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1.
Zootaxa ; 4951(2): zootaxa.4951.2.11, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33903410

ABSTRACT

The land flatworm Platydemus manokwari (Platyhelminthes, Geoplanidae) is recorded from the islands of Guadeloupe, Martinique, and Saint Martin in the Caribbean arc. Photographs and records were obtained mainly from citizen science and ranged from the end of 2018 to February 2021; several specimens were deposited in the collections of the Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle in Paris, France. Thirty records were from Guadeloupe, but only one from Martinique and from Saint Martin, respectively. The COI sequences of 3 specimens from Guadeloupe show that they belong to the World haplotype also found in many countries. We also report P. manokwari from Fort Myers, Florida, USA, with molecular characterization, which was also the World haplotype. This is the first published record of P. manokwari for Guadeloupe, Martinique and Saint Martin and the second for islands in the Caribbean, after Puerto Rico.

2.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53771

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Hospitals in the French Territories in the Americas (FTA) work according to international and French standards. This paper aims to describe different aspects of critical care in the FTA. For this, we reviewed official information about population size and intensive care unit (ICU) bed capacity in the FTA and literature on FTA ICU specificities. Persons living in or visiting the FTA are exposed to specific risks, mainly severe road traffic injuries, envenoming, stab or ballistic wounds, and emergent tropical infectious diseases. These diseases may require specific knowledge and critical care management. However, there are not enough ICU beds in the FTA. Indeed, there are 7.2 ICU beds/100 000 population in Guadeloupe, 7.2 in Martinique, and 4.5 in French Guiana. In addition, seriously ill patients in remote areas regularly have to be transferred, most often by helicopter, resulting in a delay in admission to intensive care. The COVID-19 crisis has shown that the health care system in the FTA is unready to face such an epidemic and that intensive care bed capacity must be increased. In conclusion, the critical care sector in the FTA requires upgrading of infrastructure, human resources, and equipment as well as enhancement of multidisciplinary care. Also needed are promotion of training, research, and regional and international medical and scientific cooperation.


[RESUMEN]. Los hospitales en los territorios franceses de la Región de las Américas funcionan según las normas francesas e internacionales. El objetivo de este artículo es describir distintos aspectos de los cuidados intensivos en los territorios franceses. Para ello, hemos revisado los datos oficiales sobre el tamaño de la población y el número de camas de las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI), así como la bibliografía sobre algunos aspectos específicos de las UCI, en los territorios franceses. Las personas que viven en los territorios franceses, o que están de visita en ellos, están expuestas a riesgos específicos: principalmente traumatismos graves causados por el tránsito, envenenamiento por mordeduras, heridas de bala o por apuñalamiento, y enfermedades infecciosas tropicales emergentes. La atención de estos traumatismos y enfermedades puede requerir conocimientos específicos y cuidados intensivos. Sin embargo, no hay suficientes camas de UCI en los territorios franceses. De hecho, hay 7,2 camas de UCI por 100 000 habitantes en Guadalupe, 7,2 en Martinica y 4,5 en Guayana Francesa. Además, los pacientes gravemente enfermos que viven en zonas remotas a menudo tienen que ser trasladados, normalmente por helicóptero, lo que retrasa su ingreso en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. La crisis de la COVID-19 ha puesto de manifiesto que el sistema de atención de salud en los territorios franceses no está preparado para enfrentarse a una epidemia de estas dimensiones y que debe aumentarse la capacidad hospitalaria de las unidades de cuidados intensivos. En conclusión, el sector de los cuidados intensivos en los territorios franceses tiene que mejorar su infraestructura, recursos humanos y equipamiento, así como perfeccionar la atención multidisciplinaria. También es necesario promover la capacitación, la investigación y la cooperación médica y científica, tanto regional como internacional.


[RESUMO]. Os hospitais nos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas funcionam segundo os padrões franceses e internacionais. O objetivo deste artigo é descrever os diversos aspectos da atenção intensiva nesta região. Analisamos os dados oficiais relativos ao tamanho da população e ao número de leitos de unidade de terapia intensiva (UTI) nestes territórios junto com uma revisão da literatura científica sobre as características particulares destes centros de terapia intensiva. Os residentes locais ou visitantes dos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas são expostos a riscos específicos, sobretudo acidentes de trânsito graves, envenenamentos por animais peçonhentos, ferimentos por armas brancas ou armas de fogo e doenças infecciosas tropicais emergentes que requerem conhecimento especializado e atenção intensiva. Porém, não há leitos suficientes de UTI nos territórios ultramarinos franceses nas Américas: são 7,2 leitos de UTI por 100.000 habitantes em Guadalupe, 7,2 na Martinica e 4,5 na Guiana Francesa. Ademais, em áreas remotas, os pacientes em estado crítico frequentemente precisam ser transferidos por helicóptero, o que causa demora na internação em UTI. A crise da COVID-19 demonstra o despreparo do sistema de saúde para enfrentar a pandemia e a necessidade de aumentar o número de leitos de UTI nestes territórios. Em conclusão, é imprescindível modernizar a infraestrutura e os equipamentos, capacitar melhor os recursos humanos e melhorar a atenção multidisciplinar. Incentivar a formação profissional, pesquisa e cooperação médico-científica regional e mundial é também fundamental.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Tropical Medicine , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , French Guiana , Guadeloupe , Martinique , Critical Care , Coronavirus Infections , Tropical Medicine , French Guiana , Guadeloupe , Martinique , Coronavirus Infections , French Guiana
3.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009267, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33836004

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In 2014, a first outbreak of chikungunya hit the Caribbean area where chikungunya virus (CHIKV) had never circulated before. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a cross-sectional study to measure the seroprevalence of CHIKV immediately after the end of the 2014 outbreak in HIV-infected people followed up in two clinical cohorts at the University hospitals of Guadeloupe and Martinique. Study patients were identified during the first months of 2015 and randomly selected to match the age and sex distribution of the general population in the two islands. They were invited to complete a survey that explored the symptoms consistent with chikungunya they could have developed during 2014 and to have a blood sample drawn for CHIKV serology. The study population consisted of 377 patients (198 in Martinique and 179 in Guadeloupe, 178 men and 199 women), 182 of whom reported they had developed symptoms consistent with chikungunya. CHIKV serology was positive in 230 patients, which accounted for an overall seroprevalence rate of 61% [95%CI 56-66], with only 153 patients who reported symptoms consistent with chikungunya. Most frequent symptoms included arthralgia (94.1%), fever (73.2%), myalgia (53.6%), headache (45.8%), and skin rash (26.1%). CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed that the seroprevalence of CHIKV infection was 61% after the 2014 outbreak, with one third of asymptomatic infections. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02553369.

5.
Insects ; 12(3)2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33809477

ABSTRACT

In 2018-2019, we conducted mosquito collections in a municipal vehicle impound yard, which is 10 km from the Serra do Mar Environmental Protection Area in Santo André, SP, Brazil. Our aim is to study arboviruses in the impound yard, to understand the transmission of arboviruses in an urban environment in Brazil. We captured the mosquitoes using human-landing catches and processed them for arbovirus detection by conventional and quantitative RT-PCR assays. We captured two mosquito species, Aedes aegypti (73 total specimens; 18 females and 55 males) and Ae. albopictus (34 specimens; 27 females and 7 males). The minimum infection rate for DENV-2 was 11.5 per 1000 (CI95%: 1-33.9). The detection of DENV-2 RNA in an Ae. albopictus female suggests that this virus might occur in high infection rates in the sampled mosquito population and is endemic in the urban areas of Santo André. In addition, Guadeloupe mosquito virus RNA was detected in an Ae. aegypti female. To our knowledge, this was the first detection of the Guadeloupe mosquito virus in Brazil.

6.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 311, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33794785

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dengue infection is caused by an arbovirus with a wide range of presentations, varying from asymptomatic disease to unspecific febrile illness and haemorrhagic syndrome with shock, which can evolve to death. In Brazil, the virus circulates since the 1980s with many introductions of new serotypes, genotypes, and lineages since then. Here we report a fatal case of dengue associated with a Dengue virus (DENV) lineage not detected in the country until now. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient, a 58-year-old man arrived at the hospital complaining of fever and severe abdominal pain due to intense gallbladder edema, mimicking acute abdomen. After 48 h of hospital admission, he evolved to refractory shock and death. DENV RNA was detected in all tissues collected (heart, lung, brain, kidney, spleen, pancreas, liver, and testis). Viral sequencing has shown that the virus belongs to serotype 2, American/Asian genotype, in a new clade, which has never been identified in Brazil before. The virus was phylogenetically related to isolates from central America [Puerto Rico (2005-2007), Martinique (2005), and Guadeloupe (2006)], most likely arriving in Brazil from Puerto Rico. CONCLUSION: In summary, this was the first fatal documented case with systemic dengue infection associated with the new introduction of Dengue type 2 virus in Brazil during the 2019 outbreak.


Subject(s)
Dengue Virus/isolation & purification , Dengue/diagnosis , Brain/virology , Brazil , Dengue/virology , Dengue Virus/classification , Dengue Virus/genetics , Gallbladder/pathology , Genotype , Heart/virology , Humans , Lung/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , RNA, Viral/metabolism
7.
Zootaxa ; 4927(3): zootaxa.4927.3.4, 2021 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33756701

ABSTRACT

Documenting recent extinction events against the backdrop of increasing human-induced environmental pressure is complicated by the lack of historical and subfossil evidence for most parts of the world. This paucity of data renders it particularly difficult to evaluate the human impact on fragile environments, such as small islands, that may have been heavily altered by historical human exploitation. Here we describe a new species of an extinct Leiocephalus lizard from Guadeloupe, Leiocephalus roquetus sp. nov. based on recent discoveries of both a previously undocumented historically taxidermy specimen and of a large assemblage of subfossil bone remains from La Désirade Island. This new species presents a primitive morphology compared to all extant species of its genus and provides evidence for the past existence of a Lesser Antillean clade of Leiocephalus lizards that was completely wiped out in the centuries following the European colonization of these islands. Our study demonstrates how paleontological approaches can help to better understand the history of human environmental impact as well as the degree of degradation of modern ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Fossils , Lizards , Animals , Ecosystem , Guadeloupe , Islands , Lizards/anatomy & histology
8.
Br J Ophthalmol ; 2021 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33658231

ABSTRACT

AIMS: To investigate the annual and monthly hospital incidence rate of rhegmatogenous retinal detachments (RRDs) from 2010 to 2016 in France at the national and regional levels. METHODS: In this nationwide database study, we identified hospital and clinic admissions of French residents for a first episode of RRD in France during 2010-2016 from the national administrative database. The annual and monthly hospital incidence rates of RRD per 100 000 population were calculated for the whole country and for each region. RESULTS: The average annual national hospital incidence rate of RRD was 21.97±1.04 per 100 000 population. The annual national hospital incidence rate of RRD was the lowest in 2010 (20.91 per 100 000 population) after which it increased until 2015 (23.55 per 100 000 population). The average monthly national RRD hospital incidence rate was the highest in June (2.03±0.12 per 100 000 population) and the lowest in August (1.60±0.09). The average annual age-standardised and sex-standardised regional hospital incidence rate was the highest in Guadeloupe and Pays de la Loire (28.30±2.74 and 26.13±0.84 per 100 000 population, respectively) and the lowest in French Guiana and Martinique (15.51±3.50 and 17.29±2.12 per 100 000 population, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: The average annual national hospital incidence rate of RRD increased from 2010 to 2015. The hospital incidence rate of RRD seemed to vary according to season and geographical location.

9.
J Phycol ; 2021 Mar 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33660865

ABSTRACT

Non-geniculate coralline algae are difficult to identify based solely on morpho-anatomy. To address the systematics of several taxonomically challenging taxa, we analyzed DNA sequences of a short portion (118-296 base pairs) of the 3' end of the rbcL gene from three type specimens. The analyses revealed that Harveylithon munitum (basionym: Lithophyllum munitum), described in 1906 from Cave Cays, Exuma Chain, Bahamas, is conspecific with both Goniolithon accretum and Goniolithon affine, described in 1906 from Sand Key, Florida and in 1907 from Culebra Island, Puerto Rico, respectively. L. munitum and G. accretum were described in the same 1906 publication and have equal priority. We have selected the currently accepted and most commonly used name H. munitum to apply to this entity. Comparative analyses of rbcL, psbA, UPA, COI, and LSU sequences from contemporary field-collected specimens revealed that H. munitum currently inhabits mesophotic rhodolith beds in the northwestern Gulf of Mexico, as well as the intertidal zone in the Florida Keys, Honduras, Atlantic Mexico, Caribbean Panama, and Guadeloupe, French West Indies. Species delimitation analyses reveal that the Western Atlantic and Australian H. munitum populations may be separate species. Two new species of Harveylithon from the northwestern Gulf of Mexico and one new species from the southwestern Gulf of Mexico, the Caribbean, and the Red Sea were also identified in the analyses and are described.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009048, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33657112

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In the French Territories in the Americas (FTA), the risk of birth defects possibly associated with Zika virus (ZIKV) infection was 7.0% (95%CI: 5.0 to 9.5) among foetuses/infants of 546 women with symptomatic RT-PCR confirmed ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Many of these defects were isolated measurement-based microcephaly (i.e. without any detected brain or clinical abnormalities) or mild neurological conditions. We wanted to estimate the proportion of such minor findings among live births of women who were pregnant in the same region during the outbreak period but who were not infected with ZIKV. METHODS: In Guadeloupe, pregnant women were recruited at the time of delivery and tested for ZIKV infection. The outcomes of live born infants of ZIKV non-infected women were compared to those of ZIKV-exposed live born infants in Guadeloupe, extracted from the FTA prospective cohort. RESULTS: Of 490 live born infants without exposure to ZIKV, 42 infants (8.6%, 95%CI: 6.2-11.4) had mild abnormalities that have been described as 'potentially linked to ZIKV infection'; all but one of these was isolated measurement-based microcephaly. Among the 241 live born infants with ZIKV exposure, the proportion of such abnormalities, using the same definition, was similar (6.6%, 95%CI: 3.8-10.6). CONCLUSIONS: Isolated anthropometric abnormalities and mild neurological conditions were as prevalent among infants with and without in-utero ZIKV exposure. If such abnormalities had not been considered as 'potentially linked to ZIKV' in the original prospective cohort in Guadeloupe, the overall estimate of the risk of birth defects considered due to the virus would have been significantly lower, at approximately 1.6% (95% CI: 0.4-4.1). TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT02916732).

11.
BMC Vet Res ; 17(1): 116, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33685450

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selection pressure exerted by use of antibiotics in both human and veterinary medicine is responsible for increasing antimicrobial resistance (AMR). The objectives of this study were to better understand antimicrobial use in pigs, beef cattle, and poultry on farms on Guadeloupe, French West Indies, and to acquire data on AMR in Escherichia coli in these food-producing animals. A cross-sectional survey was conducted at 45 farms on Guadeloupe, and practical use of antimicrobials was documented in declarative interviews between March and July 2018. A total of 216 fecal samples were collected between January 2018 and May 2019, comprising 124 from pigs, 75 from beef cattle, and 17 from poultry litter. E. coli isolates were obtained for further testing by isolation and identification from field samples. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing and screening for blaCTX-M, blaTEM, tetA, and tetB resistance genes by polymerase chain reaction on extracted genomic DNA were performed. RESULTS: The study showed rational use of antimicrobials, consisting of occasional use for curative treatment by veterinary prescription. Tetracycline was the most commonly used antimicrobial, but its use was not correlated to E. coli resistance. Extended-spectrum ß-lactamase (ESBL) E. coli isolates were detected in 7.3% of pigs, 14.7% of beef cattle, and 35.3% of poultry. blaCTX-M-1 was the predominant gene found in ESBL-E. coli isolates (68.8%), followed by blaCTX-M-15 (31.3%). CONCLUSION: Despite rational use of antimicrobials, the rate of ESBL-E. coli in food-producing animals in Guadeloupe, although moderate, is a concern. Further studies are in progress to better define the genetic background of the ESBL-E. coli isolates.

12.
Environ Sci Process Impacts ; 23(4): 553-558, 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33690777

ABSTRACT

Microplastics from the North Atlantic Gyre deposited on Guadeloupe beaches were sampled and characterized. A new method is developed to identify which elements were present as additives in these microplastics. The method used both acidic leaching and acidic digestion. Several elements (Al, Zn, Ba, Cu, Pb, Cd, Mn, Cr) were identified as pigments. Furthermore, some elements used as additives to plastics (especially the non-essential elements) seem to contribute to most of the acidic leaching, suggesting that these additives can leach and adsorb onto the surface microplastics, becoming bioavailable. Based on the acidic leaching element content, only Cd should represent a danger for fish when ingested. However, further studies are needed to determine the potential synergetic effect on health caused by the ingestion of several elements and microplastics.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Plastics , Animals , Environmental Monitoring , Metals
13.
BMC Cancer ; 21(1): 281, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33726684

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is the fourth cancer worldwide. The Human Papilloma Virus is responsible for 99% of the cases but the distribution of its genotypes varies among populations. We aimed to identify HPV genotypes distribution in women with grade 2/3 cervical intraepithelial dysplasia or invasive cervical cancer in Guadeloupe, a French Caribbean territory with a population mainly of African descent. METHODS: We used paraffin-embedded tumors for viral DNA extraction from women diagnosed between 2014 and 2016 and identified by the population-based cancer registry. The HPV Genotyping was performed with the InnoLIPA HPV Genotyping Extra kit®. RESULTS: Overall, 213 samples out of the 321 eligible records were analyzed. The HPV status was positive for 94% of the cases. The five most common oncogenic HPV genotypes were HPV31 (47%), HPV33 (38%), HPV16 (32%), HPV44 (31%) and HPV26 (28%). HPV18 was found in only in 5% of the cases. Among the studied cases, 94% had multiple infections. More than 60% of single infections were HPV16-related, accounting for 35% of HPV16 infections. CONCLUSIONS: These results show a different distribution of oncogenic HPVs in Guadeloupe with "31 >  33 > 16" and a high frequency of multiple infections. Despite a lower coverage, the nine-valent vaccine is nevertheless adequate.


Subject(s)
Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/virology , Coinfection/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Infections/epidemiology , Papillomavirus Vaccines/administration & dosage , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/virology , Adult , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/epidemiology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/pathology , Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia/prevention & control , Cervix Uteri/pathology , Cervix Uteri/virology , Coinfection/diagnosis , Coinfection/prevention & control , Coinfection/virology , DNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Female , Guadeloupe/epidemiology , Human papillomavirus 16/genetics , Human papillomavirus 16/isolation & purification , Human papillomavirus 18/genetics , Human papillomavirus 18/isolation & purification , Humans , Incidence , Middle Aged , Papillomavirus Infections/diagnosis , Papillomavirus Infections/prevention & control , Papillomavirus Infections/virology , Retrospective Studies , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/epidemiology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/pathology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/prevention & control
14.
Clin Toxicol (Phila) ; : 1-14, 2021 Feb 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33605806

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In France, 57 species of scorpions are described with a limited number of clinical studies. In this article, we report the epidemiology of scorpion sting events in mainland France and its overseas territories based on cases reported to the French poison-control centres (FPCC). MATERIAL AND METHOD: This retrospective multicentre study was conducted with data from FPCC's files about scorpion stings between January 1, 2011 and December 31, 2020. RESULT: Among 975 recorded files, 624 patients were included because they were stung by scorpions native to French territories. Most stings occurred along the Mediterranean coast in summer and indoors (in persons' homes) during the daytime. The scorpions were identified in 50% of cases. According to signs of envenoming, patients were divided into class III (2 cases; 1%), class II (51 cases; 8%), class I (444 cases; 71%) and asymptomatic stings (127 cases; 20%). Twelve pregnant women were stung and two of them had contractions, which triggered childbirth in one woman. Ten patients had local infections in the first week after the sting. One patient had venous thrombosis 2 days after the sting. Life-threatening scorpions, i.e., Tityus obscurus, Tityus sylvestris and Centruroides pococki, in French territories are limited to French Guiana and Lesser Antilles. Class II envenoming cases are recorded for Buthus occitanus, Euscorpius spp. in mainland France, and Isometrus maculatus in French Guiana, the Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe and Martinique) and territories in the Indian Ocean (Mayotte and Réunion Island) and Pacific Ocean (French Polynesia). Only cases of local manifestation was reported for Belisarius xambeui in mainland France. CONCLUSION: Scorpion stings in French territories are frequently on the Mediterranean coast and French Guiana. Life-threatening cases are limited to T. obscurus, T. sylvestris and Centruroides pococki stings in French Guiana and Lesser Antilles.

15.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009087, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33544715

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Intestinal parasitic diseases are a global health problem. Due to its equatorial climate, vast territory with isolated areas and the precariousness of its population, intestinal parasitosis is considered to be a major issue in French Guiana but only few data are available and these mainly focus on specific population. We aimed at determining the parasitic index and at describing the characteristics of these infections in order to develop preventive strategies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We retrospectively analysed all the parasitological samples recorded in the register of the two main laboratories of French Guiana between 2011 and 2016. The parasitic index was the percentage of parasitised patients in comparison with the total number of subjects studied. A patient who underwent several positive parasitological examinations was considered only once in the analysis at the time of the first sampling. RESULTS: A total of 15,220 parasitological samples of 9,555 patients were analysed and 2,916 were positive in 1,521 patients. The average infestation rate and parasitic index were 19.2% and 16.0%, respectively. The parasitic index remained stable between 2011 (18.2%) and 2016 (18.3%). The patients were mainly men (66.4%), with a median age of 33.0 years (26.3% of patients were under 18 years of age) and lived mainly in the Central Agglomeration (48.2%) and in West Guiana (37.4%). Hookworms were the most common parasite (25.2%) followed by Entamoeba coli (13.3%), Strongyloides stercoralis (10.9%) and Giardia intestinalis (10.8%). Among the infected patients, 31.0% presented mixed infections and 67.5% of them had at least one pathogenic parasite. The patients aged from 0 to 18 years presented significantly more polyparasitism (30.9%) than monoparasitism (24.3%, p<0.001). Ancylostoma sp and Strongyloides stercoralis were mainly diagnosed during the rainy season (59.5% and 64.7% respectively), in men (78.6% and 81.1% respectively) and in patients aged from 18 to 65 years (86.6% and 76.6% respectively) whereas, Giardia intestinalis infected mostly children under 5 years (59.5%) of age. CONCLUSION: Although it may not be representative of the entire Guyanese population, the parasitic index remained high and stable from 2011 and 2016 and it justifies the need for an active prevention program as it was already done in the other French overseas departments such as Martinique and Guadeloupe.

16.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(4): 2296-2306, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507080

ABSTRACT

The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture during the last several decades has contaminated soils and different Critical Zone (CZ) compartments, defined as the area extended from the top of the vegetation canopy to the groundwater table, and it integrates interactions of the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. However, the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of persistent pesticides in CZ in a changing world remain poorly understood. In the French West Indies, chlordecone (CLD), a toxic organochlorine insecticide, was extensively applied to banana fields to control banana weevil from 1972 to 1993 after which it was banned. Here, to understand CZ trajectories we apply a retrospective observation based on marine sediment core analyses to monitor long-term CLD transfer, fate, and consequences in Guadeloupe and Martinique islands. Both CLD profiles show synchronous chronologies. We hypothesized that the use of glyphosate, a postemergence herbicide, from the late 1990s onward induced CZ modification with an increase in soil erosion and led to the release of the stable CLD stored in the soils of polluted fields. CLD fluxes drastically increased when glyphosate use began, leading to widespread ecosystem contamination. As glyphosate is used globally, ecotoxicological risk management strategies should consider how its application affects persistent pesticide storage in soils, transfer dynamics, and widespread contamination.


Subject(s)
Chlordecone , Insecticides , Soil Pollutants , Chlordecone/analysis , Ecosystem , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Guadeloupe , Insecticides/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Soil Pollutants/analysis , West Indies
17.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 28(14): 17675-17683, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33403634

ABSTRACT

Desert dust transported from the Saharan-Sahel region to the Caribbean Sea is responsible for peak exposures of particulate matter (PM). This study explored the potential added value of satellite aerosol optical thickness (AOT) measurements, compared to the PM concentration at ground level, to retrospectively assess exposure during pregnancy. MAIAC MODIS AOT retrievals in blue band (AOT470) were extracted for the French Guadeloupe archipelago. AOT470 values and PM10 concentrations were averaged over pregnancy for 906 women (2005-2008). Regression modeling was used to examine the AOT470-PM10 relationship during pregnancy and test the association between dust exposure estimates and preterm birth. Moderate agreement was shown between mean AOT470 retrievals and PM10 ground-based measurements during pregnancy (R2 = 0.289). The magnitude of the association between desert dust exposure and preterm birth tended to be lower using the satellite method compared to the monitor method. The latter remains an acceptable trade-off between epidemiological relevance and exposure misclassification, in areas with few monitoring stations and complex topographical/meteorological conditions, such as tropical islands.


Subject(s)
Air Pollutants , Air Pollution , Premature Birth , Aerosols/analysis , Africa, Northern , Air Pollutants/analysis , Air Pollution/analysis , Caribbean Region , Dust/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Female , Guadeloupe , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Particulate Matter/analysis , Pregnancy , Retrospective Studies
18.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 208: 111665, 2021 Jan 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33396175

ABSTRACT

Microplastics are ubiquitous in aquatic ecosystems, but little information is currently available on the dangers and risks to living organisms. In order to assess the ecotoxicity of environmental microplastics (MPs), samples were collected from the beaches of two islands in the Guadeloupe archipelago, Petit-Bourg (PB) located on the main island of Guadeloupe and Marie-Galante (MG) on the second island of the archipelago. These samples have a similar polymer composition with mainly polyethylene (PE) and polypropylene (PP). However, these two samples are very dissimilar with regard to their contamination profile and their toxicity. MPs from MG contain more lead, cadmium and organochlorine compounds while those from PB have higher levels of copper, zinc and hydrocarbons. The leachates of these two samples of MPs induced sublethal effects on the growth of sea urchins and on the pulsation frequency of jellyfish ephyrae but not on the development of zebrafish embryos. The toxic effects are much more marked for samples from the PB site than those from the MG site. This work demonstrates that MPs can contain high levels of potentially bioavailable toxic substances that may represent a significant ecotoxicological risk, particularly for the early life stages of aquatic animals.


Subject(s)
Aquatic Organisms/drug effects , Life Cycle Stages/drug effects , Microplastics/toxicity , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Animals , Aquatic Organisms/growth & development , Ecosystem , Ecotoxicology , Islands , Microplastics/chemistry , Scyphozoa/drug effects , Scyphozoa/growth & development , Sea Urchins/drug effects , Sea Urchins/growth & development , Water Pollutants, Chemical/chemistry
19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33411259

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Gastric cancer is a frequent cancer in the tropics. The objective was to review a decade of gastric cancer data, and to study its spatial and temporal trends. METHODS: The cancer registry of French Guiana compiled exhaustive data on gastric cancer throughout French Guiana between 2005 and 2014. Age-standardized incidence and mortality rates were computed. RESULTS: With 187 new cases recorded, gastric cancer ranked 6th (4.3%). It was more frequent in men than in women. The median age at diagnosis was 62 years for men and 65 years for women. The incidence rate standardized to the world population over the period 2005-2014 was 14.3 cases of gastric cancer per 100,000 man-years and 7.3 per 100,000 woman-years. The death rate from gastric cancer, standardized to the world population over the period 2005-2014, was 8.6 deaths from gastric cancer per 100,000 man-years and 3.4 per 100,000 women-years. These measures were lower than what is reported in Latin America, similar to Martinique and Guadeloupe-two tropical French territories-and higher than in France. CONCLUSIONS: Gastric cancer affected more males and the median age was younger than in France. Standardized incidence and mortality rates for gastric cancer in French Guiana were between those of France and those of Latin America, and they were comparable to those of the French West Indies. The downward trend in a context of rapid economic growth suggests further gains that could be achieved by improving electricity, water, and sanitation coverage throughout the territory despite challenging geography, and better access to care and Helicobacter pylori eradication.

20.
BMC Med ; 19(1): 12, 2021 Jan 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33472606

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In utero exposure to Zika virus (ZIKV) is known to be associated with birth defects. The impact of in utero ZIKV exposure on neurodevelopmental outcomes in early childhood remains unclear. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of in utero ZIKV exposure on neurodevelopment at 24 months of age among toddlers who were born normocephalic to women who were pregnant during the 2016 ZIKV outbreak in French territories in the Americas. METHODS: We conducted a population-based mother-child cohort study of women whose pregnancies overlapped with the 2016 ZIKV epidemic in Guadeloupe, Martinique, and French Guiana. Infants were included in this analysis if maternal ZIKV infection during pregnancy could be determined, the newborn had a gestational age ≥ 35 weeks, there were no abnormal transfontanelle cerebral ultrasound findings after delivery or no abnormal ultrasound findings on the last ultrasound performed during the third trimester of the mother's pregnancy, there was an absence of microcephaly at birth, and the parent completed the 24-month neurodevelopment assessment of the infant at 24 months (± 1 month) of age. ZIKV exposure of the toddler was determined by evidence of maternal ZIKV infection during pregnancy. Neurodevelopment assessments included the Ages and Stages Questionnaire (ASQ) for five dimensions of general development-communication, gross motor, fine motor, problem solving, and personal-social skills; the Modified Checklist for Autism on Toddlers (M-CHAT) for behavior; and the French MacArthur Inventory Scales (IFDC) for French language acquisition. RESULTS: Between June 2018 and August 2019, 156 toddlers with and 79 toddlers without in utero ZIKV exposure completed neurodevelopment assessments. Twenty-four (15.4%) ZIKV-exposed toddlers and 20 (25.3%) ZIKV-unexposed toddlers had an ASQ result below the reference - 2SD cut-off (P = 0.10) for at least one of the five ASQ dimensions. CONCLUSION: In one of the largest population-based cohorts of in utero ZIKV-exposed, normocephalic newborns to date, there were minimal differences apparent in neurodevelopment outcomes at 24 months of age compared to ZIKV-unexposed toddlers at 24 months of age. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02810210 . Registered 20 June 2016.

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