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1.
Rev. Esc. Enferm. USP ; 53: e03461, Jan.-Dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1020383

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo Investigar os ensaios clínicos randomizados sobre a ação da acupuntura auricular para a dor crônica nas costas em adultos, identificar os desfechos mais utilizados para avaliar essa condição, o protocolo utilizado para aplicar a intervenção e identificar nos estudos qual o efeito da terapia sobre a intensidade da dor. Método Revisão sistemática e metanálise, conduzidas entre junho de 2017 e maio de 2018, nas bases de dados PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, Embase, Scopus e na Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde. Listas de referências de revisões sistemáticas também foram exploradas. Resultados Foram localizados 427 estudos, 15 incluídos na análise qualitativa, e sete na análise quantitativa. A acupuntura auricular obteve resultados positivos em 80% dos estudos. Os desfechos mais utilizados foram a intensidade e a qualidade da dor, consumo de medicação, incapacidade física e qualidade de vida. Não há padronização no protocolo de acupuntura auricular para dor crônica nas costas. Os resultados da metanálise apontaram que a acupuntura auricular foi eficaz em reduzir os escores de intensidade da dor (p=0,038). Conclusão A acupuntura auricular é uma prática promissora para o tratamento da dor crônica nas costas em adultos.


RESUMEN Objetivo Investigar los ensayos clínicos randomizados sobre la acción de la acupuntura auricular para dolor crónico en la espalda en adultos, identificar los resultados más utilizados para evaluar dicha condición, el protocolo utilizado para aplicar la intervención e identificar en los estudios cuál es el efecto de la terapia sobre la intensidad del dolor. Método Revisión sistemática y metaanálisis, conducidas entre junio de 2017 y mayo de 2018, en las bases de datos PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, Embase, Scopus y en la Biblioteca Virtual en Salud. Listas de referencias de revisiones sistemáticas también fueron exploradas. Resultados Se localizaron 427 estudios, 15 incluidos en el análisis cualitativo, y siete en el análisis cuantitativo. La acupuntura auricular obtuvo resultados positivos en el 80% de los estudios. Los resultados más utilizados fueron la intensidad y la calidad del dolor, consumo de fármacos, incapacidad física y calidad de vida. No existe estandarización en el protocolo de acupuntura auricular para dolor crónico en la espalda. Los resultados del metaanálisis señalaron que la acupuntura auricular fue eficaz en reducir los scores de intensidad de dolor (p=0,038). Conclusión La acupuntura auricular es una práctica prometedora para el tratamiento del dolor crónico en la espalda en adultos.


ABSTRACT Objective To investigate randomized clinical trials on the action of auricular acupuncture for chronic back pain in adults, and to identify the most commonly used outcomes for assessing this condition, the protocol used for applying the intervention, and the efficacy of the therapy on pain intensity. Method A systematic review and a metanalysis were carried out between June 2017 and May 2018, based on the PubMed, CINAHL, PEDro, Embase, Scopus, and the Virtual Health Library databases. Reference lists of systematic reviews were also explored. Results 427 studies were located, 15 included in the qualitative analysis, and seven in the quantitative analysis. Auricular acupuncture led to positive results in 80% of the studies. The most commonly used outcomes were pain intensity and quality, medication consumption, physical disability, and quality of life. There is a lack of protocol standardization for auricular acupuncture for chronic back pain. The metanalysis results showed that auricular acupuncture was effective in reducing pain intensity scores (p=0.038). Conclusion Auricular acupuncture is a promising practice for the treatment of chronic back pain in adults.


Subject(s)
Humans , Back Pain , Acupuncture, Ear , Chronic Pain , Complementary Therapies
2.
Arq. bras. oftalmol ; 82(5): 436-445, Sept.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019427

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT This systematic review aimed to assess the effectiveness of using preservative-free artificial tears versus preserved lubricants for the treatment of dry eyes in Universidade Federal de Alagoas (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018089933). Online databases were searched (LILACS, EMBASE, MEDLINE, and CENTRAL) from inception to April 2018; references from included papers were also searched. The following keywords were used: lubricants OR artificial tears OR artificial tears, lubricants AND dry eye OR dry eye syndrome OR syndromes, dry eye OR dry eyes. Among the 2028 electronic search results, 29 full papers were retrieved and four were considered relevant. The number of participants from these studies ranged from 15 to 76. Meta-analysis was possible for the following outcomes: score of symptoms according to the Ocular Surface Disease Index - Allergan (OSDI), tear secretion rate using the Schirmer test, tear evaporation rate using the tear film breakup time test, burning, foreign body sensation, and photophobia. No statistically significant difference was observed between the two groups, and no side effects were attributed to the interventions. Evidence proving that preservative-free artificial tears are more effective than preserved artificial tears is lacking.


RESUMO Esta revisão sistemática teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do uso de lágrimas artificiais sem conservantes em comparação com lubrificantes preservados no tratamento do olho seco na Universidade Federal de Alagoas (PROSPERO 2018 CRD42018089933). As bases de dados online foram pesquisadas (LILACS, EMBASE, MEDLINE e CENTRAL) desde o início até abril de 2018; referências de artigos incluídos também foram pesquisadas. Foram utilizados os seguintes descritores: lubrificantes OU lágrimas artificiais OU lágrimas artificiais, lubrificantes E olho seco OU síndrome do olho seco OU síndromes, olho seco OU olhos secos. Dos 2028 resultados de busca eletrônica, 29 artigos completos foram recuperados, e quatro foram considerados relevantes. O número de participantes desses estudos variou de 15 e 76. A meta-análise foi possível para as seguintes variáveis: escore de desfecho dos sintomas de acordo com o Índice de Doença da Superfície Ocular - Allergan (OSDI), taxa de secreção lacrimal pelo teste de Schirmer, taxa de evaporação lacrimal usando o teste de tempo de ruptura do filme lacrimal, queimação, sensação de corpo estranho e fotofobia. Nenhuma diferença estatisticamente significativa foi observada entre os dois grupos, e nenhum efeito adverso foi atribuído às intervenções. Evidências provando que as lágrimas artificiais sem conservantes são mais eficazes do que as lágrimas artificiais preservadas estão faltando.

3.
Med. U.P.B ; 38(2): 158-167, 17 de octubre de 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1023411

ABSTRACT

Los metanálisis de comparación de múltiples tratamientos permiten estudiar, a partir de revisiones sistemáticas, las comparaciones realizadas de forma directa o indirecta, sobre diversos tipos de intervenciones, con datos de varios ensayos clínicos que, por su homogeneidad en los resultados, pueden agruparse en un resultado común y expresable de manera cuantitativa. Otros nombres que recibe son: metanálisis en red, metanálisis de comparación mixta o metanálisis indirectos. Al permitir la comparación de varios tratamientos facilitan una mejor estimación del efecto de las intervenciones, lo que guía de forma más certera al clínico en sus decisiones y en la aplicación de la información en el cuidado de sus pacientes. El objetivo de esta revisión es guiar al lector para que realice de manera organizada y adecuada la lectura crítica (según recomendaciones JAMA) de los metanálisis de comparación de múltiples tratamientos. Este artículo está orientando a los autores y a los editores, y contiene información sobre cómo deben interpretarse y comunicarse estos estudios.


Multiple treatment comparison meta-analyses are systematic reviews that allow to make direct or indirect comparisons of different interventions from the data collection results of randomized clinical trials, grouping them in a common outcome or conglomerate which is expressed quantitatively. Other names given are network meta-analyses, or mixed treatment comparison meta-analyses or indirect meta-analyses. The use of the comparison of several treatments allows a greater estimation of the intervention effect. This is a guide for the physician to make more accurate decisions and to apply better care criteria to their patients. This literature review should help the reader to perform an organized and adequate critical reading (according to the JAMA recommendations) of the multiple treatment comparison meta-analyses. The article is addressed to authors and editors, and it contains information on how this type of studies should be interpreted and communicated.


Os metanálise de comparação de múltiplos tratamentos permitem estudar, a partir de revisões sistemáticas, as comparações realizadas de forma direta ou indireta, sobre diversos tipos de intervenções, com dados de vários ensaios clínicos que, por sua homogeneidade nos resultados, podem agrupar-se num resultado comum e de expressão de maneira quantitativa. Outros nomes que recebe são: metanálise em rede, metanálise de comparação mista ou metanálise indiretos. Ao permitir a comparação de vários tratamentos facilitam uma melhor estimação do efeito das intervenções, o que guia de forma mais certeira ao clínico em suas decisões e na aplicação da informação no cuidado de seus pacientes. O objetivo desta revisão é guiar ao leitor para que realize de maneira organizada e adequada a leitura crítica (segundo recomendações JAMA) dos metanálise de comparação de múltiplos tratamentos. Este artigo está orientando aos autores e aos editores, e contém informação sobre como devem interpretar-se e comunicar-se estes estudos.

4.
Rev. colomb. anestesiol ; 47(3): 142-153, July-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1013883

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Patients undergoing cardiac surgery frequently develop low cardiac output syndrome (LCOS). Multiple interventions including levosimendan have been used in the prevention and treatment of LCOS. Preliminary studies reported lower mortality respect to placebo or other inotropes, however, recently, 3 clinical trials found no benefit against this outcome. Objective: Our objective was to evaluate the evidence of levosimendan on mortality and secondary outcomes in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, and to determine the sources of heterogeneity. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis of the clinical trials that evaluated the efficacy of levosimendan in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. We obtained the odds ratio (OR) of mortality and other outcomes such as kidney injury with dialysis requirement and LCOS, using fixed and random effects models. The risk of bias was assessed and the sources of heterogeneity were explored. Results: Of 47 studies identified, 14 studies were selected (n=2752). Regarding the mortality outcome and use of levosimendan, only a decrease was found in the studies of low quality (OR 0,30; CI 95%, 0,18 to 0,51). While high-quality studies, there was no protective effect (OR 0.99,95% CI 0.70-1.40) with an I2 = 0%. The quality of the studies and ejection fraction were the main sources of heterogeneity. Conclusion: In high-quality studies, the use of levosimendan in patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery has no effect on 30-day mortality. There was a protective effect on postoperative renal failure with dialysis.


Resumen Introducción: Los pacientes llevados a cirugía cardiaca tienen riesgo de desarrollar síndrome de bajo gasto cardiaco posoperatorio (SBGC). Estudios previos han encontrado una menor mortalidad con levosimendán respecto a placebo u otros inotrópicos; sin embargo, tres experimentos clínicos no encontraron beneficio frente a este desenlace. Objetivo: Evaluar la evidencia del levosimendán sobre la mortalidad y los desenlaces secundarios en pacientes sometidos a cirugía cardiaca, y determinar las fuentes de heterogeneidad. Métodos: Mediante una revisión sistemática y metaanálisis de los experimentos clínicos que evaluaron la eficacia del levosimendán en los pacientes llevados a cirugía cardiaca, se evaluó la eficacia en la mortalidad y en otros desenlaces, como lesión renal y SBGC, utilizando los modelos de efectos fijos y aleatorios. Resultados: De 47 estudios identificados, fueron seleccionados 14 (n = 2752). Respecto al desenlace de mortalidad y el uso de levosimendán solo se encontró una disminución en los estudios de baja calidad (OR 0.30; IC 95%, 0.18-0.51), mientras que para los de alta calidad no hubo efecto protector (OR 0.99; IC 95%, 0.70-1.40) con un I2=0%. La calidad de los estudios y la fracción de eyección fueron las principales fuentes de heterogeneidad. Conclusión: el uso del levosimendán en los pacientes llevados a cirugía cardiovascular no tiene efectos sobre la mortalidad a 30 días en los estudios de alta calidad. Hubo efecto protector sobre la falla renal postoperatoria con necesidad de diálisis.

5.
Acta Paul. Enferm. (Online) ; 32(4): 456-463, Jul.-Ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1010823

ABSTRACT

Resumo Objetivo Verificar se o medo de cair é fator de risco em pessoas idosas que vivem na comunidade. Métodos Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática com metanálise baseada na Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses. Utilizou-se a estratégia de busca PECOS: Paciente - pessoa idosa com 60 anos, ou mais, que vive em comunidade com história pregressa de quedas; Exposição- medo de cair, Comparação -grupo sem medo de cair, o "Outcome" - o desfecho queda e o "Studies"- foram incluídos os estudos observacionais comparativos. As buscas foram realizadas em maio de 2018 nos seguintes bancos de dados eletrônicos CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, PsycINFO e PEDro, por meio dos seguinte descritores: "aged", "elderly", older adults, fear, fear of falling, accidental falls, fall, fallls. Foram também realizadas buscas de referências cruzadas e literatura cinzenta. Dois revisores realizaram a identificação, seleção, elegibilidade e inclusão dos estudos de maneira independente. A qualidade metodológica dos estudos foram efetuada pela aplicação do instrumento STROBE. Para a metanálise, utilizou-se o Programa ReviewMananger 5.3®. Resultados De 4.891 publicações, cinco estudos possibilitaram a metanálise com 3.112 idosos. Evidenciou-se uma chance de queda de 12,15 vezes maior para o grupo de idosos com medo de cair. Conclusão O medo de cair foi identificado como fator de risco de queda na população idosa que vive na comunidade e que possui história pregressa de queda, torna-se necessário a investigação pelos profissionais da ara da saúde afim de estabelecer medidas preventivas.


Resumen Objetivo verificar si el miedo de caer es factor de riesgo en personas mayores que viven en la comunidad. Métodos se realizó una revisión sistemática con metanálisis basada en la Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses. Se utilizó la estrategia de búsqueda PECOS: Paciente (ancianos con 60 años o más, que viven en comunidad con historial anterior de caídas); Exposición (miedo de caer); Comparación (grupo sin miedo de caer); "Outcome" (el desenlace de la caída) y "Studies" (fueron incluidos los estudios observacionales comparativos). Las búsquedas fueron realizadas en mayo de 2018 en los siguientes bancos de datos electrónicos CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, PsycINFO y PEDro, por medio de los siguientes descriptores: "aged", "elderly", older adults, fear, fear of falling, accidental falls, fall, fallls. También se realizaron búsquedas de referencias cruzadas y literatura gris. Dos revisores llevaron a cabo la identificación, selección, elegibilidad e inclusión de los estudios de manera independiente. La calidad metodológica de los estudios fue efectuada mediante la aplicación del instrumento STROBE. Para el metanálisis, se utilizó el programa ReviewMananger 5.3®. Resultados de 4.891 publicaciones, 5 estudios posibilitaron el metanálisis con 3.112 ancianos. Se observó una posibilidad de caída 12,15 veces mayor en el grupo de ancianos con miedo a caer. Conclusión el miedo a caer fue identificado como factor de riesgo de caída en personas mayores que viven en la comunidad y que poseen historial anterior de caída. Resulta necesaria la investigación por parte de profesionales del área de la salud a fin de establecer medidas preventivas.


Abstract Objective to verify if fear of falling is a risk factor in older people living in the community. Methods A systematic review was conducted with a meta-analysis based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and MetaAnalyses. The PECOS search strategy was used: Patient - elderly person aged 60 years or above, living in a community with a previous history of falls; Exposure - Fear of falling, Comparison - group without fear of falling, "Outcome" - fall outcome and "Studies" - included comparative observational studies. The searches were conducted in May 2018 in the following electronic databases CINAHL, Medline, Cochrane, Embase, Lilacs, PsycINFO and PEDro, through the following descriptors: "aged", "elderly", older adults, fear, fear of falling, accidental falls, fall, falls. Cross-references and gray literature were also searched. Two reviewers independently performed the identification, selection, eligibility and inclusion of the studies. The methodological quality of the studies was carried out by applying the STROBE tool. For the meta-analysis, the Review Mananger 5.3 Program was used®. Results Of 4,891 publications, five studies enabled a meta-analysis with 3,112 elderly. There was a chance of a fall of 12.15 times higher for the group of elderly people with fear of falling. Conclusion Fear of falling was identified as a risk factor for falling in the elderly population that lives in the community and that has a history of falling, it is necessary the investigation by health professionals in order to establish preventive measures.

6.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(8): 2909-2922, ago. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011878

ABSTRACT

Resumo Trata-se de uma revisão sistemática e metanálise para estimar e comparar as prevalências de fluorose dental em localidades brasileiras abastecidas com água tratada sem suplementação de flúor e em localidades que utilizam de água de origem subterrânea. Em dezembro de 2016 foram buscados estudos transversais em 8 bases de dados incluindo a "literatura cinzenta". As prevalências foram estimadas utilizando modelo misto de efeitos aleatórios considerando as localidades como subgrupo. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi avaliada através da estatística I2 e do teste Q de Cochran. Foram encontrados 1.038 registros, dos quais apenas 18 artigos preencheram os critérios de inclusão, sendo submetidos para análise. O modelo metanalítico estimou em 8,92% (IC95%:5,41% até 14,36%) a prevalência de fluorose dental em municípios com água tratada sem suplementação de flúor e em 51,96% (IC95%: 31,03% até 72,22%) em municípios abastecidos por poços artesianos. A heterogeneidade entre os estudos foi alta, I2 = 95% (p < 0,01) no primeiro subgrupo de municípios e I2 = 98% (p < 0,01) no segundo subgrupo. A prevalência foi significativamente maior (p < 0,001) em populações expostas à água de poços artesianos, indicando que a presença de flúor natural em concentrações elevadas representa um fator de risco para a ocorrência de fluorose dental.


Abstract This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to estimate and compare the prevalences of dental fluorosis in Brazilian cities supplied with non-fluoridated water and in locations that uses groundwater. In December of 2016, cross-sectional studies were searched in eight databases, including the "grey literature". The prevalences were estimated through a mixed random effects model considering the locations as subgroups. The heterogeneity among the studies was assessed with I2 statistics and the Cochran's Q test. A total of 1038 records were found, from which only 18 articles met the inclusion criteria and were subjected to analysis. The meta-analytic model estimated a prevalence of dental fluorosis of 8.92 % (95 % CI: 5.41 % to 14.36 %) in cities supplied with non-fluoridated water, and of 51.96 % (95 % CI: 31.03 % to 72.22 %) in cities supplied by artesian wells. The heterogeneity among the studies was high: I2 = 95 % (p < 0.01) in the first subgroup of cities and I2 = 98 % (p < 0.01) in the second subgroup. The prevalence was significantly higher (p < 0.001) in populations exposed to artesian well water, indicating that the presence of natural fluoride at high concentrations represents a risk factor for the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

7.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(4): 427-437, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019362

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk is inconsistent in the normal-weight, overweight, and obese individuals due to the heterogeneity of metabolic status. This meta-analysis aimed to examine the combined effects of body mass index (BMI) and metabolic status on CKD risk. Materials and methods The MEDLINE, EMBASE, and Web of Knowledge databases were systematically searched up to March 2019 to identify all eligible studies investigating the CKD risk (defined as GFR < 60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 and/or microalbuminuria or proteinuria) associated with the body size phenotypes which are known as metabolically unhealthy normal-weight (MUNW), metabolically healthy overweight (MHOW), metabolically unhealthy overweight, metabolically healthy obese (MHO) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUHO). The classification of subjects in included studies as metabolically unhealthy was based on the presence of three components of metabolic syndrome. BMI categorization was based on the criteria of included studies. The risk estimates and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled using random effects analysis. Results A total of 9 prospective cohort studies with 128773 participants and 4797 incident cases were included in the meta-analysis. Compared with healthy normal-weight individuals as reference, MUNW and MHO subjects showed an increased risk for CKD events with a pooled RR of 1.58 (95% CI = 1.28-1.96) in MUNW and 1.55 (95% CI = 1.34-1.79) in MHO persons. Also, MHOW was at increased risk for CKD (RR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.20-1.51). MUHO individuals were at the highest risk for the development of CKD (RR = 2.13, 95% CI = 1.66-2.72). Conclusions Individuals with metabolic abnormality, although at normal-weight, have an increased risk for CKD. Healthy overweight and obese individuals had higher risk; refuting the notion that metabolically healthy overweight and obese phenotypes are benign conditions.

8.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(4): 510-519, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1019591

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: The patient's evolution in the audiology and speech-language clinic acts as a motivator of the therapeutic process, contributing to patient adherence to the treatment and allowing the therapist to review and/or maintain their clinical therapeutic conducts. Electrophysiological measures, such as the P300 evoked potential, help in the evaluation, understanding and monitoring of human communication disorders, thus facilitating the prognosis definition in each case. Objective: To determine whether the audiology and speech-language therapy influences the variation of P300 latency and amplitude in patients with speech disorders undergoing speech therapy. Methods: This is a systematic review with meta-analysis, in which the following databases were searched: Pubmed, ScienceDirect, SCOPUS, Web of Science, SciELO and LILACS, in addition to the gray literature bases: OpenGrey.eu and DissOnline. The inclusion criteria were randomized or non-randomized clinical trials, without language or date restriction, which evaluated children with language disorders undergoing speech therapy, monitored by P300, compared to children without intervention. Results: The mean difference between the latencies in the group submitted to therapy and the control group was −20.12 ms with a 95% confidence interval of −43.98 to 3.74 ms (p = 0.08, I 2 = 25% and p value = 0.26). The mean difference between the amplitudes of the group submitted to therapy and the control group was 0.73 uV with a 95% confidence interval of −1.77 to 3.23 uV (p = 0.57, I 2 = 0% and p value = 0.47). Conclusion: The present meta-analysis demonstrates that speech therapy does not influence the latency and amplitude results of the P300 evoked potential in children undergoing speech therapy intervention.


Resumo Introdução: A evolução do paciente na clínica fonoaudiológica atua como fator motivador do processo terapêutico, contribui para a sua adesão ao tratamento e possibilita ao terapeuta a revisão e/ou a manutenção de suas condutas. As medidas eletrofisiológicas, como o potencial evocado P300, auxiliam na avaliação, na compreensão e no monitoramento dos distúrbios da comunicação humana, facilitam, dessa forma, a definição do prognóstico de cada caso. Objetivo: Determinar se a terapia fonoaudiológica influencia na variação da latência e da amplitude do P300 em pacientes com distúrbio de linguagem submetidos à terapia fonoaudiológica. Método: Revisão sistemática com metanálise, na qual foram feitas buscas nas seguintes bases de dados: Pubmed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, Web of Science, SciELO e Lilacs, além das bases de literatura cinzenta: OpenGrey.eu e DissOnline. Foram considerados critérios de inclusão: ensaios clínicos aleatórios ou não, sem restrição de idiomas ou data, que submeteram crianças com distúrbio de linguagem à terapia fonoaudiológica, monitoradas pelo P300, comparadas a crianças sem intervenção. Resultados: A diferença média entre as latências do grupo submetido à terapia e do grupo controle foi de -20,12 ms com intervalo de confiança 95% entre -43,98 e 3,74 ms (p = 0,08; I2 = 25% e o valor de p = 0,26). A diferença média entre as amplitudes do grupo submetido à terapia e do grupo controle foi de 0,73 uV com intervalo de confiança de 95% entre -1,77 e 3,23 uV (p = 0,57; I2 = 0% e o valor de p = 0,47). Conclusão: A terapia fonoaudiológica não influencia nos resultados de latência e amplitude do potencial evocado P300 em crianças submetidas à intervenção fonoaudiológica.

9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 420-427, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1020496

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the patency of individual and sequential coronary artery bypass in patients with ischemic heart disease. Methods: We searched PubMed, Cochrane Library, Excerpta Medica Database, and ClinicalTrials.gov databases for controlled trials. Endpoints included graft patency, anastomosis patency, occluded rates in left anterior descending (LAD) system and right coronary artery (RCA) system, in-hospital mortality, and follow-up mortality. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) and standardized mean difference (SMD) were used to assess the relative data. Results: Nine cohorts, including 7100 patients and 1440 grafts under individual or sequential coronary artery bypass. There were no significant differences between individual and sequential coronary artery bypass in the graft patency (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.91-1.02; P=0.16; I2=87%), anastomosis patency (RR=0.95; 95% CI=0.91-1.00; P=0.05; I2=70%), occluded rate in LAD system (RR=1.03; 95% CI=0.92-1.16; P=0.58; I2=37%), occluded rate in RCA system (RR=1.36; 95% CI=0.72-2.57; P=0.35; I2=95%), in-hospital mortality (RR=1.57; 95% CI=0.92-2.69; P=0.10; I2=0%), and follow-up mortality (RR=0.96; 95% CI=0.36-2.53; P=0.93; I2=0%). Conclusion: No significant differences on clinical data were observed regarding anastomosis patency, occluded rate in LAD system, occluded rate in RCA system, in-hospital mortality, and follow-up mortality, indicating that the patency of individual and the patency of sequential coronary artery bypass are similar to each other.

10.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(4): 396-405, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1020497

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate whether there is any difference on the results of patients treated with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) in the setting of ischemic heart failure (HF). Methods: Databases (MEDLINE, Embase, Cochrane Controlled Trials Register [CENTRAL/CCTR], ClinicalTrials.gov, Scientific Electronic Library Online [SciELO], Literatura Latino-americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde [LILACS], and Google Scholar) were searched for studies published until February 2019. Main outcomes of interest were mortality, myocardial infarction, repeat revascularization, and stroke. Results: The search yielded 5,775 studies for inclusion. Of these, 20 articles were analyzed, and their data were extracted. The total number of patients included was 54,173, and those underwent CABG (N=29,075) or PCI (N=25098). The hazard ratios (HRs) for mortality (HR 0.763; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.678-0.859; P<0.001), myocardial infarction (HR 0.481; 95% CI 0.365-0.633; P<0.001), and repeat revascularization (HR 0.321; 95% CI 0.241-0.428; P<0.001) were lower in the CABG group than in the PCI group. The HR for stroke showed no statistically significant difference between the groups (random effect model: HR 0.879; 95% CI 0.625-1.237; P=0.459). Conclusion: This meta-analysis found that CABG surgery remains the best option for patients with ischemic HF, without increase in the risk of stroke.

11.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 32(4): 384-390, July-Aug. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012352

ABSTRACT

The relationship between exercise and atrial fibrillation (AF) is controversial. Objectives: To analyze the effects of physical activity on the incidence of atrial fibrillation using systematic review and meta-analysis. Methods: Systematic review and meta-analysis of studies that relate physical exercise and atrial fibrillation. The following databases were searched: PubMed, BVS Saúde and Cochrane. The following descriptors were used: "atrial fibrillation", "exercise", "physical activity" and "exercise therapy". All prospective, retrospective, cross-sectional and cohort studies were investigated. All statistical analyzes were provided using Review Manager 5.3 to provide the mean difference (MD) and relative risk (RR) ratio with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The statistical method of heterogeneity index was used to assess heterogeneity. Level of significance was 5%. Results: Combined analysis of 11 studies totaling 276,323 participants aged between 12 and 90 years did not suggest a significant increase in AF in individuals submitted to physical exercise (RR = 0.914, 95% CI = 0.833-1.003, heterogeneity: p < 0.001). Conclusions: Physical exercise, lato sensu, without stratification by intensity, sex or age does not seem to be associated with an increase of atrial fibrillation


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Atrial Fibrillation , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Motor Activity , Asthma , Cardiovascular Diseases , Exercise , Risk Factors , Exercise Therapy , Cardiorespiratory Fitness
12.
J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 11(2): 128-134, Agosto/2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ECOS | ID: biblio-1021106

ABSTRACT

Objetivos: Os objetivos deste estudo são calcular o custo de um surto de esclerose múltipla sob a perspectiva de uma operadora de saúde privada e o impacto orçamentário da adoção de natalizumabe em primeira linha para esclerose múltipla remitente-recorrente altamente ativa (EMRRAA). Métodos: Para o cálculo do custo do surto, duas abordagens foram adotadas: para surtos que não levam a hospitalizações, foi aplicada uma pesquisa a 33 médicos neurologistas para identificação do consumo de recursos. Microcusteio foi realizado com base em bases de dados públicas. Para o cálculo do custo de surtos que levam a hospitalizações, foi utilizada uma base de contas médicas. Para o cálculo do impacto orçamentário, foi construído um modelo baseado em prevalência. Foram assumidos os seguintes custos: custo de aquisição de natalizumabe, custo de infusão de natalizumabe e custo de surtos. Taxa de ocorrência de surtos para natalizumabe e para seus comparadores, disponível apenas no sistema público, foi obtida em estudos clínicos e metanálises. O caso-base foi realizado considerando-se uma operadora que atende 100 mil vidas na região Sudeste. Análise de sensibilidade foi realizada. Resultados: O custo calculado de um surto foi de R$ 14.157,21. O impacto orçamentário calculado para adoção de natalizumabe para EMRRAA foi de R$ 0,64 por beneficiário por ano, ou 0,02% das despesas assistenciais de uma operadora de saúde suplementar, ou 0,02% de suas receitas de contraprestações. A análise de sensibilidade confirma que o impacto não chega a 1 real por beneficiário por ano e atinge, no máximo, 0,03% das despesas assistenciais. Conclusão: Dados os altos benefícios clínicos de natalizumabe, o impacto orçamentário de sua adoção para primeira linha de EMRRAA é considerado baixo. O impacto pode estar superestimado, visto que não foram considerados custos de progressão da doença.


Objetivos: The goals of this study are to evaluate the cost of a multiple sclerosis relapse and the budget impact of adopting natalizumab as first-line therapy for HARRMS, both from a private payer perspective. Methods: For calculating the cost of a relapse, two approaches were adopted: for relapses not resulting in hospitalizations, a research with 33 physicians was made to obtain resource utilization data. Microcosting was performed using public data sources. For calculating costs of relapses leading to hospitalizations, we analyzed a claims database. To calculate the budget impact of adopting natalizumab as per its label indication, we built a prevalence-based model. The following costs were included: drug acquisition, drug infusion and relapses costs. The relapses rates for natalizumab and its comparators present in the public system were calculated based on clinical trials and meta-analysis. The base case was calculated assuming a hypothetical payer covering one hundred lives in the southeastern region of Brazil. Sensitivity analysis was performed. Results: The calculated relapse cost was R$ 14,157.21. The calculated budget impact for adopting natalizumab for HARRMS was R$ 0.64 per person per year, or 0.02% of the payer's healthcare expenditures, or 0.02% of its revenue. The sensibility analysis confirmed that the budget impact does not reach one real per person per year and does not exceed 0.03% of healthcare expenses. Conclusion: Given the high clinical benefits of adopting Tysabri, its budget impact can be considered low. The results might be overestimated, since disability progression costs were not accounted in the calculations


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Systems , Supplemental Health , Natalizumab , Multiple Sclerosis
14.
Geriatr., Gerontol. Aging (Impr.) ; 13(1): 39-49, jan-mar.2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1005565

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Identificar e avaliar o efeito das intervenções de estimulação cognitiva (EC) em idosos com demências na saúde dos cuidadores. MÉTODO: Revisão sistemática da literatura conduzida de acordo com as diretrizes do Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA). A busca foi realizada em maio de 2018, por dois pesquisadores independentes, nas bases de dados Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Escala da Base de Dados de Evidência em Fisioterapia (PEDro), PsycINFO e PubMed. Os descritores utilizados foram "dementia" AND "cognitive stimulation" e seus equivalentes em português e espanhol. Foram incluídos apenas artigos experimentais, publicados entre janeiro de 2007 e abril de 2018, que realizaram EC em idosos com demência, conduzida por profissional ou pelo próprio cuidador e cujo desfecho incidisse no cuidador. A qualidade dos estudos selecionados foi avaliada pela Escala PEDro. RESULTADOS: A amostra foi composta de 10 estudos, sendo que apenas dois verificaram benefícios da EC sobre a saúde do cuidador do idoso com demência. CONCLUSÃO: Este estudo não encontrou evidências consistentes sobre os reais benefícios da realização de EC no idoso com demência para a vida do seu cuidador.


OBJECTIVES: To identify and evaluate the effect of cognitive stimulation (CS) interventions for older adults with dementia on caregivers' health. METHOD: This systematic literature review was conducted in accordance with Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-analysis Protocols (PRISMA) guidelines. A search was performed by two independent researchers in May 2018, using Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Latin American and Caribbean Health Science Literature Database (LILACS), Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro), PsycINFO, and PubMed databases. The terms used were "dementia" AND "cognitive stimulation" and their equivalents in Portuguese and Spanish. For inclusion, articles should have been experimental, published from January 2007 to April 2018, with CS delivered to older adults with dementia by a professional or by a caregiver, and outcome measured in the caregiver. Quality of selected studies was assessed using the PEDro scale. RESULTS: The sample consisted of 10 studies, and only two reported CS benefits to the health of caregivers of older adults with dementia. CONCLUSION: This study found no consistent evidence of actual benefits of CS in older adults with dementia to their caregivers' health.

15.
Arch. med ; 19(2): 267-290, 2019/07/30.
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1022912

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: realizar un meta-análisis sobre los efectos del ejercicio físico en la rehabilitación funcional del paciente con diálisis. La enfermedad renal crónica es una patología que puede requerir terapia de reemplazo renal (como la diálisis) para su tratamiento, que, sumada a la sintomatología, deteriora la función física de los sujetos. El ejercicio físico como modalidad de intervención del fisioterapeuta, ha mostrado ser efectivo en la mejoría de la funcionalidad y calidad de vida de estos pacientes. Conocer sus beneficios en estos pacientes, puede repercutir positivamente en la salud del paciente y costos del tratamiento a largo plazo. Materiales y Métodos: se incluyeron ensayos clínicos aleatorizados que aplicaron protocolos de ejercicio físico (flexibilidad, resistencia y fuerza) para mejorar variables físicas, fisiológicas y funcionales. Resultados: se analizaron veinte ensayos clínicos bajo los criterios de la Escala PEDro, con puntuación ≥5 calificados como de alta calidad metodológica y bajo riesgo de sesgo. También se analizaron ocho revisiones sistemáticas/meta-análisis bajo lineamientos PRISMA-equidad. Conclusiones: aplicar protocolos de ejercicio físico, tiene efectos positivos clínicamente relevantes en la función física general y calidad de vida de estos pacientes, pero aún no hay consenso respecto a su aplicación en pacientes en diálisis en el contexto colombiano..(AU)


Objective: to carry out a meta-analysis on the effects of physical exercise in the functional rehabilitation of dialysis patients. Chronic kidney disease is a pathology that may require renal replacement therapy (such as dialysis) for its treatment, which, added to the symptoms, deteriorates the physical function of the subjects. Physical exercise as an intervention modality of the physiotherapist, has been shown to be effective in improving the functionality and quality of life of patients. Knowing their benefits in these patients can have a positive impact on the patient's health and long-term treatment costs. Materials and Methods: randomized clinical trials were included that applied protocols of physical exercise (flexibility, resistance and strength) to improve physical, physiological and functional variables. Results: twenty clinical trials were analyzed under the criteria of the PEDro Scale, with a score ≥5 rated as having high methodological quality and low risk of bias. Eight systematic reviews / meta-analyzes were analyzed under PRISMA-equity guidelines. Conclusions: to apply protocols of physical exercise, has clinically relevant positive effects on the general physical function and quality of life of these patients, but there is still no consensus regarding its application in dialysis patients in the Colombian context..(AU)

16.
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 43(3): 73-81, jul.-set. 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1003427

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo deste trabalho é descrever as expectativas dos estudantes de Medicina quanto à carreira profissional. Foi realizado um estudo transversal, descritivo e analítico, no período de janeiro de 2014 a dezembro de 2017, com 116 estudantes concluintes em 2014, 116 de 2015, 91 de 2016 e 110 de 2017, totalizando uma amostra de 431 sujeitos. Foi aplicado um questionário para obtenção de informações sobre idade, gênero, ano de formatura, desejos de atuação profissional para os dez anos seguintes, a especialidade que deseja seguir, o nível de atenção no qual deseja trabalhar, a renda a ser alcançada, o número de empregos que acha necessário para alcançá-la e o número de empregos que pretende ter. O estudo demonstrou predomínio de homens (58,7%), e a média de idade foi de 26,4 ± 3,91 anos. Entre as especialidades pretendidas pelos egressos, Clínica Médica foi a mais almejada em todos os anos estudados, exceto no ano de 2016, em que predominou Pediatria. Sobre os desejos profissionais para dez anos após a formação, a docência foi almejada por cerca da metade deles, variando entre 46% e 59%, enquanto a quase totalidade da amostra demonstrou o desejo de trabalhar com assistência (atendimento direto ao paciente). Não houve predomínio entre as atividades ambulatorial/consultório e hospitalar, assim como entre o setor público e o privado. Em relação ao desejo de atuar nos diferentes níveis de atenção à saúde, os formandos de 2014 e 2016 expressaram desejo de atuar predominantemente no nível terciário (40,5 ± 29,3% e 41,1 ± 29,7%, respectivamente) em relação aos demais níveis de atenção. Sobre a pretensão de renda salarial, predominou a faixa acima de dez salários mínimos, sendo que a maioria expressou achar necessários pelo menos três empregos para alcançá-la, embora o desejo da maior parte dos estudados tenha sido manter apenas dois empregos. Conclui-se que as chamadas áreas básicas, como Clínica Médica, Cirurgia Geral e Pediatria, ainda são bastante almejadas pelos formandos. Contudo, mais do que o desejo de segui-las, provavelmente isto representa a necessidade de pré-requisito para acesso a outras especialidades. No geral, os egressos pretendem trabalhar com assistência, têm uma expectativa salarial alta, admitem a necessidade de diversos vínculos empregatícios para atingir esta meta e têm pouco interesse em trabalhar no nível primário de atenção à saúde. Tal realidade poderia ser discutida no âmbito da academia, a fim de oferecer informações realistas aos estudantes sobre o mercado de trabalho e a carreira médica, minimizando frustrações futuras durante o exercício profissional.


ABSTRACT The objective of this work is to describe the expectations of medical students regarding their professional career. In order to do this, a cross-sectional descriptive and analytical study was conducted, from January 2014 to December 2017, with 116 senior students of the class of 2014, 116 of 2015, 91 of 2016 and 110 of 2017, with a total of 431 individuals. A survey was applied to obtain information about their age, gender, graduation year, professional expectations for the 10 years to follow, intended specialty, level of care at which they want to work, intended income, the number of jobs they think they will need to work in to reach that level of income and the number of jobs they expect to have. The study showed that there are more male students (58%) than female, and the average age is 26.4 ± 3.91 years old. General Medicine was the most sought specialty by the graduate students, except for those of the year 2016, when the predominant specialty was Pediatrics. Concerning the professional goals for the 10 years after graduation, teaching was an objective of approximately half of them, ranging between 46% and 59%, while almost all of them demonstrated a wish to perform assistance work (direct patient care). No predominance was found when comparing the expectation of working in a hospital or in private clinics, nor between the private and public sector. Concerning the wish to work at different health care levels, the senior students from the classes of 2014 and 2016 expressed their wish to work predominantly at care level 3 (40.5 ± 29.3% and 41.1 ± 29.7%, respectively). Concerning the intended income, the most popular range was above 10 minimum monthly salaries. Most students stated they believe that at least three jobs would be necessary to reach this salary level, but they also expressed the wish of having only two jobs. We conclude that the so-called basic areas, such as General Medicine, General Surgery and Pediatrics are the most coveted by the senior students. However, this is probably due not only to a desire to follow these specialties, but also because they represent a prerequisite to access other specialties. In general, the graduates intend to work with direct care and have high salary expectations, which is only achieved by having multiple jobs. They have little interest in working at care level one. This reality could be discussed in academic circles, in order to offer realistic information to students about the job market and medical career, minimizing future frustrations during their professional practice.

17.
Infectio ; 23(2): 133-142, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989944

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La procalcitonina (PCT) es una prohormona de la calcitonina, producida por las células C de la glándula tiroides y convertida intracelularmente por enzimas proteolíticas en la hormona activa. La producción de PCT durante procesos inflamatorios, está ligada a endotoxinas bacterianas y a citoquinas inflamatorias. La mortalidad por sepsis, depende en gran medida de la detección precoz y del inicio de una terapia adecuada, incluyendo la administración de antibióticos apropiados, sin embargo, no está claro si el rendimiento diagnóstico de la PCT en el contexto de la nueva definición de sepsis en el tercer consenso es igual que con la definición previa. Métodos: Se incluyeron estudios que describieran el uso de PCT dentro de las primeras 24 horas de admisión, como prueba diagnóstica de sepsis. Se realizó la búsqueda en las bases de datos de Medline (Pubmed) y Embase. La calidad metodológica se evaluó según la Colaboración Cochrane en el desarrollo de Revisiones Sistemáticas sobre Test de Análisis para la herramienta QUADAS-II. El sesgo de publicación fue estudiado con el Test de Asimetría de Deeks. Se usó el módulo de MIDAS de STATA 14 para el análisis univariado y la construcción de la Curva de ROC. Resultados: Se obtuvieron 2076 registros (783 de Medline y 1293 de Embase). De los 12 estudios seleccionados, se incluyeron un total de 1353 pacientes, con una prevalencia en los estudios revisados entre el 9% y 88%, con un promedio del 47%. La Sensibilidad agrupada fue 0,83% (IC95% (0,74-0,89)) y la Especificidad fue 0,84% (IC95%(0,76-0,89)). El área bajo la Curva fue 0,90 (IC95%(0,87-0,92)). La heterogeneidad entre los estudios es importante I2 88% (IC95%(77-100)). Existe un sesgo de publicación según el test de Deek, con resultado P=0,04. En el análisis sobre la Probabilidad Post test según el nomograma de Fagan, es del 56%, teniendo en cuenta una probabilidad pretest del 20% según el LR positivo 5. Conclusión: La PCT es una prueba diagnóstica con buen rendimiento para sepsis o shock séptico, en pacientes adultos, no gestantes. Aunque hay sesgo de publicación y una gran heterogeneidad en los resultados, la prueba se considera adecuada para el escenario de sepsis según las nuevas definiciones.


Abstract Background: Procalcitonin (PCT) is a prohormone of calcitonin, produced by cells C of the thyroid gland and intracellurarly cleaved by proteolytic enzymes into the active hormone. The production of PCT during inflammatory process, is linked with a bacterial endotoxin and with inflammatory cytokines. Mortality due to sepsis, depends to a large extent on a early detection and early start of adecuade therapy, that includes giving appropriate antibiotics. It´s no clear if the PTC diagnostic performance is the same in the context of the definition of the third consensus as in the previous definition. Methods: Studies describing the use of PCT within the frst 24 hours of admission as a diagnostic test for sepsis were included. We searched the Medline (Pubmed) and Embase databases. The methodological quality was evaluated according to the Cochrane Collaboration in the development of Systematic Reviews on Analysis Test for the QUADAS-II tool. The publication bias was studied with the Deeks Asymmetry Test. The MIDAS module of STATA 14 was used for the univariate analysis and the construction of the ROC Curve. Results: 2076 records were obtained (783 from Medline and 1293 from Embase). Of the 12 selected studies, a total of 1353 patients were included, with a prevalence in the studies reviewed between 9% and 88%, with an average of 47%. The pooled sensitivity was 0.83% (CI 95% (0.74-0.89)) and the Specificity was 0.84% (CI 95% (0.76-0.89)). The area under the Curve was 0.90 (CI 95% (0.87-0.92)). Heterogeneity between the studies is important I2 88% (CI 95%(77-100)). There is a publication bias according to the Deek test, with a result of P = 0.04. In the analysis on the post test Probability according to the Fagan nomogram, it is 56%, taking into account a pretest probability of 20% according to the positive LR 5. Conclusions: PCT is a diagnostic test with good performance for sepsis or septic shock, in adult patients, not pregnant. Although there is publication bias and great heterogeneity in the results, the test is considered adequate for the sepsis setting according to the new definitions.

18.
Infectio ; 23(2): 167-174, Apr.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-989948

ABSTRACT

Resumen Objetivo: Evaluar la validez diagnóstica de las pruebas inmunológicas en la infección por Paracoccidioides, a partir de un metaanálisis de la literatura publicada entre 1972-2017. Métodos: Se realizó un metanálisis según las fases de identificación, tamización, elección e inclusión descritas en la guía PRISMA. Se evaluó la calidad metodológica con la guía QUADAS y se garantizó la reproducibilidad en la selección de estudios y extracción de la información. Se estimó la sensibilidad, especificidad, razones de verosimilitud, OR diagnóstica y área bajo la curva ROC usando Meta-DiSc. Resultados: Se identificaron 21 estudios que evaluaron 32 pruebas diagnósticas con una población de 1.404 individuos sanos, 2.415 con otras infecciones y 2.337 con Paracoccidioides. La mayoría de pacientes son de Brasil y Colombia. Las pruebas analizadas incluyen inmunodifusión, western blot, ELISA, aglutinación en látex. Las pruebas presentaron una sensibilidad y especificidad superior al 90%, razón de verosimilitud positiva y negativa de 24,7 y 0,08 respectivamente. La OR diagnóstica fue 495,9 y el área bajo la curva de 0,99. En la meta-regresión por tipo de antígeno se encontró que las mezclas de antígenos y el gp43 presentaron resultados satisfactorios en todos los parámetros; por su parte, los que utilizaron el antígeno p27 no presentaron resultados aceptables en ninguno de los parámetros. Conclusión: La elevada validez diagnóstica hallada en las pruebas serológicas que utilizan mezclas de antígenos o gp43 purificada evidencia la pertinencia de su uso en clínica y en programas de tamización.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the diagnostic validity of the immunological tests in Paracoccidioides infection, from a meta-analysis of the literature published between 1970-2017. Methods: Meta-analysis according to the identification, screening, eligibility and inclusion phases of PRISMA. The methodological quality was evaluated with the QUADAS guide and the reproducibility in the selection of studies and extraction of the information was guaranteed. Sensitivity, specificity, likelihood ratios, diagnostic OR and area under the ROC curve were estimated using Meta-DiSc. Results: We identified 21 studies that evaluated 32 diagnostic tests with a population of 1404 healthy individuals, 2415 with other infections and 2337 with Paracoccidioides. The majority of patients are from Brazil and Colombia. The tests analyzed include immunodiffusion, western blot, ELISA, latex agglutination. The tests presented a sensitivity and specificity higher than 90%, positive and negative likelihood ratio of 24,7 and 0,08 respectively. The diagnostic OR was 495,9 and the area under the curve was 0,99. In the meta-regression by type of antigen it was found that mixtures of antigens and gp43 showed satisfactory results in all parameters; those who used the p27 antigen did not present acceptable results in any of the parameters. Conclusion: The diagnostic validity of the serological tests using mixtures of antigens or purifed gp43 is clinically similar, for the other antigens the validity was scarce.

19.
Arch. Clin. Psychiatry (Impr.) ; 46(3): 72-79, May.-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011151

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) is a disorder in which the patient presents a cognitive decline, but without negative impact on the activities of daily living. Objective To carry out a systematic review of published studies that analyzed the prevalence of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) in older adults living in the community, and the criteria used for the diagnosis of this disorder. Methods A search was carried out in May 2017 using the descriptors: "epidemiology" or "prevalence", "mild cognitive impairment", and "community" in the PubMed, PsycInfo, SciELO, Web of Science, and Scopus databases. Two independent researchers extracted and documented the data. We used a random effect model to calculate pooled prevalence of MCI for overall studies and for each subgroup divided by diagnostic criteria. Results We found initially 1996 articles, and we selected 35 studies. The prevalence of MCI in the selected studies ranged from 0.5% to 41.8%. The overall pooled prevalence of MCI was 17.3% (CI 95%, 13.8-20.8), with significant heterogeneity between estimates (I2 = 99.6%). Discussion The standardization of the diagnostic criteria for MCI, as well as the tests used in the cognitive evaluation, could allow the comparison between the studies and would be an important step in the researches of this area.

20.
Braz. dent. j ; 30(3): 285-294, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | ID: biblio-1011549

ABSTRACT

Abstract To answer the following focused question through a systematic review: "Are the risk and intensity of tooth sensitivity (TS) and bleaching efficacy different between adult patients who undergo at-home bleaching using trays with reservoirs and those who use trays without reservoirs?". A comprehensive search was performed in the MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature database, Brazilian Library in Dentistry, Cochrane Library, and grey literature without restrictions. Abstracts from conferences; unpublished and ongoing trial registries, dissertations and theses (ProQuest Dissertations and Periódicos Capes Theses databases) were searched. Only randomized clinical trials (RCTs) were included. We used the Risk of Bias tool (RoB) from the Cochrane Collaboration for quality assessment. After the removal of duplicates, title and abstract screening and full-text examination, nine RCTs remained for qualitative analyses. The great majority of the studies did not report the method of randomization, allocation concealment, and examiner blinding during color assessment. From the nine studies, eight were at unclear risk of bias. In regard to color change, four studies reported no change and two reported improved color change with reservoirs. Only four studies recorded tooth sensitivity and they reported no significant differences. Only one study reported greater gingival irritation with reservoirs. Lack of data reporting prevented us from running a meta-analysis. Further well-designed RCT should be conducted to answer this research question. So far there is not evidence to support that reservoirs in bleaching trays improve color change. PROSPERO - CRD42016037628


Resumo Para responder a seguinte questão de pesquisa através de uma revisão sistemática: "O risco e a intensidade de sensibilidade dentária (SD) e eficácia de clareamento são diferentes entre pacientes adultos que realizam clareamento caseiro usando moldeiras com reservatórios e aqueles que usam moldeiras sem reservatórios?". Uma pesquisa abrangente foi realizada no MEDLINE via PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Literatura Latino-Americana e do Caribe em Ciências da Saúde (LILACS), Biblioteca Cochrane e literatura cinzenta, sem restrições. Os resumos da conferência anual da Associação Internacional para Pesquisa Dental além de estudos registrados ou em andamento também foram pesquisados. Dissertações e Teses foram pesquisados utilizando o Capes Journal Dissertações e Teses ProQuest. Apenas ensaios clínicos randomizados (ECR) foram incluídos. Usamos a ferramenta Risk of Bias (RoB) da Cochrane para avaliação de qualidade. Após a remoção de duplicatas, triagem de título e resumo e exame de texto completo, nove ECRs permaneceram para análises qualitativas. A grande maioria dos estudos não relatou o método de randomização, ocultação de alocação e cegamento do examinador durante a avaliação de cores. Dos nove estudos, oito estavam sob risco claro de viés. Em relação à mudança de cor, quatro estudos não relataram nenhuma mudança e dois relataram melhora na mudança de cor com reservatórios. Apenas quatro estudos registraram a sensibilidade dentária e não relataram diferenças significativas. Apenas um estudo relatou maior irritação gengival com reservatórios. A falta de relatórios de dados nos impediu de executar uma meta-análise. Outros ECR bem desenhados devem ser conduzidos para responder a esta questão de pesquisa. Até agora não há evidências que sustentem que reservatórios em moldeiras de clareamento melhorem a mudança de cor. PROSPERO - CRD42016037628

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