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1.
Physiol Biochem Zool ; 94(4): 205-214, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33970831

ABSTRACT

AbstractSexual size dimorphism can vary in direction and magnitude across populations, but the extent to which such intraspecific variation is associated with sex and population differences in underlying metabolic processes is unclear. We compared resting metabolic rates (RMRs) of brown anole lizards (Anolis sagrei) from two island populations in the Bahamas (Eleuthera and Great Exuma) that differ in the magnitude of male-biased sexual size dimorphism. Whereas females from each population exhibit similar growth rates and body sizes, males from Great Exuma grow more quickly and attain larger body sizes than males from Eleuthera. We found that these population differences in growth of males persisted in captivity. Therefore, we predicted that males from each population would differ in RMR, whereas females would not. Consistent with this prediction, we found that RMR of males from Eleuthera was higher than that of males from Great Exuma, particularly at higher temperatures. As predicted, RMR of females did not differ between populations. Despite this apparent sex-specific trade-off between growth rate and RMR at the population level, we found a positive relationship between growth rate and RMR at the individual level. The fact that Great Exuma males maintain lower RMR than Eleuthera males, despite their greater absolute growth rates and the positive relationship between RMR and growth rate across individuals, suggests that Great Exuma males may have lower baseline metabolic demands and/or greater growth efficiency than Eleuthera males. Our results call attention to sex-specific divergence in metabolism as a potential mechanism for intraspecific divergence in sexual size dimorphism.

2.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919068

ABSTRACT

Annona squamosa L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from Annona squamosa leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health.

3.
JMIR Public Health Surveill ; 7(4): e25728, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33852413

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has placed unprecedented stress on economies, food systems, and health care resources in Latin America and the Caribbean (LAC). Existing surveillance provides a proxy of the COVID-19 caseload and mortalities; however, these measures make it difficult to identify the dynamics of the pandemic and places where outbreaks are likely to occur. Moreover, existing surveillance techniques have failed to measure the dynamics of the pandemic. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to provide additional surveillance metrics for COVID-19 transmission to track changes in the speed, acceleration, jerk, and persistence in the transmission of the pandemic more accurately than existing metrics. METHODS: Through a longitudinal trend analysis, we extracted COVID-19 data over 45 days from public health registries. We used an empirical difference equation to monitor the daily number of cases in the LAC as a function of the prior number of cases, the level of testing, and weekly shift variables based on a dynamic panel model that was estimated using the generalized method of moments approach by implementing the Arellano-Bond estimator in R. COVID-19 transmission rates were tracked for the LAC between September 30 and October 6, 2020, and between October 7 and 13, 2020. RESULTS: The LAC saw a reduction in the speed, acceleration, and jerk for the week of October 13, 2020, compared to the week of October 6, 2020, accompanied by reductions in new cases and the 7-day moving average. For the week of October 6, 2020, Belize reported the highest acceleration and jerk, at 1.7 and 1.8, respectively, which is particularly concerning, given its high mortality rate. The Bahamas also had a high acceleration at 1.5. In total, 11 countries had a positive acceleration during the week of October 6, 2020, whereas only 6 countries had a positive acceleration for the week of October 13, 2020. The TAC displayed an overall positive trend, with a speed of 10.40, acceleration of 0.27, and jerk of -0.31, all of which decreased in the subsequent week to 9.04, -0.81, and -0.03, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Metrics such as new cases, cumulative cases, deaths, and 7-day moving averages provide a static view of the pandemic but fail to identify where and the speed at which SARS-CoV-2 infects new individuals, the rate of acceleration or deceleration of the pandemic, and weekly comparison of the rate of acceleration of the pandemic indicate impending explosive growth or control of the pandemic. Enhanced surveillance will inform policymakers and leaders in the LAC about COVID-19 outbreaks.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Public Health Surveillance , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Humans , Latin America/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies
4.
J Phycol ; 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660865

ABSTRACT

Non-geniculate coralline algae are difficult to identify based solely on morpho-anatomy. To address the systematics of several taxonomically challenging taxa, we analyzed DNA sequences of a short portion (118-296 base pairs) of the 3' end of the rbcL gene from three type specimens. The analyses revealed that Harveylithon munitum (basionym: Lithophyllum munitum), described in 1906 from Cave Cays, Exuma Chain, Bahamas, is conspecific with both Goniolithon accretum and Goniolithon affine, described in 1906 from Sand Key, Florida and in 1907 from Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, respectively. L. munitum and G. accretum were described in the same 1906 publication and have equal priority. We have selected the currently accepted and most commonly used name H. munitum to apply to this entity. Comparative analyses of rbcL, psbA, UPA, COI, and LSU sequences from contemporary field-collected specimens revealed that H. munitum currently inhabits mesophotic rhodolith beds in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, as well as the intertidal zone in the Florida Keys, Honduras, Atlantic Mexico, Caribbean Panama, and Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Species delimitation analyses reveal that the Western Atlantic and Australian H. munitum populations may be separate species. Two new species of Harveylithon from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and one new species from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the Red Sea were also identified in the analyses and are described.

5.
Zootaxa ; 4903(4): zootaxa.4903.4.1, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757074

ABSTRACT

Species and genera of Bairdiidae can be difficult to discriminate, because of the somewhat limited morphological range of the carapace and limbs and the prevalence of homeomorphy. Attention to the esophageal flapper valve, an uncalcified but relatively well sclerotized structure, may contribute to more reliable identifications. Living species of Neonesidea exhibit sufficient variability in the architecture of this structure to suggest that it may have taxonomic value. Twelve named and three new species are examined to test this premise: N. bacata, N. caraionae n. sp., N. decipiens, N. credibilis n. sp., N. forea n. sp., N. edentulata, N. gerda, N. holdeni, N. longisetosa, N. manningi, N. mediterranea, N. omnivaga, N. plumulosa, N. schulzi, N. tenera. The geographic range of N. gerda is extended across the Gulf of Mexico, while the ranges of N. longisetosa and N. dinochelata are restricted. This supplemental information helps to clarify the relationships of several poorly known species from carbonate environments of Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Crustacea , Animals , Caribbean Region , Gulf of Mexico , West Indies
6.
JAMA Netw Open ; 4(3): e210307, 2021 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33646313

ABSTRACT

Importance: Rates of breast and ovarian cancer are high in the Caribbean; however, to date, few published data quantify the prevalence of inherited cancer in the Caribbean population. Objective: To determine whether deleterious variants in genes that characterize the hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome are associated with the development of breast and ovarian cancer in the English- and Creole-speaking Caribbean populations. Design, Setting, and Participants: This multisite genetic association study used data from germline genetic test results between June 2010 and June 2018 in the Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Barbados, Dominica, Jamaica, Haiti, and Trinidad and Tobago. Next-generation sequencing on a panel of 30 genes and multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (BRCA1 and BRCA2) were performed. Medical records were reviewed at time of study enrollment. Women and men diagnosed with breast and ovarian cancer with at least 1 grandparent born in the participating study sites were included; 1018 individuals were eligible and consented to participate in this study. Data were analyzed from November 4, 2019, to May 6, 2020. Exposures: Breast and/or ovarian cancer diagnosis. Main Outcomes and Measures: Rate of inherited breast and ovarian cancer syndrome and spectrum and types of variants. Results: Of 1018 participants, 999 (98.1%) had breast cancer (mean [SD] age, 46.6 [10.8] years) and 21 (2.1%) had ovarian cancer (mean [SD] age, 47.6 [13.5] years). Three individuals declined to have their results reported. A total of 144 of 1015 (14.2%) had a pathogenic or likely pathogenic (P/LP) variant in a hereditary breast and ovarian cancer syndrome gene. A total of 64% of variant carriers had P/LP variant in BRCA1, 23% in BRCA2, 9% in PALB2 and 4% in RAD51C, CHEK2, ATM, STK11 and NBN. The mean (SD) age of variant carriers was 40.7 (9.2) compared with 47.5 (10.7) years in noncarriers. Individuals in the Bahamas had the highest proportion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer (23%), followed by Barbados (17.9%), Trinidad (12%), Dominica (8.8%), Haiti (6.7%), Cayman Islands (6.3%), and Jamaica (4.9%). In Caribbean-born women and men with breast cancer, having a first- or second-degree family member with breast cancer was associated with having any BRCA1 or BRCA2 germline variant (odds ratio, 1.58; 95% CI, 1.24-2.01; P < .001). A BRCA1 vs BRCA2 variant was more strongly associated with triple negative breast cancer (odds ratio, 6.33; 95% CI, 2.05-19.54; P = .001). Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, among Caribbean-born individuals with breast and ovarian cancer, 1 in 7 had hereditary breast and ovarian cancer. The proportion of hereditary breast and ovarian cancer varied by island and ranged from 23% in the Bahamas to 4.9% in Jamaica. Each island had a distinctive set of variants.

7.
J Exp Biol ; 224(Pt 6)2021 Mar 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33771935

ABSTRACT

Dwarf sperm whales (Kogia sima) are small toothed whales that produce narrow-band high-frequency (NBHF) echolocation clicks. Such NBHF clicks, subject to high levels of acoustic absorption, are usually produced by small, shallow-diving odontocetes, such as porpoises, in keeping with their short-range echolocation and fast click rates. Here, we sought to address the problem of how the little-studied and deep-diving Kogia can hunt with NBHF clicks in the deep sea. Specifically, we tested the hypotheses that Kogia produce NBHF clicks with longer inter-click intervals (ICIs), higher directionality and higher source levels (SLs) compared with other NBHF species. We did this by deploying an autonomous deep-water vertical hydrophone array in the Bahamas, where no other NBHF species are present, and by taking opportunistic recordings of a close-range Kogia sima in a South African harbour. Parameters from on-axis clicks (n=46) in the deep revealed very narrow-band clicks (root mean squared bandwidth, BWRMS, of 3±1 kHz), with SLs of up to 197 dB re. 1 µPa peak-to-peak (µPapp) at 1 m, and a half-power beamwidth of 8.8 deg. Their ICIs (mode of 245 ms) were much longer than those of porpoises (<100 ms), suggesting an inspection range that is longer than detection ranges of single prey, perhaps to facilitate auditory streaming of a complex echo scene. On-axis clicks in the shallow harbour (n=870) had ICIs and SLs in keeping with source parameters of other NBHF cetaceans. Thus, in the deep, dwarf sperm whales use a directional, but short-range echolocation system with moderate SLs, suggesting a reliable mesopelagic prey habitat.

8.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A ; 118(10)2021 Mar 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33649214

ABSTRACT

The first Caribbean settlers were Amerindians from South America. Great Abaco and Grand Bahama, the final islands colonized in the northernmost Bahamas, were inhabited by the Lucayans when Europeans arrived. The timing of Lucayan arrival in the northern Bahamas has been uncertain because direct archaeological evidence is limited. We document Lucayan arrival on Great Abaco Island through a detailed record of vegetation, fire, and landscape dynamics based on proxy data from Blackwood Sinkhole. From about 3,000 to 1,000 y ago, forests dominated by hardwoods and palms were resilient to the effects of hurricanes and cooling sea surface temperatures. The arrival of Lucayans by about 830 CE (2σ range: 720 to 920 CE) is demarcated by increased burning and followed by landscape disturbance and a time-transgressive shift from hardwoods and palms to the modern pine forest. Considering that Lucayan settlements in the southern Bahamian archipelago are dated to about 750 CE (2σ range: 600 to 900 CE), these results demonstrate that Lucayans spread rapidly through the archipelago in less than 100 y. Although precontact landscapes would have been influenced by storms and climatic trends, the most pronounced changes follow more directly from landscape burning and ecosystem shifts after Lucayan arrival. The pine forests of Abaco declined substantially between 1500 and 1670 CE, a period of increased regional hurricane activity, coupled with fires on an already human-impacted landscape. Any future intensification of hurricane activity in the tropical North Atlantic Ocean threatens the sustainability of modern pine forests in the northern Bahamas.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 3224, 2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33564028

ABSTRACT

We present 10 nearly complete mitochondrial genomes of the extinct tortoise Chelonoidis alburyorum from the Bahamas. While our samples represent morphologically distinct populations from six islands, their genetic divergences were shallow and resembled those among Galápagos tortoises. Our molecular clock estimates revealed that divergence among Bahamian tortoises began ~ 1.5 mya, whereas divergence among the Galápagos tortoises (C. niger complex) began ~ 2 mya. The inter-island divergences of tortoises from within the Bahamas and within the Galápagos Islands are much younger (0.09-0.59 mya, and 0.08-1.43 mya, respectively) than the genetic differentiation between any other congeneric pair of tortoise species. The shallow mitochondrial divergences of the two radiations on the Bahamas and the Galápagos Islands suggest that each archipelago sustained only one species of tortoise, and that the taxa currently regarded as distinct species in the Galápagos should be returned to subspecies status. The extinct tortoises from the Bahamas have two well-supported clades: the first includes one sample from Great Abaco and two from Crooked Island; the second clade includes tortoises from Great Abaco, Eleuthera, Crooked Island, Mayaguana, Middle Caicos, and Grand Turk. Tortoises belonging to both clades on Great Abaco and Crooked Island suggest late Holocene inter-island transport by prehistoric humans.

10.
Am J Bot ; 108(2): 200-215, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598914

ABSTRACT

PREMISE: The Caribbean islands are in the top five biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, the biogeographic history of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) there is poorly studied. Consolea consists of nine species of dioecious, hummingbird-pollinated tree cacti endemic to the West Indies, which form a conspicuous element of the SDTF. Several species are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance, disease, sea-level rise, and invasive species and are of conservation concern. However, no comprehensive phylogeny yet exists for the clade. METHODS: We reconstructed the phylogeny of Consolea, sampling all species using plastomic data to determine relationships, understand the evolution of key morphological characters, and test their biogeographic history. We estimated divergence times to determine the role climate change may have played in shaping the current diversity of the clade. RESULTS: Consolea appears to have evolved very recently during the latter part of the Pleistocene on Cuba/Hispaniola likely from a South American ancestor and, from there, moved into the Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Florida, and the Lesser Antilles. The tree growth form is a synapomorphy of Consolea and likely aided in the establishment and diversification of the clade. CONCLUSIONS: Pleistocene aridification associated with glaciation likely played a role in shaping the current diversity of Consolea, and insular gigantism may have been a key innovation leading to the success of these species to invade the often-dense SDTF. This in-situ Caribbean radiation provides a window into the generation of species diversity and the complexity of the SDTF community within the Antilles.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Animals , Bahamas , Caribbean Region , Florida , Puerto Rico , West Indies
12.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 218, 2021 Jan 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33420176

ABSTRACT

Over the last century anthropogenic activities have rapidly increased the influx of metals and metalloids entering the marine environment, which can bioaccumulate and biomagnify in marine top consumers. This may elicit sublethal effects on target organisms, having broad implications for human seafood consumers. We provide the first assessment of metal (Cd, Pb, Cr, Mn, Co, Cu, Zn, As, Ag, and THg) and metalloid (As) concentrations in the muscle tissue of coastal sharks from The Bahamas. A total of 36 individual sharks from six species were evaluated, spanning two regions/study areas, with a focus on the Caribbean reef shark (Carcharhinus perezi), and to a lesser extent the tiger shark (Galeocerdo cuvier). This is due their high relative abundance and ecological significance throughout coastal Bahamian and regional ecosystems. Caribbean reef sharks exhibited some of the highest metal concentrations compared to five other species, and peaks in the concentrations of Pb, Cr, Cu were observed as individuals reached sexual maturity. Observations were attributed to foraging on larger, more piscivorous prey, high longevity, as well a potential slowing rate of growth. We observed correlations between some metals, which are challenging to interpret but may be attributed to trophic level and ambient metal conditions. Our results provide the first account of metal concentrations in Bahamian sharks, suggesting individuals exhibit high concentrations which may potentially cause sublethal effects. Finally, these findings underscore the potential toxicity of shark meat and have significant implications for human consumers.

13.
Nature ; 590(7844): 103-110, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361817

ABSTRACT

Humans settled the Caribbean about 6,000 years ago, and ceramic use and intensified agriculture mark a shift from the Archaic to the Ceramic Age at around 2,500 years ago1-3. Here we report genome-wide data from 174 ancient individuals from The Bahamas, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (collectively, Hispaniola), Puerto Rico, Curaçao and Venezuela, which we co-analysed with 89 previously published ancient individuals. Stone-tool-using Caribbean people, who first entered the Caribbean during the Archaic Age, derive from a deeply divergent population that is closest to Central and northern South American individuals; contrary to previous work4, we find no support for ancestry contributed by a population related to North American individuals. Archaic-related lineages were >98% replaced by a genetically homogeneous ceramic-using population related to speakers of languages in the Arawak family from northeast South America; these people moved through the Lesser Antilles and into the Greater Antilles at least 1,700 years ago, introducing ancestry that is still present. Ancient Caribbean people avoided close kin unions despite limited mate pools that reflect small effective population sizes, which we estimate to be a minimum of 500-1,500 and a maximum of 1,530-8,150 individuals on the combined islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola in the dozens of generations before the individuals who we analysed lived. Census sizes are unlikely to be more than tenfold larger than effective population sizes, so previous pan-Caribbean estimates of hundreds of thousands of people are too large5,6. Confirming a small and interconnected Ceramic Age population7, we detect 19 pairs of cross-island cousins, close relatives buried around 75 km apart in Hispaniola and low genetic differentiation across islands. Genetic continuity across transitions in pottery styles reveals that cultural changes during the Ceramic Age were not driven by migration of genetically differentiated groups from the mainland, but instead reflected interactions within an interconnected Caribbean world1,8.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Genetics, Population , Genome, Human/genetics , Human Migration/history , Islands , Population Dynamics/history , Archaeology/ethics , Caribbean Region , Central America/ethnology , Ceramics/history , Genetics, Population/ethics , Geographic Mapping , Haplotypes , History, Ancient , Humans , Male , Population Density , South America/ethnology
14.
Health Aff (Millwood) ; 39(12): 2120-2127, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33284702

ABSTRACT

As climate change alters the behavior of Atlantic hurricanes, these storms are trending stronger, wetter, and slower moving over coastal and island populations. Hurricane Dorian exemplified all three attributes. Dorian's destructive passage over the Abaco Islands, Bahamas, on September 1, 2019, exposed residents of its capital, Marsh Harbour, to a prolonged encounter with the storm's core. After Dorian's fierce front eyewall and towering storm surge tore apart shanty town habitats and eviscerated concrete homesites, residents desperately sought refuge during the brief respite when Dorian's eye passed directly overhead. The category 5 winds then resumed abruptly and Dorian continued its relentless destruction. This article focuses on the storm's mental health consequences, drawing on observations of on-site clinicians as well as findings from previous research on the mental health effects of Atlantic hurricanes and the transformation of hurricane hazards resulting from climate change. To protect island and coastal populations against climate-driven storms, disaster planning policy should emphasize resilience-focused prevention and mitigation strategies. In the aftermath of these events, health system response should include community outreach, case finding, and evidence-based interventions that optimize the use of mental health professionals.

15.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0242935, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33296401

ABSTRACT

Most species of modern iguanas (Iguania, Iguanidae) dig burrows for dwelling and nesting, yet neither type of burrow has been interpreted as trace fossils in the geologic record. Here we describe and diagnose the first known fossil example of an iguana nesting burrow, preserved in the Grotto Beach Formation (Early Late Pleistocene, ~115 kya) on San Salvador Island, The Bahamas. The trace fossil, located directly below a protosol, is exposed in a vertical section of a cross-bedded oolitic eolianite. Abundant root traces, a probable land-crab burrow, and lack of ghost-crab burrows further indicate a vegetated inland dune as the paleoenvironmental setting. The trace fossil matches dimensions and overall forms of burrows made by modern iguanas, and internal structures indicate active backfilling consistent with modern iguana nesting burrows. The trace fossil is also located on an island with a modern native species of rock iguana (Cyclura riyeli riyeli), suggesting a presence of iguanas on San Salvador since the Late Pleistocene. This nesting burrow may provide a search image for more fossil iguana burrows in The Bahamas and other places with long-established iguana species and favorable geological conditions for preserving their burrows.

16.
Conserv Physiol ; 8(1): coaa097, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33304586

ABSTRACT

Light pollution is a rapidly growing threat to biodiversity, with many unknown or poorly understood effects on species and ecosystems spanning terrestrial and aquatic environments. Relative to other taxa, the effects of artificial light at night on aquatic invertebrates are poorly understood, despite the abundance and integral significance of invertebrates to marine and freshwater ecosystems. We affixed heart rate and acceleration biologgers to adult Caribbean spiny lobster (Panulirus argus), an ecologically, culturally and economically significant species in the western Atlantic ocean, to test the effect of artificial light at night on this species' physiology and behaviour relative to appropriate controls. The experiment was conducted in a simulated reef mesocosm in The Bahamas with incandescent lighting used to illuminate it at 1 lux, approximating light levels offshore of urban areas. In the conditions tested here, artificial light at night was found to have no effect on heart rate or locomotor activity in P. argus. We observed a dissociation between activity and heart rate at both short-term and long-term temporal scales. Lobsters were more active at night and nocturnal activity was higher in trials closer to new moon; however, heart rate did not vary with diel or lunar cycle. There was less than 8% difference between daytime and night time average heart rate despite the average percentage of time spent active almost tripling in nights versus days, to 19.5% from 7.2%, respectively. Our findings suggest P. argus may have some resilience to low levels of light pollution, which warrants further research on aspects of this species' life history, performance and fitness in the face of this potential anthropogenic disturbance.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244117, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351836

ABSTRACT

The American Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber, is a charismatic bird distributed throughout the Caribbean, North and South America. Its wide distribution, the complexity of international monitoring due to its capacity for long-distance flying, and a focus mostly on local populations, make it difficult to understand the dynamics between sites. Here, we took advantage of the citizen eBird science project to present a global perspective on the distribution of the American Flamingo, and identify the potentially most important countries for breeding. We obtained 16,930 records for the Americas from the 1960s until October 2018, of which 9,283 could be used for our objectives. The eBird database indicated a considerable increase in the total number of records over the last decade (2010s), probably reflecting an increase in tourism facilities, research investment, technological advancement, interest in conservation, and the worldwide availability of eBird. We also observed a range extension in the Gulf of Mexico in the United States and a significant recolonization in the Florida Peninsula. The apparent range extension to the South is more likely to be linked to biases in the data; for example, in any given country the number of records might reflect either reporting efforts or actual numbers. eBird data confirmed that six countries host the main breeding colonies (Bahamas, Bonaire, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela). We suggest three additional countries as potential breeding areas for the species (Colombia, Curaçao, Turks and Caicos Islands) for which more field observations are necessary to support this possibility. This global appraisal of the distribution of the American Flamingo using citizen science data provides valuable information for national and international management and conservation programs such as the need to verify the species breeding status in areas where it appears to be expanding its distribution.


Subject(s)
Birds/physiology , Nesting Behavior/physiology , Americas , Animals , Female , Male
19.
IDCases ; 22: e00986, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33163361

ABSTRACT

Background: Nocardia otitidiscaviarum is an aerobic, gram positive bacteria with low virulence and incidence. Despite being uncommon, N. otitidiscaviarum has been associated with skin, lung, and disseminated infections. Case report: A 56-year-old male with past medical history of type 2 diabetes mellitus and recent travel to the Bahamas presented to the emergency room with complains of abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and non-bloody diarrhea for four days. He ultimately required a PICC line for total parenteral nutrition. 2 days after line placement, he developed high fevers and severe right arm pain. Diagnostic imaging revealed venous thrombosis of cephalic vein and abscess formation within the soft tissue of right axilla with cultures ultimately growing Nocardia otitidiscaviarum. He underwent surgical incision and drainage of the abscess followed up with complete excision of the right cephalic vein and antecubital vein as well as sharp excisional debridement of skin, subcutaneous tissue and muscle fascia and was treated with trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole for 3 months. Conclusion: Nocardia otitidiscaviarum treatment of cutaneous disease consists of trimethoprim- sulfamethoxazole for three to six months. While guidelines for surgical intervention for cutaneous infection are not specified, our patient required surgical incision and drainage of abscess, along with excision of vein due to necrosis in addition to antibiotic treatment for 3 months with successful outcomes.

20.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2015, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To verify the association between suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) and sedentary behaviors among adolescents from four Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in four countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bahamas, Curação, El Salvador, and Guatemala). The sample comprised 6,813 adolescents aged 11-18 years, of which, 3,559 were females. The three suicidal behaviors considered were ideation, planning, and attempts. Sedentary behavior was regarded as the time that adolescents spent sitting, excluding time at school. Crude and adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was present in 10.7% of males and 22.7% of females. Suicidal planning was present in 8.6% of males and 16.3% of females. Suicidal attempt was present in 9.3% of males and 16.3% of females. Sedentary behavior was present in 39.6% of males and 45.7% of females. It was identified that male adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), whereas female adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.30-1.83), planning (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28-1.86), and attempts (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). CONCLUSION: Adolescents of both sexes who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behaviors were more likely to have some suicidal behaviors than those who spent less time in sedentary behaviors.

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