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J Crohns Colitis ; 2021 Mar 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33721889


BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The association between smoking and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) relies on old meta-analyses including exclusively non-Jewish White populations. Uncertainty persists regarding the role of smoking in other ethnicities. METHODS: We systematically searched Medline/PubMed, Embase and Scopus for studies examining tobacco smoking and the risk of developing IBD, i.e., Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC). Two authors independently extracted study data and assessed each study's risk-of-bias. We examined heterogeneity and small-study effect, and calculated summary estimates using random-effects models. Stratified analyses and meta-regression were employed to study the association between study-level characteristics and effect estimates. The strength of epidemiological evidence was assessed through prespecified criteria. RESULTS: We synthesized 57 studies examining the smoking-related risk of developing CD and UC. Non-Jewish White smokers were at increased risk of CD (29 studies; RR: 1.95, 95% CI: 1.69‒2.24; moderate evidence). No association was observed in Asian, Jewish and Latin-American populations (11 studies; RR: 0.97; 95% CI: 0.83-1.13), with no evidence of heterogeneity across these ethnicities. Smokers were at reduced risk of UC (51 studies; RR: 0.55, 95% CI: 0.48-0.64; weak evidence) irrespectively of ethnicity; however, cohort studies, large studies and those recently published showed attenuated associations. CONCLUSIONS: This meta-analysis did not identify any increased risk of CD in smokers in ethnicities other than non-Jewish Whites, and confirmed the protective effect of smoking on UC occurrence. Future research should characterize the genetic background of CD patients across different ethnicities to improve our understanding on the role of smoking in CD pathogenesis.

Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539654


The perception that immigrants represent a burden to national health systems can hinder the development of policies for their inclusion in health coverage. In order to inform the development of such policies, data on the healthcare needs and healthcare spending for immigrants is required. The objective of this article is to compare the clinical characteristics and healthcare-related expenditures of Venezuelan immigrants and non-migrants living with HIV in Colombia. We analysed data from the Colombian High-cost Diseases Fund from February 1, 2018 to January 31, 2019, identifying the hospital and non-hospital expenditures per patient for Venezuelan immigrants and non-migrant patients, in both the state-subsidised and the contributory coverage schemes. We employed binomial negative regression models to compare expenditures between the two groups. In the contributory scheme, the average annual per-capita expenditure for immigrants was USD $ 859.07 (SD: ± $793.37) for non-hospital care. For non-migrants, the average costs were 1,796.53. In the state-subsidised scheme expenditures were higher on average, but still lower for immigrants than for non-migrants. After adjusting by clinical and sociodemographic characteristics, non-hospital per capita expenditures were lower for immigrants as compared with non-migrants (25,37% lower in the state-subsidised scheme, and 33,75% lower in the contributory scheme). Hospital expenditures were also lower, but the small sample size limited analysis. To conclude, Venezuelan immigrants living with HIV do not represent a major economic burden to the health system in Colombia. Further studies are required in order to understand if the lower healthcare expenditures of this population are the result of limitations in healthcare access, of clinical characteristics that were not assessed in this study, or of other unmeasured aspects.

J. bras. econ. saúde (Impr.) ; 12(3)Dezembro/2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1141368


Objetivo: Avaliar, por meio de dados de vida real, a capacidade dos leitos hospitalares brasileiros versus as recomendações da Organização Mundial de Saúde (OMS), como esses leitos estão sendo utilizados, de onde vêm os pacientes, quanto isso custa, as diferentes patologias que têm chegado aos hospitais e o percentual de tempo de internação em leitos de cuidado intensivo. Métodos: Estudo retrospectivo histórico realizado entre julho de 2018 e junho de 2019 a partir de dados obtidos do Datasus e subsequentemente processados em MySQL para diferentes perspectivas. Todos os índices foram construídos por meio de quintis de dias de internação e posteriormente subdivididos em análises mais específicas, confrontadas com literatura específica do assunto e diferentes diretrizes internacionais. Resultados: O Sistema Único de Saúde (SUS) teve um total de 9.275.680 pacientes únicos internados durante o período de análise, tendo um custo total de R$ 183 bilhões, totalizando 63.817.613 de diárias hospitalares com uma média de 6,3 dias de internação, R$ 1.972,73 de custo médio por internação e R$ 286,73 de custo médio diário. Conclusão: O SUS e toda a sua estrutura em perspectiva histórica são bem recentes. Cabe ainda aprimorar os processos de atenção de rede primária (portas de entrada), bem como desenvolver e disseminar os processos de desospitalização (portas de saída/reintrodução para a atenção primária).

Objective: Through real-world evidence, evaluate the hospital beds capacity in Brazil versus WHO recommendations, how these hospital beds are used, where patients come from, how much does this cost, which different diseases are coming and the Intensive Units utilization. Methods: Retrospective study realized between July 2018 and June 2019 through Datasus data and processed on MySQL to different perspectives. All indexes have been organized on quintiles internment days and then sub analyzed in different perspectives, comparing with local literature and with international Guidelines. Results: National Health System (SUS) had 9.275.680 unique patients during the analyzed period, with a total cost of R$ 183 billions, and 63.817.613 hospitalization days diaries charged. The average length of stay was 6.3 days and it cost R$ 1.972,73 per patient. Conclusion: National Health System (SUS) is very recent on historic perspective. Whole system needs to improve primary health flows (entrance door) as well as develop and disseminate at home care process (exit door/reintroduction to primary care).

Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33025714


Living with a chronic or mental health condition can be challenging and requires considerable adjustment. As ways of coping are culturally influenced, it is important to understand how minority ethnic populations cope, to inform appropriate services. This review aimed to explore the coping strategies used by UK residents from an African Caribbean or Irish background between 1960 and 2020. A systematic literature search on strategies used to cope with chronic health conditions in both populations living in the United Kingdom identified 26 relevant studies. Data were extracted, quality of papers was appraised and critical interpretive synthesis was applied. Two major foci of the studies were coping strategies and barriers to coping. The main coping strategies were denial/scepticism, self-management, spirituality and religion. Within each population, there was variation in ways of coping. The review highlights the complex role of religion in influencing coping strategies. It demonstrates how personal and minority ethnic populations' experiences of service use are connected with stigma, fear and mistrust, which also act as barriers to seeking help and to coping. Coping with a chronic or mental health condition in the Irish and African Caribbean populations is under-researched. Stigma, fear and mistrust in services act as key barriers to help-seeking and religion is a prominent coping strategy. However, few detailed examples were given on how it was used to assist individuals when managing a chronic or mental health condition. Also due to a lack of research, firm conclusions cannot be drawn for the Irish population.

PLoS One ; 15(9): e0238525, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32925976


OBJECTIVE: To explore the scope, range, and nature of the existing literature on Mexican women who remain behind in their communities of origin while their partners migrate abroad. DESIGN: A scoping review informed by an intersectionality framework was conducted over four months, January-April 2020. DATA SOURCES: The electronic databases Medline, PsyINFO, Global Health, CINAHL, Gender Studies Database, Dissertations & Theses Global, LILACS, IBECS, and Sociological Abstracts were searched. REVIEW METHODS: Articles were included if they focused on Mexican women who remain behind across transnational spaces. Two independent reviewers screened and selected articles. Data were analyzed and synthesized using descriptive statistics for quantitative data and content analysis for qualitative data. RESULTS: A total of 19 articles were included for analysis; within those, the methods used included quantitative (n = 5), qualitative (n = 11), mixed methods (n = 2), and intervention (n = 1). Most studies lacked a theoretical framework (n = 10); the majority were empirical published studies (n = 11), and most used interviews (n = 12) and surveys (n = 6) to collect data. All of the articles studied cis-heterosexual Mexican women. Major areas identified were 1) research context, 2) gender roles, and 3) women's health. CONCLUSION: Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Family , Spouses , Transients and Migrants , Women's Health , Culture , Female , Gender Identity , Humans , Loneliness , Mental Health , Mexico , Socioeconomic Factors , Women
BrJP ; 3(3): 253-257, July-Sept. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132016


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: There are communication barriers to assess pain in patients with consciousness and cognitive disorders. This study aimed to make the cross-cultural adaptation of the Nociception Coma Scale-Revised (NCS-R) to the Portuguese language and check the validation evidence of the content of the NCR-R Brazilian version in non-communicative patients with consciousness and cognitive disorders. METHODS: This is a methodological study to check the cross-cultural adaptation of the NCR-R, divided into two stages: cross-cultural adaptation and check of the content validity. The cross-cultural adaptation phase included an initial translation, synthesis of translations, back-translation, expert committee, and cognitive debriefing based on Beaton and Price. A second expert committee evaluated the translated and adapted version to check the content validity index RESULTS: The NCS-R scale was translated and cross-culturally adapted, presenting good evidence of content validity with a Content Validity Index of 0.86. CONCLUSION: The NCS-R is translated and transculturally adapted and has good evidence of content validity.

RESUMO JUSTIFICATIVA E OBJETIVOS: Em pacientes com desordens de consciência e distúrbios cognitivos há barreiras de comunicação para a avaliação da dor. O objetivo deste estudo foi realizar a adaptação transcultural da Nociception Coma Scale-revised (NCS-R) para a língua portuguesa e verificar as evidências de validade de conteúdo da versão brasileira da NCS-R em pacientes não comunicativos com desordens de consciência e distúrbios cognitivos. MÉTODOS: Estudo metodológico para adaptação transcultural da NCS-R dividido em duas etapas: adaptação transcultural e verificação da validade de conteúdo. A fase de adaptação transcultural incluiu a tradução inicial, síntese das traduções, retrotradução, comitê de especialista e debriefing cognitivo baseado em Beaton e Price. A versão traduzida e adaptada foi avaliada por um segundo comitê de especialistas para a avaliação do índice de validade de conteúdo. RESULTADOS: A NCS-R foi traduzida, adaptada do ponto de vista transcultural e apresentou boa evidência de validade de conteúdo com Índice de Validade de Conteúdo de 0,86. CONCLUSÃO: A NCS-R encontra-se traduzida e adaptada do ponto de vista transcultural, e possui boa evidência de validade de conteúdo.

Cad. saúde colet., (Rio J.) ; 28(2): 311-324, abr.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132960


Resumo Introdução Há crescente número de publicações brasileiras envolvendo a escala de Senso de Coerência (SOC), mas o processo de adaptação transcultural ainda não pode ser considerado definitivo. Objetivo Revisar sistematicamente estudos de adaptação transcultural da versão brasileira, sumarizando as propriedades psicométricas. Métodos Foram pesquisadas sete bases de dados eletrônicas até janeiro de 2019: LILACS, BBO, BDENF-Nursing, Index Psychology, PubMed, EMBASE e Scopus, com restrição para o Brasil ou língua portuguesa. Resultados Foram identificadas 78 referências das quais foram incluídos 15 artigos e duas teses. Versões com 13 e 29 itens foram encontradas, que deveriam possuir os seguintes domínios: compreensão, manejo e significado. Verificou-se que até o momento os estudos não consideraram todas as etapas específicas para adaptação transcultural brasileira, apesar de apresentarem etapas metodológicas para validade de conteúdo e confiabilidade. A consistência interna da escala inteira (α de Cronbach) de oito estudos para SOC-13 variou de 0,61 a 0,81, e em quatro estudos, para SOC-29 de 0,77 a 0,87. Um único estudo (SOC-29) mostrou cargas fatoriais baixas para cinco itens nas análises dos componentes principais. Conclusão Há necessidade de aprofundar as pesquisas sobre adaptação da versão brasileira, em português, da escala de SOC.

Abstract Background Brazilian publications involving the Sense of Coherence (SOC) scale has increased, however the cross-cultural adaption process is not yet definite. Objective This study aimed to review systematically the cross-cultural adaptation studies of the Brazilian version of the SOC scale, summarizing psychometric properties. Methods Seven electronic databases were searched until January 2019: LILACS, BBO, BDENF-Nursing, Index Psychology, PubMed, EMBASE and Scopus with restriction for Brazil or Portuguese Language. Results It was identified 78 references, which15 papers and 2 thesis were included. Versions with 13 and 29 items were used and items should group in three domains: comprehensibility, manageability and meaningfulness. It was verified that the studies did not consider all specific stages of cross-cultural adaptation to the Brazilian culture, despite presenting methodological steps for content validity and reliability. The internal consistency for the whole scale (Cronbach α) in eight studies for SOC-13 ranged from 0.61 to 0.81 and 4 studies for SOC-29 from 0.77 to 0.87. A single study showed low factor loadings for some items in the main component analysis on SOC-29. Conclusion It is possible to conclude that it is necessary to deepen the research on adaptation of the Brazilian version of the SOC scale.

Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32410013


In this population-based study, we explored the relationships between immigration, socio-economic status (SES), and perinatal outcomes. We quantified the effects of SES on birthweight disparities between native and immigrant mothers in Spain. We obtained birth and SES data from the 2011 census and administrative registers for years 2011-2015. The associations between origin, statuses, and the likelihood of low birthweight were estimated using logistic regressions. Fairlie's nonlinear extension of the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method was applied to identify the extent to which the differences in birthweight between groups corresponded to socio-economic composition or to rates. Our results showed that African and Latin American mothers exhibited advantage in the perinatal outcomes over native mothers [odds ratio (OR) 0.75; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.63-0.90 and OR 0.73; 95% CI 0.65-0.82, respectively]. Decomposition analyses revealed that such advantage was not affected by the lower positions within the socio-economic structure that African and Latin American populations occupied.

Public Health Nutr ; 23(S1): s39-s50, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32131930


OBJECTIVE: To assess the relationship between malnutrition, socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnicity in Chilean adult population. DESIGN: Nationally representative survey (ENS) conducted in 2016-2017. Sociodemographic information, weight, height and hemoglobin (Hb) were measured (2003 ENS). Excess weight was defined as BMI ≥25 kg/m2. Undernutrition included underweight (BMI <18·5 kg/m2), short stature (height <1·49 m in women and <1·62 m in men) or anaemia (Hb <12 g/l). Education and household income level were used as indicators of SES; ethnicity was self-reported. We applied linear combinations of estimators to compare the prevalence of excess weight and undernutrition by SES and ethnicity. SETTING: Chile. PARTICIPANTS: In total, 5082 adults ≥20 years (64 % women) and 1739 women ≥20 years for anaemia analyses. RESULTS: Overall, >75 % of women and men had excess weight. Low SES women either by income or education had higher excess weight ((82·0 (77·1, 86·1) v. 65·0 (54·8, 74·1)) by income; (85·3 (80·6, 89·0) v. 68·2 (61·6, 74·1) %) by education) and short stature (20-49 years; 31(17·9, 48·2) v. 5·2 (2·2,11·4) by education); obesity was also more frequent among indigenous women (20-49 years; 55·8 (44·4, 66·6) v. 37·2 (32·7, 42·0) %) than non-indigenous women. In men, excess weight did not significantly differ by SES or ethnicity, but short stature concentrated in low SES (20-49 years; 47·6 (24·6, 71·6) v. 4·5 (2·1, 9·5) by education) and indigenous men (21·5 (11·9, 5·5, 11·9) v. 8·2 (5·5, 11·9)) (P < 0·05 for all). CONCLUSIONS: In Chile, malnutrition is disproportionately concentrated among women of low SES and indigenous origin; these inequalities should be considered when implementing prevention policies.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2020 Jan 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31957526


Background: Current policy and service provision recommend a woman-centered approach to maternity care and the development of personalized models for clinical assistance. Ethnicity has been recognized as a determinant in the risk calculation of selected obstetric complications. Based on these assumptions, our aims were to describe the linkage between baseline characteristics and maternal ethnicity and to analyze the cost for the local healthcare system, distinguishing mode of delivery, absence or presence of complications at birth, and maternal stay duration for all ethnic groups.Methods: In a 5-year period (2012-16), all women admitted for delivery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario "A Gemelli" IRCCS, Rome, Italy, were included in the analysis. Maternal demographics, adverse outcomes, and costs were evaluated. Economic calculations were performed by using the "diagnosis-related group" (DRG) approach.Results: A total of 18,093 patients were included in the analysis. An overall care expense of €42,663,481 was calculated. Caucasian was the main ethnicity (90.7%), with 9.3% minority groups. Vaginal delivery (VD) was the most common mode of delivery in all ethnic groups, with a global rate of 59.6%. The highest cesarean section (CS) rates were observed among Maghreb (51.5%) and Afro-Caribbean (47.8%) women. Minority groups had a doubled rate of complicated VD, primarily Afro-Caribbean women (69.9%), followed by Asian (64.1%), Maghreb (63.2%), and Latin American (62.7%) women. Afro-Caribbean women had the highest rate of complicated CS compared to the overall study population (37.6 versus 28.5%, p < .005).Conclusions: Minority groups have increased healthcare costs for birth assistance, mainly due to the higher rates of complications. In a prospective view, two strategies could be planned: first, calculating individualized risk to mitigate the clinical care charge, based on the ad hoc combination of ethnicity, mode of delivery, and obstetric complications; and second, endorsing the current financial return-on-investment opportunity tied to mitigating ethnic disparities in birth outcomes.

Public Health Nutr ; 23(S1): s68-s76, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31588883


OBJECTIVE: To analyse disparities of malnutrition in all its forms by socio-economic indicators in children aged <5 years, adolescent girls and women of reproductive age (WRA). DESIGN: We defined wasting/underweight, stunting/short stature, overweight and obesity following the WHO criteria for children aged <5 years, adolescents and WRA. We evaluated the prevalence of malnutrition by wealth status, education level and ethnicity (indigenous/non-indigenous). SETTING: Guatemalan 2014-2015 National Maternal and Child Health Survey. PARTICIPANTS: Children aged <5 years (n 11 962), adolescent girls aged 15-19 years (n 1086) and WRA aged 20-49 years (n 11 354). RESULTS: Stunting/short stature prevalence among children, adolescents and WRA was 2·8, 2·1 and 2·0 times higher in the poorest compared with the richest; 2·9, 2·9 and 2·1 times higher in the lower educational level than in the highest; and 1·7, 1·7 and 1·6 times higher in the indigenous than in the non-indigenous population. In contrast, overweight/obesity prevalence among children, adolescents and WRA was 1·6, 2·1 and 1·8 times higher in the richest compared with the poorest; 1·6, 1·3 and 1·3 times higher in the higher educational level than in the lowest; and 1·3, 1·7 and 1·3 times higher in the non-indigenous than in the indigenous population. CONCLUSIONS: Stunting/short stature is more prevalent among low-income, low-education and indigenous populations in all age groups. In contrast, overweight/obesity is more prevalent in high-income, high-education and non-indigenous populations in all age groups. These outcomes demonstrate socio-economic and ethnic disparities for malnutrition in all its forms.

Surgery ; 167(3): 661-667, 2020 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31653491


BACKGROUND: This investigation was undertaken to define the factors determining the optimal and most productive relationship among indigenous communities, surgeons, and providers of surgical services. METHODS: A systematic literature review was conducted to identify studies reporting on the experience of indigenous communities with surgeons, medical practitioners, and the providers of surgical and other health services. The databases searched were MEDLINE, EMBASE, PubMed, Web of Science, and Google Scholar, including all literature available until the search date of April 3, 2019. The reference lists of all included articles and related review articles were searched manually to identify further relevant studies. An inductive approach was used to identify common themes. RESULTS: Thirty-three publications discussed the experiences of New Zealand Maori (n = 2), Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islanders (n = 20), North American First Nation (n = 10), and Indigenous Latin Americans (n = 1). Across all indigenous peoples, 6 themes emerged: accessible health services, community participation and community governance, continuous quality improvement, a culturally appropriate and clinically skilled workforce, a flexible approach to care, and holistic healthcare. CONCLUSION: To provide medical and surgical services in indigenous communities successfully requires a diverse range of skills and core technical and academic competencies. Many skills lie within the definition of professionalism and advocacy as well as the ability to undertake and operationalize community consultation and empowerment. If surgical services serving Indigenous communities are to be successful in addressing health disparity, specific training in these skills will need to be developed and made available.

Health Services Accessibility/organization & administration , Health Services Needs and Demand , Health Services, Indigenous/organization & administration , Healthcare Disparities/organization & administration , Specialties, Surgical/organization & administration , Clinical Competence , Community Participation , Culturally Competent Care/organization & administration , Global Health , Humans , Indigenous Peoples , Latin America/ethnology , New Zealand/ethnology , North America/ethnology , Quality Improvement , Surgeons , Workforce/organization & administration
J Relig Health ; 59(1): 431-451, 2020 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31828596


Religion, a prominent factor among Black diasporic communities, influences their health outcomes. Given the increase in Black Caribbeans living in the United States, it is important to understand how religion's function among different ethnic groups of Black Americans. We systematically reviewed four databases and included articles of any study design if they (a) focused on the religious experiences of emerging adults (18-29 years) identifying as Black Caribbean in the United States, in light of medical, public health, or mental health outcomes, and (b) were published before November 30, 2018. Study results contribute to future studies' conceptualization and measurement of religion among Black Caribbean emerging adults.

African Continental Ancestry Group , Health Status , Religion , Spirituality , Adult , African Americans , Caribbean Region/ethnology , Emigration and Immigration , Female , Humans , Male , Mental Health/ethnology , United States
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1047752


Objetivo: realizar um mapeamento na literatura sobre os estudos que abordam a saúde das mulheres quilombolas. Método: revisão integrativa de literatura de abordagem qualitativa, realizada em três bases de dados, com a utilização da combinação dos descritores: Grupo com Ancestrais do Continente Africano, Mulheres, Saúde, num intervalo temporal de 10 anos. Resultados: emergiram 66 artigos, sendo incluídos 58 para análise e discussão. Formou-se eixos temáticos, onde 25 estavam relacionadas às doenças das mulheres quilombolas e com limitada discussão da promoção da saúde e dos determinantes sociais. Os outros 33 artigos relacionavam-se à contextualização histórica e social dos quilombos, Atenção Primária à Saúde, iniquidade social e violência, racismo e discriminação e acesso das mulheres quilombolas aos serviços de saúde. Conclusão: identificou-se limitações frente a determinação social com foco em pesquisas de cunho biológico e com ênfase na doença, destacando a necessidade imperiosa de estudos voltados a promoção da saúde desta população

Objective: to carry out a mapping in the literature on studies addressing the health of quilombolas women. Method: integrative review of literature of qualitative approach, held in three databases, using the combination of the descriptors: african continental ancestry group, women, health, in a time interval of 10 years. Results: 66 articles emerged, being included 58 for analysis and discussion. It formed themes, and from these 25 were related diseases of the quilombo women and limited discussion of health promotion and social determinants. The other 33 articles were related to the historical and social context of the quilombos, Primary Health Care, social inequity and violence, racism and discrimination and access of quilombos women to health services. Conclusion: we identified limitations front the social determination with focus on research of biological nature and an emphasis on disease, highlighting the necessity of studies regarding at promoting the health of this population

Objetivo: realizar un levantamiento en la literatura sobre los estudios que abordan la salud de las mujeres quilombolas. Método: revisión integrativa de literatura de abordaje cualitativo, realizada en tres bases de datos, con la utilización de combinación de las siguientes palabras clave: Grupo con Ancestrales del Continente Africano, Mujeres, Salud, en un intervalo temporal de 10 años. Resultados: han surgido 66 artículos, de los cuales 58 se ha analizado y discutido. A partir de esto, se ha formado ejes temáticos, de los cuales 25 artículos presentan relación con enfermedades de las mujeres quilombolas y con limitada discusión de la Promoción de la Salud y de los Determinantes Sociales. Los otros 33 artículos presentan relación con la contextualización histórica y social de los quilombos, Atención Primaria a la Salud, iniquidad social y violencia, racismo y discriminación y acceso de las mujeres quilombolas a los servicios de salud. Conclusión: se identificó limitaciones frente a la determinación social con foco en investigaciones de carácter biológico y con énfasis en la enfermedad, destacando la necesidad imperiosa de estudios volcados a la Promoción de la Salud de esta población

Humans , Female , Women's Health , African Continental Ancestry Group , Social Determinants of Health , Brazil , Women's Health Services
Rev. bras. educ. méd ; 44(3): e090, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137508


Abstract: Introduction: There are still many economic and racial barriers for black and indigenous peoples regarding access to a university degree in Brazil. Although Brazil is mistakenly considered a racial democracy, black people, indigenous peoples and those of low social status are the most affected by such difficulties regarding access to the university. Medical schools are traditionally attended by white, wealthy and upper-middle-class groups, although 54% of Brazilians consider themselves to be African descendants. To deal with this scenario, since 2013, 50% of all vacancies in public universities have been reserved for low social classes, indigenous peoples and African descendants. Our objective was to describe the socioeconomic and racial profile of those attending a public medical school in the state of Rio de Janeiro during a five-year period, analyzing the associations between the Brazilian segregationist structure and inclusion policies. Method: A census study was carried out, including all groups that entered the medical school at a public university in the state of Rio de Janeiro between 2013 and 2017. We applied a self-administered questionnaire that addressed social, ethnic, economic and university admission aspects. The data were analyzed by a simple description of the frequencies and by bivariate analysis. Results: The results show that the majority profile is white, with an annual income higher than US$ 8,640, coming from a private school, with financial support from the family, both parents with higher education and no gender difference. As for the inclusion of non-white people into the course, the current quota system has not significantly increased their presence. Conclusion: We conclude that racial inclusion policies subordinated to economic ones seem to be a barrier to the entry of non-whites to medical school, contributing to racial inequality.

Resumo: Introdução: O Brasil continua sendo um país onde persistem muitas barreiras socioeconômicas e raciais para acesso à formação médica. Ainda que o Brasil seja equivocadamente considerado uma democracia racial, pessoas negras, povos indígenas e aqueles de baixo status social são os mais afetados por tais dificuldades de acesso à universidade. As faculdades de Medicina são tradicionalmente ocupadas por grupos brancos, ricos e de classe média alta, embora 54% dos brasileiros se considerem afro-brasileiros. Para lidar com esse cenário, há, desde 2013, a reserva de 50% de todas as vagas em universidades públicas para baixa classe social, povos indígenas e pessoas negras. Nosso objetivo foi descrever o perfil socioeconômico e racial dos ingressantes de uma faculdade de Medicina da Região Sudeste ao longo de cinco anos, analisando as relações entre a estrutura segregacionista brasileira e as políticas de inclusão. Método: Um estudo censitário foi realizado abrangendo todos os grupos que entraram entre 2013 e 2017 na Faculdade de Medicina de uma universidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Optamos por aplicar um questionário autoadministrado que aborda aspectos sociais, raciais, econômicos e de admissão em universidades. Os dados foram analisados por uma descrição simples das frequências e por análise bivariada. Resultados: Constatou-se que o perfil majoritário é branco, com renda anual superior a US$ 8.640, proveniente de escola particular, com apoio financeiro da família, ambos os pais com ensino superior e sem diferença de gênero. Quanto à inserção de pessoas não brancas no curso, o atual sistema de cotas não aumentou significativamente a presença dessas pessoas. Conclusão: Políticas de inclusão racial subordinadas à econômica parecem ser uma barreira à entrada de não brancos na Faculdade de Medicina, o que contribui para a desigualdade racial.

Rev. panam. salud pública ; 44: e58, 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127121


RESUMO Objetivo. Descrever a frequência, as características e os fatores que contribuem para o suicídio em povos indígenas brasileiros. Método. Foi realizada uma revisão sistemática da literatura a partir das bases de dados PubMed, SciELO, PsycINFO e LILACS. Foram incluídos estudos de base populacional que enfocassem suicídio em populações indígenas no território brasileiro. Resultados. A busca identificou 111 artigos, dos quais nove preencheram os critérios de inclusão. Três estudos foram realizados na região Centro-Oeste, quatro na região Norte do Brasil e dois abordaram todas as regiões do Brasil. Três estudos citaram as etnias estudadas, totalizando sete etnias (Terena, Kadiweu, Guato, Ofaie-Xavante, Guarani, Guarani-Kaiowá e Guarani-Nandeva). Os estudos demonstraram maior taxa de mortalidade por suicídio em pessoas do sexo masculino, solteiros, com 4 a 11 anos de escolaridade, na faixa etária de 15 a 24 anos, no domicílio e nos finais de semana, tendo como principal método o enforcamento. Os principais fatores de risco para o suicídio foram pobreza, fatores históricos e culturais, baixos indicadores de bem estar, desintegração das famílias, vulnerabilidade social e falta de sentido de vida e futuro. Conclusões. Todos os estudos indicaram a necessidade de desenvolvimento de estratégias em conjunto com as comunidades, considerando sua cosmovisão e os aspectos sócio-histórico-culturais de cada etnia, para minimização dos fatores de risco e redução da taxa de suicídio.(AU)

ABSTRACT Objective. To describe the frequency, characteristics, and factors contributing to suicide in indigenous populations in Brazil. Method. A systematic review of the literature was performed in PubMed, SciELO, PsycINFO, and LILACS. All population-based studies focusing on suicide among indigenous populations in Brazil were included. Results. The search identified 111 articles, of which nine met the inclusion criteria. Three of these studies were performed in the Midwest and four in the North of Brazil, while two covered all Brazilian regions. The ethnic groups investigated were specified in three studies (Terena, Kadiweu, Guato, Ofaie-Xavante, Guarani, Guarani-Kaiowá, and Guarani-Nandeva). Suicide rates were highest among males, single individuals, those with 4 to 11 years of schooling, and those aged 15 to 24 years. Suicides occurred most often in the home and on weekends, mostly by hanging. The main risk factors for suicide identified in the articles were poverty, historical and cultural factors, poor wellbeing indicators, family disintegration, social vulnerability, and lack of life or future perspective. Conclusions. All the studies indicated the need to engage communities in developing strategies, considering their cosmovision and the social, historic, and cultural view of each ethnic group to minimize risk factors and reduce suicide rates.(AU)

RESUMEN Objetivo. Describir la frecuencia y las características del suicidio y sus factores contribuyentes en los pueblos indígenas brasileños. Método. Se realizó una revisión sistemática de la bibliografía a partir de las bases de datos PubMed, SciELO, PsycINFO y LILACS. Se incluyeron estudios de base poblacional enfocados en el suicidio en las poblaciones indígenas en el territorio brasileño. Resultados. En la búsqueda se encontraron 111 artículos, de los cuales nueve se ciñeron a los criterios de inclusión. Se realizaron tres estudios en la región centro oeste y cuatro en la región norte, además de otros dos que abarcaron todas las regiones de Brasil. En tres estudios se citaron todas las siete etnias estudiadas (Terena, Kadiweu, Guato, Ofaie-Xavante, Guaraní, Guaraní-Kaiowá y E-Nandeva). En los estudios se demostró una mayor tasa de mortalidad por suicidio en personas solteras del sexo masculino, con 4 a 11 años de escolaridad, en el grupo de 15 a 24 años de edad, en el domicilio y en los fines de semana, principalmente por el método de ahorcamiento. Los principales factores de riesgo de suicidio fueron la pobreza, factores históricos y culturales, el índice de bienestar bajo, la desintegración de las familias, la vulnerabilidad social, y la falta de sentido de la vida y del futuro. Conclusiones. Todos los estudios indicaron la necesidad de formular estrategias junto con las comunidades, dentro del marco de su cosmovisión y de los aspectos sociales, históricos y culturales de cada etnia, con el fin de reducir al mínimo los factores de riesgo y la tasa de mortalidad por suicidio.(AU)

Humans , Suicide/trends , Cultural Characteristics , Sociological Factors , Indigenous Peoples/psychology , Brazil/epidemiology
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190311, 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056556


Este artigo tem por objetivo investigar como o tema saúde de imigrantes haitianos vem sendo abordado em estudos empíricos qualitativos. Realizou-se revisão sistemática nas bases de dados PubMed, Scielo, Scopus e Web of Science, entre 2007 e 2019. Esta revisão orientou-se por princípios da revisão sistemática quantitativa, aplicados à pesquisa qualitativa. Os 17 artigos selecionados foram revisados criticamente e os dados relevantes extraídos e sintetizados utilizando-se preceitos da síntese temática. Os resultados apontam que percepções e saberes sobre saúde e doença estiveram presentes em todos os trabalhos. Os estudos incluídos demonstram motivos pelos quais os participantes não acessam serviços de saúde, no entanto, não exploram como ocorrem as trajetórias de cuidado. Recomenda-se que trabalhos futuros reconheçam a necessidade do diálogo intercultural, avançando no sentido de compreender a lógica e os significados que dão sustentação às representações socioculturais do cuidado à saúde.(AU)

This article aims to investigate how the theme Haitian immigrants' health has been approached in qualitative empirical studies. A systematic review was carried out in the databases PubMed, Scielo, Scopus and Web of Science between 2007 and 2019. This review was guided by principles of quantitative systematic review applied to qualitative research. The 17 selected articles were critically reviewed and relevant data were extracted and synthesized using thematic synthesis precepts. Results show that perceptions and knowledge about health/disease were present in all the aticles. The selected studies demonstrate reasons why research participants do not access health services, but do not explore how care paths occur. It is recommended that further studies should recognize the need of intercultural dialog and advance towards understanding the logic and meanings that support sociocultural representations of healthcare.(AU)

El objetivo de este artículo es investigar el tema de la salud de inmigrantes haitianos que se ha abordado en estudios empíricos cualitativos. Se realizó la revisión sistemática en las bases de datos PubMed, Scielo, Scopus y Web of Science, entre 2007 y 2019. Esta revisión se orientó por principios de la revisión sistemática cuantitativa, aplicados a la investigación cualitativa. Los 17 artículos seleccionados se revisaron críticamente y los datos relevantes se extrajeron y sintetizaron utilizándose preceptos de la síntesis temática. Los resultados señalan que percepciones y saberes sobre salud/enfermedad estuvieron presentes en todos los trabajos. Los estudios incluidos demuestran motivos por los cuales los participantes no realizan el acceso a los servicios de salud, pero no exploran cómo ocurren las trayectorias de cuidado. Se recomienda que trabajos futuros reconozcan la necesidad del diálogo intercultural avanzando en el sentido de comprender la lógica y los significados que dan sustentación a las representaciones socioculturales del cuidado de la salud.(AU)

Humans , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice/ethnology , Emigrants and Immigrants , Population Health , Qualitative Research , Bibliometric Indicators , Haiti/ethnology , Health Services Accessibility
Agora USB ; 19(2): 424-440, jul.-dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054786


Resumen El artículo analiza el comportamiento de la crisis económica en las trayectorias laborales de colombianos en Madrid, examinando los dos segmentos del mercado de trabajo español. Recurriendo al método biográfico, se constata que la crisis irrumpe como elemento definitivo en el re-direccionamiento laboral. Dicha dinámica se muestra tanto para trabajadores del segundo segmento laboral, como para aquellos ubicados en el segmento primario, desarrollando distintas estrategias que permiten para unos, resistir las inclemencias del ciclo económico, y para otros, superar estos obstáculos. El capital social y la situación administrativa se muestran como mecanismos decisivos para afrontar este contexto.

Abstract The article analyzes the behavior of the economic crisis in the labor trajectories of Colombians in Madrid, by examining the two segments of the Spanish labor market. By using the biographical method, it is found that the crisis breaks as a definitive element in labor redirection. This dynamic is shown both for workers in the second labor segment, as well as for those located in the primary segment, by developing different strategies, which allow for some, to resist the inclement conditions of the economic cycle, and for others, to overcome these hurdles. The social capital and administrative situation are shown as decisive mechanisms to deal with this context.

Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(5): 616-628, oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058088


Resumen La incorporación de terapias biológicas ha significado un gran avance en el manejo de diversas patologías de origen autoinmune, neoplásico u otros. Si bien su uso ha implicado mejoras significativas en el pronóstico de estas enfermedades, no está exento de complicaciones, entre éstas, las infecciosas. El objetivo de este consenso fue evaluar el perfil de seguridad, desde la mirada infectológica, de las terapias biológicas de uso más frecuente y dar recomendaciones para la prevención de infecciones en pacientes tratados con ellas, basándose en la evidencia de mayor calidad disponible para los biológicos seleccionados. El consenso cuenta de dos manuscritos. Esta segunda parte corresponde a la guía clínica que detalla estas recomendaciones mediante estrategias de cribado, terapias profilácticas e indicación de vacunas, según corresponde, para infecciones bacterianas, y por micobacterias en particular, virus, hongos y parásitos, tanto para adultos como para niños.

The use of biological therapies has meant a great improvement in the management of several conditions like autoimmune, neoplastic or others diseases. Although its use has implied significant improvements in the prognosis of these diseases, it is not exempt from complications: infectious diseases as one of them. The objective of this consensus was to evaluate, from an infectious viewpoint, the safeness of the most frequently used biological therapies and give recommendations for the prevention of infections in patients treated with these drugs. These recommendations were based on the highest quality evidence available for the selected biologics. The consensus counts of 2 manuscripts. This second part is a guideline that details these recommendations through screening strategies, prophylactic therapies and vaccines indications for bacterial, mycobacterial, viral, fungal and parasitic infections, both for adults and children.