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1.
Mol Genet Genomic Med ; : e1685, 2021 Apr 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Disrupted endothelial BMP9/10 signaling may contribute to the pathophysiology of both hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) and pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), yet loss of circulating BMP9 has not been confirmed in individuals with ultra-rare homozygous GDF2 (BMP9 gene) nonsense mutations. We studied two pediatric patients homozygous for GDF2 (BMP9 gene) nonsense mutations: one with PAH (c.[76C>T];[76C>T] or p.[Gln26Ter];[Gln26Ter] and a new individual with pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (PAVMs; c.[835G>T];[835G>T] or p.[Glu279Ter];[Glu279Ter]); both with facial telangiectases. METHODS: Plasma samples were assayed for BMP9 and BMP10 by ELISA. In parallel, serum BMP activity was assayed using an endothelial BRE-luciferase reporter cell line (HMEC1-BRE). Proteins were expressed for assessment of secretion and processing. RESULTS: Plasma levels of both BMP9 and BMP10 were undetectable in the two homozygous index cases and this corresponded to low serum-derived endothelial BMP activity in the patients. Measured BMP9 and BMP10 levels were reduced in the asymptomatic heterozygous p.[Glu279Ter] parents, but serum activity was normal. Although expression studies suggested alternate translation can be initiated at Met57 in the p.[Gln26Ter] mutant, this does not result in secretion of functional BMP9. CONCLUSION: Collectively, these data show that homozygous GDF2 mutations, leading to a loss of circulating BMP9 and BMP10, can cause either pediatric PAH and/or "HHT-like" telangiectases and PAVMs. Although patients reported to date have manifestations that overlap with those of HHT, none meet the Curaçao criteria for HHT and seem distinct from HHT in terms of the location and appearance of telangiectases, and a tendency for tiny, diffuse PAVMs.

2.
Qual Health Res ; : 10497323211007815, 2021 Apr 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33926311

ABSTRACT

Epidemics of dengue, chikungunya, and Zika have been threatening the Caribbean. Since risk communication (RC) plays a fundamental role in preventing and controlling diseases understanding how RC works is essential for enabling risk-reducing behavior. This multimethod qualitative study compares news reports with local's and health professional's perspectives, currently lacking in RC research. It was found that RC strategies were obstructed by a lack of governmental structure, organization, and communication. The content analysis showed that the majority of newspaper articles contained negative reporting on the government. Furthermore, this study shows how trust and heuristics attenuate or amplify people's risk perceptions and possibly positively and negatively influence people's risk-reducing behavior. A transcending approach (e.g., structural, cooperative, and multidisciplinary) of the prevention and control of vector-borne diseases and the corresponding RC is recommended.

3.
J Community Genet ; 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33751485

ABSTRACT

The Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of six islands: Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, St. Maarten, St. Eustatius, and Saba. Because of their small size and relative remoteness, they face several economic and healthcare challenges, including limited access to genetics services. In this article, we provide an overview of the clinical and community genetics services that are available in the Dutch Caribbean. In particular, we describe our joint pediatric-genetics clinic with a visiting clinical geneticist that was established in 2011 to provide clinical genetics services for the pediatric population of the Dutch Caribbean.

4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677851

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular disorder characterized by recurrent epistaxis, telangiectasias, and visceral arteriovenous malformations (AVMs). Activin A receptor-like type 1 (ACVRL1/ALK1) and Endoglin (ENG) are the principal genes whose mutations cause HHT. A multicenter study to investigate the correlation between genetic variations and clinical outcomes in Korean HHT patients has been lacking. Methods: Seventy-two members from 40 families suspected of HHT based on symptoms were genetically screened for pathogenic variants in ACVRL1 and ENG. Patients with genetically diagnosed HHT were also evaluated. Results: In the HHT genetic screening, 42 patients from 24 of the 40 families had genetic variants that met the pathogenic criteria (pathogenic very strong, pathogenic strong, pathogenic moderate, or pathogenic supporting) based on ACMG Standards and Guidelines in either ENG or ACVRL1; 26 from 12 families (50%) in ENG, and 16 from 12 families (50%) in ACVRL1. The diagnostic screening of 42 genetically positive HHT patients based on the Curaçao criteria revealed that 24 patients (57%) were in the definite group, 17 patients (41%) were in the probable group, and 1 patient (2%) was in the unlikely group. Epistaxis was the most common clinical presentation (38/42, 90%), followed by visceral AVMs (24/42, 57%), and telangiectasia (21/42, 50%). Five patients (12%) did not have a family history of HHT clinical symptoms. Conclusion: Among patients having ACVRL1 or ENG genetic variants, only about half of them could be clinically diagnosed as definite HHT, suggesting that genetic screening is important to confirm the diagnosis.

5.
J Community Genet ; : 1-5, 2021 Mar 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33717365

ABSTRACT

The Caribbean part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands consists of six islands: Aruba, Bonaire, Curaçao, St. Maarten, St. Eustatius, and Saba. Because of their small size and relative remoteness, they face several economic and healthcare challenges, including limited access to genetics services. In this article, we provide an overview of the clinical and community genetics services that are available in the Dutch Caribbean. In particular, we describe our joint pediatric-genetics clinic with a visiting clinical geneticist that was established in 2011 to provide clinical genetics services for the pediatric population of the Dutch Caribbean.

6.
Eur J Protistol ; 79: 125778, 2021 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706204

ABSTRACT

The expanding phylogenetic tree of trypanosomatid flagellates (Kinetoplastea: Trypanosomatidae) contains a long-known and phylogenetically well-supported species-rich lineage that was provisionally named as the 'jaculum' clade. Its members were found in representatives of several unrelated families of heteropteran bugs captured in South and Central America, Europe, Africa, and Asia. However, this group resisted introduction into the culture, a needed prerequisite for its proper characterization. Here we describe four new cultivable species, which parasitize various parts of their hosts' intestine, including the thoracic and abdominal part of the midgut, hindgut, and Malpighian tubules. Morphologically, the cultured flagellates vary from relatively short stumpy promastigotes to long slender leptomonad cells. Some species form straphangers (cyst-like amastigotes) both in vivo and in vitro, initially attached to the basal part of the flagellum of the mother cell, from which they subsequently detach. To formally classify this enigmatic monophyletic cosmopolitan clade, we erected Obscuromonas gen. nov., including five species: O. modryi sp. nov. (isolated from the true bug host species Riptortus linearis captured in the Philippines), O. volfi sp. nov. (from Catorhintha selector, Curaçao), O. eliasi sp. nov. (from Graptostethus servus, Papua New Guinea), O. oborniki sp. nov. (from Aspilocoryphus unimaculatus, Madagascar), and O. jaculum comb. nov. (from Nepa cinerea, France). Obscuromonas along with the genus Blastocrithidia belongs to the newly established Blastocrithidiinae subfam. nov.

7.
Appl Environ Microbiol ; 87(9)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33674432

ABSTRACT

Coral reefs are possible sinks for microbes; however, the removal mechanisms at play are not well understood. Here, we characterize pelagic microbial groups at the CARMABI reef (Curaçao) and examine microbial consumption by three coral species: Madracis mirabilis, Porites astreoides, and Stephanocoenia intersepta Flow cytometry analyses of water samples collected from a depth of 10 m identified 6 microbial groups: Prochlorococcus, three groups of Synechococcus, photosynthetic eukaryotes, and heterotrophic bacteria. Minimum growth rates (µ) for Prochlorococcus, all Synechococcus groups, and photosynthetic eukaryotes were 0.55, 0.29, and 0.45 µ day-1, respectively, and suggest relatively high rates of productivity despite low nutrient conditions on the reef. During a series of 5-h incubations with reef corals performed just after sunset or prior to sunrise, reductions in the abundance of photosynthetic picoeukaryotes, Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus cells, were observed. Of the three Synechococcus groups, one decreased significantly during incubations with each coral and the other two only with M. mirabilis. Removal of carbon from the water column is based on coral consumption rates of phytoplankton and averaged between 138 ng h-1 and 387 ng h-1, depending on the coral species. A lack of coral-dependent reduction in heterotrophic bacteria, differences in Synechococcus reductions, and diurnal variation in reductions of Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus, coinciding with peak cell division, point to selective feeding by corals. Our study indicates that bentho-pelagic coupling via selective grazing of microbial groups influences carbon flow and supports heterogeneity of microbial communities overlying coral reefs.IMPORTANCE We identify interactions between coral grazing behavior and the growth rates and cell abundances of pelagic microbial groups found surrounding a Caribbean reef. During incubation experiments with three reef corals, reductions in microbial cell abundance differed according to coral species and suggest specific coral or microbial mechanisms are at play. Peaks in removal rates of Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus cyanobacteria appear highest during postsunset incubations and coincide with microbial cell division. Grazing rates and effort vary across coral species and picoplankton groups, possibly influencing overall microbial composition and abundance over coral reefs. For reef corals, use of such a numerically abundant source of nutrition may be advantageous, especially under environmentally stressful conditions when symbioses with dinoflagellate algae break down.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa/physiology , Bacteria/growth & development , Coral Reefs , Eukaryota/growth & development , Microbiota , Animals , Caribbean Region , Seawater/microbiology , Water Microbiology
8.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 179, 2021 Feb 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33593326

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Perinatally chikungunya infected neonates have been reported to have high rates of post-infection neurologic sequelae, mainly cognitive problems. In older children and adults chikungunya does not appear to have sequelae, but data on postnatally infected infants are lacking. METHODS: We performed a prospective, non-controlled, observational study of infants infected before the age of 6 months with a severe chikungunya infection during the 2014-2015 epidemic in Curaçao, Dutch Antilles. Two years post-infection cognitive and motor - (BSID-III) and social emotional assessments (ITSEA) were performed. RESULTS: Of twenty-two infected infants, two died and two were lost to follow up. Eighteen children were seen at follow-up and included in the current study. Of these, 13 (72%) had abnormal scores on the BSID-III (cognitive/motor) or ITSEA. CONCLUSION: In the first study aimed at postnatally infected infants, using an uncontrolled design, we observed a very high percentage of developmental problems. Further studies are needed to assess causality, however until these data are available preventive measure during outbreaks should also include young infants. Those that have been infected in early infancy should receive follow up.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever/pathology , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Chikungunya Fever/complications , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Child Development , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Nervous System Diseases/etiology , Netherlands/epidemiology , Prospective Studies
9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 2230, 2021 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33500473

ABSTRACT

The Scleractinian corals Orbicella annularis and O. faveolata have survived by acclimatizing to environmental changes in water depth and sea surface temperature (SST). However, the complex physiological mechanisms by which this is achieved remain only partially understood, limiting the accurate prediction of coral response to future climate change. This study quantitatively tracks spatial and temporal changes in Symbiodiniaceae and biomolecule (chromatophores, calmodulin, carbonic anhydrase and mucus) abundance that are essential to the processes of acclimatization and biomineralization. Decalcified tissues from intact healthy Orbicella biopsies, collected across water depths and seasonal SST changes on Curaçao, were analyzed with novel autofluorescence and immunofluorescence histology techniques that included the use of custom antibodies. O. annularis at 5 m water depth exhibited decreased Symbiodiniaceae and increased chromatophore abundances, while O. faveolata at 12 m water depth exhibited inverse relationships. Analysis of seasonal acclimatization of the O. faveolata holobiont in this study, combined with previous reports, suggests that biomolecules are differentially modulated during transition from cooler to warmer SST. Warmer SST was also accompanied by decreased mucus production and decreased Symbiodiniaceae abundance, which is compensated by increased photosynthetic activity enhanced calcification. These interacting processes have facilitated the remarkable resiliency of the corals through geological time.

10.
Nature ; 590(7844): 103-110, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361817

ABSTRACT

Humans settled the Caribbean about 6,000 years ago, and ceramic use and intensified agriculture mark a shift from the Archaic to the Ceramic Age at around 2,500 years ago1-3. Here we report genome-wide data from 174 ancient individuals from The Bahamas, Haiti and the Dominican Republic (collectively, Hispaniola), Puerto Rico, Curaçao and Venezuela, which we co-analysed with 89 previously published ancient individuals. Stone-tool-using Caribbean people, who first entered the Caribbean during the Archaic Age, derive from a deeply divergent population that is closest to Central and northern South American individuals; contrary to previous work4, we find no support for ancestry contributed by a population related to North American individuals. Archaic-related lineages were >98% replaced by a genetically homogeneous ceramic-using population related to speakers of languages in the Arawak family from northeast South America; these people moved through the Lesser Antilles and into the Greater Antilles at least 1,700 years ago, introducing ancestry that is still present. Ancient Caribbean people avoided close kin unions despite limited mate pools that reflect small effective population sizes, which we estimate to be a minimum of 500-1,500 and a maximum of 1,530-8,150 individuals on the combined islands of Puerto Rico and Hispaniola in the dozens of generations before the individuals who we analysed lived. Census sizes are unlikely to be more than tenfold larger than effective population sizes, so previous pan-Caribbean estimates of hundreds of thousands of people are too large5,6. Confirming a small and interconnected Ceramic Age population7, we detect 19 pairs of cross-island cousins, close relatives buried around 75 km apart in Hispaniola and low genetic differentiation across islands. Genetic continuity across transitions in pottery styles reveals that cultural changes during the Ceramic Age were not driven by migration of genetically differentiated groups from the mainland, but instead reflected interactions within an interconnected Caribbean world1,8.


Subject(s)
Archaeology , Genetics, Population , Genome, Human/genetics , Human Migration/history , Islands , Population Dynamics/history , Archaeology/ethics , Caribbean Region , Central America/ethnology , Ceramics/history , Genetics, Population/ethics , Geographic Mapping , Haplotypes , History, Ancient , Humans , Male , Population Density , South America/ethnology
11.
Chemosphere ; 263: 128057, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33297065

ABSTRACT

Samples of adipose tissue, meat and livers from pigs, cows, sheep and goats from Curaçao were analysed for polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), and dioxin-like (dl-) and non-dioxin-like (ndl-) PCBs (polychlorinated biphenyls). Levels in many samples of adipose tissue were higher than the EU maximum levels (MLs) for PCDD/Fs and the sum of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs (sum-TEQ), indicating unusually high levels. Median sum-TEQ (Toxic Equivalents) levels for pigs, cows, sheep and goats were 0.9 (range 0.3-35), 3.0 (0.5-14), 5.7 (0.3-28) and 6.5 (0.5-134) pg TEQ g-1 fat. For most samples, the congener pattern pointed to the burning of waste as the major source, in line with the fact that most animals forage outside. MLs for ndl-PCBs were also exceeded in some of the samples, indicating that some areas are additionally contaminated with PCBs. Meat levels showed similar lipid based levels as adipose tissue, contrary to liver levels, which were much higher in most animals. Pigs showed liver sequestration at lower levels in adipose tissue than the ruminants. The relatively high levels observed in this study are likely to result in high exposure of consumers and measures were taken to reduce the contamination of areas where animals forage.


Subject(s)
Benzofurans , Dioxins , Polychlorinated Biphenyls , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins , Animals , Benzofurans/analysis , Cattle , Curacao , Dibenzofurans , Dibenzofurans, Polychlorinated , Dioxins/analysis , Female , Food Contamination/analysis , Goats , Islands , Liver/chemistry , Meat/analysis , Polychlorinated Biphenyls/analysis , Polychlorinated Dibenzodioxins/analysis , Sheep , Swine
12.
Child Abuse Negl ; 111: 104831, 2020 Dec 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33278732

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The study aimed to estimate the association of experiencing a higher number of victimizations with mental health and health-risk behaviours among adolescents in the 2015 Curaçao Global School-Based Student Health Survey (GSHS). METHODS: In all, 2,765 in-school adolescents with a median age of 15 years from Curaçao responded to the cross-sectional GSHS. RESULTS: Results indicate that from six forms of victimization (bullied, parental physical victimization, physically attacked, physical intimate partner violence victimization, forced sex and violent injury) assessed, 29.6 % reported one type of victimization, 11.3 % two types and 4.9 % three or more types of victimization. In adjusted logistic regression analyses, PV was associated with four poor mental health indicators (worry-induced sleep disturbance, suicidal ideation, loneliness, and suicide attempt) and eleven health-risk behaviours (current tobacco use, current alcohol use, current cannabis use, early sexual debut, sex among students who were drunk, multiple sexual partners, non-condom use at last sex, school truancy, carrying a weapon, short sleep and skipping breakfast). CONCLUSION: Almost one in six students reported poly-victimization (≥2 types). Higher frequency of victimization was positively associated with four poor mental health indicators and eleven health-risk behaviours.

13.
Eur J Protistol ; 77: 125758, 2020 Nov 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33307359

ABSTRACT

Recent progress in understanding the early evolution of eukaryotes was tied to morphological identification of flagellates and heliozoans from natural samples, isolation of their culture and genomic and ultrastructural investigations. These protists are the smallest and least studied microbial eukaryotes but play an important role in the functioning of microbial food webs. Using light and electron microscopy, we have studied the diversity of heterotrophic flagellates and centrohelid heliozoans from marine waters of Curacao (The Netherlands Antilles), and provide micrographs and morphological descriptions of observed species. Among 86 flagellates and 3 centrohelids encountered in this survey, five heterotrophic flagellates and one сentrohelid heliozoan were not identified even to the genus. Some flagellate protists have a unique morphology, and may represent undescribed lineages of eukaryotes of high taxonomic rank. The vast majority (89%) of identified flagellates is characterized by wide geographical distribution and have been reported previously from all hemispheres and various climatic regions. More than half of the species were previously observed not only from marine, but also from freshwater habitats. The parameters of the species accumulation curve indicate that our species list obtained for the Curacao study sites is far from complete, and each new sample should yield new species.

14.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244117, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351836

ABSTRACT

The American Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber, is a charismatic bird distributed throughout the Caribbean, North and South America. Its wide distribution, the complexity of international monitoring due to its capacity for long-distance flying, and a focus mostly on local populations, make it difficult to understand the dynamics between sites. Here, we took advantage of the citizen eBird science project to present a global perspective on the distribution of the American Flamingo, and identify the potentially most important countries for breeding. We obtained 16,930 records for the Americas from the 1960s until October 2018, of which 9,283 could be used for our objectives. The eBird database indicated a considerable increase in the total number of records over the last decade (2010s), probably reflecting an increase in tourism facilities, research investment, technological advancement, interest in conservation, and the worldwide availability of eBird. We also observed a range extension in the Gulf of Mexico in the United States and a significant recolonization in the Florida Peninsula. The apparent range extension to the South is more likely to be linked to biases in the data; for example, in any given country the number of records might reflect either reporting efforts or actual numbers. eBird data confirmed that six countries host the main breeding colonies (Bahamas, Bonaire, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela). We suggest three additional countries as potential breeding areas for the species (Colombia, Curaçao, Turks and Caicos Islands) for which more field observations are necessary to support this possibility. This global appraisal of the distribution of the American Flamingo using citizen science data provides valuable information for national and international management and conservation programs such as the need to verify the species breeding status in areas where it appears to be expanding its distribution.


Subject(s)
Birds/physiology , Nesting Behavior/physiology , Americas , Animals , Female , Male
15.
J Exp Biol ; 2020 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33188063

ABSTRACT

In many mutualisms, benefits in the form of food are exchanged for services such as transport or protection. In the marine cleaning mutualism, a variety of "client" reef fishes offer "cleaner" fish Labroides dimidiatus access to food in the form of their ectoparasites, where parasite removal supposedly protects the clients. Yet, the health benefits individual clients obtain on the long-term from repeated ectoparasite removal remain relatively unknown. Here, we tested whether long-term reduced access to cleaning services alter indicators of health status such as body condition, immunity and the steroids cortisol and testosterone in four client damselfish species Pomacentrus amboinensis, Amblyglyphidodon curacao, Acanthochromis polyacanthus, and Dischistodus perspicillatus To do so, we took advantage of a long-term experimental project in which several small reefs around Lizard Island (Great Barrier Reef, Australia) were maintained cleaner-free since the year 2000; while control reefs had their cleaner presence continuously monitored. We found that the four damselfish species from reef sites without cleaners for 13 years had lower body condition than fish from reefs with cleaners. However, immunity measurements and cortisol and testosterone levels did not differ between experimental groups. Our findings suggest that clients use the energetic benefits derived from long-term access to cleaning services to selectively increase body condition, rather than altering hormonal or immune system functions.

16.
Mol Biol Rep ; 47(12): 9967-9972, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33201366

ABSTRACT

Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is supposedly rare in Africa, with only three pathogenic variants documented to date. We describe the clinical and genetic features of HHT patients in central South Africa, who fulfilled the Curaçao criteria. Sixteen patients (median age 38.5 years, range 12-65 years), from six families were included. Fifteen patients were of African descent and one was of Afrikaner descent. The mean epistaxis severity score was 3.18, and the median haemoglobin was 9.5 g/dL (range 3.5-13.5 g/dL). On transthoracic contrast echocardiography 69% had a shunt grade ≥ 1, but only 20% had pulmonary arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) on computed tomography of the chest. Hepatic AVMs were found in 13% of patients, while 13% had brain vascular malformations. Four patients were HIV positive, of whom two had worsening epistaxis while they had opportunistic infections and poor HIV control. We identified six pathogenic variants (four in ENG and two in ACVRL1) in the six probands, three of which had been described previously. Three variants have apparently not been reported previously: ENG c.[1336_1337dup];[ =] p.[(Asp446fs)];[( =)], ENG c.[ 690?_816+?del] p.[(?)], and ACVRL1 c.[268_274delins57];[ =] p.[(Cys90fs)];[( =)]. We confirmed the diagnosis of HHT in sixteen patients and identified pathogenic variants in ENG or ACVRL1 in all six probands in central South Africa, where HHT has been underreported. We describe three pathogenic variants: two of ENG and one of ACVRL1. We will be able to implement pre-symptomatic screening of patients in our area, and improve their management.

17.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2015, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33206759

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To verify the association between suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) and sedentary behaviors among adolescents from four Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in four countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bahamas, Curação, El Salvador, and Guatemala). The sample comprised 6,813 adolescents aged 11-18 years, of which, 3,559 were females. The three suicidal behaviors considered were ideation, planning, and attempts. Sedentary behavior was regarded as the time that adolescents spent sitting, excluding time at school. Crude and adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was present in 10.7% of males and 22.7% of females. Suicidal planning was present in 8.6% of males and 16.3% of females. Suicidal attempt was present in 9.3% of males and 16.3% of females. Sedentary behavior was present in 39.6% of males and 45.7% of females. It was identified that male adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), whereas female adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.30-1.83), planning (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28-1.86), and attempts (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). CONCLUSION: Adolescents of both sexes who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behaviors were more likely to have some suicidal behaviors than those who spent less time in sedentary behaviors.

18.
Clinics (Sao Paulo) ; 75: e2015, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33146359

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To verify the association between suicidal behaviors (ideation, planning, and attempts) and sedentary behaviors among adolescents from four Latin American and Caribbean countries. METHODS: A cross-sectional epidemiological study was conducted in four countries in Latin America and the Caribbean (Bahamas, Curação, El Salvador, and Guatemala). The sample comprised 6,813 adolescents aged 11-18 years, of which, 3,559 were females. The three suicidal behaviors considered were ideation, planning, and attempts. Sedentary behavior was regarded as the time that adolescents spent sitting, excluding time at school. Crude and adjusted logistic regression were used to estimate the odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI). RESULTS: Suicidal ideation was present in 10.7% of males and 22.7% of females. Suicidal planning was present in 8.6% of males and 16.3% of females. Suicidal attempt was present in 9.3% of males and 16.3% of females. Sedentary behavior was present in 39.6% of males and 45.7% of females. It was identified that male adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.42; 95% CI: 1.13-1.80), whereas female adolescents who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behavior were more likely to have suicidal ideation (OR: 1.55; 95% CI: 1.30-1.83), planning (OR: 1.54; 95% CI: 1.28-1.86), and attempts (OR: 1.31; 95% CI: 1.09-1.57). CONCLUSION: Adolescents of both sexes who reported spending ≥3 hours/day in sedentary behaviors were more likely to have some suicidal behaviors than those who spent less time in sedentary behaviors.

19.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-11-09.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53109

ABSTRACT

All 54 countries and territories in the Region of the Americas have reported COVID-19 cases and deaths. Since the 15 October 2020 PAHO/WHO Epidemiological Update on COVID-19 and as of 5 November 2020, 592,561 additional confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 54,832 deaths, have been reported in the Region of the Americas, representing a 14.3% increase in cases and a 8.5% increase in deaths. In the last 7 weeks (between 16 September and 4 November), a relative increase was observed, both in the number of cases and number of deaths across all subregions. The highest increase was observed in Central America subregion, with a 30.7% increase in cases and a 24.9% increase in deaths, followed by the North America subregion, with a 29.8% increase in cases and a 17.6% increase in deaths, the Caribbean and the Atlantic Ocean Islands subregion, with a 29.7% increase in cases and an 24.4% increase in deaths, and the South America subregion, with a 26.1% increase in cases and a 22.3% increase in deaths. In the last 7 weeks, a relative increase in confirmed cases greater than 50% (range 52.0% to 80.8%) is observed in the Bahamas, Belize, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Curacao, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinique, Paraguay, Saint Barthelemy, and Saint Lucia. With respect to deaths, a relative increase of ≥ 50% (range 50.0% to 80.5%) is observed in Argentina, the Bahamas, Belize, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Paraguay, and Saint Martin. [...]


Los 54 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas han notificado casos y defunciones de COVID-19. Desde la última actualización epidemiológica publicada por la OPS/OMS el 15 de octubre de 2020 hasta el 4 de noviembre de 2020, fueron notificados 592.561 casos confirmados de COVID-19, incluidas 54.832 defunciones adicionales en la región de las Américas, lo que representa un aumento de 14,3% de casos y de 8,5% de defunciones. En las últimas 7 semanas (entre el 16 de septiembre y el 4 de noviembre) en todas las subregiones se observó un incremento relativo, tanto en el número de casos como en el número de defunciones. En América Central se observó el mayor incremento, con 30,7 % de aumento en casos y 24,9% de aumento en defunciones. El resto de las subregiones, incrementaron de la siguiente manera, en orden decreciente: América del Norte con 29,8 % de incremento en casos y 17,6% de incremento en defunciones, las Islas del Caribe y del Océano Atlántico con 29,7% de aumento en casos y 24,4% de aumento en defunciones y América del Sur con 26,1% de aumento en casos y 22,3% aumento en defunciones. En este mismo período de 7 semanas, Bahamas, Belice, Bonaire, San Eustaquio y Saba, Curazao, Dominica, Guadalupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinica, Paraguay, San Bartolomé y Santa Lucía presentaron un incremento relativo de casos confirmados mayor a 50% (rango 52,0% a 80,8%). Respecto de las defunciones, Argentina, Bahamas, Belice, Bonaire, San Eustaquio y Saba, Costa Rica, Guadalupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Paraguay y San Martín presentaron un incremento relativo ≥ 50,0% (rango 50,0%% a 80,5%). [...]


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Infection Control , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Emergencies , International Health Regulations
20.
Washington, D.C.; OPS; 2020-11-02. (PAHO/PHE/HEO/20-0044).
Non-conventional in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-52969

ABSTRACT

This information document provides an update on the Pan American Sanitary Bureau’s response to maintaining an effective technical cooperation agenda in the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela and neighboring Member States, from November 2016 to July 2020. The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has been facing a sociopolitical and economic situation that has negatively impacted social and health indicators. There have been intensified population movements both within the country and to other countries, particularly to Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Curaçao, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, Guyana, Mexico, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, and Uruguay. Since 2017, an estimated 5.2 million Venezuelans have migrated to other countries, including an estimated 4.3 million who have gone to countries in Latin America and the Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Disease Transmission, Infectious , Pandemics , Noncommunicable Diseases , Chronic Disease , Mental Health , Risk Factors , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Technical Cooperation , Hypertension , Diabetes Mellitus , Capacity Building , Emergencies , Venezuela
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