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1.
Online braz. j. nurs. (Online) ; 20: e20216454, 05 maio 2021. graf, tab
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1223174

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Investigar manifestações clínicas, fatores de risco, tratamento e prevenção em recém-nascidos acometidos pela COVID-19 relatados na literatura científica. MÉTODO: Revisão integrativa realizada no mês de maio de 2020, nas bases de dados LILACS, MEDLINE e Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, por meio de combinações entre os termos controlados newborn, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. RESULTADOS: Sete estudos compuseram a amostra final, sendo cinco publicações provenientes da China, onde foram relatados os primeiros casos de infecção neonatal. DISCUSSÃO: A prática baseada em evidências é fundamental para o cuidado ao recém-nascido diante do atual contexto pandêmico. Assim, atualizações sobre abordagens terapêuticas são necessárias. CONCLUSÃO: Medidas de prevenção são importantes, visto que existem lacunas relacionadas ao tratamento da COVID-19 em recém-nascidos. As manifestações clínicas podem variar desde sintomas respiratórios até gastrointestinais e cutâneos. Embora os casos relatados pareçam ser adquiridos no período pós-natal, faz-se necessário mais estudos e evidências para elucidar o risco de transmissão vertical.


OBJECTIVE: To investigate clinical manifestations, risk factors, treatment, and prevention of newborns affected by COVID-19 reported in the scientific literature. METHOD: This was an integrative review carried out in May 2020 in the LILACS, MEDLINE, and Virtual Health Library databases, via the combination of the controlled terms newborn, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: Seven studies composed the final sample, five of which were from China, where the first cases of neonatal infection were reported. DISCUSSION: Evidence-based practice is essential for neonatal care in light of the current pandemic context, which requires constant updates about therapeutic approaches. CONCLUSION: Prevention measures are important, because there are gaps related to COVID-19 treatment in newborns. Clinical manifestations can vary from respiratory symptoms to gastrointestinal and cutaneous symptoms. Although the cases reported seem to have been acquired in the postnatal period, more studies and evidence are needed to clarify the risk of vertical transmission.


OBJETIVO: Investigar las manifestaciones clínicas, factores de riesgo, tratamiento y prevención de recién nacidos infectados por COVID-19 informados en la literatura científica. MÉTODO: Revisión integrativa realizada en mayo de 2020 en bases de datos LILACS, MEDLINE y Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, utilizándose combinaciones entre los términos controlados newborn, COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2. RESULTADOS: Muestra final integrada por siete estudios, cinco de ellos publicaciones de China, donde se reportaron los primeros casos de infección neonatal. DISCUSIÓN: La práctica basada en evidencias es fundamental para el cuidado del recién nacido ante el contexto pandémico actual. Las actualizaciones sobre abordajes terapéuticos resultan necesarias. CONCLUSIÓN: Las medidas preventivas son importantes, considerando existencia de brechas para tratamiento de la COVID-19 en recién nacidos. Las manifestaciones clínicas varían desde síntomas respiratorios hasta gastrointestinales y cutáneos. Aunque los casos reportados remiten a infección en período posnatal, son necesarios más estudios y evidencias para determinar el riesgo de transmisión vertical.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child Health , Risk Factors , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy
2.
J. health sci. (Londrina) ; 23(1): https://revista.pgsskroton.com/index.php/JHealthSci/article/view/8779, 20210330.
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1222371

ABSTRACT

Climacteric is a natural process characterized by the female hormones reduction and increased symptoms that interfere in the woman's quality of life. The objective was to raise scientific evidence on the physical exercise effects as a therapeutic strategy on climacteric symptoms. This systematic review study accessed the Virtual Health Library (VHL) and consulted articles from the last 10 years, with the following eligibility criteria; inclusion, scientific articles published in the last 10 years, with clinical, quasi-experimental, cross-sectional design and case studies conducted with women in the climacteric. Articles published before 2010 with delineations were excluded; epidemiological, systematic review, meta-analyzes, experimental studies with animal model. The studies included in the review were read in full, critically analyzed and categorized. The findings showed that active women have a reduction in vasomotor and somatic symptoms of the climacteric, also collaborating in the prevention of diseases prevalent in this period. Aerobic physical exercise improves physical fitness and quality of life indicators of climacteric women. In clinical practice, aerobic exercise can be considered an auxiliary strategy in the climacteric symptoms treatment and female health improvement. (AU)


O climatério é um processo natural caracterizado pela redução dos hormônios femininos e aumento de sintomas que interferem na qualidade de vida da mulher. Objetivou-se levantar evidências científicas sobre os efeitos do exercício físico como estratégia terapêutica na sintomatologia climatérica. Este estudo de revisão sistemática acessou a Biblioteca Virtual de Saúde (BVS) e consultou artigo dos últimos 10 anos, com os seguintes critérios de elegibilidade; inclusão, artigos científicos com delineamento clínico, quase-experimental, transversal e estudos de caso realizados com mulheres no climatério. Foram excluídos artigos publicados anterior a 2010, com delineamentos; epidemiológico, revisão sistemática, metanálises, estudos experimentais com modelo animal. Os estudos incluídos na revisão foram lidos na integra, analisados criticamente e categorizados. Os achados demonstraram que mulheres ativas apresentam redução dos sintomas vasomotores e somáticos do climatério, também colabora na prevenção de doenças prevalentes nesse período. O exercício físico aeróbio melhora a aptidão física e indicadores de qualidade de vida de mulheres climatéricas. Na prática clínica o exercício aeróbio pode ser considerado uma estratégia auxiliar no tratamento dos sintomas do climatério e melhora da saúde feminina. (AU)

3.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 49(1): e400, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149797

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Multimodal enhanced recovery programs are a new paradigm in perioperative care. Objective To evaluate the certainty of evidence pertaining to the effectiveness and safety of the multimodal perioperative care program in elective colorectal surgery. Data source: A search was conducted in the Medline, EMBASE, and Cochrane databases, up until February 2020. Eligibility criteria Systematic reviews that take into account the perioperative multimodal program in patients with an indication for colorectal surgery were included. The primary outcomes were morbidity and postoperative deaths. The secondary outcome was hospital length of stay. Study quality and synthesis method The reviews were evaluated with AMSTAR-2 and the certainty of the evidence with the GRADE methodology. The findings are presented with measures of frequency, risk estimators, or differences. Results Six systematic reviews of clinical trials with medium and high quality in AMSTAR-2 were included. Morbidity was reduced between 16 and 48%. Studies are inconclusive regarding postoperative mortality. Hospital length of stay was reduced by an average of 2.5 days (p <0.05). The certainty of the body of evidence is very low. Limitations The effect of the program, depending on the combination of elements, is not clear. Conclusions and implications Despite the proven evidence that the program is effective in reducing global postoperative morbidity and hospital stay, the body of evidence is of very low quality. Consequently, results may change with new evidence and further research is required.


Resumen Introducción Los programas multimodales de cuidado perioperatorio son nuevos paradigmas de atención en salud, particularmente en el paciente quirúrgico. Objetivo Evaluar la certeza en la evidencia de la efectividad y seguridad del programa multimodal perioperatorio en cirugía colorrectal electiva. Fuente de datos Se consultaron las bases de datos Medline, EMBASE y Cochrane hasta febrero de 2020. Criterios de elegibilidad Se incluyeron revisiones sistemáticas que consideraron como intervención el programa multimodal perioperatorio en pacientes con indicación de cirugía colorrectal. Los desenlaces primarios fueron morbilidad y mortalidad postoperatoria. El desenlace secundario fue estancia hospitalaria. Evaluación de los estudios y método de síntesis La calidad de las revisiones fue evaluada con AMSTAR-2 y la certeza de la evidencia con la metodología GRADE. Los hallazgos se presentan con medidas de frecuencia, estimadores de riesgo o diferencias. Resultados Se incluyeron seis revisiones sistemáticas de ensayos clínicos de media y alta calidad en AMSTAR-2. La morbilidad se redujo entre el 16 y el 48 %. Para la mortalidad postoperatoria no se reportan diferencias a favor del programa. La estancia hospitalaria se redujo en promedio 2,5 días (p < 0,05). La certeza del cuerpo de la evidencia es muy baja. Limitaciones El efecto del programa en función de combinación de elementos no es claro. Conclusiones e implicaciones A pesar de que la evidencia sugiere que el programa es efectivo en la reducción de morbilidad postoperatoria global y estancia hospitalaria, el cuerpo de la evidencia es de muy baja calidad, por lo que los resultados podrían cambiar con nueva evidencia. Se requieren nuevas investigaciones.

4.
Rev. Paul. Pediatr. (Ed. Port., Online) ; 39: e2019225, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1136758

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To review the epidemiological evidence of the association between sleep duration and blood pressure in adolescents. Data sources: We performed a systematic review of observational studies in Medline, Scopus, Lilacs, Web of Science, Science Direct databases and Virtual Libraries in English, Spanish and Portuguese published until September 2018. Studies were selected first by title and abstract, then by complete reading, according to the eligibility criteria. The reference list of selected articles was evaluated in order to retrieve relevant studies. Data synthesis: Initially, 1,455 articles were retrieved. After exclusion due to duplicity or not meeting the eligibility criteria, 13 articles were included in the review. Studies varied greatly in sample size (143 to 6,940 patients), methods of measuring blood pressure and sleep duration, cutoff points, categorization and adjustment of variables. The main evidence from the studies is that short sleep duration is associated with high blood pressure in adolescence, although the presence of association between high blood pressure and long sleep duration is possible, but not clear in the literature. Conclusions: Sleep duration, especially short duration, is associated with high blood pressure in adolescents. Such evidence draws attention to implications on cardiovascular health in this age group.


RESUMO Objetivo: Discutir as principais evidências epidemiológicas da associação entre duração do sono e pressão arterial em adolescentes relatadas na literatura científica. Fonte de dados: Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática de estudos observacionais nas bases de dados do Sistema Online de Busca e Análise de Literatura Médica (MEDLINE), Scopus, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (Lilacs), Web of Science, ScienceDirect e bibliotecas virtuais nos idiomas inglês, espanhol e português para todo o período anterior a setembro de 2018. Foram selecionados trabalhos primeiramente pelo título e pelo resumo, em seguida pela leitura completa, conforme os critérios de elegibilidade. A lista de referência dos artigos selecionados foi avaliada a fim de recuperar estudos relevantes. Síntese dos dados: Inicialmente, foram recuperados 1.455 artigos. Após exclusões por duplicidade ou por não se enquadrarem nos critérios de elegibilidade, resultaram 13 artigos, que foram incluídos na revisão. Os estudos variaram bastante em tamanho de amostra (143 a 6.940), métodos de mensuração da pressão arterial e duração do sono, pontos de corte, categorização e ajuste de variáveis. As principais evidências trazidas pelos estudos são de que a curta duração do sono está associada à pressão arterial elevada na adolescência, embora não se descarte a possibilidade da relação entre pressão arterial elevada e longa duração do sono, que ainda não está clara na literatura. Conclusões: A duração do sono, principalmente a curta duração, está associada à pressão arterial elevada em adolescentes. Tais evidências chamam atenção para implicações sobre a saúde cardiovascular nessa faixa etária.

5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1151190

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Teriparatida, comparada a bifosfonados orais ou Raloxifeno. Indicação: prevenção de fraturas em pessoas com osteoporose. Pergunta: A Teriparatida é mais eficaz e segura que os bifosfonados orais ou o Raloxifeno para tratamento da osteoporose e prevenção de fraturas secundárias à osteoporose? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado na base de dados PUBMED, seguindo estratégias de buscas predefinidas. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews version 2 (AMSTAR-2). Resultados: Foram selecionadas 2 revisões sistemáticas, que atendiam aos critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Para a população em geral com osteoporose, a Teriparatida evita mais fraturas vertebrais que o Alendronato de sódio ou Risedronato de sódio, mas efeito similar para fraturas não vertebrais. Teriparatida previne mais fraturas vertebrais e não vertebrais que Raloxifeno. Teriparatida tem maior efeito sobre a massa óssea corporal que o Risedronato de sódio e o Raloxifeno, mas tem efeito similar ao Alendronato de sódio. Na população masculina com osteoporose, a terapia com bifosfonados orais é mais eficaz que suplementação nutricional ou placebo para prevenir fraturas. Já o tratamento com Teriparatida não é mais eficaz que a suplementação nutricional ou placebo


Teriparatide compared to oral bisphosphonates or Raloxifene. Indication: prevention of fractures in people with osteoporosis. Question: Is Teriparatide more effective and safer than oral bisphosphonates or Raloxifene for treating osteoporosis and preventing fractures secondary to osteoporosis? Methods: Bibliographic survey was carried out in the PUBMED database, following predefined search strategies. Evaluation of the methodological quality of systematic reviews was carried out using the tool Assessing the Methodological Quality of Systematic Reviews version 2 (AMSTAR-2). Results: Two systematic reviews were selected, which met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: For the general population with osteoporosis, Teriparatide prevents more vertebral fractures than Alendronate or Risedronate sodium, but has similar effect for non-vertebral fractures. Teriparatide prevents more vertebral and non-vertebral fractures than Raloxifene. Teriparatide has a greater effect on body bone mass than Risedronate sodium and Raloxifene, but it has a similar effect to Alendronate sodium. In the male population with osteoporosis, oral bisphosphonates is more effective than nutritional supplementation or placebo to prevent fractures. Treatment with teriparatide is no more effective than nutritional supplementation or placebo


Subject(s)
Humans , Teriparatide/therapeutic use , Raloxifene Hydrochloride/therapeutic use , Diphosphonates/therapeutic use , Osteoporotic Fractures/drug therapy , Efficacy , Spinal Fractures/drug therapy , Alendronate/therapeutic use , Evidence-Based Medicine , Risedronic Acid/therapeutic use , Denosumab/therapeutic use , Hip Fractures/drug therapy
6.
Psicol. (Univ. Brasília, Online) ; 37: e37212, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1155123

ABSTRACT

Resumo O viés atencional corresponde à alocação de recursos de atenção a materiais irrelevantes à tarefa. Supõe-se que pacientes com transtorno obsessivo-compulsivo (TOC) apresentem viés atencional voltado à ameaça. Com o objetivo de descrever os achados neurobiológicos do viés atencional voltado à ameaça no TOC, foi realizada uma busca sistemática por estudos experimentais com investigação neurobiológica nas bases de dados: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus e LILACS. Quatro estudos com grupo controle são descritos nos resultados, todos indicam diferenças estatisticamente significativas na atividade encefálica associada a atenção em pacientes. Os achados neurobiológicos dos estudos incluídos na revisão sugerem a alocação de recursos da atenção a estímulos irrelevantes, independente da valência emocional no TOC.


Abstract The attentional bias is the allocation of attentional resources to irrelevant stimuli during a task. It is assumed that patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) presents attentional bias toward threatening stimuli. In order to describe OCD's neurobiological findings of attentional bias towards a threat, it was performed a systematic review of experimental studies with neurobiological assessment in the following databases: MEDLINE, Web of Science, Scopus and LILACS. Four studies with control group are described in this review, all presenting statistically significant differences in brain activity associated with attention in patients. The neurobiological findings of the studies included in the review suggest allocation of attentional resources to irrelevant stimuli, regardless of the emotional valence in OCD.

7.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 31(5/6): 387-395, sept. dic. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1223797

ABSTRACT

El dolor lumbar corresponde a uno de los síntomas más prevalentes en la humanidad, siendo la segunda causa más frecuente de atención médica a nivel mundial. Existen diversos enfoques de diagnóstico y tratamiento para dolor lumbar, entre ellos la temporalidad del síntoma, el trabajo de diagnóstico sindromático, los síntomas de alarma, también llamados "banderas rojas", que pueden hacer sospechar patologías de mayor gravedad o urgencia. El estudio etiológico puede ser necesario en casos agudos con estas banderas rojas y en casos crónicos. Este estudio se realiza principalmente con imágenes (radiografías, tomografía computada, resonancia magnética, SPECT/CT) y ocasionalmente con exámenes de laboratorio. La mayor parte de los tratamientos están enfocados en el manejo conservador, principalmente el ejercicio físico guiado y asociado a fármacos analgésicos. Existen terapias alternativas tales como la acupuntura, el tai-chi, entre otros, algunas de ellas han mostrado ser un buen complemento al manejo del dolor lumbar. El enfoque multidisciplinario es la tendencia más actual de manejo, esto incluye el trabajo e intervención de diversos profesionales abordando el problema de forma integral, incluyendo el manejo psicoterapéutico. Intervenciones como las infiltraciones de columna han demostrado reducir el dolor por tiempos cortos, siendo útiles como puente para realizar un tratamiento apropiado. La cirugía solo se reserva para casos refractarios, siendo controversiales los resultados existentes en la literatura.


Low back pain is one of the most prevalent symptoms in humanity, being the second most common cause of medical attention worldwide. There are various approaches to diagnosis and treatment for low back pain, including the temporality of the symptom, the work of syndromatic diagnosis, the alarm symptoms, also called "red flags", that can make suspect pathologies of greater severity or emergency. The etiological study may be necessary in acute cases with these "red flags" and in chronic cases. This study is mainly done with images (X-rays, CT scan, MRI, SPECT/CT) and occasionally with laboratory tests. Most of the treatments are focused on conservative management, mainly guided physical exercise associated with analgesic drugs. There are alternative therapies such as acupuncture, tai-chi, among others, some of them have proven to be a good complement to the management of low back pain. The multidisciplinary approach is the most current management trend, this includes the work and intervention of various professionals addressing the problem in an integral way, including psychotherapeutic management. Interventions such as spinal infiltrations have been shown to reduce pain for short times, being useful as a bridge for proper treatment. Surgery is only reserved for refractory cases, the results existing in the literature being controversial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Low Back Pain/therapy , Low Back Pain/diagnostic imaging , Low Back Pain/physiopathology , Evidence-Based Medicine
8.
NOVA publ. cient ; 18(spe35): 87-94, jul.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149471

ABSTRACT

Resumen En el contexto de la pandemia por COVID-19, es importante la selección y el uso adecuado de los conocimientos nuevos y de aquellos adquiridos en situaciones históricas similares, para garantizar una correcta toma de decisiones en cuanto a la prevención, manejo y tratamiento de esta enfermedad en la población pediátrica. Desde inicios del 2020, la atención se ha focalizado en el control de la pandemia y en el manejo de los pacientes con esta enfermedad, cuya mayoría se encuentra en la población adulta. Sin embargo, recientemente se han observado cursos más severos de la enfermedad en pacientes pediátricos y lo que inicialmente se consideraba como una patología inofensiva ha generado mayores alertas en esta población por la presencia de complicaciones severas. Por lo anterior, la presente revisión busca determinar las últimas estrategias de prevención, diagnóstico y tratamiento avaladas y soportadas por la evidencia científica, de manera que se aporten las herramientas necesaria para garantizar un manejo adecuado y disminuir, en la medida de lo posible, los desenlaces fatales en la población pediátrica.


Abstract In the context of the COVID-19 pandemic, the adequate selection and appropriate use of previously acquired knowledge from similar historical situations and the one acquired lately amid the pandemic is vital to guarantee correct decision-making regarding the prevention, management and treatment of this disease in the pediatric population. Since the beginning of 2020, attention has shifted to controlling the pandemic and managing patients with this disease, the majority being those in the adult population. However, more severe courses of the disease have recently been observed in pediatric patients, and what was initially considered to be a harmless pathology in this population has generated greater alerts due to the presence of severe complications. Therefore, this review seeks to determine the latest prevention, diagnosis and treatment strategies endorsed and supported by scientific evidence, in order to provide the necessary tools to guarantee proper management and to reduce, as far as possible, the fatal outcomes in the pediatric population.

9.
Acta colomb. psicol ; 23(2): 349-365, jul.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1124050

ABSTRACT

Abstract There is no document that analyzes the state of the art of scientific research published between 2013 and 2018 in relation to possible interdependence links between emotional regulation [ER] and healthy behaviors associated with Body Energy Balance [BEB] (physical activity, balanced diet and sleep hygiene). To achieve this purpose, an exploratory systematic review was conducted, whose search criteria were "emotion regulation", "emotion dysregulation" connected with the Boolean operator "AND" to the keywords "sleep hygiene", "eating behavior" and "physical activity". Terms like "alexithymia", "depression", "stress", "negative emotions", and "rumination" were omitted. The methodological quality of the evidence was assessed with a patented rubric. After applying the analysis criteria, 35 articles were obtained, reporting the existence of reciprocal associations and interactions between ER and at least one of the three behaviors associated with BEB were analyzed. It is concluded that, despite the importance of these behaviors in the vital maintenance of people and the clear impact that emotional regulation has on them, their research has not been sufficient, and more empirical studies in this regard in Latin America are needed.


Resumen No existe en la actualidad un documento que analice el estado del conocimiento de las investigaciones científicas publicadas en los últimos años con respecto a los posibles vínculos de interdependencia entre la regulación emocional (RE) y las conductas asociadas al balance energético corporal (BEC) -actividad física, alimentación balanceada e higiene del sueño-. Por tanto, para lograr dicho propósito, en el presente estudio se realizó una revisión sistemática exploratoria, cuyos criterios de búsqueda fueron los términos "emotion regulation" y "emotion dysregulation", conectados con el operador booleano "AND" a las palabras clave "sleep hygiene", "eating behavior" y "physical activity" -términos como "alexithymia", "depression", "stress", "negative emotions", y "rumination" fueron omitidos-; donde se valoró la calidad metodológica de la evidencia de los artículos a partir una rúbrica patentada. Tras aplicar los criterios de inclusión establecidos, se obtuvo un total de 35 artículos que reportaban la existencia de asociaciones e interacciones recíprocas entre la RE y al menos una de las tres conductas asociadas al BEC. Como resultado, se puede afirmar que, a pesar de la importancia de dichas conductas en el mantenimiento vital de las personas y el claro impacto que tiene la regulación emocional sobre ellas, su estudio no ha sido suficiente, y por tanto se necesitan más investigaciones empíricas en el contexto latinoamericano.

10.
Bol. méd. Hosp. Infant. Méx ; 77(5): 262-273, Sep.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131987

ABSTRACT

Abstract Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and Alphainfluenzavirus are RNA viruses that cause coronavirus disease-19 and influenza, respectively. Both viruses infect the respiratory tract, show similar symptoms, and use surface proteins to infect the host. Influenza requires hemagglutinin and neuraminidase to infect, whereas SARS-CoV-2 uses protein S. Both viruses depend on a viral RNA polymerase to express their proteins, but only SARS-CoV-2 has a proofreading mechanism, which results in a low mutation rate compared to influenza. E1KC4 and camostat mesylate are potential inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2 S protein, achieving an effect similar to oseltamivir. Due to the SARS-CoV-2 low mutation rate, nucleoside analogs have been developed (such as EIDD-2801), which insert lethal mutations in the viral RNA. Furthermore, the SARS-CoV-2 low mutation rate suggests that a vaccine, as well as the immunity developed in recovered patients, could provide long-lasting protection compared to vaccines against influenza, which are rendered obsolete as the virus mutates.


Resumen La enfermedad por coronavirus de 2019 y la influenza son causadas por virus ARN: coronavirus tipo 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo grave (SARS-CoV-2) y Alphainfluenzavirus, respectivamente. Ambos virus infectan el tracto respiratorio, presentan síntomas similares y emplean proteínas de superficie para infectar al huésped. El virus de la influenza requiere de hemaglutinina y neuraminidasa para infectar, mientras que el SARS-CoV-2 utiliza la proteína S. Ambos virus dependen de la ARN polimerasa viral para expresar sus proteínas, pero solo el SARS-CoV-2 cuenta con un mecanismo de corrección de errores, por lo que presenta una baja tasa de mutaciones en comparación con el virus de la influenza. E1KC4 y el mesilato de camostat son inhibidores potenciales de la proteína S del SARS-CoV-2, obteniendo un efecto similar al de oseltamivir. Aprovechando la baja tasa de mutación del SARS-CoV-2, se han desarrollado análogos de nucleósidos (como el fármaco EIDD-2801) que insertan mutaciones letales en el ARN viral. Además, la baja tasa de mutación del SARS-CoV-2, obteniendo un efecto similar al de oseltamivir sugiere que las vacunas desarrolladas, así como la inmunidad generada en pacientes recuperados, podrían brindar protección prolongada, en comparación con las vacunas desarrolladas contra la influenza, que resultan obsoletas frente a una cepa mutada.

11.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Coleciona SUS, CONASS, SES-GO | ID: biblio-1121875

ABSTRACT

Tecnologia: Hemiprótese de ombro ajustável. Próteses de cabeça excêntrica reproduzem a anatomia da extremidade proximal do úmero. Indicação: Reconstrução da extremidade proximal do úmero no tratamento de fraturas complexas de úmero. Pergunta: o tratamento cirúrgico é superior ao tratamento conservador, para tratamento de fratura proximal de úmero, com melhores desfechos funcionais, menos complicações, menor mortalidade? Os efeitos terapêuticos da prótese de ombro excêntrica são superiores aos da prótese de ombro Neer II em pacientes com fratura proximal de úmero submetidos a hemiartroplastia de ombro nos desfechos de resultados funcionais e complicações cirúrgicas? Métodos: Levantamento bibliográfico foi realizado em bases de dados Pubmed, BVS e Google com estratégias estruturadas de busca. Foi feita avaliação da qualidade metodológica das revisões sistemáticas com a ferramenta AMSTAR e para os estudos econômicos, foi utilizado o QHES checklist. Resultados: Foram identificados 485 registros nas bases de dados internacionais e nacionais. Após a remoção de duplicatas e exclusão dos não elegíveis, pela análise de título e resumo, foram selecionadas quatro revisões sistemáticas e um estudo econômico. Conclusão: Não há evidências suficientes de ensaios clínicos para informar qual a melhor escolha entre as intervenções (não cirúrgicas, cirúrgicas ou de reabilitação) para essas fraturas. Não foram encontrados estudos brasileiros sobre eficácia e custo-efetividade das diferentes abordagens cirúrgicas bem como os tipos e marcas de próteses entre si


Technology: Adjustable shoulder hemi prosthesis. Eccentric head prostheses reproduce the anatomy of the proximal extremity of the humerus. Indication: Reconstruction of the proximal extremity of the humerus in the treatment of complex humerus fractures. Question: Is surgical treatment superior to conservative treatment, for the treatment of proximal humerus fractures, with better functional outcomes, less complications, less mortality? Are the therapeutic effects of the eccentric shoulder prosthesis superior to those of the Neer II shoulder prosthesis in patients with proximal humerus fractures who underwent shoulder hemiarthroplasty in the outcomes of functional results and surgical complications? Methods: Bibliographic survey was carried out in Pubmed, BVS and Google databases with structured search strategies. The methodological quality of systematic reviews was assessed using the AMSTAR tool and for economic studies, the QHES checklist was used. Results: Were they identified 485 records in international and national databases. After removing duplicates and excluding the ineligible ones, by analyzing the title and summary, four systematic reviews and one economic study were selected. Conclusion: There is not enough evidence of clinical trials to inform which is the best choice between interventions (nonsurgical, surgical or rehabilitation) for these fractures. No brazilian studies were found about the efficacy and cost-effectiveness of the different surgical approaches, as well as the types and brands of prostheses between them


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Shoulder Fractures/therapy , Hemiarthroplasty/methods , Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder , Shoulder Prosthesis/adverse effects , Cost-Benefit Analysis , Evidence-Based Medicine
12.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 36(5): 1806-1815, 01-09-2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1147938

ABSTRACT

Orthodontics figures as one of the largest community of specialists in Brazil. Unfortunately, numbers are high not only for the professionals but also for the lawsuits against them. The aim of this study was to screen the Brazilian jurisprudence in order to identify the reasons that motivated patients against orthodontists and motivated Judges towards convictions in lawsuits. The sample consisted of 395 lawsuits retrieved from the State Civil Courts of Brazil (n=27). The lawsuits were founded on conflicts between orthodontists and patients. Case-specific legal information were registered, such as patients' main reason behind the lawsuit and the decision in second instance. Chi-square and relative risk tests were calculated to investigate the influence of research variables towards conviction. Most of the lawsuits were judged in the State of São Paulo (n=151; 38.2%) and were published between 2011 and 2017 (rho: 0.797). The main reasons behind the lawsuits against orthodontists were the dissatisfaction with treatment outcomes (n=143, 36.2%), the occurrence of periodontal disease (n=45, 11.4%) and the need for tooth extractions (n=43, 10.9%). Statistically significant outcomes were detected between convictions in first and second instances and between convictions and the contractual obligation of result (p<0.001). The combination of I) patients' dissatisfaction and II) judgments under the obligation of results in second instance figure as the main risk factors for the prosecution and conviction of orthodontists.


A Ortodontia figura como uma das maiores especialidades no Brasil. Infelizmente, os números não são elevados apenas no que concerne aos profissionais, mas também quanto aos processos judiciais contra eles. O objetivo deste trabalho foi pesquisar a jurisprudência Brasileira para identificar as razões que levam os Ortodontistas a serem processados pelos pacientes e os motivos que levam os Magistrados a condená-los. A amostra consistiu de 395 processos judiciais obtidos dos Tribunais Judiciais Brasileiros (n=27). Todos os processos descreveram lides entre Ortodontistas e pacientes. Informações demográficas e legais foram registradas, como a queixa principal do paciente ao instaurar o processo e a decisão do Magistrado em segunda instância. Os testes de Qui-quadrado e de risco relativo foram utilizados para verificar a influência das variáveis sobre o desfecho. A maioria dos processos foi julgada no Estado de São Paulo (n=151; 38.2%) e publicada entre 2011 e 2017 (rho: 0.797). O principal motivo de processo contra Ortodontistas foi a insatisfação do paciente com os resultados do tratamento (n=143, 36.2%), seguido da ocorrência de doença periodontal (n=45, 11.4%) e da necessidade de extrações (n=43, 10.9%). Resultados estatisticamente significantes foram observados entre julgamentos em primeira e segunda instância e entre condenação e julgamento sob a obrigação de resultado (p<0.001). A combinação da I) insatisfação do paciente com II) o julgamentos sob a obrigação de resultados emergiram como principais fatores de risco para condenações.


Subject(s)
Forensic Dentistry
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(9): 576-585, Sept. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131760

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Autosomal dominant cerebellar ataxias (ADCA) are heterogeneous diseases with a highly variable phenotype and genotype. They can be divided into episodic ataxia and spinocerebellar ataxia (SCA); the latter is considered the prototype of the ADCA. Most of the ADCA are caused by polyglutamine expansions, mainly SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17 and Dentatorubral-pallidoluysian atrophy (DRPLA). However, 30% of patients remain undiagnosed after testing for these most common SCA. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that the new generation of sequencing methods are useful for the diagnose of these patients. This review focus on searching evidence on the literature, its usefulness in clinical practice and future perspectives.


RESUMO As ataxias cerebelares autossômicas dominantes (ACAD) são doenças heterogêneas com fenótipo e genótipo altamente variáveis. Podem ser divididas em ataxia episódica e ataxia espinocerebelar (SCA), sendo este último considerado o protótipo do ACAD. A maior parte das ACAD são causadas por expansões de poliglutaminas, principalmente SCA 1, 2, 3, 6, 7, 17 e atrofia dentatorubro-palidoluisiana (DRPLA). No entanto, 30% dos pacientes permanecem sem diagnóstico após o teste para essas SCA mais comuns. Recentemente, vários estudos têm demonstrado que a nova geração de métodos de sequenciamento são ferramentas úteis para o diagnóstico desses pacientes. Esta é uma revisão sistemática da literatura, com foco em sua utilidade na prática clínica e em perspectivas futuras.


Subject(s)
Humans , Arthrogryposis , Cerebellar Ataxia/diagnosis , Cerebellar Ataxia/genetics , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/diagnosis , Spinocerebellar Ataxias/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Genotype
14.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 138(4): 336-344, July-Aug. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS, Sec. Est. Saúde SP | ID: biblio-1139699

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: COVID-19 infection has high transmissibility and several measures have been adopted for controlling its dissemination. OBJECTIVE: To identify and summarize the evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews (SRs) regarding measures for controlling the dissemination of COVID-19 infection. DESIGN AND SETTING: This review of Cochrane SRs was carried out in the Division of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery and in the Division of Emergency Medicine and Evidence-Based Medicine of Universidade Federal de São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: A comprehensive search in the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews retrieved all Cochrane SRs directly related to measures for controlling COVID-19 dissemination. The main characteristics and results of all the SRs included were summarized and discussed. RESULTS: Three Cochrane SRs were included in the qualitative synthesis. These evaluated population-based and individual measures for controlling the dissemination of COVID-19. CONCLUSION: Low-certainty evidence shows that quarantine for people exposed to confirmed or suspected COVID-19 cases prevented 44% to 81% of incident cases and 31% to 63% of deaths, compared with situations of no measures. Moreover, the sooner the quarantine measures were implemented, the greater the cost savings were. High-confidence evidence showed that clear communication about infection control and prevention guidelines was vital for successful implementation. Low-certainty evidence showed that healthcare professionals with long gowns were less exposed to contamination than were those using coveralls. In addition, coveralls were more difficult to doff. Further SRs on controlling the dissemination of COVID-19 infection are desirable.

15.
Medwave ; 20(7)31-08-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122672

ABSTRACT

Introducción La rehabilitación y las acciones de terapia física se han ido adaptando a la era de la telesalud, permitiendo aumentar la accesibilidad y mejorar la continuidad de la atención en poblaciones con discapacidades y alejadas geográficamente. En la actualidad, y debido a expansión de la infección por SARS-CoV-2, muchos profesionales han debido adaptar su trabajo a una modalidad de telerehabilitación, por lo que es necesario acceder a la mejor evidencia disponible de manera resumida y oportuna. Es en este contexto que se ha desarrollado el presente protocolo, con el objetivo de evaluar la efectividad de la telerehabilitación como estrategia de atención en terapia física para diferentes condiciones, poblaciones y contextos. Método y análisis Se conducirá una revisión global o revisión de revisiones, en un formato de revisión rápida siguiendo las recomendaciones PRISMA-P. Se incluirán revisiones sistemáticas de diferentes condiciones, poblaciones y contextos, donde la intervención a evaluar es la telerehabilitación en terapia física. Los desenlaces de interés a considerar son la efectividad clínica dependiendo de la condición específica, la funcionalidad, calidad de vida, satisfacción, adherencia y seguridad. Se realizará una búsqueda en las bases de datos MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE y Cochrane Library. La selección de los estudios será realizada en duplicado con resolución de discrepancias por un tercer revisor. La extracción de datos y la evaluación del riesgo de sesgos serán realizadas por un revisor con verificación no independiente de un segundo revisor. Los hallazgos serán reportados cualitativamente a través de tablas y figuras. Ética y diseminación Se considera el cumplimiento de los principios éticos del valor de la pregunta de investigación, rigor metodológico, investigadores científicamente cualificados, evaluación independiente del protocolo y publicación puntual y precisa de los resultados. Se espera publicar la revisión completa en al menos un artículo y los resultados se difundirán ampliamente en diversos niveles de decisión. Registro El protocolo está registrado en PROSPERO con el número CRD42020185640.


Introduction Rehabilitation and physical therapy have been adapting to the telehealth era, increasing accessibility and improving the continuity of attention in geographically remote populations with disabilities. Due to the spread of infection by SARS-CoV-2, many professionals have had to adapt their work to telerehabilitation practices, which require the best evidence at short notice and in summarized form. In this context, this protocol has been developed to evaluate the effectiveness of telerehabilitation as a care strategy in physical therapy for different conditions, populations, and contexts. Method and analysis An overview will be carried out in the format of a rapid review. It will include systematic reviews of different conditions, populations, and contexts, where the intervention to be evaluated is telerehabilitation by physical therapy. The outcomes considered will be clinical effectiveness depending on the specific condition, functionality, quality of life, satisfaction, adherence, and safety. A search will be carried out of the MEDLINE/PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases. Studies will be selected in duplicate with any discrepancies resolved by a third reviewer. Data extraction and risk of bias assessment will be carried out by a reviewer with non-independent verification by a second reviewer. The findings will be reported qualitatively by tables and figures. Ethics and dissemination The principles of the value of the research question, the methodological rigor, scientifically qualified investigators, an independent evaluation of the protocol, and timely and accurate publication of the results will be complied with. The complete review will lead to the publication of at least one article, and the results will be widely disseminated at various levels of decision-making. Register This protocol has been registered in PROSPERO with the number CRD42020185640.

16.
Rev. peru. med. exp. salud publica ; 37(2): 320-326, abr.-jun. 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127153

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) del Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) ha desarrollado siete informes breves mediante revisiones rápidas de evidencia sobre los agentes potencialmente terapéuticos contra el SARS-CoV-2 con la finalidad de brindar información actual y relevante para los decisores, clínicos, investigadores y la comunidad académica en el Perú. Los agentes terapéuticos evaluados incluyeron cloroquina/hidroxicloroquina, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferón, atazanavir y plasma anti-SARS-CoV-2. La identificación de evidencia incluyó la revisión de las bases electrónicas PubMed y Cochrane Library. Adicionalmente, se realizó una búsqueda manual en las páginas web de grupos dedicados a la investigación y educación en salud, así como, en las principales sociedades o instituciones especializadas, como la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC, por sus siglas en inglés). Asimismo, para disminuir el sesgo de publicación, se buscó en las páginas web www.clinicaltrials.gov y http://apps.who.int/trialsearch, para identificar ensayos clínicos en desarrollo o que no hayan sido publicados aún. Finalmente, se consideró extraer información con una estrategia de «bola de nieve¼ mediante la revisión de las listas de referencias de las revisiones sistemáticas, estudios primarios y revisiones narrativas que sean de relevancia. A la fecha de la última revisión (27 de marzo de 2020), no se dispone de evidencia para recomendar un medicamento específico para el tratamiento de pacientes con COVID-19. Se necesita de mayor evidencia, preferentemente ensayos clínicos de buena calidad, para la toma de decisiones terapéuticas contra el SARS-CoV-2.


ABSTRACT The Instituto de Evaluación de Tecnologías en Salud e Investigación (IETSI) of the Seguro Social de Salud (EsSalud) has completed seven brief reports by means of rapid reviews of evidence regarding the potentially effective therapies against SARS-CoV-2 in order to provide current and relevant information for decision makers, clinicians, researchers and the academic community in Peru. The therapeutic agents evaluated were chloroquine/hydroxychloroquine, lopinavir/ritonavir, tocilizumab, oseltamivir, interferon, atazanavir and anti SARS-CoV-2 serum. Evidence identification included the review of PubMed and Cochrane Library electronic databases. Additionally, manual search was carried out on websites from groups dedicated to research and education on health, as well as in the main specialized societies or institutions, such as, the World Health Organization (WHO) and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Furthermore, in order to reduce publication bias, the websites: www.clinicaltrials.gov and http://apps.who.int/trialsearch were searched to identify in-progress or unpublished clinical trials. Finally, a "snowball" strategy was performed by reviewing the reference lists of the systematic reviews, primary studies and selected narrative reviews to identify relevant information. The latest review (March 27, 2020) showed that there is no evidence to recommend any medication for patients´ treatment with COVID-19. More evidence, preferably high-quality randomized clinical trials, is needed for decision-making against SARS-CoV-2.

17.
Medwave ; 20(5)26-06-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1116878

ABSTRACT

Introducción Pese a la creciente cantidad y disponibilidad de evidencia, así como de fuentes de información, no existe claridad respecto a las fuentes de información de preferencia utilizadas por los médicos para dar respuesta a sus preguntas clínicas. Objetivo Resumir la evidencia disponible acerca de las fuentes de información que prefieren los médicos para dar respuesta a las interrogantes surgidas de la práctica médica, además de las barreras y facilitadores percibidos sobre su uso. Métodos Realizaremos una revisión panorámica de revisiones sistemáticas, de acuerdo con las guías PRISMA. Buscaremos en Epistemonikos desde el inicio hasta marzo de 2019. También utilizaremos PROSPERO y efectuaremos una búsqueda de citas en Scopus. Los criterios de inclusión considerarán revisiones sistemáticas (métodos cualitativos, cuantitativos o mixtos) centrados en las preferencias de los médicos sobre las fuentes de información, así como las barreras y facilitadores percibidos. Dos autores examinarán y seleccionarán de forma independiente los estudios para su inclusión. Evaluaremos la calidad de las revisiones sistemáticas incluidas utilizando la lista de verificación del Instituto Joanna Briggs y la superposición de los estudios primarios, de acuerdo con la fórmula del área cubierta corregida. Realizaremos una síntesis narrativa de datos cuantitativos y un análisis temático de hallazgos cualitativos. Discusión Esperamos que nuestros hallazgos contribuyan a mejorar la práctica médica basada en la evidencia, mediante la identificación de las perspectivas médicas sobre las diversas fuentes de información médicas disponibles.


Introduction Despite the growing availability of evidence and sources of information, it is not clear what are the physicians' preferences for filling gaps in their medical knowledge. Objective To summarize the available evidence about physicians' preferences and perceived barriers and facilitators about sources of information. Methods We will undertake an overview of systematic reviews according to PRISMA guidelines. We will search Epistemonikos from inception until March 2019. We will also search PROSPERO, and we will perform a forward citation search in Scopus. Inclusion criteria will consider systematic reviews (qualitative, quantitative, or mixed methods) focusing on physicians' preferences about sources of information, as well as perceived barriers and facilitators. Two authors will independently screen and select records for inclusion. We will appraise the quality of included systematic reviews using the Joanna Briggs Institute checklist, and the overlap of primary studies according to the corrected covered area formula. We will conduct a narrative synthesis of quantitative data and a thematic analysis of qualitative findings. Discussion We expect that our findings will contribute to improving the evidence-based general practice by identifying physicians' perspectives about different sources of medical information.

18.
ABCS health sci ; 45: e020028, 02 jun 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1129785

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Baby-led weaning (BLW) is an alternative approach to introducing food to infants that has become popular. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the scientific evidence regarding the BLW method and its modified version, Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS). METHODS: The research was carried out between June 2018 and June 2019, through the databases US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (PubMed) using the following keywords: 'BLW', 'Baby-led weaning', 'BLISS', and 'Baby-Led Introduction to Solids'. All original articles from in English published between 2011 and 2019 have been included. RESULTS: Twenty-five studies were included in the analysis. Research on BLW/BLISS focused mainly on the themes: characteristics, behaviors and attitudes of mothers and children, knowledge of mothers and health professionals about feeding methods, weight and body mass index evaluation of children, evaluation of energetic and nutrient intake of children and evaluation of episodes of choking and gag reflex. CONCLUSION: Most research deals with BLW-related experiences and there is still little evidence on the method in terms of adequacy of energy and nutrient intake and growth in childhood. Positive points to child can be observed such as prolonged breastfeeding, greater independence when feeding and better response to satiety. The methods of food introduction do not differ in relation to the occurrence of episodes of choking.


INTRODUÇÃO: O Baby-led weaning (BLW) é uma abordagem alternativa para a introdução alimentar aos lactentes que tem se tornado popular. OBJETIVO: Investigar as evidências científicas a respeito do método BLW e sua versão modificada Baby-Led Introduction to Solids (BLISS). MÉTODOS: A pesquisa de artigos foi realizada entre junho de 2018 e junho de 2019, por meio da base de dados US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health (PubMed) utilizando as seguintes palavras-chaves: 'BLW', 'Baby-led weaning', 'BLISS', e 'Baby-Led Introduction to Solids'. Foram incluídos todos os artigos originais encontrados no idioma inglês, publicados entre 2011 e 2019. RESULTADO: Vinte e cinco estudos foram incluídos na análise. As pesquisas sobre BLW/BLISS focaram principalmente nos temas: características, comportamentos e atitudes de mães e crianças, conhecimento de mães e profissionais de saúde sobre os métodos de introdução alimentar, avaliação de peso e de índice de massa corporal, avaliação da ingestão energética e de nutrientes e avaliação de episódios de engasgo e reflexo de gag das crianças. CONCLUSÃO: A maioria das pesquisas aborda experiências relacionadas ao BLW/BLISS e ainda existem poucas evidências sobre o método em termos de adequação de ingestão de energia e nutrientes e de crescimento na infância. Pontos positivos para a criança podem ser observados como aleitamento materno prolongado, maior independência ao se alimentar e melhor resposta à saciedade. Os métodos de introdução alimentar não diferem entre si em relação à ocorrência de episódios de engasgos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Weaning , Food Consumption , Eating , Infant Health , Asphyxia , Energy Intake , Body Mass Index , Child Development , Gagging
19.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 83(3): 250-261, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131583

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT To identify and classify available information regarding COVID-19 and eye care according to the level of evidence, within four main topics of interest: evidence of the virus in tears and the ocular surface, infection via the conjunctival route, ocular manifestations, and best practice recommendations. A structured review was conducted in PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, the Cochrane Library and Google Scholar on COVID-19 and ophthalmology. The Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 Levels of Evidence worksheet was used for quality assessments. 1018 items were identified in the search; 26 records were included in the qualitative synthesis, which encompassed 6 literature reviews, 10 case series or cross-sectional studies, 4 case reports, and 6 intervention descriptions. Seventeen out of 26 records (65%) were categorized as level 5 within the Oxford CBME methodology grading system, the rest were level 4. The evidence generated on COVID-19 and ophthalmology to date is limited, although this is understandable given the circumstances. Both the possible presence of viral particles in tears and conjunctiva, and the potential for conjunctival transmission remain controversial. Ocular manifestations are not frequent and could resemble viral infection of the ocular surface. Most recommendations are based on the strategies implemented by Asian countries during previous coronavirus outbreaks. There is a need for substantive studies evaluating these strategies in the setting of SARS-CoV-2. In the meantime, plans for applying these measures must be implemented with caution, taking into account the context of each individual country, and undergo regular evaluation.


RESUMO Identificar e classificar as informações disponíveis sobre o COVID-19 e o tratamento oftalmológico de acordo com o nível de evidência, dentro de quatro tópicos principais de interesse: evidência do vírus nas lágrimas e na superfície ocular, infecção pela via conjuntival, manifestações oculares e recomendações de melhores práticas. Foi realizada uma revisão estruturada no PubMed, ScienceDirect, LILACS, SciELO, Biblioteca Cochrane e Google Scholar no COVID-19 e oftalmologia. A planilha de Níveis de Evidência 2011 do Oxford Centre for Evidence Based Medicine 2011 foi usada para avaliações de qualidade. Mil e dezoito itens foram identificados na busca; Foram incluídos 26 registros na síntese qualitativa, que incluiu 6 revisões de literatura, 10 séries de casos ou estudos transversais, 4 relatos de casos e 6 descrições de intervenções. Dezessete dos 26 registros (65%) foram classificados como nível 5 no sistema de classificação da metodologia Oxford CBME, o restante foi no nível 4. As evidências geradas no COVID-19 e na oftalmologia até o momento são limitadas, embora isso seja compreensível dadas as circunstâncias. Tanto a possível presença de partículas virais em lágrimas e conjuntiva quanto o potencial de transmissão conjuntival permanecem controversos. As manifestações oculares não são frequentes e podem se assemelhar a infecção viral da superfície ocular. A maioria das recomendações baseia-se nas estratégias implementadas pelos países asiáticos durante surtos anteriores de coronavírus. Há necessidade de estudos aprofundados avaliando essas estratégias no cenário da SARS-CoV-2. Enquanto isso, os planos para a aplicação dessas medidas devem ser implementados com cautela, levando em consideração o contexto de cada país e submetidos a auditorias periódicas.

20.
Rev bras oftalmol ; 79(3): 199-202, May/June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137955

ABSTRACT

Abstract The purpose is to report a case of laser pointer-induced maculopathy and to describe its characteristics using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT), further the outcome of treatment with intravitreal injections. A 35-year-old man presented with a 6-day history of central vision loss in his right eye (RE) after an accidental laser pointer discharge (wavelength of 532 nm). He underwent a full ophthalmologic examination, including SD-OCT, which suggested the presence of subfoveal choroidal neovascularization (CNV). This was not confirmed due to the unavailability of tools such as fluorescein angiography, indocyanine green angiography and OCT angiography. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was inicially 20/400 in the RE. Thus, considering a presumed CNV, three intravitreal injections of bevacizumab (the first one combined with triamcinolone acetonide) were performed in the RE. BCVA acuity in his RE improved to 20/25 at 3 months after the first intravitreal injection, with complete resolution of exudation. Over the following 12 months, BCVA remained stable, and no evidence of progression or development of neovascularization was observed. Laser pointer may cause subfoveal CNV when accidently directed toward the eye. In this case, the presumed CNV induced by laser had an excellent response to bevacizumab and triamcinolone acetonide injections.


Resumo O objetivo é relatar um caso de lesão macular induzida por laser pointer e descrever suas características utilizando a tomografia de coerência óptica de domínio espectral (SD-OCT), assim como o resultado do tratamento com injeções intravítreas. Um homem de 35 anos apresentou uma história de perda da visão central no olho direito (OD) de 6 dias de evolução após um disparo acidental de laser (comprimento de onda de 532 nm). O paciente foi submetido a exame oftalmológico completo, incluindo SD-OCT, que sugeriu a presença de neovascularização coroidal (CNV) subfoveal. Isso não foi confirmado devido à indisponibilidade de ferramentas como angiografia fluoresceínica, angiografia com indocianina verde e angiografia por OCT. A acuidade visual (AV) com melhor correção foi inicialmente de 20/400 no OD. Assim, considerando uma CNV presumida, três injeções intravítreas de bevacizumabe (a primeira combinada com triancinolona acetonida) foram realizadas no OD. A AV melhorou para 20/25 aos 3 meses após a primeira injeção intravítrea, com resolução completa da exsudação. Nos 12 meses seguintes, a AV permaneceu estável e nenhuma evidência de progressão ou desenvolvimento de neovascularização foi observada. O laser pointer pode causar CNV quando acidentalmente direcionado para o olho. Nesse caso, a suposta CNV induzida por laser teve uma excelente resposta às injeções de bevacizumabe e triancinolona acetonida.

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