruzi strain NINOA infected). Clinical data were recorded daily, parasitemia was evaluated using a Neubauer chamber during the infection, and heart histopathological analysis was performed using the paraffin embedding technique. To analyze parasitemia curves and the area under the parametric curves, two-way ANOVA test was performed to correlate groups' data. P-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Higher mortality rates, cardiomegaly, hepatomegaly, ascites, edema, higher parasitemia levels, more amastigote nests, and more severe inflammatory infiltrate were found in higher testosterone concentration mice, whereas in higher estradiol concentration groups, paresia, prostration, edema, and necrosis were found. Conclusions: Our results showed that testosterone increased infection severity, whereas estradiol had the opposite effect. This research improves the understanding of sex hormones´ infuence upon this infection to contribute with the handling of Chagas´ disease.


Resumen Objetivo: Analizar la influencia de las hormonas durante la enfermedad de Chagas. Métodos: Se separaron grupos de ratones macho y hembras BALB/c, todos infectados con T. cruzi (cepa NINOA), 4 grupos experimentales de machos (Sham, orquidectamizados, orquidectimezados y suplementados con estradiol, orquidectamizaos y suplementados con testosterona). 4 grupos experimentales de hembras (oforectomizadas, oforectomizadas y suplementadas con estradiol, oforectomizadas y suplementadas con testosterona y sham), and y dos grupos control para cada sexo (sin infección e infectados intraperitonealmente con T. cruzi (cepa NINOA). Los datos clínicos fueron registrados diariamente, la parasitemia fue evaluada durante toda la infección utilizando una cámara de Neubauer y el análisis histopatológico del corazón fue realizada con la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Para el análisis de las curvas de parasitemia y el área bajo la curva, se realizó una prueba de ANOVA de dos vías, p < 0.05 fueron considerados estadísticamente diferentes. Resultados: Las mayores tasas de mortalidad, cardiomegalia, hepatomegalia y mayor infiltrado inflamatorio, se encontró en los ratones con una mayor concentración de testosterona. En contraste los ratones con mayor concentración de estradiol presentaron paresia, postración edema y necrosis. Conclusiones: Nuestros resultados ponen en manifiesto que la testosterona incrementa la severidad del curso de la enfermedad de Chagas, mientras que el estradiol tuvo el efecto opuesto. Este trabajo mejora el entendimiento del rol que juegan las hormonas sexuales en esta infección para contribuir en un mejor manejo de la enfermedad de Chagas.

2.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e17132023, Jun. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557510

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este trabalho se propõe a trazer reflexões e apontamentos para o fortalecimento de políticas públicas estruturantes no Brasil, com foco na Educação Popular em Saúde no Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS), a partir das perspectivas construídas no Observatório de Educação Popular em Saúde e Realidade Brasileira. O Observatório é um espaço profícuo para o compartilhamento de interpretações e experiências de profissionais de saúde e educadores populares sobre a realidade local e realidade brasileira, a partir da ótica da Educação Popular em Saúde. De forma dialógica e participativa, ao longo de seus 2 anos de atividade, o Observatório foi capaz de reunir interpretações sintéticas da Educação Popular em Saúde para as crises que atravessam a história recente do país. De maneira panorâmica, as falas compartilhadas apontam desafios para valorização da abordagem humana na promoção da saúde, com a inclusão e o respeito aos saberes e práticas sociais locais e comunitárias. Além disso, destaca-se a importância da participação social na construção de processos sociais participativos na saúde pública, visando à autonomia do cidadão e à ampliação da dinâmica democrática no Estado brasileiro e em seus equipamentos sociais.


Abstract This paper aims to bring reflections and notes for strengthening Brazilian structuring public policies, focusing on Popular Health Education in the Unified Health System (SUS) from the perspectives built in the Observatory of Popular Health Education and the Brazilian Reality. The Observatory is a valuable space for sharing health professionals' and popular educators' interpretations and experiences about local and Brazilian realities from the perspective of Popular Health Education. During its two years of activity, the Observatory has gathered summary interpretations of Popular Health Education for the crises that traverse the country's recent history in a dialogical and participatory way. In a panoramic view, the shared statements point to challenges for valuing the human approach to health promotion, including respecting local and community knowledge and social practices. Moreover, we underscore the importance of social participation in constructing participatory social processes in public health toward citizen autonomy and expanded democratic dynamics in the Brazilian State and its social equipment.

3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e10482023, Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557513

ABSTRACT

Resumo Analisou-se a prevalência e fatores associados à realização da Triagem Neonatal Completa (TNC) entre crianças (<2 anos de idade) no Brasil incluídas na Pesquisa Nacional Saúde 2013 (n=4.442) e 2019 (n=5.643). Estudo transversal comparou as estimativas de prevalência e intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) da TNC (testes do olhinho, orelhinha e pezinho). Diferenças foram consideradas estatisticamente significante ao nível de 5%. Regressões de Poisson bruta e ajustada foram realizadas para estimar Razões de Prevalência (RP) e IC95% para a associação das variáveis socioeconômicas, demográficas e de saúde com a TNC. Verificou-se aumento estatisticamente significante da TNC: 67,4% (IC95%: 65,5-69,3) em 2019, ante 49,2% (IC95%: 47,1-51,3) em 2013. Porém, ainda existem desigualdades e defasagens entre os estados da federação e variáveis sociodemográficas. Entre os anos, a TNC foi menor nas crianças de cor/raça parda e preta, dos três piores quintis de renda, sem plano de saúde, cadastradas na Estratégia de Saúde da Família, da região norte, de cidades do interior e da zona rural do Brasil. Apesar de o aumento da prevalência de TNC, desigualdades e defasagens individuais e contextuais permaneceram, indicando os desafios das políticas de saúde.


Abstract This study analyzed the prevalence of complete neonatal screening (CNS) of children aged under 2 years in Brazil and associated factors using data from the 2013 (n=4,442) and 2019 (n=5,643) national health surveys. We conducted a cross-sectional study to compare prevalence of CNS (eye, ear and heel prick tests) adopting 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) and a 5% significance level. Crude and adjusted Poisson regression was performed to estimate prevalence ratios (PR) and 95%CI to assess the association between socioeconomic, demographic and health variables and CNS. There was a statistically significant increase in CNS prevalence, from 49.2% (95%CI: 47.1-51.3) in 2013 to 67.4% (95%CI: 65.5-69.3) in 2019. However, large disparities persist across states and between sociodemographic groups. In both years, CNS prevalence was lowest among brown and black children, those from families in the three lowest income quintiles, children without health insurance, those from families registered in the Family Health Strategy and children living in the North, cities outside the state capital/metropolitan regions and rural areas. Despite the increase in prevalence of CNS, deep individual and contextual inequalities persist, posing challenges for health policies.

4.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e04112023, Jun. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557519

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo apresenta uma análise do desempenho da APS no estado de São Paulo na última década, em contexto de crise econômica e retração dos investimentos em saúde. Utilizaram-se indicadores de desempenho, determinantes em saúde e sistema de saúde, em série temporal (2010 a 2019), a partir de matriz conceitual adaptada. Foram calculadas variações percentuais anuais (VPA) de cada indicador em modelo log-linear. Os indicadores de desempenho apresentaram, no geral, evolução favorável; no entanto, ocorreu piora em indicadores relacionados à qualidade do cuidado (sífilis congênita, partos cesáreos e rastreamento de câncer de colo uterino). Verificou-se, ainda, um potencial aumento das demandas ao SUS (envelhecimento da população e redução da cobertura da saúde suplementar) e aumento das despesas em saúde em contexto de redução do PIB per capita.


Abstract This article presents the results of an analysis of the performance of primary health care in São Paulo state over the last decade against a backdrop of financial crisis and health funding cuts. We conducted a time series analysis (2010-2019) of performance indicators across the following dimensions based on an adapted conceptual framework: health service performance, health system, and determinants of health. Annual percentage change was calculated for each indicator using a log-linear model. Performance across the indicators was generally positive; however, there was a decline in performance across indicators of quality of care (congenital syphilis, cesarean section rate and cervical cancer screening). The findings also show a potential rise in demand for public services (due to population aging and a reduction in the percentage of the population with private health insurance) and increase in health expenditure against a backdrop of falling GDP per capita.

5.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e03872023, Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557520

ABSTRACT

Resumo O estudo visa analisar a prevalência de estadiamento avançado ao diagnóstico do câncer do colo do útero e sua associação com indicadores individuais e contextuais socioeconômicos e de oferta de serviços de saúde no Brasil. Estudo transversal, realizado com casos de câncer do colo do útero em mulheres de 18 a 99 anos, no período de 2006 a 2015, extraídos do Integrador de Registros Hospitalares de Câncer. Variáveis contextuais foram coletadas no Atlas do Desenvolvimento Humano, no Cadastro Nacional de Estabelecimentos de Saúde e no Sistema de Informações Ambulatoriais. Usou-se o modelo de regressão de Poisson multinível com intercepto aleatório. A prevalência de diagnóstico em estádio avançado foi de 48,4%, apresentando associação com idades mais avançadas (RP 1,06; IC 1,01-1,10), raça/cor da pele preta, parda e indígena (RP 1,04; IC 1,01-1,07), menores níveis de escolaridade (RP 1,28; IC 1,16-1,40), ausência de parceiro conjugal (RP 1,10; IC 1,07-1,13), encaminhamento do tipo público ao serviço de saúde (RP 1,07; IC 1,03-1,11) e menor taxa de realização de exame citopatológico (RP 1,08; IC 1,01-1,14). Os resultados reforçam a necessidade de melhorias no programa nacional de prevenção do câncer do colo do útero em áreas com baixa cobertura da citologia oncótica.


Abstract The scope of this study is to analyze the prevalence of advanced stage diagnosis of cervical cancer and its association with individual and contextual socioeconomic and healthcare service indicators in Brazil. A cross-sectional study was conducted using cervical cancer cases in women aged 18 to 99 years, from 2006 to 2015, extracted from the Hospital Cancer Registry (HCR) Integrator. Contextual variables were collected from the Atlas of Human Development in Brazil; the National Registry of Health Institutions (NRHI); and the Outpatient Information System. Multilevel Poisson Regression with random intercept was used. The prevalence of advanced stage diagnosis was 48.4%, revealing an association with older age groups (PR 1.06; CI 1.01-1.10), black, brown, and indigenous race/skin color (PR 1.04; CI 1.01-1.07), lower levels of schooling (PR 1.28; CI 1.16-1.40), no marital partner (PR 1.10; CI 1.07-1.13), public referral to the health service (PR 1.07; CI 1.03-1.11), and lower rates of cytological examination (PR 1.08; CI 1.01-1.14). The results reinforce the need for improvements in the national cervical cancer prevention program in areas with low coverage of oncotic cytology.

6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e07022023, Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557521

ABSTRACT

Resumo A Atenção Primária à Saúde (APS) demonstrou ser parte importante das medidas de prevenção, controle e tratamento do COVID-19, ao mesmo tempo em que foi desafiada a manter a oferta dos serviços regulares. O objetivo deste artigo é identificar os principais arranjos desenvolvidos para ofertar cuidados na APS na pandemia do COVID-19. A revisão integrativa foi realizada nas bases de dados PubMed, SciELO e LILACS por meio dos descritores "Atenção Primária à Saúde" e "COVID-19". Os resultados foram analisados por meio de três questões: Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação (TIC), Organizações dos Processos de Trabalho e Doenças Crônicas Não-COVID. Ganha grande destaque o uso das TIC no cuidado ofertado na APS, tanto para pacientes com sintomas respiratórios quanto para pacientes crônicos. Alterações na composição das equipes, fluxos de atendimento, espaços físicos e horários de atendimento também foram implantadas. Ainda que estratégias que visaram o monitoramento dos pacientes crônicos e o atendimento remoto podem ter contribuído para minimizar os agravos à saúde desses usuários, a diminuição dos atendimentos realizados neste período poderá resultar em uma grande demanda para a APS nos anos pós-pandemia.


Abstract Primary Health Care (PHC) proved to be an important part of the prevention, control and treatment measures against COVID-19, a situation in which it was challenged to keep up its provision of regular services as well. This article identifies the main arrangements made to provide PHC care in the context of the COVID-19 pandemic. An integrative literature review of articles found in PubMed, SciELO and LILACS databases was performed using the descriptors "Primary Health Care" and "COVID-19". Findings were analyzed considering three questions: Information and Communication Technologies (ICT), Organizations of Work Processes and Non-COVID Chronic Diseases. The use of different forms of ICT to provide PHC is highlighted regarding patients with respiratory symptoms and chronic patients. Changes in team composition, service flows, physical spaces and working hours were also introduced. Although strategies aimed at monitoring chronic patients and at remote care may have helped minimize deterioration of their health, the decrease in the number of visits performed during this period could have resulted in an increased demand for PHC in post-pandemic years.

7.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e12542023, Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557523

ABSTRACT

Resumo Esta revisão narrativa tem por objetivo analisar a literatura no âmbito da Saúde Coletiva no intento de reconhecer o que se tem discutido em Educação Popular em Saúde (EPS) entre 2019 e 2022. Após busca, 59 artigos foram selecionados, analisados criticamente e separados em seis categorias-síntese: as práticas de educação popular como promotoras de uma visão participativa da saúde; educação popular e a valorização dos saberes e práticas da cultura popular local; a educação popular em saúde como estratégia de apoio à reconstrução social ante aos retrocessos nas políticas públicas; a importância da articulação nacional em educação popular como resposta à sua desvalorização; a educação popular como projeto libertador pensando a formação democrática e luta contra violências institucionais e estruturais; educação popular no processo de formação universitária em saúde. Pôde-se obter importantes resultados que elucidam a importância da EPS no contexto do Sistema Único de Saúde e na formação acadêmica de profissionais da saúde, favorecendo o respeito aos saberes ancestrais e a horizontalidade do cuidado. Ainda, reafirma-se a necessidade de articulação nacional e dialogada com os movimentos populares para o avanço de uma agenda emancipadora e dignificante da saúde no Brasil.


Abstract This narrative review aims to analyze the literature on Collective Health to recognize what has been discussed in Popular Health Education (PHE) from 2019 to 2022. Fifty-nine articles were selected, critically analyzed, and separated into six summary categories: popular education practices as promoters of a participatory vision of health; popular education and the valorization of local popular culture knowledge and practices; popular health education as a strategy to support social reconstruction in the face of setbacks in public policies; the importance of national articulation in popular education as a response to its devaluation; popular education as a liberating project thinking about the democratic formation and the fight against institutional and structural violence; popular education in the university health training process. We achieved significant results that elucidate the importance of PHE within the Unified Health System and the academic education of health professionals, fostering respect for ancestral knowledge and care horizontality. We also reaffirm the need for national articulation and dialogue with grassroots movements to advance Brazil's emancipatory and dignifying health agenda.

8.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e02062023, Jun. 2024. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557524

ABSTRACT

Resumo Este estudo visa reportar desenvolvimento e validação de materiais educativos digitais baseados nas dimensões de habilidades culinárias domésticas (HCD) avaliadas por escala destinada aos profissionais da APS, nas recomendações do Guia Alimentar Para a População Brasileira e no Marco de Educação Alimentar e Nutricional (EAN) para Políticas Públicas. Foram desenvolvidos 5 vídeos e materiais gráficos com propostas de atividades para desenvolvimento de HCD e estímulo à sua implementação em ações e orientações junto à comunidade e em atendimentos profissionais. O conteúdo dos materiais foi avaliado por especialistas utilizando técnica Delphi de 2 rounds e análises estatísticas para evidência de consenso. Especialistas proferiram comentários para aprimoramento dos produtos e sua aplicabilidade. Os materiais apresentaram linguagem decodificada, ilustrações lúdicas, com personagens representativos da população-alvo. Apresentaram evidência de validade de conteúdo satisfatória e podem ser utilizados em ações de educação permanente, visando a qualificação da força de trabalho, e em ações de EAN junto aos sujeitos de direito. Os materiais gráficos possibilitam associar o conteúdo dos vídeos à prática, em contextos condizentes com a realidade dos sujeitos.


Abstract This study aims to report on the development and validation of digital educational materials based on the dimensions of home cooking skills (HCS) assessed on a scale destined for PHC professionals, following the recommendations of The Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population and on The Food and Nutrition Education Framework (FNE) for Public Policies. Five videos and graphic materials were developed with proposals for activities to develop HCS and encourage its implementation in actions and guidelines in the community and in professional care. The content of the materials was evaluated by experts using the Two-Round Delphi-based technique and statistical analyses for evidence of consensus. Specialists presented comments to improve the products and their applicability. The materials presented decoded language and playful illustrations with characters representative of the target population. Evidence of satisfactory content validity was presented and can be used in permanent education actions, seeking the qualification of the workforce and in FNE actions within the scope of the law. The graphic materials make it possible to associate the content of the videos with practice in contexts consistent with the reality of the individuals.

9.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e03452023, Jun. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557530

ABSTRACT

Resumo A socioeducação é proposta educacional e de (re)socialização do jovem em conflito com a lei, na qual se prevê, igualmente, o direito à atenção à saúde garantido pelo Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS). O presente trabalho visa investigar como se dá a relação entre os serviços de saúde e as unidades socioeducativas no estado do Paraná a partir da perspectiva de trabalhadores e gestores dos serviços. A pesquisa qualitativa e de cunho exploratório consistiu na realização de dezesseis entrevistas semiestruturadas em cinco municípios do estado, com posterior categorização das narrativas a partir de análise hermenêutica. Como resultado evidenciou-se considerável fragilidade na articulação entre os equipamentos da rede para promoção da assistência à saúde em geral e, mais notoriamente, à saúde mental dos jovens. Os quesitos de segurança exercem forte influência na regulação das ações, até mesmo de saúde, na socioeducação. A política atual de atenção integral à saúde na socioeducação, implantada no Brasil em 2014, representa, contudo, um importante contraponto na reordenação e na indução das ações nesse âmbito.


Abstract Socio-education is an educational and (re)socialization proposal for young people having troubles with the law, a law which also includes the right to health care guaranteed by the Unified Health System (SUS). This study aims to investigate the relationship between health services and socio-educational units in Paraná state, from the perspective of service workers and managers. The qualitative and exploratory research consisted of sixteen semi-structured interviews in five municipalities in the state, with subsequent categorization of the narratives based on hermeneutic analysis. As a result, there was considerable weakness in the coordination between the network's facilities to promote overall health care, specifically the mental health of young people. Security issues have a strong influence on the regulation of actions, even health actions, in socio-education. The current policy of comprehensive health care in socio-education, implemented in Brazil in 2014, is, however, an important counterpoint for the reordering and nudging policies in this area.

10.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e12032023, Jun. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557535

ABSTRACT

Resumo O texto desenvolve-se a partir de uma mesa redonda realizada na Faculdade de Educação (FE) da Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), como uma das atividades de comemorações do Centenário de Paulo Freire (2021). Objetiva registrar parte da sua passagem por essa universidade, nos anos de 1980 a 1991, a partir do trabalho realizado com a FE e Faculdade de Ciências Médicas (FCM) por meio de atividades de formação e extensão no Centro de Saúde Escola de Paulínia-SP. Descreve e analisa as pautas do processo de redemocratização do país, os embates em torno das políticas públicas na Assembleia Nacional Constituinte e o processo de constituição de um sistema integrado e universal de educação e saúde pública coletiva a partir de uma perspectiva participativa.


Abstract The text is based on a round table held at the Faculty of Education (FE) of the State University of Campinas (Unicamp) as one of the activities to commemorate Paulo Freire's Centenary (2021). It aims to record part of his time at the university, from 1980 to 1991, based on the work conducted with FE and the Faculty of Medical Sciences (FCM) through training and extension activities at the Paulínia-SP School Health Center. It also describes and analyses the agendas of the country's re-democratization process, the clashes over public policies in the National Constituent Assembly, and the process of setting up an integrated and universal system of education and collective public health from a participatory perspective.

11.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 29(6): e02102023, Jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1557536

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa as práticas de cuidado e o processo de revelação do diagnóstico a crianças e adolescentes vivendo com HIV/Aids. Foi realizado um estudo de caso em um ambulatório localizado em um hospital público do Rio de Janeiro (RJ), através de observação participante, entrevistas semiestruturadas com profissionais de saúde e consulta a documentos produzidos pelos profissionais. A análise, baseada na sociologia de Simmel e Goffman, aponta a revelação do diagnóstico como uma marca que acompanha todo o cuidado estabelecido com os usuários e dá luz a questões como o segredo, o estigma e as possíveis compreensões acerca da condição de saúde estabelecidas. Com isso, as relações institucionalizadas contribuem para um progressivo contato com a condição de portador de um estigma e fazem existir fases de uma carreira de doente protegido pela informação.


Abstract This article analyzes practices of care and the HIV diagnosis disclosure process to children and adolescents living with HIV/AIDS. A case study was conducted in an outpatient clinic located in a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro through participant observation, semi-structured interviews with health professionals, and the consultation of documents produced by the professionals. The analysis, based on the sociology of Simmel and Goffman, points to the revelation of the diagnosis as a hallmark that accompanies all the care established with users and sheds light on issues such as secrecy, stigma and the possible understandings about the health condition established. As a result, institutionalized relationships contribute to a progressive contact with the condition of bearing a stigma and enable phases of a patient's life protected by information to exist.

12.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 287-295, May-June 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558074

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To analyze the prevalence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients who survived moderate and severe forms of COVID-19 and the risk factors for LUTS six months after hospitalization. Materials and Methods: In this prospective cohort study, patients were evaluated six months after hospitalization due to COVID-19. LUTS were assessed using the International Prostate Symptom Score. General health was assessed through the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and the EQ5D-L5 scale, which evaluates mobility, ability to perform daily activities, pain and discomfort and completed a self-perception health evaluation. Results: Of 255 participants, 54.1% were men and the median age was 57.3 [44.3 - 66.6] years. Pre-existing comorbidities included diabetes (35.7%), hypertension (54.5%), obesity (30.2%) and physical inactivity (65.5%). One hundred and twenty-four patients (48.6%) had a hospital stay >15 days, 181 (71.0%) were admitted to an ICU and 124 (48.6%) needed mechanical ventilation. Median IPSS was 6 [3-11] and did not differ between genders. Moderate to severe LUTS affected 108 (42.4%) patients (40.6% men and 44.4% women; p=0.610). Nocturia (58.4%) and frequency (45.9%) were the most prevalent symptoms and urgency was the only symptom that affected men (29.0%) and women (44.4%) differently (p=0.013). LUTS impacted the quality of life of 60 (23.5%) patients with women more severely affected (p=0.004). Diabetes, hypertension, and self-perception of worse general health were associated with LUTS. Conclusions: LUTS are highly prevalent and bothersome six months after hospitalization due to COVID-19. Assessment of LUTS may help ensure appropriate diagnosis and treatment in these patients.

13.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 50(3): 319-334, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558077

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To create a nomogram to predict the absence of clinically significant prostate cancer (CSPCa) in males with non-suspicion multiparametric magnetic resonance imaging (mpMRI) undergoing prostate biopsy (PBx). Materials and Methods: We identified consecutive patients who underwent 3T mpMRI followed by PBx for suspicion of PCa or surveillance follow-up. All patients had Prostate Imaging Reporting and Data System score 1-2 (negative mpMRI). CSPCa was defined as Grade Group ≥2. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed via backward elimination. Discrimination was evaluated with area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC). Internal validation with 1,000x bootstrapping for estimating the optimism corrected AUROC. Results: Total 327 patients met inclusion criteria. The median (IQR) age and PSA density (PSAD) were 64 years (58-70) and 0.10 ng/mL2 (0.07-0.15), respectively. Biopsy history was as follows: 117 (36%) males were PBx-naive, 130 (40%) had previous negative PBx and 80 (24%) had previous positive PBx. The majority were White (65%); 6% of males self-reported Black. Overall, 44 (13%) patients were diagnosed with CSPCa on PBx. Black race, history of previous negative PBx and PSAD ≥0.15ng/mL2 were independent predictors for CSPCa on PBx and were included in the nomogram. The AUROC of the nomogram was 0.78 and the optimism corrected AUROC was 0.75. Conclusions: Our nomogram facilitates evaluating individual probability of CSPCa on PBx in males with PIRADS 1-2 mpMRI and may be used to identify those in whom PBx may be safely avoided. Black males have increased risk of CSPCa on PBx, even in the setting of PIRADS 1-2 mpMRI

14.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 250-255, May-June 2024. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558320

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: In children with tracheobronchomalacia, surgical management should be reserved for the most severe cases and be specific to the type and location of tracheobronchomalacia. The goal of this study is to describe the presentation and outcomes of children with severe tracheobronchomalacia undergoing surgery. Methods: Retrospective case series of 20 children operated for severe tracheobronchomalacia at a tertiary hospital from 2003 to 2023. Data were collected on symptoms age at diagnosis, associated comorbidities, previous surgery, age at surgery, operative approach, time of follow-up, and outcome. Surgical success was defined as symptom improvement. Results: The most frequent symptoms of severe tracheobronchomalacia were stridor (50 %), cyanosis (50 %), and recurrent respiratory infections (45 %). All patients had one or more underlying conditions, most commonly esophageal atresia (40 %) and prematurity (35 %). Bronchoscopy were performed in all patients. Based on etiology, patients underwent the following procedures: anterior aortopexy (n = 15/75 %), posterior tracheopexy (n = 4/20 %), and/or posterior descending aortopexy (n = 4/20 %). Three patients underwent anterior aortopexy and posterior tracheopexy procedures. After a median follow-up of 12 months, 16 patients (80 %) had improvement in respiratory symptoms. Decannulation was achieved in three (37.5 %) out of eight patients with previous tracheotomy. The presence of dying spells at diagnosis was associated with surgical failure. Conclusions: Isolated or combined surgical procedures improved respiratory symptoms in 80 % of children with severe tracheobronchomalacia. The choice of procedure should be individualized and guided by etiology: anterior aortopexy for anterior compression, posterior tracheopexy for membranous intrusion, and posterior descending aortopexy for left bronchus obstruction.

15.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 231-241, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558321

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Emergence delirium is a common complication in children. Recorded mother's voice, as a non-pharmacological measure, is increasingly used to prevent the emergence of delirium in pediatric patients, but sufficient evidence is still needed to prove its efficacy. Methods: Embase, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, CINAHL, and Sinomed databases were searched for randomized controlled trials exploring the efficacy of recorded mother's voice in preventing the emergence of delirium in pediatric patients undergoing general anesthesia. The original data were pooled for the meta-analysis with Review Manager 5.4.1. This study was conducted based on the Cochrane Review Methods. Results: Eight studies with 724 children were included in the analysis. Recorded mother's voice reduced the incidence of emergence delirium when compared with either no voice (RR: 0.45; [95 % CI, 0.34 - 0.61]; p < 0.01; I2 = 7 %) or stranger's voice (RR: 0.51; [95 % CI, 0.28 - 0.91]; p = 0.02; I2 = 38 %) without increasing other untoward reactions. In addition, it shortened the post-anesthesia care unit stay time when compared with no voice (MD = -5.64; [95 % CI, -8.43 to -2.58]; p < 0.01, I2 = 0 %), but not stranger's voice (MD = -1.23; [95 % CI, -3.08 to 0.63]; p = 0.19, I2 = 0 %). It also shortened the extubation time and reduced the incidence of postoperative rescue analgesia. Conclusion: The current analysis indicated that recorded mother's voices could reduce the incidence of emergency delirium, shorten post-anesthesia care unit stay time and extubation time, and decrease the incidence of postoperative rescue analgesia in children.

16.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 267-276, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558322

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: Fungal infections (FI) pose a public health concern and significantly increase mortality rates, especially within Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICU). Thus, this study aimed to investigate epidemiological indicators, risk factors, and lethality predictors associated with FI in a NICU. Methods: This study included 1,510 neonates admitted to the NICU of a reference hospital in Brazil between 2015 and 2022. Demographic data, such as sex, birth weight, gestational age, and use of invasive devices were analyzed. Results: Thirty neonates developed invasive FI, totaling 33 episodes and an incidence of 1.2 per 1,000 patient days. Candida albicans was the most frequent species (52.9 %), the bloodstream was the most affected site (78.9 %), and 72.7 % of infections occurred between 2015 and 2018. The lethality rate associated with FI was 33.3 %, and 90 % of deaths occurred within 30 days of diagnosis of infection. Weight < 750 g, prolonged hospital stay, use of parenteral nutrition, and broad-spectrum antimicrobials were independent risk factors for infection occurrence, especially glycopeptides and 4th generation cephalosporins, having a considerable role in the increase in fungal infections. Weight < 750 g was considered a significant predictor of lethality, and C. albicans had the highest lethality rate (40 %). Conclusion: These findings highlight the elevated lethality rate associated with these infections, reinforcing the importance of developing strategies to control FI within NICU.

17.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 327-334, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558325

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is the most common type of intracranial bleeding in newborns, especially in the first 3 days after birth. Severe periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage is considered a progression from mild periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage and is often closely associated with severe neurological sequelae. However, no specific indicators are available to predict the progression from mild to severe periventricular-intraventricular in early admission. This study aims to establish an early diagnostic prediction model for severe PIVH. Method: This study was a retrospective cohort study with data collected from the MIMIC-III (v1.4) database. Laboratory and clinical data collected within the first 24 h of NICU admission have been used as variables for both univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses to construct a nomogram-based early prediction model for severe periventricular-intraventricular hemorrhage and subsequently validated. Results: A predictive model was established and represented by a nomogram, it comprised three variables: output, lowest platelet count and use of vasoactive drugs within 24 h of NICU admission. The model's predictive performance showed by the calculated area under the curve was 0.792, indicating good discriminatory power. The calibration plot demonstrated good calibration between observed and predicted outcomes, and the Hosmer-Lemeshow test showed high consistency (p = 0.990). Internal validation showed the calculated area under a curve of 0.788. Conclusions: This severe PIVH predictive model, established by three easily obtainable indicators within the NICU, demonstrated good predictive ability. It offered a more user-friendly and convenient option for neonatologists.

18.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 100(3): 318-326, May-June 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558326

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: Reliably prediction models for coronary artery abnormalities (CAA) in children aged > 5 years with Kawasaki disease (KD) are still lacking. This study aimed to develop a nomogram model for predicting CAA at 4 to 8 weeks of illness in children with KD older than 5 years. Methods: A total of 644 eligible children were randomly assigned to a training cohort (n = 450) and a validation cohort (n = 194). The least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis was used for optimal predictors selection, and multivariate logistic regression was used to develop a nomogram model based on the selected predictors. Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC), calibration curves, Hosmer-Lemeshow test, Brier score, and decision curve analysis (DCA) were used to assess model performance. Results: Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio, intravenous immunoglobulin resistance, and maximum baseline z-score ≥ 2.5 were identified by LASSO as significant predictors. The model incorporating these variables showed good discrimination and calibration capacities in both training and validation cohorts. The AUC of the training cohort and validation cohort were 0.854 and 0.850, respectively. The DCA confirmed the clinical usefulness of the nomogram model. Conclusions: A novel nomogram model was established to accurately assess the risk of CAA at 4-8 weeks of onset among KD children older than 5 years, which may aid clinical decisionmaking.

19.
Saúde debate ; 48(141): e8732, abr.-jun. 2024. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1560530

ABSTRACT

RESUMO As hortas comunitárias inspiradas em modelos agroecológicos já são tendências nas cidades que buscam estimular ambientes positivos. Entre as possíveis estratégias, permitem integrar políticas que visam à erradicação da fome, a garantia de qualidade alimentar e o aumento da economia familiar. O presente estudo objetiva analisar os significados simbólicos e afetivos dos usuários diante de suas atividades nas hortas comunitárias urbanas. Foram 40 entrevistados com idade média entre 45 e 80 anos, por meio do Instrumento Gerador de Mapas Afetivos. A pesquisa foi realizada in loco e os participantes foram convidados a desenhar a horta e responder à entrevista. As imagens produzidas foram analisadas a partir de suas estruturas, sentimentos e sentidos. Constatou-se que as vivências nesses ambientes foram mediadas por sentimentos de agradabilidade, pertencimento e restauração. Entre os sentidos atribuídos, destacaram-se a conexão com a natureza e a interação social. Conclui-se que tais dimensões presentes nas hortas estudadas podem contribuir para a promoção da saúde, da sustentabilidade e a preservação ambiental.


ABSTRACT Community gardens inspired by agroecological models are trends in cities that seek to stimulate positive environments. Among the possible strategies, they allow us to integrate policies that aim to eradicate eradicate hunger, guarantee food quality and increase the family economy. This study aims to analyze the symbolic and emotional meanings of users during their activities in urban community gardens. There were 40 interviewees with average age between 45 and 80 years old, through the Affective Map Generator Instrument. The research was carried out on site and the participants were invited to develop the information and respond to the interview. The images produced are analyzed from their structures, feelings and senses. It is confirmed that experiences in these environments are mediated by feelings of pleasantness, belonging and restoration. Among the senses attributed, the connection with nature and social interaction stand out. It is concluded that these dimensions present in the studied gardens can contribute to the promotion of health, sustainability and environmental preservation.

20.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 84(supl.1): 26-30, mayo 2024.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1558480

ABSTRACT

Resumen El trastorno por déficit de atención/hiperactividad (TDAH) es un trastorno del neurodesarrollo complejo y heterogéneo desde una perspectiva causal, clínica y pro nóstica. La investigación refleja su carácter multifactorial con un papel destacado de los factores genéticos. Los estudios poblacionales han señalado históricamente la implicación de numerosas variantes genéticas de escaso tamaño de efecto, las cuales por sí mismas apenas incre mentan el riesgo de TDAH y difícilmente justifican su ele vada heredabilidad. Muchas de ellas están presentes en más del 60% de la población general, lo que sugiere su pa pel modulador más que causal. No obstante, gracias a la irrupción de nuevas técnicas genéticas en los últimos 15 años, se están identificando un mayor número de casos con trastornos genéticos (muchos de ellos monogénicos), cuyas variantes genéticas explican por sí mismas la presencia del TDAH. El estudio detallado de los antecedentes personales y familiares, así como una exploración física completa, puede ayudar a identificar algunos de ellos. La identificación de la causa en este conjunto de casos tiene un valor crucial en el asesoramiento clínico, el consejo genético-familiar y la anticipación pronóstica, así como en la realización o evitación de estudios complementarios y en el diseño del plan terapéutico.


Abstract Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a complex and heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disor der from a causal, clinical and prognostic perspective. Research reflects its multifactorial nature with a promi nent role of genetic factors. Population studies have historically pointed to the involvement of numerous genetic variants of small effect size, which hardly by themselves increase the risk of presenting the disorder and hardly justify its high heritability. Many of them are present in more than 60% of the general population, suggesting their modulatory rather than causal role. However, after the irruption of new genetic techniques in the last 15 years, a greater number of cases are be ing identified with genetic disorders (many of them monogenic), whose genetic variants alone explain the presence of ADHD. A detailed study of the personal and family history, as well as a complete physical examination, can help to identify some of them. The identification of the cause in this group of cases has a crucial value in clinical counseling, genetic-familial counseling and prognostic anticipation, as well as in the performance or avoidance of complementary stud ies and in the design of the intervention plan.

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