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1.
Mol Biol Rep ; 48(2): 1967-1975, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33523371

ABSTRACT

In 2014, the chikungunya virus (CHIKV) was detected for the first time in Mexico, the identified strain was the one corresponding to the Asian genotype which was phylogenetically grouped with the strains that circulated in the British Virgin Islands outbreak and was later classified with lineages of Caribbean strains. In three years, 13,569 cases of chikungunya were registered in Mexico. Although the transmission and spread of the virus are now considered a moderate risk, the danger that the virus reemerges is not ruled out due to the infestation of Aedes mosquitoes. In this study, we reviewed the chikungunya fever (CHIKF) cases reported between 2014 and 2016 to reanalyze the data. Seventeen cases were selected from different states where the circulation of the virus had been reported. Statistical data were analyzed and a retrospective analysis was carried out. Nucleic acid sequences were determined of these 17 samples. 2015 was the year with the highest number of cases (92.8%) and they were detected in 28 states of the country. There is a predominance of females, and the most affected age group was between 25 and 44 years. In 2016, CHIKV genotypes were not known, in this study the presence of the Asian genotype of Caribbean lineage was confirmed. The presence of the West African and ECSA genotypes was phylogenetically ruled out. The sequences obtained were deposited in GeneBank.

2.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-15.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53108

ABSTRACT

All 54 countries and territories in the Region of the Americas have reported COVID-19 cases and deaths. Since the 18 September 2020 PAHO/WHO Epidemiological Update on COVID-19 and as of 13 October 2020, 3,018,295 additional confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 77,525 deaths, have been reported in the Region of the Americas, representing a 17% increase in cases and a 13% increase in deaths. Across all subregions, a relative increase was observed, both in the number of cases and number of deaths. The highest increase in cases was observed in the Caribbean and the Atlantic Ocean Islands subregion, with a 20% increase in cases and an 18% increase in deaths, followed by the Central America subregion, with a 20% increase in cases and a 16% increase in deaths; the South America subregion, with a 17% increase in cases and a 16% increase in deaths; and the North America subregion, with a 16% increase in cases and a 12% increase in deaths. In the last 60 days, 10 of the 54 countries/territories in the Region reported increased intensity of COVID-19 transmission and modified their COVID-19 transmission classifications accordingly: Aruba, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, Curacao, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, and Trinidad and Tobago. Five of these had a relative increase in confirmed cases of greater than 90% (range 94% to 97%): Aruba, Belize, Curacao, Guadeloupe, and Trinidad and Tobago. During the same period, 7 of these 10 countries/territories also presented with a relative increase in deaths, ranging from 29% to 93%: Aruba, Belize, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint Martin, and Trinidad and Tobago. [...]


Los 54 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas han notificado casos y defunciones de COVID-19. Desde la última actualización epidemiológica publicada por la OPS/OMS el 18 de septiembre de 2020 hasta el 13 de octubre de 2020, fueron notificados 3.018.295 casos confirmados de COVID-19, incluidas 77.525 defunciones adicionales en la región de las Américas, lo que representa un aumento de 17% de casos y de 13% de defunciones. En todas las subregiones se observó un incremento relativo, tanto en el número de casos como en el número de defunciones, siendo el mayor en las Islas del Caribe y del Océano Atlántico con 20% de aumento en casos y 18% de aumento en defunciones. El resto de las subregiones, incrementaron de la siguiente manera, en orden decreciente: América Central con 20 % de aumento en casos y 16% de aumento en defunciones, América del Sur con 17% de aumento en casos y 16% aumento en defunciones y América del Norte8 con 16 % de incremento en casos y 12% de incremento en defunciones (Figuras 2 y 3). Con relación a la intensidad de la transmisión del virus SARS CoV-2, 10 de los 54 países y territorios de la región notificaron un incremento de casos y defunciones de COVID-19 en los últimos 60 días, modificando su escenario de transmisión de menor a mayor intensidad: Aruba, Belice, Curazao, Guadalupe, Jamaica, Martinica, San Bartolomé, San Martín, Trinidad y Tobago e Islas Vírgenes Británicas. En este período, Aruba, Belice, Curazao, Guadalupe y Trinidad y Tobago presentaron un incremento relativo de casos confirmados mayor a 90% (rango 94% a 97%). Respecto de las defunciones, el incremento relativo se observó en 7 de estos 10 países y territorios: Aruba, Belice, Guadalupe, Jamaica, Martinica, San Martín y Trinidad y Tobago en un rango de 29% a 93%. [...]


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Coronavirus Infections
3.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-10-09.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53107

ABSTRACT

Since the confirmation of the first COVID-19 cases and until 5 October 2020, a total of 35,109,317 COVID-19 cases have been reported globally, including 1,035,341 deaths. The Region of the Americas accounts for 49% of the total cases and 55% of the total deaths reported globally. The analysis of trends in COVID-19 cases at the global level, by WHO Region, shows a new increase in cases in the WHO European Region and the WHO Western Pacific Region In the Region of the Americas, 10 of the 54 countries and territories reported an increase in COVID-19 cases and deaths in the last 60 days. The countries/territories that modified their COVID-19 transmission classifications due to increased intensity of COVID-19 transmission are Aruba, Belize, the British Virgin Islands, Curaçao, Guadeloupe, Jamaica, Martinique, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, and Trinidad and Tobago. During this period, Aruba, Belize, Curaçao, Guadeloupe, and Trinidad and Tobago had a >90% relative increase in confirmed cases (range 94% to 97%).


Desde la confirmación de los primeros casos de COVID-19 hasta el 5 de octubre, se han notificado a nivel global 35.109.317 casos de COVID-19, incluidas 1.035.341 defunciones. La Región de las Américas concentra 49% del total de casos y 55% de las defunciones acumuladas a nivel mundial. El análisis de las tendencias de casos de COVID-19 a nivel global, según regiones de la OMS, muestra un nuevo incremento de casos en las regiones de Europa y del Pacifico Occidental. En las Américas, 10 de los 54 países y territorios de la región notificaron un incremento de casos y defunciones de COVID-19 en los últimos 60 días1, modificando su escenario de transmisión de casos de menor a mayor intensidad: Aruba, Belice, Curazao, Guadalupe, Islas Vírgenes Británicas, Jamaica, Martinica, San Bartolomé, San Martín y Trinidad y Tobago. En este período, Aruba, Belice, Curazao, Guadalupe y Trinidad y Tobago presentaron un incremento relativo de casos confirmados mayor a 90% (rango 94% a 97%).


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , International Health Regulations
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-09-18.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53105

ABSTRACT

Since the 26 August PAHO/WHO Epidemiological Update on COVID-19 and as of 15 September 2020, the five countries/territories in the Americas for which there was a ≥200% relative increase in the number of cases are: Curacao (357%), Guadeloupe (299%), Trinidad and Tobago (254%), the British Virgin Islands (214%), and Jamaica (200%). Those with the greatest relative increase in the number of deaths were Trinidad and Tobago (331%), Belize (280%), and Aruba (233%). Between 22 August and 15 September 2020, the countries/territories that modified their COVID-19 transmission classifications based on increased intensity of COVID-19 transmission were: Curacao and Saint Martin (changing from sporadic cases to community transmission) and Guadeloupe, Jamaica, and Martinique (changing from clusters of cases to community transmission). [...]


En el periodo comprendido entre la última actualización epidemiológica publicada por la OPS/OMS el 26 de agosto y el 15 de septiembre de 2020, los cinco países/territorios en las Américas en los cuales se observa un incremento relativo ≥200% en el número de casos son: Curazao (357%), Guadalupe (299%), Trinidad y Tobago (254%), las Islas Vírgenes Británicas (214%) y Jamaica (200%); mientras que los que presentaron el mayor aumento relativo en el número de defunciones fueron Trinidad y Tobago (331%), Belice (280%) y Aruba (233%). Los países y territorios que modificaron el escenario de transmisión de COVID-19, en este mismo periodo (entre el 22 de agosto y el 15 de septiembre) observándose un incremento en la transmisión de casos de menor a mayor intensidad fueron: Curazao y San Martín (de casos esporádicos a transmisión comunitaria), Guadalupe, Jamaica y Martinica (de conglomerado de casos a transmisión comunitaria). [...]


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Betacoronavirus , Americas , Caribbean Region , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Americas , Caribbean Region , Emergencies , International Health Regulations
5.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-08-24.
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52634

ABSTRACT

Regional. PAHO continued to collaborate with its partners within the Region and across the globe to deliver technical cooperation, evidence-based guidance, and recommendations, and to advocate for the Americas on the global stage. PAHO’s regional IMST also provided support and strategic guidance to countries’ IMSTs as they coordinate and monitor their national response activities. Regulatory frameworks and requirements Health technology assessments (HTAs) are invaluable in guiding health authorities in the use of technologies relevant to the COVID-19 pandemic. The Regional Database of HTA Reports of the Americas (BRISA) now has 213 reports available in its COVID-19 section. PAHO convened the 12th regulatory update with the national regulatory authorities (NRAs) of the Americas to facilitate the sharing of experiences and challenges from the COVID-19 pandemic (60 participants from Argentina, Bahamas, Brazil, British Virgin Islands, Canada, Colombia, Cuba, Chile, Ecuador, Honduras, Guyana, Mexico, and the USA. PAHO continued to work with its Member States to provide guidance on the use of in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) and other regulatory aspects, considering authorizations from WHO’s Emergency Use Listing procedure (EUL) and recommendations from eight NRAs from around the globe. PAHO maintains a list of 67 prioritized IVDs for proprietary and open platforms.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Pandemics , Infection Control , Analysis of Situation , Americas
6.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020-03-27.
in English | WHO IRIS | ID: who-331613
7.
Biodivers Data J ; 8: e47110, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32025187

ABSTRACT

Background: Thought to be endemic to the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico, Ruehssia woodburyana (Apocynaceae) was recently discovered at a single location on Norman Island in the British Virgin Islands. Despite an increase in the extent of occurrence and area of occupancy, this species meta-population is very limited with a total of 37 individuals known in the wild. The largest subpopulation, on Mona Island, has only 26 individuals. The species suitable habitat is experiencing a continuing decline due to urban development, grazing by feral ungulates and human-induced forest fires. Conservation action is urgently needed and should be directed towards establishing genetically representative ex situ collections, such as seed for long term storage and live material for propagation. This species is evaluated as Critically Endangered (CR), based on Criteria C2a(i)+D, according to the IUCN Red List Categories and Criteria (version 3.1) and guidelines (Subcommittee IUCN Standards and Petitions 2016). New information: Extensive and regular surveys to the region enable the discovery of new plant records for different countries and islands. In this paper, we record a new island record for Ruehssia woodburyana on Norman Island, in the British Virgin Islands and discuss the species conservation status. Marsdenia woodburyana is transferred to the genus Ruehssia to reflect the resurrection of that genus for species of Marsdenia native to the New World.

8.
Terminology | DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences | ID: 055470

ABSTRACT

A British overseas territory, part of the British West Indies, lying about 60 miles east of Puerto Rico. Tortola is the main island, other islands include Virgin Gorda, Jost Van Dyke and Anegada.


Un territorio ultramar británico, parte de las Indias Occidentales Británicas, situadas a unos 60 kilómetros al este de Puerto Rico. Tortola es la isla principal, otras islas que se incluyen son Virgen Gorda, Jost Van Dyke y Anegada.


Território britânico ultramarino, parte das Índias Britânicas Orientais, situando-se a aproximadamente 60 milhas a oeste de Porto Rico. Tortola é a principal ilha; outras ilhas incluem Virgem Gorda, Jost van Dyke e Anegada.

9.
Terminology | DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences | ID: 015302

ABSTRACT

Islands lying between southeastern North America and northern South America, enclosing the Caribbean Sea. They comprise the Greater Antilles (CUBA; DOMINICAN REPUBLIC; HAITI; JAMAICA; and PUERTO RICO), the Lesser Antilles (ANTIGUA AND BARBUDA and the other Leeward Islands, BARBADOS; MARTINIQUE and the other Windward Islands, NETHERLANDS ANTILLES; VIRGIN ISLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES, BRITISH VIRGINI ISLANDS, and the islands north of Venezuela which include TRINIDAD AND TOBAGO), and the BAHAMAS. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)


Islas que se extienden entre el sudeste de América del Norte y el norte de América del Sur, que encierra el mar Caribe. Comprenden las Antillas Mayores (CUBA; REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA; HAITÍ; JAMAICA y PUERTO RICO), las Antillas Menores (ANTIGUA y BARBUDA y las demás islas de Sotavento, BARBADOS, MARTINICA y el resto de las Islas de Barlovento, ANTILLAS HOLANDESAS; ISLAS VÍRGENES DE LOS ESTADOS UNIDOS, ISLAS VÍRGENES BRITÁNICAS, y las islas del norte de Venezuela que incluyen TRINIDAD Y TOBAGO), y las BAHAMAS. (Traducción libre del original: Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)


Ilhas que se situam entre o sudeste da América do Norte e norte da América do Sul, incluindo o Mar do Caribe. Compreendem as Grandes Antilhas (CUBA, REPÚBLICA DOMINICANA, HAITI, JAMAICA e PORTO RICO), as Pequenas Antilhas (ANTÍGUA E BARBUDA e as outras Ilhas de Sotavento, BARBADOS, MARTINICA e as outras Ilhas de Barlavento, ANTILHAS HOLANDESAS, ILHAS VIRGENS AMERICANAS, e as ilhas ao norte da Venezuela que incluem TRINIDAD E TOBAGO) e as BAHAMAS. (Tradução livre do original: Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1330)

10.
Sci Rep ; 9(1): 19028, 2019 12 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31836747

ABSTRACT

Larvae of the disease vector mosquito, Aedes aegypti (L.) readily develop in ammonia rich sewage in the British Virgin Islands. To understand how the larvae survive in ammonia levels that are lethal to most animals, an examination of ammonia excretory physiology in larvae collected from septic-water and freshwater was carried out. A. aegypti larvae were found to be remarkably plastic in dealing with high external ammonia through the modulation of NH4+ excretion at the anal papillae, measured using the scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET), and NH4+ secretion in the primary urine by the Malpighian tubules when developing in septicwater. Ammonia transporters, Amt and Rh proteins, are expressed in ionoregulatory and excretory organs, with increases in Rh protein, Na+-K+-ATPase, and V-type-H+-ATPase expression observed in the Malpighian tubules, hindgut, and anal papillae in septic-water larvae. A comparative approach using laboratory A. aegypti larvae reared in high ammonia septic-water revealed similar responses to collected A. aegypti with regard to altered ammonia secretion and hemolymph ion composition. Results suggest that the observed alterations in excretory physiology of larvae developing in septic-water is a consequence of the high ammonia levels and that A. aegypti larvae may rely on ammonia transporting proteins coupled to active transport to survive in septic-water.


Subject(s)
Aedes/growth & development , Ammonia/pharmacology , Larva/growth & development , Membrane Transport Proteins/metabolism , Osmoregulation , Sewage/parasitology , Aedes/drug effects , Anal Canal/metabolism , Animals , Body Weight/drug effects , Fresh Water/chemistry , Geography , Hemolymph/drug effects , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Insect Proteins/metabolism , Ion-Selective Electrodes , Ions , Larva/drug effects , Malpighian Tubules/drug effects , Malpighian Tubules/metabolism , Microelectrodes , Osmolar Concentration , Osmoregulation/drug effects , Rectum/metabolism , Water/chemistry
11.
PeerJ ; 7: e7010, 2019.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31198640

ABSTRACT

Community decline is often linked to anthropogenic activities. Coral reef declines, for example, have been linked to overfishing and climate change, but impacts of coastal development, pollution, and tourism have received increasing attention. Here, we isolated the impact of one little-studied aspect of recreational activity on coral reefs-damage from boat anchoring-by performing a survey of 24 sites in the British Virgin Islands (BVI) subject to varying levels of anchoring activity. The percent cover of hard corals and sea fans was reduced by a factor of ∼1.7 and ∼2.6 respectively at highly anchored sites. Hard coral colonies were  40% smaller in surface area and ∼60% less dense at sites experiencing high anchoring frequency. In addition, highly anchored sites supported only ∼60% of the species richness of little anchored sites. Frequently anchored sites were ∼60% as structurally complex and supported less than half as many fish as those rarely anchored, with 5 of 7 fish functional groups affected. Roughly 24% of BVI coral reef by area appears suitable for anchoring, suggesting that impacts associated with boat anchoring may be both locally severe and more pervasive than previously appreciated.

12.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-50554

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. Between 2006 and 2016, 70% of all deaths worldwide were due to noncommunicable diseases (NCDs). NCDs kill nearly 40 million people a year globally, with almost three-quarters of NCD deaths occurring in low- and middle-income countries. The objective of this study was to assess mortality rates and trends due to deaths from NCDs in the Caribbean region. Methods. The study examines age-standardized mortality rates and 10-year trends due to death from cancer, heart disease, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes in two territories of the United States of America (Puerto Rico and the U.S. Virgin Islands) and in 20 other English- or Dutch-speaking Caribbean countries or territories, for the most recent, available 10 years of data ranging from 1999 to 2014. For the analysis, the SEER*Stat and Joinpoint software packages were used. Results. These four NCDs accounted for 39% to 67% of all deaths in these 22 countries and territories, and more than half of the deaths in 17 of them. Heart disease accounted for higher percentages of deaths in most of the Caribbean countries and territories (13%-25%), followed by cancer (8%-25%), diabetes (4%-21%), and cerebrovascular disease (1%-13%). Age-standardized mortality rates due to cancer and heart disease were higher for males than for females, but there were no significant mortality trends in the region for any of the NCDs. Conclusions. The reasons for the high mortality of NCDs in these Caribbean countries and territories remain a critical public health issue that warrants further investigation.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Entre los años 2006 y 2016, las enfermedades no transmisibles (ENT) ocasionaron un 70 % de todas las muertes mundiales. Las ENT son responsables de la muerte de aproximadamente 40 millones de personas al año a nivel mundial, de las cuales casi tres cuartas partes tienen lugar en países de ingresos medianos y bajos. El objetivo de este estudio es evaluar las tasas de mortalidad y las tendencias relacionadas con las defunciones por ENT en el Caribe. Métodos. En el estudio se examinan las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad y las tendencias a lo largo de diez años relacionadas con la muerte por cáncer, cardiopatías, enfermedades cerebrovasculares y diabetes en dos territorios de Estados Unidos (Puerto Rico e Islas Vírgenes), así como en otros veinte países o territorios de habla inglesa o neerlandesa, empleando la información disponible más reciente que corresponde a los diez años comprendidos entre 1999 y el 2014. Para el análisis, se utilizaron los programas informáticos JointPoint y SEER*Stat. Resultados. Estas cuatro ENT representan entre el 39 % y el 67 % del total de muertes en estos 22 países y territorios, y más de la mitad de las muertes en 17 de ellos. Las cardiopatías representan porcentajes mayores de muertes en la mayor parte de los países y territorios del Caribe (13 %-25 %), seguidos por el cáncer (8 %-25 %), la diabetes (4 %-21 %) y las enfermedades cerebrovasculares (1 %-13 %). Las tasas de mortalidad ajustadas por edad relacionadas con el cáncer y las cardiopatías son mayores en hombres que en mujeres, si bien no hubo en la región tendencias significativas relacionadas con la mortalidad en lo que concierne a ninguna ENT. Conclusiones. Las causas de la elevada mortalidad por ENT en estos países y territorios del Caribe siguen siendo un grave problema de salud pública que justifica una investigación en profundidad.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. No período de 2006 a 2016, 70% das mortes na população mundial foram decorrentes de doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs). Cerca de 40 milhões de pessoas morrem por DNTs por ano em todo o mundo, com quase 75% das mortes ocorrendo nos países de baixa e média renda. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar as taxas e as tendências de mortalidade por DNTs no Caribe. Métodos. Foram examinadas as taxas de mortalidade padronizadas por idade e as tendências ao longo de 10 anos da mortalidade por câncer, doença cardíaca, doença cerebrovascular e diabetes em dois territórios dos Estados Unidos (Porto Rico e Ilhas Virgens Americanas) e em 20 países ou territórios do Caribe de língua inglesa ou holandesa, com base nos últimos dados de 10 anos para o período de 1999 a 2014. Os softwares SEER*Stat e Joinpoint foram usados na análise. Resultados. As quatro DNTs estudadas representaram 39% a 67% das causas de mortes nos 22 países e territórios, e foram responsáveis por mais da metade das mortes em 17 deles. A mortalidade na maioria dos países e territórios do Caribe foi maior por doença cardíaca (13% a 25%), seguida do câncer (8% a 25%), diabetes (4% a 21%) e doença cerebrovascular (1% a 13%). As taxas de mortalidade padronizadas pela idade por câncer e doença cardíaca foram maiores nos homens que nas mulheres, mas não se verificaram, na região, tendências de mortalidade significativas para qualquer uma das DNTs. Conclusões. A elevada mortalidade por DNTs nos países e territórios do Caribe é ainda um sério problema de saúde pública e os motivos devem ser investigados mais a fundo.


Subject(s)
Mortality , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Neoplasms , Diabetes Mellitus , Caribbean Region , Guyana , Suriname , Mortality , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Neoplasms , Caribbean Region , Mortality , Guyana , Noncommunicable Diseases , Cardiovascular Diseases , Caribbean Region
13.
Sci Total Environ ; 650(Pt 2): 2107-2116, 2019 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30290352

ABSTRACT

Carbon capturing coastal and marine habitats around the world are decreasing in extent every year, habitats found in abundance in Small Island Developing States' territories. However, these habitats are under threat by increased levels of economic activities and extreme weather events. Consequently, as those ecosystems become scarce their value is expected to increase. In this paper the "value of information", the increase in knowledge that renders a system or a function more valuable, from marine habitat mapping is presented through the (monetary) valuation of one regulating service provided by the newly mapped habitats. Mapping a section of a channel with a multibeam echosounder revealed more seagrass resources than in previous studies. Using values for both the Social Cost of Carbon and Abatement Cost methods, from the literature we estimate the value of the carbon sequestration and storage service these seagrass meadows provide. The impacts of hurricanes in the newly mapped seagrasses were also investigated. Despite the costs of mapping, monitoring and of projected losses of ecosystem services provision due to hurricanes, net benefits over a time period of 50 years were considerably larger. The new information provided highlights carbon capturing habitats as more important, enabling the "value of information" to inform policymaking.


Subject(s)
Alismatales/physiology , Carbon Sequestration , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Plant Dispersal , British Virgin Islands , Conservation of Natural Resources/economics
14.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2018-09. (PAHO/HSS/18-035).
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49488

ABSTRACT

The Strategic Fund is a regional technical cooperation mechanism for pooled procurement of essential medicines and strategic public health supplies in the Americas. The Strategic Fund was created in 2000 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) at the request of the Member States. Since then, the Fund has worked with countries to improve access to medicines and other health technologies, by strengthening demand planning and the organization of national supply management systems, while facilitating access to affordable strategic public health supplies through a pooled procurement mechanism. In accordance with 2016-2017 mandates of the PAHO Governing Bodies, the technical cooperation program of work in support of participation of Member States in the Fund has focused on: a) increasing the response capacity and efficiency of operations of the Fund in countries; b) the development of national and regional market intelligence; and c) the strengthening of the key alliances and strategic partnerships. As of December 2017, 32 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have signed participation agreements with the PAHO Strategic Fund (Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, the British Virgin Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uruguay, and Venezuela).


Subject(s)
Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Health Systems , Americas , Health Services , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
15.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49486

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. The British Virgin Islands (BVI) Ministry of Health and Social Development (MOHSD) recently identified the need for an updated strategy to advance the country’s vision for Information Systems for Health (IS4H) (“Informed decision-making for better health outcomes”). Since the early 1990s, the MOHSD has recognized the importance of having strong conceptual foundations and mechanisms for its information systems, and the need to strengthen the production and use of good-quality health data to enable fulfillment of the territory’s health goals. Therefore, in May 2017, BVI requested technical assistance from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to develop a plan/“road map” for strengthening the MOHSD’s stewardship capacity for IS4H. This resulted in a bilateral, country-led collaboration between PAHO and the Ministry to carry out two assessments of BVI’s National Information Systems for Health (NISH): 1) a rapid assessment to map NISH policy, to develop a short- and medium-term workplan for strengthening and updating it, and 2) a maturity assessment, using PAHO’s IS4H Maturity Model tool, to evaluate the implementation of NISH policy thus far and determine next steps. This article describes 1) the steps taken in this bilateral collaboration to update BVI’s NISH policy and fine-tune its IS4H vision, including the development of a national plan/road map, and 2) lessons learned.


[RESUMEN]. El Ministerio de Salud y Desarrollo Social de las Islas Vírgenes Británicas identificó recientemente la necesidad de tener una estrategia actualizada para avanzar la visión del país en el ámbito de los sistemas de información para la salud (IS4H) (“Toma de decisiones informadas para obtener mejores resultados de salud”). Desde principios de la década de 1990, el Ministerio ha reconocido la importancia de tener sólidos fundamentos conceptuales y mecanismos para sus sistemas de información, así como la necesidad de fortalecer la producción y el uso de datos de salud de buena calidad para permitir el cumplimiento de los objetivos de salud del territorio. En este contexto, en mayo de 2017 las Islas Vírgenes Británicas solicitaron la asistencia técnica de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para desarrollar un plan u “hoja de ruta” para fortalecer su capacidad de administración en el ámbito de los IS4H. Esto resultó en una colaboración bilateral, dirigida por el país, entre la OPS y el Ministerio para llevar a cabo dos evaluaciones de los Sistemas Nacionales de Información para la Salud: 1) una evaluación rápida para mapear la política de estos sistemas, y desarrollar un plan de trabajo a corto y mediano plazo para fortalecerlos y actualizarlos y 2) una evaluación de madurez, utilizando la herramienta Modelo de Madurez de IS4H de la OPS, para evaluar la implementación de la política de Sistemas Nacionales de Información para la Salud hasta el momento y determinar los próximos pasos. Este artículo describe 1) los pasos dados en esta colaboración bilateral para actualizar la política de Sistemas Nacionales de Información para la Salud de las Islas Vírgenes Británicas y ajustar su visión del IS4H, incluido el desarrollo de un plan nacional u hoja de ruta, y 2) las lecciones aprendidas durante este proceso.


[RESUMO]. O Ministério da Saúde e Desenvolvimento Social das Ilhas Virgens Britânicas identificou recentemente a necessidade de uma estratégia atualizada para avançar a visão do país para os Sistemas de Informação para a Saúde (IS4H) (“Tomada de decisão informada para melhores resultados de saúde”). Desde o início dos anos 1990, o Ministerio reconheceu a importância de ter fortes fundamentos conceituais e mecanismos para seus sistemas de informação, e a necessidade de fortalecer a produção e o uso de dados de boa qualidade em saúde para permitir o cumprimento das metas de saúde do território. Portanto, em maio de 2017, as Ilhas Virgens Britânicas solicitaram assistência técnica da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) para desenvolver um plano/roteiro para o fortalecimento da capacidade de administração do Ministerio para a IS4H. Isso resultou em uma colaboração bilateral entre a OPAS e o Ministério, liderada pelo país, para conduzir duas avaliações dos Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde das Ilhas Virgens Britânicas: 1) uma avaliação rápida para mapear a política do Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde, e desenvolver uma estratégia de curto e médio prazo e um plano de trabalho para fortalecê-los e atualizá-los; e 2) uma avaliação de maturidade, utilizando a ferramenta Modelo de Maturidade IS4H da OPAS, para avaliar a implementação da política do Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde até o momento e determinar os próximos passos. Este artigo descreve 1) os passos dados nessa colaboração bilateral para atualizar a política de Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde das Ilhas Virgens Britânicas e ajustar sua visão de IS4H, incluindo o desenvolvimento de um plano nacional/roteiro, e 2) as lições aprendidas neste processo.


Subject(s)
Information Systems , Public Health , Health Systems , British Virgin Islands , Caribbean Region , Information Systems , Health Systems , British Virgin Islands , Caribbean Region , British Virgin Islands , Public Health , Information Systems , Public Health , Health Systems , Caribbean Region
16.
PLoS One ; 13(6): e0198358, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29924826

ABSTRACT

Lionfish, native to reef ecosystems of the tropical and sub-tropical Indo-Pacific, were introduced to Florida waters in the 1980s, and have spread rapidly throughout the northwestern Atlantic, Caribbean Sea and the Gulf of Mexico. These invasive, carnivorous fish significantly reduce other fish and benthic invertebrate biomass, fish recruitment, and species richness in reef ecosystems. Fisheries resource managers have proposed the establishment of a commercial fishery to reduce lionfish populations and mitigate adverse effects on reef communities. The potential for a commercial fishery for lionfish is the primary reason to identify locations where lionfish accumulate sufficient amounts of ciguatoxin (CTX) to cause ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP), the leading cause of non-bacterial seafood poisoning associated with fish consumption. To address this issue, an initial geographic assessment of CTX toxicity in lionfish from the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico was conducted. Lionfish samples (n = 293) were collected by spearfishing from 13 locations (74 sampling sites) around the Caribbean and Gulf of Mexico between 2012 and 2015. The highest frequencies of lionfish containing measurable CTX occurred in areas known to be high-risk regions for CFP in the central to eastern Caribbean (e.g., 53% British Virgin Islands and 5% Florida Keys). Though measurable CTX was found in some locations, the majority of the samples (99.3%) contained CTX concentrations below the United States Food and Drug Administration guidance level of 0.1 ppb Caribbean ciguatoxin-1 (C-CTX-1) equivalents (eq.). Only 0.7% of lionfish tested contained more than 0.1 ppb C-CTX-1 eq. As of 2018, there has been one suspected case of CFP from eating lionfish. Given this finding, current risk reduction techniques used to manage CTX accumulating fish are discussed.


Subject(s)
Ciguatoxins/analysis , Ciguatoxins/toxicity , Perciformes/metabolism , Animals , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Ciguatera Poisoning/epidemiology , Fisheries , Gulf of Mexico/epidemiology , Humans , Introduced Species , Perciformes/growth & development , Phylogeography
17.
Mol Plant Pathol ; 19(6): 1302-1318, 2018 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29105297

ABSTRACT

Taxonomic status: Bacteria; Phylum Proteobacteria; Class Gammaproteobacteria; Order Xanthomonadales; Family Xanthomonadaceae; Genus Xanthomonas; Species Xanthomonas citri ssp. citri (Xcc). Host range: Compatible hosts vary in their susceptibility to citrus canker (CC), with grapefruit, lime and lemon being the most susceptible, sweet orange being moderately susceptible, and kumquat and calamondin being amongst the least susceptible. Microbiological properties: Xcc is a rod-shaped (1.5-2.0 × 0.5-0.75 µm), Gram-negative, aerobic bacterium with a single polar flagellum. The bacterium forms yellow colonies on culture media as a result of the production of xanthomonadin. Distribution: Present in South America, the British Virgin Islands, Africa, the Middle East, India, Asia and the South Pacific islands. Localized incidence in the USA, Argentina, Brazil, Bolivia, Uruguay, Senegal, Mali, Burkina Faso, Tanzania, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Yemen and Bangladesh. Widespread throughout Paraguay, Comoros, China, Japan, Malaysia and Vietnam. Eradicated from South Africa, Australia and New Zealand. Absent from Europe.


Subject(s)
Citrus/microbiology , Plant Diseases/microbiology , Xanthomonas/pathogenicity
18.
Rev Panam Salud Publica ; 42: e156, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31093184

ABSTRACT

The British Virgin Islands (BVI) Ministry of Health and Social Development (MOHSD) recently identified the need for an updated strategy to advance the country's vision for Information Systems for Health (IS4H) ("Informed decision-making for better health outcomes"). Since the early 1990s, the MOHSD has recognized the importance of having strong conceptual foundations and mechanisms for its information systems, and the need to strengthen the production and use of good-quality health data to enable fulfillment of the territory's health goals. Therefore, in May 2017, BVI requested technical assistance from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to develop a plan/"road map" for strengthening the MOHSD's stewardship capacity for IS4H. This resulted in a bilateral, country-led collaboration between PAHO and the Ministry to carry out two assessments of BVI's National Information Systems for Health (NISH): 1) a rapid assessment to map NISH policy, to develop a short- and medium-term workplan for strengthening and updating it, and 2) a maturity assessment, using PAHO's IS4H Maturity Model tool, to evaluate the implementation of NISH policy thus far and determine next steps. This article describes 1) the steps taken in this bilateral collaboration to update BVI's NISH policy and fine-tune its IS4H vision, including the development of a national plan/road map, and 2) lessons learned.

19.
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 42: e156, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-961767

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The British Virgin Islands (BVI) Ministry of Health and Social Development (MOHSD) recently identified the need for an updated strategy to advance the country's vision for Information Systems for Health (IS4H) ("Informed decision-making for better health outcomes"). Since the early 1990s, the MOHSD has recognized the importance of having strong conceptual foundations and mechanisms for its information systems, and the need to strengthen the production and use of good-quality health data to enable fulfillment of the territory's health goals. Therefore, in May 2017, BVI requested technical assistance from the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) to develop a plan/"road map" for strengthening the MOHSD's stewardship capacity for IS4H. This resulted in a bilateral, country-led collaboration between PAHO and the Ministry to carry out two assessments of BVI's National Information Systems for Health (NISH): 1) a rapid assessment to map NISH policy, to develop a short- and medium-term workplan for strengthening and updating it, and 2) a maturity assessment, using PAHO's IS4H Maturity Model tool, to evaluate the implementation of NISH policy thus far and determine next steps. This article describes 1) the steps taken in this bilateral collaboration to update BVI's NISH policy and fine-tune its IS4H vision, including the development of a national plan/road map, and 2) lessons learned.


RESUMEN El Ministerio de Salud y Desarrollo Social de las Islas Vírgenes Británicas identificó recientemente la necesidad de tener una estrategia actualizada para avanzar la visión del país en el ámbito de los sistemas de información para la salud (IS4H) ("Toma de decisiones informadas para obtener mejores resultados de salud"). Desde principios de la década de 1990, el Ministerio ha reconocido la importancia de tener sólidos fundamentos conceptuales y mecanismos para sus sistemas de información, así como la necesidad de fortalecer la producción y el uso de datos de salud de buena calidad para permitir el cumplimiento de los objetivos de salud del territorio. En este contexto, en mayo de 2017 las Islas Vírgenes Británicas solicitaron la asistencia técnica de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud (OPS) para desarrollar un plan u "hoja de ruta" para fortalecer su capacidad de administración en el ámbito de los IS4H. Esto resultó en una colaboración bilateral, dirigida por el país, entre la OPS y el Ministerio para llevar a cabo dos evaluaciones de los Sistemas Nacionales de Información para la Salud: 1) una evaluación rápida para mapear la política de estos sistemas, y desarrollar un plan de trabajo a corto y mediano plazo para fortalecerlos y actualizarlos y 2) una evaluación de madurez, utilizando la herramienta Modelo de Madurez de IS4H de la OPS, para evaluar la implementación de la política de Sistemas Nacionales de Información para la Salud hasta el momento y determinar los próximos pasos. Este artículo describe 1) los pasos dados en esta colaboración bilateral para actualizar la política de Sistemas Nacionales de Información para la Salud de las Islas Vírgenes Británicas y ajustar su visión del IS4H, incluido el desarrollo de un plan nacional u hoja de ruta, y 2) las lecciones aprendidas durante este proceso.


RESUMO O Ministério da Saúde e Desenvolvimento Social das Ilhas Virgens Britânicas identificou recentemente a necessidade de uma estratégia atualizada para avançar a visão do país para os Sistemas de Informação para a Saúde (IS4H) ("Tomada de decisão informada para melhores resultados de saúde"). Desde o início dos anos 1990, o Ministerio reconheceu a importância de ter fortes fundamentos conceituais e mecanismos para seus sistemas de informação, e a necessidade de fortalecer a produção e o uso de dados de boa qualidade em saúde para permitir o cumprimento das metas de saúde do território. Portanto, em maio de 2017, as Ilhas Virgens Britânicas solicitaram assistência técnica da Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS) para desenvolver um plano/roteiro para o fortalecimento da capacidade de administração do Ministerio para a IS4H. Isso resultou em uma colaboração bilateral entre a OPAS e o Ministério, liderada pelo país, para conduzir duas avaliações dos Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde das Ilhas Virgens Britânicas: 1) uma avaliação rápida para mapear a política do Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde, e desenvolver uma estratégia de curto e médio prazo e um plano de trabalho para fortalecê-los e atualizá-los; e 2) uma avaliação de maturidade, utilizando a ferramenta Modelo de Maturidade IS4H da OPAS, para avaliar a implementação da política do Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde até o momento e determinar os próximos passos. Este artigo descreve 1) os passos dados nessa colaboração bilateral para atualizar a política de Sistemas Nacionais de Informação para a Saúde das Ilhas Virgens Britânicas e ajustar sua visão de IS4H, incluindo o desenvolvimento de um plano nacional/roteiro, e 2) as lições aprendidas neste processo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Information Systems/organization & administration , Public Health Systems Research , British Virgin Islands
20.
Zootaxa ; 4272(3): 301-359, 2017 May 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28610279

ABSTRACT

The history surrounding the identity of Cletocamptus albuquerquensis (Herrick, 1894) and C. dominicanus Kiefer, 1934 is very complex. This complexity has been exacerbated by incomplete, and in some cases erroneous, original descriptions of these two species. Also, new records from other locations did not describe the significant characters needed to clearly delineate them. This led several authors to consider C. dominicanus as a synonym of C. albuquerquensis, among other taxonomical considerations regarding, for example, the status of Marshia brevicaudata Herrick, 1894. Inspection of biological material from Saskatchewan (southern Canada), Wyoming (central US), Trinidad and Tobago, and the British Virgin Islands, identified by other researchers as C. albuquerquensis, as well as of newly collected material from Great Salt Lake (Utah, central US), Puerto Rico, Culebra Island, Vieques Island, St. John Island (US Virgin Islands), San Salvador (Bahamas), and Santa Marta (Colombia), revealed that C. albuquerquensis and C. dominicanus are distinct and identifiable species, distributed in a more restricted area than previously thought. Additionally, we describe a new species, C. tainoi sp. nov., from St. John Island (US Virgin Islands), and we propose another new species, C. chappuisi sp. nov., for two males from Bonaire previously identified as C. albuquerquensis. Finally, we give some observations on tube-pore-like structures, previously overlooked, on the endopod of the male leg three.


Subject(s)
Copepoda , Animals , Bahamas , Canada , Islands , Male , Puerto Rico , Trinidad and Tobago , Utah , Wyoming
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