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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38694541

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the impact of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on the treatment of acute cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis. Methods: The Japanese government declared a state of emergency in April 2020 due to the COVID-19 pandemic. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of 309 patients who underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) for acute cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis between April 2017 and December 2022. Results: Patients were categorized into a pregroup (n = 134) and a postgroup (n = 175), depending on whether they were diagnosed before or after the state of emergency declaration. The total number of ERCP cases and the number of ERCP cases with endoscopic stone removals increased after the state of emergency declaration. Compared with the pregroup, the numbers of patients with performance status of 0-1 and surgically altered anatomy increased, whereas the numbers of patients taking oral antiplatelets or anticoagulants and those with cerebrovascular disease decreased in the postgroup. The number of single-stage endoscopic stone removals increased and hospital stays were significantly shorter in the postgroup. No differences in adverse event rates were detected between the two groups. Conclusions: Although our hospital provides tertiary care, the number of patients with cholangitis in good general condition and no underlying disease increased after the state of emergency declaration. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in an increase in the number of single-stage endoscopic treatments and shortened hospital stays for patients with acute cholangitis caused by choledocholithiasis. No safety issues with ERCP were detected, even during the pandemic.

2.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 32: e76360, jan. -dez. 2024.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1554750

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar a representação social da Covid-19 para a população geral de uma cidade de pequeno porte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Método: estudo qualitativo, apoiado na abordagem estrutural das representações sociais. Participaram 100 usuários de serviços de saúde. Os dados foram coletados por questionário sociodemográfico de evocações livres de palavras e roteiro de entrevista semiestruturada. Os dados foram analisados com o auxílio dos softwares Excel, EVOC 2005 e análise de conteúdo temático-categorial para contextualização das evocações respectivamente. Resultados: os termos do possível núcleo central foram: morte, sofrimento, cuidados, ansiedade-angústia e vacina. Na primeira periferia: medo e prevenção. À segunda periferia: informação-desinformação; desgoverno; ter-fé e proteção. A zona de contrate: doença; isolamento-social; dificuldades; catástrofe-mundial; desemprego e pandemia. Considerações finais: marcaram essa representação os impactos psicossociais negativos resultantes da desestruturação da vida e das mortes ocasionadas pela nova doença, no entanto o grupo aderiu as medidas de cuidados de proteção.


Objective: to analyze the social representation of Covid-19 among the general population of a small-sized city in the State of Rio de Janeiro. Method: Qualitative study, based on the structural approach of social representations. One hundred healthcare service users participated. Data were collected through a sociodemographic questionnaire, free word evocation, and a semi-structured interview guide. The data were analyzed using Excel software, EVOC 2005, and thematic-categorical content analysis for contextualization of the evocations, respectively. Results: the terms of the possible central core were: death, suffering, care, anxiety-distress, and vaccine. In the first periphery: fear and prevention. In the second periphery: information-misinformation; mismanagement; having faith and protection. The contrast zone: disease; social isolation; difficulties; global catastrophe; unemployment; and pandemic. Final considerations: this representation was marked by the negative psychosocial impacts resulting from the disruption of life and the deaths caused by the new disease; however, the group adhered to protective care measures.


Objetivo: analizar la representación social del Covid-19 para la población general de una pequeña ciudad del Estado de Río de Janeiro. Método: estudio cualitativo, basado en el enfoque estructural de las representaciones sociales. Participaron 100 usuarios de servicios de salud. Los datos se recolectaron mediante un cuestionario sociodemográfico con evocación libre de palabras y una guía de entrevista semiestructurada. Los datos fueron analizados utilizando lo software Excel y EVOC 2005 y análisis de contenido temático-categórico para contextualizar las evocaciones respectivamente. Resultados: los términos del posible núcleo central eran: muerte, sufrimiento, cuidados, ansiedad-angustia y vacuna. En la primera periferia: miedo y prevención. En la segunda periferia: información-desinformación; desgobierno; tener fe y protección. La zona de contraste: enfermedad; aislamiento-social; dificultades; catástrofe-mundial; desempleo y pandemia. Consideraciones finales: esta representación se caracterizó por los impactos psicosociales negativos derivados de la desestructuración de la vida y de las muertes causada por la nueva enfermedad, sin embargo, el grupo adhirió a las medidas de protección.

3.
Rev. enferm. UERJ ; 32: e76740, jan. -dez. 2024.
Article in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1556396

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: analisar o cenário de vacinação contra Covid-19 na população privada de liberdade em um estado do Nordeste brasileiro. Método: estudo do tipo observacional e ecológico, com os dados extraídos do Sistema de informações penitenciário brasileiro e dos boletins publicados pelo Conselho Nacional de Justiça, referentes a outubro de 2021 a junho de 2022, submetidos à análise estatística descritiva, por meio de frequências absolutas e relativas. Resultados: verificou-se que, entre 4.345 pessoas privadas de liberdade com a primeira dose de vacinação contra Covid-19, apenas 573 possuíam a segnda dose e nenhuma a terceira dose. Conclusão: evidenciou-se que, apesar da vacinação ser um benefício, ainda é um grande desafio para ser implementada para a população privada de liberdade, visto que, mesmo sendo considerados grupos prioritários, o acesso a esse direito foi prejudicado para esses indivíduos.


Objective: to analyze the Covid-19 vaccination scenario in the population deprived of liberty in a state in the Brazilian Northeast. Method: observational and ecological study, with data extracted from the Brazilian Penitentiary Information System and the bulletins published by the National Council of Justice, referring to October 2021 to June 2022, submitted to descriptive statistical analysis, using absolute and relative frequencies. Results: it was found that of the 4,345 people deprived of their liberty who had received the first dose of Covid-19 vaccination, only 573 had received the second dose and none had received the third dose. Conclusion: it was evident that, although vaccination is a benefit, it is still a major challenge to implement it for the population deprived of their liberty, since even though they are considered priority groups, access to this right has been hampered for these individuals.


Objetivo: analizar el escenario de vacunación contra el Covid-19 en la población privada de libertad en un estado del Nordeste brasileño. Método: estudio observacional y ecológico, con datos extraídos del Sistema de Información Penitenciaria de Brasil y boletines publicados por el Consejo Nacional de Justicia, correspondientes al periodo entre octubre de 2021 y junio de 2022, sometidos a análisis estadístico descriptivo, utilizando frecuencias absolutas y relativas. Resultados: se encontró que, de las 4.345 personas privadas de libertad con la primera dosis de la vacuna contra el Covid-19, solo 573 contaban con la segunda dosis y ninguna tenía la tercera dosis. Conclusión: se observó que, pese a que la vacunación es un beneficio, sigue siendo un gran desafío implementarla para la población privada de libertad, ya que, si bien se los consideran grupos prioritarios, el acceso a este derecho se vio afectado para estos individuos.

4.
J. bras. nefrol ; 46(3): e20230029, July-Sept. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1550504

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Lung diseases are common in patients with end stage kidney disease (ESKD), making differential diagnosis with COVID-19 a challenge. This study describes pulmonary chest tomography (CT) findings in hospitalized ESKD patients on renal replacement therapy (RRT) with clinical suspicion of COVID-19. Methods: ESKD individuals referred to emergency department older than 18 years with clinical suspicion of COVID-19 were recruited. Epidemiological baseline clinical information was extracted from electronic health records. Pulmonary CT was classified as typical, indeterminate, atypical or negative. We then compared the CT findings of positive and negative COVID-19 patients. Results: We recruited 109 patients (62.3% COVID-19-positive) between March and December 2020, mean age 60 ± 12.5 years, 43% female. The most common etiology of ESKD was diabetes. Median time on dialysis was 36 months, interquartile range = 12-84. The most common pulmonary lesion on CT was ground glass opacities. Typical CT pattern was more common in COVID-19 patients (40 (61%) vs 0 (0%) in non-COVID-19 patients, p < 0.001). Sensitivity was 60.61% (40/66) and specificity was 100% (40/40). Positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 100% and 62.3%, respectively. Atypical CT pattern was more frequent in COVID-19-negative patients (9 (14%) vs 24 (56%) in COVID-19-positive, p < 0.001), while the indeterminate pattern was similar in both groups (13 (20%) vs 6 (14%), p = 0.606), and negative pattern was more common in COVID-19-negative patients (4 (6%) vs 12 (28%), p = 0.002). Conclusions: In hospitalized ESKD patients on RRT, atypical chest CT pattern cannot adequately rule out the diagnosis of COVID-19.


RESUMO Introdução: Doenças pulmonares são comuns em pacientes com doença renal em estágio terminal (DRET), dificultando o diagnóstico diferencial com COVID-19. Este estudo descreve achados de tomografia computadorizada de tórax (TC) em pacientes com DRET em terapia renal substitutiva (TRS) hospitalizados com suspeita de COVID-19. Métodos: Indivíduos maiores de 18 anos com DRET, encaminhados ao pronto-socorro com suspeita de COVID-19 foram incluídos. Dados clínicos e epidemiológicos foram extraídos de registros eletrônicos de saúde. A TC foi classificada como típica, indeterminada, atípica, negativa. Comparamos achados tomográficos de pacientes com COVID-19 positivos e negativos. Resultados: Recrutamos 109 pacientes (62,3% COVID-19-positivos) entre março e dezembro de 2020, idade média de 60 ± 12,5 anos, 43% mulheres. A etiologia mais comum da DRET foi diabetes. Tempo médio em diálise foi 36 meses, intervalo interquartil = 12-84. A lesão pulmonar mais comum foi opacidades em vidro fosco. O padrão típico de TC foi mais comum em pacientes com COVID-19 (40 (61%) vs. 0 (0%) em pacientes sem COVID-19, p < 0,001). Sensibilidade 60,61% (40/66), especificidade 100% (40/40). Valores preditivos positivos e negativos foram 100% e 62,3%, respectivamente. Padrão atípico de TC foi mais frequente em pacientes COVID-19-negativos (9 (14%) vs. 24 (56%) em COVID-19-positivos, p < 0,001), enquanto padrão indeterminado foi semelhante em ambos os grupos (13 (20%) vs. 6 (14%), p = 0,606), e padrão negativo foi mais comum em pacientes COVID-19-negativos (4 (6%) vs. 12 (28%), p = 0,002). Conclusões: Em pacientes com DRET em TRS hospitalizados, um padrão atípico de TC de tórax não pode excluir adequadamente o diagnóstico de COVID-19.

5.
Univ. salud ; 26(2): D16-D27, mayo-agosto 2024. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1553971

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La pandemia por COVID-19 ha afectado significativamente la calidad de los servicios de cuidado de la salud. Objetivo: Analizar los efectos en los atributos de la calidad en salud de los servicios de atención de enfermedades diferentes a la COVID-19 en Colombia, durante el periodo 2020-2022. Materiales y métodos: Se analizaron 24 artículos de alcance nacional y otros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander y Cundinamarca. Resultados: La pandemia por COVID-19 impactó la calidad de los servicios en la atención de enfermedades como cáncer, accidentes cerebrovasculares y de eventos como la interrupción voluntaria del embarazo. Conclusión: La calidad de la salud se vio afectada en todas sus dimensiones durante las fases de la pandemia, especialmente en la población con enfermedades crónicas y relacionadas con la salud infantil y materna. Además, se destacaron respuestas como el uso de la telemedicina y de la atención domiciliaria para contribuir a la calidad de la salud en Colombia.


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has significantly affected the quality of health care services. Objective: To analyze the effects of COVID-19 on the quality of health care services focused on treating diseases other than COVID-19 in Colombia during the 2020-2022 period. Materials and methods: 24 articles were analyzed, which included some studies focused on national issues and others specific to the departments of Antioquia, Cordoba, Santander, and Cundinamarca. Results: The COVID-19 pandemic affected the quality of health services caring for diseases such as cancer, strokes, and critical circumstances like voluntary termination of pregnancy. Conclusion: All dimensions of health care were affected during the pandemic, especially impacting populations with chronic diseases and diseases related to child and maternal health. It is important to highlight that telemedicine and home care contributed to improving the quality of health in Colombia.


Introdução: A pandemia de COVID-19 afetou significativamente a qualidade dos serviços de saúde. Objetivo: Analisar os efeitos da COVID-19 nos atributos de qualidade em saúde dos serviços de atenção a outras doenças além da COVID-19 na Colômbia, durante o período 2020-2022. Materiais e métodos: foram analisados 24 artigos de âmbito nacional e outros específicos de departamentos como Antioquia, Córdoba, Santander e Cundinamarca. Resultados: A pandemia da COVID-19 impactou a qualidade dos serviços no cuidado de doenças como câncer, acidente vascular cerebral e eventos como a interrupção voluntária da gravidez. Conclusão: A qualidade da saúde foi afetada em todas as suas dimensões durante as fases da pandemia, especialmente na população com doenças crônicas e doenças relacionadas à saúde infantil e materna. Além disso, foram destacadas respostas como o uso da telemedicina e do atendimento domiciliar para contribuir para a qualidade da saúde na Colômbia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Delivery of Health Care , Health Services Accessibility
7.
Support Care Cancer ; 32(8): 496, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980433

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Immunocompromised individuals, such as those diagnosed with cancer, are at a significantly higher risk for severe illness and mortality when infected with SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19) than the general population. Two oral antiviral treatments are approved for COVID-19: Paxlovid® (nirmatrelvir/ritonavir) and Lagevrio® (molnupiravir). There is a paucity of data regarding the benefit from these antivirals among immunocompromised patients with cancer, and recent studies have questioned their efficacy among vaccinated patients, even those with risk factors for severe COVID-19. METHODS: We evaluated the efficacy and safety of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir and molnupiravir in preventing severe illness and death using our database of 457 patients with cancer and COVID-19 from Brown University-affiliated hospitals. RESULTS: Sixty-seven patients received nirmatrelvir/ritonavir or molnupiravir and were compared to 45 concurrent controls who received no antiviral treatment despite being eligible to receive it. Administration of nirmatrelvir/ritonavir or molnupiravir was associated with improved survival and lower 90-day all-cause and COVID-19-attributed mortality (p < 0.05) and with lower peak O2 requirements (ordinal odds ratio [OR] 1.52, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92-2.56). CONCLUSION: Acknowledging the small size of our sample as a limitation, we concluded that early antiviral treatment might be beneficial to immunocompromised individuals, particularly those with cancer, when infected with SARS-CoV-2. Larger-scale, well-stratified studies are needed in this patient population.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Neoplasms , Ritonavir , Humans , Neoplasms/drug therapy , Neoplasms/complications , Male , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/administration & dosage , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Ritonavir/therapeutic use , Ritonavir/administration & dosage , Administration, Oral , Cytidine/analogs & derivatives , Cytidine/therapeutic use , Cytidine/administration & dosage , Hydroxylamines/therapeutic use , Hydroxylamines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Adult , Immunocompromised Host , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/therapeutic use , Aged, 80 and over , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies
8.
J Microbiol ; 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980578

ABSTRACT

Infection with SARS-CoV2, which is responsible for COVID-19, can lead to differences in disease development, severity and mortality rates depending on gender, age or the presence of certain diseases. Considering that existing studies ignore these differences, this study aims to uncover potential differences attributable to gender, age and source of sampling as well as viral load using bioinformatics and multi-omics approaches. Differential gene expression analyses were used to analyse the phenotypic differences between SARS-CoV-2 patients and controls at the mRNA level. Pathway enrichment analyses were performed at the gene set level to identify the activated pathways corresponding to the differences in the samples. Drug repurposing analysis was performed at the protein level, focusing on host-mediated drug candidates to uncover potential therapeutic differences. Significant differences (i.e. the number of differentially expressed genes and their characteristics) were observed for COVID-19 at the mRNA level depending on the sample source, gender and age of the samples. The results of the pathway enrichment show that SARS-CoV-2 can be combated more effectively in the respiratory tract than in the blood samples. Taking into account the different sample sources and their characteristics, different drug candidates were identified. Evaluating disease prediction, prevention and/or treatment strategies from a personalised perspective is crucial. In this study, we not only evaluated the differences in COVID-19 from a personalised perspective, but also provided valuable data for further experimental and clinical efforts. Our findings could shed light on potential pandemics.

10.
Biomater Sci ; 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38980705

ABSTRACT

Healthcare associated infections (HCAI) represent a significant burden worldwide contributing to morbidity and mortality and result in substantial economic consequences equating to billions annually. Although the impacts of HCAI have been felt for many years, the coronavirus pandemic has had a profound effect, escalating rates of HCAI, even with extensive preventative measures such as vaccination, personal protective equipment, and deep cleaning regimes. Therefore, there is an urgent need for new solutions to mitigate this serious health emergency. In this paper, the fabrication of nitric oxide (NO) releasing dual action polymer coatings for use in healthcare applications is described. The coatings are doped with the NO donor S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP) and release high payloads of NO in a sustained manner for in excess of 50 hours. These coatings are extensively characterized in multiple biologically relevant solutions and the antibacterial/antiviral efficacy is studied. For the first time, we assess antibacterial activity in a time course study (1, 2, 4 and 24 h) in both nutrient rich and nutrient poor conditions. Coatings exhibit excellent activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), with up to complete reduction observed over 24 hours. Additionally, when tested against SARS-CoV-2, the coatings significantly reduced active virus in as little as 10 minutes. These promising results suggest that these coatings could be a valuable addition to existing preventative measures in the fight against HCAIs.

11.
Anal Chem ; 2024 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38975928

ABSTRACT

The diagnosis of bloodborne viral infections (viremia) is currently relegated to central laboratories because of the complex procedures required to detect viruses in blood samples. The development of point-of-care diagnostics for viremia would enable patients to receive a diagnosis and begin treatment immediately instead of waiting days for results. Point-of-care systems for viremia have been limited by the challenges of integrating multiple precise steps into a fully automated (i.e., sample-to-answer), compact, low-cost system. We recently reported the development of thermally responsive alkane partitions (TRAPs), which enable the complete automation of diagnostic assays with complex samples. Here we report the use of TRAPs for the sample-to-answer detection of viruses in blood using a low-cost portable device and easily manufacturable cassettes. Specifically, we demonstrate the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in spiked blood samples, and we show that our system detects viremia in COVID-19 patient samples with good agreement to conventional RT-qPCR. We anticipate that our sample-to-answer system can be used to rapidly diagnose SARS-CoV-2 viremia at the point of care, leading to better health outcomes for patients with severe COVID-19 disease, and that our system can be applied to the diagnosis of other life-threatening bloodborne viral diseases, including Hepatitis C and HIV.

12.
Biomater Sci ; 2024 Jul 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38976288

ABSTRACT

Lipids have demonstrated tremendous promise for mRNA delivery, as evidenced by the success of Covid-19 mRNA vaccines. However, existing lipids are mostly used as delivery vehicles and lack the ability to monitor and further modulate the target cells. Here, for the first time, we report a class of unnatural lipids (azido-DOTAP) that can efficiently deliver mRNAs into cells and meanwhile metabolically label cells with unique chemical tags (e.g., azido groups). The azido tags expressed on the cell membrane enable the monitoring of transfected cells, and can mediate subsequent conjugation of cargos via efficient click chemistry for further modulation of transfected cells. We further demonstrate that the dual-functional unnatural lipid is applicable to different types of cells including dendritic cells, the prominent type of antigen presenting cells, potentially opening a new avenue to developing enhanced mRNA vaccines.

13.
Medicine (Baltimore) ; 103(27): e38766, 2024 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38968501

ABSTRACT

Control charts help epidemiologists and healthcare professionals monitor disease incidence and prevalence in real time, preventing outbreaks and health emergencies. However, there remains a notable gap in the comprehensive exploration and application of these techniques, particularly in the context of monitoring and managing disease outbreaks. This study analyses and categorizes worldwide control chart applications from 2000 to 2023 in outbreak monitoring in over 20 countries, focusing on corona-virus (COVID-19), and chooses optimal control charts for monitoring US COVID-19 death waves from February 2020 to December 2023. The systematic literature review analyzes available 35 articles, categorizing data by year, variable, country, study type, and chart design. A selected optimal chart is applied to monitor COVID-19 death patterns and waves in the USA. Control chart adoption in epidemiology monitoring increased during the COVID-19 pandemic, with annual patterns showing a rise in 2021 to 2023 (18%, 36%, 41%). Important variables from 2000 to 2019 include influenza counts, Salmonella cases, and infection rates, while COVID-19 studies focus more on cases, infection rates, symptoms, and deaths. Among 22 countries, the USA (29%) is the top applier of control charts. The monitoring of USA COVID-19 deaths reveals 8 waves with varying severity  >  >  >  >  >  >  > . The associated with the JN.1 variant, highlights ongoing challenges. This study emphasizes the significance of control charts in outbreak monitoring for early disease diagnosis and intervention. Control charts help healthcare workers manage epidemics using data-driven methods, improving public health. COVID-19 mortality analysis emphasizes their importance, encouraging worldwide use.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/mortality , SARS-CoV-2 , Epidemiological Monitoring , Global Health , Pandemics , Disease Outbreaks
14.
BMJ Open ; 14(7): e080778, 2024 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969372

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study explores the association between vaccine hesitancy, vaccine knowledge and psychological well-being with (1) receipt of/willingness to receive an initial vaccine against COVID-19, and (2) willingness to get vaccinated yearly against COVID-19. The importance of different vaccine attributes (eg, vaccine technology, effectiveness, side effects) to choose a specific COVID-19 vaccine was also assessed. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey administered during May to June 2021 on vaccine hesitancy, vaccine knowledge, psychological well-being, willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccines, sociodemographics and COVID-19-related factors. SETTING: UK. PARTICIPANTS: A self-selected sample of 1408 adults. OUTCOME MEASURES: Receipt of/willingness to receive COVID-19 vaccine for the first time and yearly. RESULTS: Receipt of/willingness to receive a vaccine against COVID-19 initially and yearly were high (97.0% and 86.6%, respectively). Vaccine hesitancy was negatively associated with receipt of/willingness to receive vaccine initially/yearly (adjusted OR (aOR)=0.09, 95% CI 0.04 to 0.26, p<0.001/aOR=0.05, 95% CI 0.03 to 0.09, p<0.001). Vaccine knowledge and psychological well-being were positively associated with willingness to receive a yearly vaccine (aOR=1.81, 95% CI 1.43 to 2.29, p<0.001 and aOR=1.25, 95% CI 1.02 to 1.51, p=0.014, respectively), and general vaccine knowledge also with receipt of/willingness to receive vaccine initially (aOR=1.69, 95% CI 1.18 to 2.42, p=0.004). Vaccine effectiveness was the most important attribute for participants to choose a specific COVID-19 vaccine. CONCLUSIONS: Improving vaccine knowledge and emphasising vaccine efficacy may minimise vaccine hesitancy and increase COVID-19 vaccine uptake.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination Hesitancy , Humans , Male , Cross-Sectional Studies , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19/psychology , Female , Vaccination Hesitancy/psychology , Vaccination Hesitancy/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , United Kingdom , Adult , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/psychology , Patient Acceptance of Health Care/statistics & numerical data , Vaccination/psychology , Vaccination/statistics & numerical data , Young Adult , Surveys and Questionnaires , Aged , Adolescent , Psychological Well-Being
15.
BMC Prim Care ; 25(1): 240, 2024 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38969977

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The COVID-19 pandemic period (2020 to 2022) challenged and overstretched the capacity of primary health care services to deliver health care globally. The sector faced a highly uncertain and dynamic period that encompassed anticipation of a new, unknown, lethal and highly transmissible infection, the introduction of various travel restrictions, health workforce shortages, new government funding announcements and various policies to restrict the spread of the COVID-19 virus, then vaccination and treatments. This qualitative study aims to document and explore how the pandemic affected primary health care utilisation and delivery in remote and regional Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities. METHODS: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with staff working in 11 Aboriginal Community-Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) in outer regional, remote and very remote Australia. Interviews were transcribed, inductively coded and thematically analysed. RESULTS: 248 staff working in outer regional, remote and very remote primary health care clinics were interviewed between February 2020 and June 2021. Participants reported a decline in numbers of primary health care presentations in most communities during the initial COVID-19 lock down period. The reasons for the decline were attributed to community members apprehension to go to the clinics, change in work priorities of primary health care staff (e.g. more emphasis on preventing the virus entering the communities and stopping the spread) and limited outreach programs. Staff forecasted a future spike in acute presentations of various chronic diseases leading to increased medical retrieval requirements from remote communities to hospital. Information dissemination during the pre-vaccine roll-out stage was perceived to be well received by community members, while vaccine roll-out stage information was challenged by misinformation circulated through social media. CONCLUSIONS: The ability of ACCHSs to be able to adapt service delivery in response to the changing COVID-19 strategies and policies are highlighted in this study. The study signifies the need to adequately fund ACCHSs with staff, resources, space and appropriate information to enable them to connect with their communities and continue their work especially in an era where the additional challenges created by pandemics are likely to become more frequent. While the PHC seeking behaviour of community members during the COVID-19 period were aligned to the trends observed across the world, some of the reasons underlying the trends were unique to outer regional, remote and very remote populations. Policy makers will need to give due consideration to the potential effects of newly developed policies on ACCHSs operating in remote and regional contexts that already battle under resourcing issues and high numbers of chronically ill populations.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Primary Health Care , Rural Health Services , Humans , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care/organization & administration , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Interviews as Topic , Patient Acceptance of Health Care , Primary Health Care/organization & administration , Qualitative Research , Rural Health Services/organization & administration
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38981976

ABSTRACT

Platelet hyperreactivity is one of the crucial causes of coagulative disorders in patients with COVID-19. Few studies have indicated that integrin αIIbß3 may be a potential target for spike protein binding to platelets. This study aims to investigate whether spike protein interacts with platelet integrin αIIbß3 and upregulates outside-in signaling to potentiate platelet aggregation. In this study, we found that spike protein significantly potentiated platelet aggregation induced by different agonists and platelet spreading in vitro. Mechanism studies revealed that spike protein upregulated the outside-in signaling, such as increased thrombin-induced phosphorylation of ß3, c-Src. Moreover, using tirofiban to inhibit spike protein binding to αIIbß3 or using PP2 to block outside-in signaling, we found that the potentiating effect of spike protein on platelet aggregation was abolished. These results demonstrate that SARS-CoV-2 spike protein directly enhances platelet aggregation via integrin αIIbß3 outside-in signaling, and suggest a potential target for platelet hyperreactivity in patients with COVID-19. HIGHLIGHTS: • Spike protein potentiates platelet aggregation and upregulates αIIbß3 outside-in signaling. • Spike protein interacts with integrin αIIbß3 to potentiate platelet aggregation. • Blocking outside-in signaling abolishes the effect of spike protein on platelets.

17.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15864, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982108

ABSTRACT

In 2019, the novel SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus emerged in China, causing the pneumonia named COVID-19. At the beginning, all research efforts were focused on the spike (S) glycoprotein. However, it became evident that the nucleocapsid (N) protein is pivotal in viral replication, genome packaging and evasion of the immune system, is highly immunogenic, which makes it another compelling target for antibody development alongside the spike protein. This study focused on the construction of single chain fragments variable (scFvs) libraries from SARS-CoV-2-infected patients to establish a valuable, immortalized and extensive antibodies source. We used the Intracellular Antibody Capture Technology to select a panel of scFvs against the SARS-CoV-2 N protein. The whole panel of scFv was expressed and characterized both as intrabodies and recombinant proteins. ScFvs were then divided into 2 subgroups: those that exhibited high binding activity to N protein when expressed in yeast or in mammalian cells as intrabodies, and those purified as recombinant proteins, displaying affinity for recombinant N protein in the nanomolar range. This panel of scFvs against the N protein represents a novel platform for research and potential diagnostic applications.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Chain Antibodies , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/immunology , Single-Chain Antibodies/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins/immunology , Phosphoproteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/immunology , Recombinant Proteins/genetics , Peptide Library
18.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15810, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982132

ABSTRACT

Multisystemic inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) might manifest in a broad spectrum of clinical scenarios, ranging from mild features to multi-organ dysfunction and mortality. However, this novel entity has a heterogenicity of data regarding prognostic factors associated with severe outcomes. The present study aimed to identify independent predictors for severity by using multivariate regression models. A total of 391 patients (255 boys and 136 girls) were admitted to Vietnam National Children's Hospital from January 2022 to June 2023. The median age was 85 (range: 2-188) months, and only 12 (3.1%) patients had comorbidities. 161 (41.2%) patients required PICU admission, and the median PICU LOS was 4 (2-7) days. We observed independent factors related to PICU admission, including CRP ≥ 50 (mg/L) (OR 2.52, 95% CI 1.39-4.56, p = 0.002), albumin ≤ 30 (g/L) (OR 3.18, 95% CI 1.63-6.02, p = 0.001), absolute lymphocyte count ≤ 2 (× 109/L) (OR 2.18, 95% CI 1.29-3.71, p = 0.004), ferritin ≥ 300 (ng/mL) (OR 2.35, 95% CI 1.38-4.01), p = 0.002), and LVEF < 60 (%) (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.28-4.78, p = 0.007). Shock developed in 140 (35.8%) patients, especially for those decreased absolute lymphocyte ≤ 2 (× 109/L) (OR 2.48, 95% CI 1.10-5.61, p = 0.029), albumin ≤ 30 (g/L) (OR 2.53, 95% CI 1.22-5.24, p = 0.013), or LVEF < 60 (%) (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.12-4.51, p = 0.022). In conclusion, our study emphasized that absolute lymphocyte count, serum albumin, CRP, and LVEF were independent predictors for MIS-C severity. Further well-designed investigations are required to validate their efficacy in predicting MIS-C severe cases, especially compared to other parameters. As MIS-C is a new entity and severe courses may progress aggressively, identifying high-risk patients optimizes clinicians' follow-up and management to improve disease outcomes.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome , Humans , Male , Female , Child , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/complications , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/epidemiology , Vietnam/epidemiology , Child, Preschool , Adolescent , Infant , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Prognosis , Lymphocyte Count , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , C-Reactive Protein/metabolism
19.
Sci Rep ; 14(1): 15789, 2024 Jul 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38982195

ABSTRACT

Red blood cells (RBCs) express the nucleic acid-binding toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) and bind CpG-containing DNA. However, whether human RBCs express other nucleic acid-binding TLRs is unknown. Here we show that human RBCs express the RNA sensor TLR7. TLR7 is present on the red cell membrane and is associated with the RBC membrane protein Band 3. In patients with SARS-CoV2-associated sepsis, TLR7-Band 3 interactions in the RBC membrane are increased when compared with healthy controls. In vitro, RBCs bind synthetic ssRNA and RNA from ssRNA viruses. Thus, RBCs may serve as a previously unrecognized sink for exogenous RNA, expanding the repertoire of non-gas exchanging functions performed by RBCs.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Erythrocytes , SARS-CoV-2 , Toll-Like Receptor 7 , Humans , Toll-Like Receptor 7/metabolism , Toll-Like Receptor 7/genetics , Erythrocytes/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Sepsis/metabolism , Sepsis/blood , Sepsis/genetics , Erythrocyte Membrane/metabolism , Male , RNA/metabolism , RNA/genetics , Female
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