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1.
Biomolecules ; 11(5)2021 Apr 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33919068

ABSTRACT

Annona squamosa L. (custard apple) belongs to the family Annonaceae and is an important tropical fruit cultivated in the West Indies, South and Central America, Ecuador, Peru, Brazil, India, Mexico, the Bahamas, Bermuda, and Egypt. Leaves of custard apple plants have been studied for their health benefits, which are attributed to a considerable diversity of phytochemicals. These compounds include phenol-based compounds, e.g., proanthocyanidins, comprising 18 different phenolic compounds, mainly alkaloids and flavonoids. Extracts from Annona squamosa leaves (ASLs) have been studied for their biological activities, including anticancer, antidiabetic, antioxidant, antimicrobial, antiobesity, lipid-lowering, and hepatoprotective functions. In the current article, we discussed the nutritional and phytochemical diversity of ASLs. Additionally, ASL extracts were discussed with respect to their biological activities, which were established by in vivo and in vitro experiments. A survey of the literature based on the phytochemical profile and health-promoting effects of ASLs showed that they can be used as potential ingredients for the development of pharmaceutical drugs and functional foods. Although there are sufficient findings available from in vitro and in vivo investigations, clinical trials are still needed to determine the exact effects of ASL extracts on human health.

2.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2021 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33914388

ABSTRACT

Reef-building corals respond to the temporal integration of both pulse events (i.e., heat waves) and press thermal history (i.e., local environment) via physiological changes, with ecological consequences. We used a "press-pulse-press" experimental framework to expose the brooding coral Porites astreoides to various thermal histories to understand the physiological response of temporal dynamics within and across generations. We collected adult colonies from two reefs (outer Rim reef and inner Patch reef) in Bermuda with naturally contrasting thermal regimes as our initial "press" scenario, followed by a 21-day ex situ "pulse" thermal stress of 30.4°C during larval brooding, and a "press" year-long adult reciprocal transplant between the original sites. Higher endosymbiont density and holobiont protein was found in corals originating from the lower thermal variability site (Rim) compared to the higher thermal variability site (Patch). The thermal pulse event drove significant declines in photosynthesis, endosymbiont density, and chlorophyll a, with bleaching phenotype convergence for adults from both histories. Following the reciprocal transplant, photosynthesis was higher in previously heated corals, indicating recovery from the thermal pulse. The effect of origin (initial press) modulated the response to transplant site for endosymbiont density and chlorophyll a, suggesting contrasting acclimation strategies. Higher respiration and photosynthetic rates were found in corals originating from the Rim site, indicating greater energy available for reproduction, supported by larger larvae released from Rim corals post-transplantation. Notably, parental exposure to the pulse thermal event resulted in increased offspring plasticity when parents were transplanted to foreign sites, highlighting the legacy of the pulse event and the importance of the environment during recovery in contributing to cross-generational or developmental plasticity. Together, these findings provide novel insight into the role of historical disturbance events in driving differential outcomes within and across generations, which is of critical importance in forecasting reef futures.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4950(2): zootaxa.4950.2.3, 2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903438

ABSTRACT

Two new species of the palaemonid shrimp genus Typton Costa, 1844 are described based on material from Panama and Mexico. Both species are closely related to T. tortugae McClendon, 1911, a species originally described from the Dry Tortugas, off southern Florida, USA, and later scarcely recorded from other western Atlantic localities, from Bermuda to Mexico and Brazil. Some clarification and additional illustrations are provided for the type material of T. tortugae. Typton jonkayei sp. nov., is described based on material from fouling-encrusting communities dominated by sponges, growing on submerged roots of the red mangrove, Rhizhophora mangle L., in Bocas del Toro, Caribbean coast of Panama. This new species differs from T. tortugae in several morphological details, for instance, on the minor and major chelipeds (second pereiopods), telson, uropod, frontal margin and ambulatory pereiopods. Typton cousteaui sp. nov. is described based on a single ovigerous female dredged in the southern Gulf of California off Baja California Sur, Mexico, previously reported as T. tortugae. This new taxon seems to represent a true cryptic species with no significant morphological divergence from the allopatrically isolated T. tortugae, except for slight morphometric differences. In addition, T. granulosus Ayón-Parente, Hendrickx Galvan-Villa, 2015 is recorded from the Pacific coast of Panama, based on material collected in the Coiba Archipelago. Some taxonomic, distributional and ecological remarks are provided for T. granulosus and the closely related T. serratus Holthuis, 1951.

4.
R I Med J (2013) ; 104(3): 12-13, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33789401
5.
BMC Plant Biol ; 21(1): 175, 2021 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33838660

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite its good salt-tolerance level, key genes and pathways involved with temporal salt response of common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) have not been explored. Therefore, in this study, to understand the underlying regulatory mechanism following the different period of salt exposure, a comprehensive transcriptome analysis of the bermudagrass roots was conducted. RESULTS: The transcripts regulated after 1 h, 6 h, or 24 h of hydroponic exposure to 200 mM NaCl in the roots of bermudagrass were investigated. Dataset series analysis revealed 16 distinct temporal salt-responsive expression profiles. Enrichment analysis identified potentially important salt responsive genes belonging to specific categories, such as hormonal metabolism, secondary metabolism, misc., cell wall, transcription factors and genes encoded a series of transporters. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) revealed that lavenderblush2 and brown4 modules were significantly positively correlated with the proline content and peroxidase activity and hub genes within these two modules were further determined. Besides, after 1 h of salt treatment, genes belonging to categories such as signalling receptor kinase, transcription factors, tetrapyrrole synthesis and lipid metabolism were immediately and exclusively up-enriched compared to the subsequent time points, which indicated fast-acting and immediate physiological responses. Genes involved in secondary metabolite biosynthesis such as simple phenols, glucosinolates, isoflavones and tocopherol biosynthesis were exclusively up-regulated after 24 h of salt treatment, suggesting a slightly slower reaction of metabolic adjustment. CONCLUSION: Here, we revealed salt-responsive genes belonging to categories that were commonly or differentially expressed in short-term salt stress, suggesting possible adaptive salt response mechanisms in roots. Also, the distinctive salt-response pathways and potential salt-tolerant hub genes investigated can provide useful future references to explore the molecular mechanisms of bermudagrass.


Subject(s)
Cynodon/physiology , Genes, Plant , Plant Roots/physiology , Salt Stress/genetics , Signal Transduction , Transcriptome/physiology , Cynodon/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling
6.
Mar Environ Res ; 168: 105328, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33853013

ABSTRACT

The stable carbon isotope composition (δ13C) in coral skeletons can be used to reconstruct the evolution of the dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) in surface seawater, and its long-term declining trend during the past 200 years (~1800-2000) reflects the effect of anthropogenic Suess effect on carbonate chemistry in surface oceans. The global atmospheric CO2 concentration still has been increasing since 2000, and the Suess effect is intensifying. Considering the coral's ability of resilience and acclimatization to external environmental stressors, the response of coral δ13C to Suess effect may change and needs to be re-evaluated. In this study, ten long coral δ13C time series synthesized from different oceans were used to re-evaluate the response of coral carbonate chemistry to Suess effect under the changing environments. These δ13C time series showed a long-term declining trend since 1960s, but the declining rates slowed in eight time series since around 2000s. Considering that the declining rates of the DIC-δ13C in surface seawater from the Hawaii Ocean Time-series Station and Bermuda Atlantic Time-series Station has not changed since 2000 compared with those during 1960-1999, the change in the coral δ13C trends at eight of ten locations may indicate that the response of coral δ13C to the anthropogenic Suess effect has changed since around 2000s. This change may have resulted from coral acclimatization to external environmental stressors. To adapt to acidifying oceans, coral may have the ability to regulate the source of DIC in extracellular calcifying fluid and/or the utilization way of DIC, therefore the response of coral δ13C to anthropogenic Suess effect will change accordingly.

7.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; abr 14, 2021. 25 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1177781

ABSTRACT

Desde la actualización epidemiológica publicada por la OPS/OMS el 11 de marzo de 2021 hasta el 13 de abril de 2021, fueron notificados 6.182.423 casos confirmados adicionales de COVID-19, incluidas 161.007 defunciones en la región de las Américas, lo que representa un aumento de 11% de casos y de defunciones. Durante el mismo periodo, Bermuda, Bonaire, Curazao y Uruguay presentaron un incremento >50% en el número de casos y defunciones.


Subject(s)
Humans , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiological Monitoring , Americas/epidemiology , Indigenous Peoples
8.
Plant Genome ; 14(1): e20073, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660431

ABSTRACT

Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy is frequently used to cross with C. dactylon Pers. in the creation of F1 hybrid cultivars that are some of the most widely used in the worldwide turf industry. However, molecular resource development in this species is limited. Accordingly, the objectives of this study were to construct a high-density genetic map, and to identify genomic regions associated with establishment rate. In this study, we constructed the first high-density linkage map for African bermudagrass using a genotyping by sequencing approach based on 109 S1 progenies. A total of 1,246 single nucleotide polymorphisms and 32 simple sequence repeat markers were integrated in the linkage map. The total length of nine linkage groups was 882.3 cM, with an average distance of 0.69 cM per interval. Four genomic regions were identified to be associated with sod establishment rate. The results provide important genetic resources towards understanding the genome as well as marker-assisted selection for improving the establishment rate in bermudagrass breeding.


Subject(s)
Cynodon , Plant Breeding , Chromosome Mapping , Cynodon/genetics , Genetic Linkage , Microsatellite Repeats
9.
Zootaxa ; 4903(4): zootaxa.4903.4.1, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757074

ABSTRACT

Species and genera of Bairdiidae can be difficult to discriminate, because of the somewhat limited morphological range of the carapace and limbs and the prevalence of homeomorphy. Attention to the esophageal flapper valve, an uncalcified but relatively well sclerotized structure, may contribute to more reliable identifications. Living species of Neonesidea exhibit sufficient variability in the architecture of this structure to suggest that it may have taxonomic value. Twelve named and three new species are examined to test this premise: N. bacata, N. caraionae n. sp., N. decipiens, N. credibilis n. sp., N. forea n. sp., N. edentulata, N. gerda, N. holdeni, N. longisetosa, N. manningi, N. mediterranea, N. omnivaga, N. plumulosa, N. schulzi, N. tenera. The geographic range of N. gerda is extended across the Gulf of Mexico, while the ranges of N. longisetosa and N. dinochelata are restricted. This supplemental information helps to clarify the relationships of several poorly known species from carbonate environments of Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Crustacea , Animals , Caribbean Region , Gulf of Mexico , West Indies
10.
Int J Surg Case Rep ; 81: 105700, 2021 Feb 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33770635

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION AND IMPORTANCE: The management of retained gunshot injury in the liver is not properly discussed in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a rare case of intrahepatic retained foreign body (bullet). Our patient is a 39-year old Yemeni soldier, who was exposed to firearm injury 10 months previously. The patient sought medical advice to extract the foreign body, and it was successfully extracted through abdominal exploration, with no intraoperative or postoperative complications. DISCUSSION: Retained liver foreign bodies have three types, penetrating, medical, and migrating. Before the removal of the foreign body, good patient evaluation along with good surgical expertise should be present. CONCLUSION: There is a need for general guidelines to manage such patients who should be assessed by high volume surgeons.

11.
J Environ Sci Health B ; 56(3): 241-250, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33529073

ABSTRACT

Glyphosate can generate positive effects on turfgrass maintenance as a form of growth control by decreasing the expenses associated with mowing. However, there is little information about the effects of this herbicide on turfgrasses. This study aimed to evaluate the response of bermudagrass and zoysiagrass to the herbicide glyphosate as a growth regulator. Two studies were performed in a greenhouse and repeated at different times. The treatments involved application of glyphosate at 10 different rates (0, 5.625, 11.25, 22.5, 45, 90, 180, 360, 720, and 1.440 g ae ha-1) with four replicates. Evaluations of green cover by digital analysis, injury, and plant height were performed at 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after application, and shoot dry matter of clippings was determined for the last evaluation period. Bermudagrass and zoysiagrass presented variedtolerance to glyphosate toxicity. Overall, the digital analysis showed that green content was negatively influenced by the increase in visual injury caused by glyphosate application. Moreover, increasing the glyphosate rate decreased plant height and shoot dry matter in both turfgrasses. Glyphosate application rates up to 45 g ae ha-1 for bermudagrass and 90 g ae ha-1 for zoysiagrass decreased plant growth without affecting the factors analyzed in this study.


Subject(s)
Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Plant Growth Regulators/pharmacology , Poaceae/drug effects , Poaceae/growth & development , Brazil , Cynodon/drug effects , Cynodon/growth & development , Glycine/pharmacology , Glycine/toxicity , Herbicides/pharmacology , Herbicides/toxicity , Plant Growth Regulators/toxicity , Plant Leaves/drug effects , Plant Shoots/drug effects , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Species Specificity
12.
J Med Entomol ; 2021 Feb 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33570154

ABSTRACT

Although parasites are by definition costly to their host, demonstrating that a parasite is regulating its host abundance in the field can be difficult. Here we present an example of a gregarine parasite, Ascogregarina taiwanensis Lien and Levine (Apicomplexa: Lecudinidae), regulating its mosquito host, Aedes albopictus Skuse (Diptera: Culicidae), in Bermuda. We sampled larvae from container habitats over 2 yr, assessed parasite prevalence, and estimated host abundance from egg counts obtained in neighboring ovitraps. We regressed change in average egg count from 1 yr to the next on parasite prevalence and found a significant negative effect of parasite prevalence. We found no evidence of host density affecting parasite prevalence. Our results demonstrate that even for a parasite with moderate virulence, host regulation can occur in the field.

14.
Hum Reprod ; 36(4): 1108-1119, 2021 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33501984

ABSTRACT

STUDY QUESTION: What is the current burden of polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) at the global, regional, and country-specific levels in 194 countries and territories according to age and socio-demographic index (SDI)? SUMMARY ANSWER: Slight increases in age-standardized incidence of PCOS and associated disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) were evidenced among women of reproductive age (15-49 years) from 2007 to 2017 at the global level, and in most regions and countries. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: No detailed quantitative estimates of the PCOS incidence and DALYs by age and SDI in these 194 countries and territories have been published previously. STUDY DESIGN, SIZE, DURATION: An age- and SDI-stratified systematic analysis of the PCOS incidence and DALYs across 194 countries and territories has been performed. PARTICIPANTS/MATERIALS, SETTING, METHODS: We used data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries and Risk Factors Study (GBD) 2017 to estimate the total and age-standard PCOS incidence rates and DALYs rates among women of reproductive age in both 2007 and 2017, and the trends in these parameters from 2007 to 2017. MAIN RESULTS AND THE ROLE OF CHANCE: Globally, women of reproductive age accounted for 1.55 million (95% uncertainty intervals (UIs): 1.19-2.08) incident cases of PCOS and 0.43 million (0.19-0.82) associated DALYs. The global age-standardized PCOS incidence rate among women of reproductive age increased to 82.44 (64.65-100.24) per 100 000 population in 2017, representing an increase of 1.45% (1.43-1.47%) from 2007 to 2017. The rate of age-standardized DALYs increased to 21.96 (12.78-31.15) per 100 000 population in 2017, representing an increase of 1.91% (1.89-1.93%) from 2007 to 2017. Over the study period, the greatest increase in the age-standardized PCOS incidence and DALYs rates were observed in the middle-SDI and high-middle SDI regions, respectively. At the GBD regional level, the highest age-standardized incidence and DALY rates in 2017 were observed in Andean Latin America, whereas the largest percentage increases in both rates from 2007 to 2017 were observed in Tropical Latin America. At the national level, Ecuador, Peru, Bolivia, Japan, and Bermuda had the highest age-standardized incidence rates and DALYs rates in both 2007 and 2017. The highest increases in both the age-standardized incidence rates and DALYs rates from 2007 to 2017 were observed in Ethiopia, Brazil, and China. LIMITATIONS, REASONS FOR CAUTION: Although the GBD (2017) study aimed to gather all published and unpublished data, the limited availability of data in some regions might have led to the estimation of wide UIs. Additionally, the PCOS phenotype is complicated and the diagnostic criteria are constantly changing. Consequently, the incidence of PCOS might have been underestimated. WIDER IMPLICATIONS OF THE FINDINGS: Knowledge about the differences in the PCOS burden across various locations will be valuable for the allocation of resources and formulation of effective preventive strategies. STUDY FUNDING/COMPETING INTEREST(S): The study was supported by grants from the Innovative Talent Support Plan of the Medical and Health Technology Project in Zhejiang Province (2021422878), Ningbo Science and Technology Project (202002N3152), Ningbo Health Branding Subject Fund (PPXK2018-02), Sanming Project of Medicine in Shen-zhen (SZSM201803080), and National Social Science Foundation (19AZD013). No potential conflicts of interest relevant to this article were reported. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: N/A.

15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33406983

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate the productivity of shoot dry biomass and the capacity of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) extraction by the Vetiver and Tifton 85 grasses when cultivated in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSSF-CWs) whose porous medium was saturated with solutions containing different nutrient availability. The grass shoots were cut every 30 days to determine the productivity and N, P and K contents in the plant tissue. Models of productivity and the extraction capacity of each nutrient were obtained as a function of the nutrient concentration. Based on the results obtained, it was verified that the productivity of shoot dry biomass and the extractions of N, P and K by the Vetiver grass increased linearly with the nutrient availability of the nutritive solution. In relation to Tifton 85, quadratic models of productivity and N and K extraction were adjusted. The maximum productivity, N, P and K extraction by Vetiver grass were 513.4, 8.2, 1.9 and 10.39 g m-2 month-1, respectively. In relation to Tifton 85 grass, these values were 739.4, 30.8, 3.0 and 15.59 g m-2 month-1 for productivity, N, P and K extraction, respectively.


Subject(s)
Chrysopogon/metabolism , Cynodon/metabolism , Nitrogen/metabolism , Phosphorus/metabolism , Potassium/metabolism , Biomass , Chrysopogon/growth & development , Cynodon/growth & development , Plant Shoots/growth & development , Plant Shoots/metabolism , Wetlands
16.
Sci Total Environ ; 750: 141691, 2021 Jan 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853938

ABSTRACT

This work focused on the impacts of FeCl3 impregnation ratio on the properties of FeCl3-activated bermudagrass (BG)-derived biochars (IA-BCs), adsorption of sulfamethoxazole (SMX) onto IA-BCs and regeneration of SMX-spent IA-BC. Compared with the control BC (85.82 m2/g), IA-BCs made via pyrolysis with FeCl3 to BG mass ratio between 1 and 3 (1-3 g FeCl3/g BG) resulted in significantly enhancing surface area (1014-1035 m2/g), hydrophobicity, Fe content in IA-BCs (3.87-7.27%), and graphitized carbon. The properties of IA-BCs supported magnetic separation and higher adsorption (32-265 mg SMX/g BC) than the control BC (6-14 mg SMX/g BC) at various pH. Adsorption experiments indicated various adsorption mechanisms between SMX and IA-BCs via π-π EDA, hydrophobic interactions, and hydrogen bond with intraparticle diffusion limitation. The adsorption was also found to be spontaneous and exothermic. The IA-BC made at FeCl3 to BG mass ratio of 2 (IA-BC2.0) showed the maximum adsorption capacity for SMX (253 mg SMX/g BC) calculated from Langmuir isotherm model. Additionally, both NaOH desorption and thermal oxidation showed effective regeneration of SMX-saturated IA-BC2.0 over multiple cycles. After three cycles of adsorption-regeneration, 64% and 62% of regeneration efficiencies were still achieved under thermal treatment at 300 °C and desorption with 0.1 M NaOH solution, respectively, indicating a cost-efficient adsorbent for the elimination of SMX in water.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Adsorption , Charcoal , Cynodon , Iron , Sulfamethoxazole , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
17.
J Ethnopharmacol ; 264: 113230, 2021 Jan 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32853741

ABSTRACT

ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Gastrointestinal anthrax, a disease caused by Bacillus anthracis, remains an important but relatively neglected endemic disease of animals and humans in remote areas of the Indian subcontinent and some parts of Africa. Its initial symptoms include diarrhea and stomachache. In the current study, several common plants indicated for diarrhea, dysentery, stomachache or as stomachic as per traditional knowledge in the Indian subcontinent, i.e., Aegle marmelos (L.) Correa (Bael), Allium cepa L. (Onion), Allium sativum L. (Garlic), Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem), Berberis asiatica Roxb. ex DC. (Daruharidra), Coriandrum sativum L. (Coriander), Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric), Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. (Bermuda grass), Mangifera indica L. (Mango), Morus indica L. (Black mulberry), Ocimum tenuiflorum L. (Ocimum sanctum L., Holy Basil), Ocimum gratissimum L. (Ram Tulsi), Psidium guajava L. (Guava), Zingiber officinale Roscoe (Ginger), were evaluated for their anti-Bacillus anthracis property. The usage of Azadirachta indica A. Juss. and Curcuma longa L. by Santals (India), and Allium sp. by biblical people to alleviate anthrax-like symptoms is well documented, but the usage of other plants is traditionally only indicated for different gastrointestinal disturbances/conditions. AIM OF THE STUDY: Evaluate the above listed commonly available edible plants from the Indian subcontinent that are used in the traditional medicine to treat gastrointestinal diseases including those also indicated for anthrax-like symptoms for the presence of potent anti-B. anthracis activity in a form amenable to use by the general population in the endemic areas. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Aqueous extracts made from fourteen plants indicated above were screened for their anti-B. anthracis activity using agar-well diffusion assay (AWDA) and broth microdilution methods. The Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) that displayed most potent anti-B. anthracis activity was assessed for its thermostability, stability under pH extremes encountered in the gastrointestinal tract, and potential antagonistic interaction with bile salts as well as the FDA-approved antibiotics used for anthrax control. The bioactive fractions from the AGE were isolated by TLC coupled bioautography followed by their characterization using GC-MS. RESULTS: Garlic (Allium sativum L.) extract was identified as the most promising candidate with bactericidal activity against B. anthracis. It consistently inhibited the growth of B. anthracis in AWDA and decreased the viable colony-forming unit counts in liquid-broth cultures by 6-logs within 6-12 h. The AGE displayed acceptable thermostability (>80% anti-B. anthracis activity retained on incubation at 50 °C for 12 h) and stability in gastric pH range (2-8). It did not antagonize the activity of FDA-approved antibiotics used for anthrax control. GC-MS analysis of the TLC separated bioactive fractions of AGE indicated the presence of previously unreported constituents such as phthalic acid derivatives, acid esters, phenyl group-containing compounds, steroids etc. CONCLUSION: The Aqueous Garlic Extract (AGE) displayed potent anti-B. anthracis activity. It was better than that displayed by Azadirachta indica A. Juss. (Neem) and Mangifera indica L., while Curcuma longa L. (Turmeric) did not show any activity under the assay conditions used. Further work should be undertaken to explore the possible application of AGE in preventing anthrax incidences in endemic areas.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacillus anthracis/drug effects , Garlic , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/isolation & purification , Bacillus anthracis/physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests/methods , Plant Extracts/isolation & purification
18.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1835, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study is to showcase the image of Sexual Violence (SV) temporal trends through exploring differences in its prevalence rates during 1990-2017 across 195 countries and territories. METHODS: The SV prevalence rates were derived from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database during 1990-2017, worldwide. First, the Latent Growth Model (LGM) was employed for assessing the change in SV prevalence rate over time in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Australia & Oceania, for men and women separately. Then, the change in SV prevalence rate over time was determined within countries with high and low Human Development Index (HDI). Finally, the Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMM) were applied for identifying classes where countries within each class have similar trend of SV prevalence rate over time. RESULTS: The SV prevalence was higher among women than men and decreased in both genders over time across the world. The declining trend in SV prevalence against men is visible in both countries with high and low HDI, but SV prevalence against women in countries with low HDI shows an increase. The findings of LGMM identified six classes of SV prevalence trajectories. LGMM allocated Bermuda into the class with the highest decrease in SV prevalence against men, and Equatorial Guinea and Luxembourg into the class with the highest increase. Other countries had very slow declining trends. In terms of SV prevalence against women, LGMM allocated China, North Korea, and Taiwan into the class with the most increase among the countries in the world. Bermuda, Guyana, Mexico, Nigeria, and Saint Lucia were placed into the class which witnessed the largest decline and Angola, Congo, and Equatorial Guinea were ranked next. The trend in other countries was mostly decreasing. CONCLUSION: Given the high economic and social burden that SV has on victims and societies, the rate of SV in most countries does not seem to have dropped remarkably and requires special attention by relevant policymakers. The SV prevalence rate is highly heterogeneous among world countries which may be due to the definitions and tools used, and more importantly, the culture norms.

19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33289626

ABSTRACT

Sugarcane Grassy Shoot (SCGS) disease is known to be related to Rice Yellow Dwarf (RYD) phytoplasmas (16SrXI-B group) which are found predominantly in sugarcane growing areas of the Indian subcontinent and South-East Asia. The 16S rRNA gene sequences of SCGS phytoplasma strains belonging to the 16SrXI-B group share 98.07 % similarity with 'Ca. Phytoplasma cynodontis' strain BGWL-C1 followed by 97.65 % similarity with 'Ca. P. oryzae' strain RYD-J. Being placed distinctly away from both the phylogenetically related species, the taxonomic identity of SCGS phytoplasma is unclear and confusing. We attempted to resolve the phylogenetic positions of SCGS phytoplasma based on the phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA gene (>1500 bp), nine housekeeping genes (>3500 aa), core genome phylogeny (>10 000 aa) and OGRI values. The draft genome sequences of SCGS phytoplasma (strain SCGS) and Bermuda Grass White leaf (BGWL) phytoplasma (strain LW01), closely related to 'Ca. P. cynodontis', were obtained. The SCGS genome was comprised of 29 scaffolds corresponding to 505 173 bp while LW01 assembly contained 21 scaffolds corresponding to 483 935 bp with the fold coverages over 330× and completeness over 90 % for both the genomes. The G+C content of SCGS was 19.86 % while that of LW01 was 20.46 %. The orthoANI values for the strain SCGS against strains LW01 was 79.42 %, and dDDH values were 22. Overall analysis reveals that SCGS phytoplasma forms a distant clade in RYD group of phytoplasmas. Based on phylogenetic analyses and OGRI values obtained from the genome sequences, a novel taxon 'Candidatus Phytoplasma sacchari' is proposed.

20.
World Allergy Organ J ; 13(12): 100483, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33294115

ABSTRACT

Background: Component resolved diagnosis, recently redefined as precision allergy medicine diagnosis - PAMD@, may help understanding allergic cross-reactivity patterns among polysensitized patients and their clinical implication. Objective: We aimed to investigate similarities among allergens by empirically determining the occurrence of co-sensitization patterns and to relate them to clinical features, in particular to asthma. Methods: A retrospective cohort study in 1057 participants suspected to have allergic sensitization was performed in Vienna. To define cross-reactivity patterns, cluster analysis for 671 patients who showed reaction to at least one of the allergens in ISAC112 was performed and followed by multivariate logistic regression analysis to relate clusters and clinical symptoms, in particular current asthma. Results: We determined 18 cross-reactivity clusters, comprising of 6 food, 10 respiratory, and 2 other clusters of allergens. Overall, 14% of the cohort patients were positive for 1 cross-reactivity cluster and 23% to 2 or more clusters. Multisensitized patients who were sensitized to PR-10 allergen proteins in addition to Bermuda timothy grass pollen clusters showed the highest association with asthma (odds ratio, 4.22 and 95% CI: 2.32-7.68) and an increase of 10 years of the duration of allergy increased the odds for a combined sensitization to PR-10 cluster and Bermuda-timothy cluster by 1.27 (95% CI: 1.06-1.53). Conclusion: Similarities among IgE positivity patterns determined by ISAC112 revealed 18 cross-reactivity clusters. This PAMD@ approach allowed prediction of clinical features and revealed that certain cross-reactivity patterns are related to duration of allergic symptoms.

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