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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Caribbean is a unique region of islands and cays home to nearly 43 million people. A significant challenge facing this population is the burden of traumatic brain injury, which disproportionately affects younger individuals and carries a significant economic burden. A preventive measure to reduce this burden is consistent wearing of helmets. This study aims to assess TBI prevention through helmet safety in Caribbean nations in order to demonstrate the regional impact of public health solutions. METHODS: We assess the member states of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and sought to evaluate CARICOM nations' TBI prevention through helmet safety with relation to public health, policy, laws, infrastructure, and regulations. We produced the Rolle Scoring System (RSS) to ascertain the influence of governance around helmet safety for TBI prevention. The RSS aims to provide a quantifiable method of how well a CARICOM nation is performing in efforts to reduce TBI. The RSS is broken down into 2 categories, with scores ranging from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The range of possible scores a CARICOM nation could receive was 8 to 40. RESULTS: Fourteen CARICOM nations were ultimately incorporated into our analysis. From the initial cohort, 3 were removed. These nations were Anguilla, Saint Kitts & Nevis, and Montserrat. We analyzed values derived from the RSS, finding a mean Rolle score of 22. We further subdivided the nations into low Rolle score (8-24) and high Rolle score (>24). Trinidad and Tobago had the highest Rolle score at 29. Haiti was found to have the lowest Rolle score at 8. CONCLUSION: Several Caribbean nations have demonstrated leadership pertaining to TBI prevention through helmet safety. The regional momentum of helmet safety in the Caribbean can serve as a model for other geographical regional blocs that share interests and culture to consider comprehensive approaches to public health challenges.

2.
BMC Infect Dis ; 21(1): 237, 2021 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33663410

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers are usually the first responders during outbreaks and are instrumental in educating the populace about the prevention of different diseases and illnesses. The aim of this study was to assess the association between healthcare workers' characteristics and knowledge, attitudes and practices toward Zika virus. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study that collected data from healthcare workers at 3 medical facilities using a validated self-administered questionnaire between July 2017 - September 2017. Logistic regression models were used to examine the association between sociodemographic and knowledge, attitudes, and practices. RESULTS: A total of 190 healthcare workers were analyzed. Of these, 60, 72.6 and 64.7% had good knowledge, positive attitudes, and good practices toward Zika virus, respectively. Healthcare workers without a formal degree were less likely to have good knowledge of Zika virus (adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 0:49; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.24-0.99) compared to those with a formal degree. Reduced odds for positive attitude towards Zika virus were observed in healthcare workers with low income as compared to those with high income (AOR = 0.31; 95% CI =0.13-0.75). Being younger than 40 years old was associated with poor Zika virus practices (AOR = 0:34; 95% CI = 0.15-0.79). CONCLUSIONS: Significant association between healthcare workers' sociodemographic characteristics and Zika virus knowledge, attitudes and practices were observed. Public health interventions that seek to increase Zika virus awareness should aim to train healthcare workers who are younger, without formal degree and those earning low income.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Zika Virus , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Health Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Socioeconomic Factors , Surveys and Questionnaires , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
3.
Vet Parasitol Reg Stud Reports ; 21: 100417, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32862915

ABSTRACT

Canine babesiosis is a tick-borne disease with worldwide distribution and global significance. Traditionally, canine babesiosis was caused by B. canis (large Babesia) and B. gibsoni (small Babesia) based on cytological examination of stained blood smears. Currently, molecular techniques have demonstrated that several Babesia species infect dogs: B. canis, B. vogeli, and B. rossi (large forms) and B. gibsoni, B. conradae, and B. vulpes (small forms). In this study, we compiled and reviewed currently available data on Babesia infections in dogs in Latin America and the Caribbean, as well as on distribution of Babesia species with respect to prevalence, geographic location, and methods of detection. Forty-three studies on canine babesiosis published from 2005 to 2019 were included. The publications retrieved reported three species of Babesia (B. vogeli, B. gibsoni, and B. caballi) based on molecular confirmation of the species. Babesia vogeli was reported in Mexico, Costa Rica, Granada, Haiti, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Trinidad and Tobago, Argentina, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Paraguay, Peru, and Venezuela. In contrast, B. gibsoni was recorded in Costa Rica, Nicaragua, Saint Kitts and Nevis, and Brazil. Babesia caballi was found in a dog from Brazil. Babesia prevalence in dogs varied considerably based on parasite species and geographic location, with values close zero to 26.2%. Besides molecular techniques such as PCR, studies included examination of blood smears by microscopy and/or serologic tests. Few countries in the region, e.g., Brazil and Costa Rica, possess profound data availability, whereas the majority of them have scarce information or no data. A deeper understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of Babesia spp. in dogs is needed for the region.

4.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(2): 443-447, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32549577

ABSTRACT

Melioidosis is an emerging infectious disease of humans and animals caused by the bacterium Burkholderia pseudomallei and endemic in tropical regions, principally Southeast Asia and northern Australia. In September 2017, after Hurricane Maria impacted the Dolphin Discovery facility in the Federation of St. Kitts and Nevis, a juvenile male bottlenose dolphin (Tursiops truncatus) died within 96 hr of presenting with acute anorexia, lethargy, and respiratory distress. Histopathology demonstrated necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia, necrotizing hepatitis, splenitis, and lymphadenitis, with intralesional Gram-negative bacilli. B. pseudomallei was confirmed by bacteriological culture and DNA sequencing. This case emphasizes the challenges of melioidosis diagnosis, the importance of awareness for both early detection and efficacious treatment, and recognition in tropical regions where it has been either not reported or underreported. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first case of cetacean melioidosis in the Caribbean Islands, an often severe and fatal disease with increasing prevalence on the American continent.


Subject(s)
Bottle-Nosed Dolphin , Burkholderia pseudomallei/isolation & purification , Melioidosis/veterinary , Animals , Animals, Zoo , Cyclonic Storms , Diagnosis, Differential , Male , Melioidosis/diagnosis , Melioidosis/microbiology , Saint Kitts and Nevis
6.
7.
Nutrients ; 12(2)2020 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32024025

ABSTRACT

Many Small Island Developing States of the Caribbean experience a triple burden of malnutrition with high rates of obesity, undernutrition in children, and iron deficiency anemia in women of reproductive age, driven by an inadequate, unhealthy diet. This study aimed to map the complex dynamic systems driving unhealthy eating and to identify potential points for intervention in three dissimilar countries. Stakeholders from across the food system in Jamaica (n = 16), St. Kitts and Nevis (n = 19), and St. Vincent and the Grenadines (n = 6) engaged with researchers in two group model building (GMB) workshops in 2018. Participants described and mapped the system driving unhealthy eating, identified points of intervention, and created a prioritized list of intervention strategies. Stakeholders were also interviewed before and after the workshops to provide their perspectives on the utility of this approach. Stakeholders described similar underlying systems driving unhealthy eating across the three countries, with a series of dominant feedback loops identified at multiple levels. Participants emphasized the importance of the relative availability and price of unhealthy foods, shifting cultural norms on eating, and aggressive advertising from the food industry as dominant drivers. They saw opportunities for governments to better regulate advertising, disincentivize unhealthy food options, and bolster the local agricultural sector to promote food sovereignty. They also identified the need for better coordinated policy making across multiple sectors at national and regional levels to deliver more integrated approaches to improving nutrition. GMB proved to be an effective tool for engaging a highly diverse group of stakeholders in better collective understanding of a complex problem and potential interventions.


Subject(s)
Child Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Nutrition Policy , Policy Making , Systems Analysis , Adolescent , Caribbean Region/epidemiology , Child , Child Nutrition Disorders/epidemiology , Child Nutrition Disorders/etiology , Child, Preschool , Diet/adverse effects , Feeding Behavior , Female , Humans , Jamaica/epidemiology , Male , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Saint Vincent and the Grenadines/epidemiology , Stakeholder Participation , Young Adult
8.
Terminology | DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences | ID: 033214

ABSTRACT

An independent federation of the Leeward Islands in the West Indies, consisting of Saint Christopher, Nevis, and Sombrero. Its capital is Basseterre. It was discovered by Columbus in 1493, settled by the British in 1625, the first of the Leeward Islands to be colonized by them. It was held jointly by the French and English 1628-1713, but returned to Great Britain by the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713. It was held by the French 1782-83. Under the British for the next 200 years, it gained its independence in 1983. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1045; Embassy, telephone 202-686-2636)


Federación independiente de las Islas de Sotavento en las Indias Occidentales, constituída por Saint Christopher, Nevis y Sombrero. Su capital es Basseterre. Fue descubierta por Colón en 1493, colonizada por los británicos en 1625, habiendo sido la primera de las Islas de Sotavento que fue colonizada por ellos. Fue sometida conjuntamente por los franceses y británicos entre 1628-1713, pero devuelta a Gran Bretaña por el Tratado de Utrecht en 1713. Fue gobernada por Francia entre 1782-83. Bajo el dominio británico durante los próximos 200 años, obtuvo la independencia en 1983.


Federação independente das Ilhas de Sotavento nas Índias Ocidentais, consistindo em Saint Christopher, Nevis e Sombrero. Sua capital é Basseterre. Foi descoberta por Colombo em 1493, povoada pelos britânicos em 1625, a primeira das ilhas de Sotavento a ser colonizada por eles. Foi ocupada conjuntamente pelos franceses e ingleses entre 1628-1713, mas voltou a Grã-Bretanha pelo Tratado de Utrecht em 1713. Foi ocupada pelos franceses entre 1782-83. Sob domínio britânico durante os 200 anos seguintes, ganhou sua independência em 1983.

9.
Vet Pathol ; 56(5): 794-798, 2019 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31170895

ABSTRACT

We identified multiple extraintestinal cystacanths during routine postmortem examination of 3 small Indian mongooses and 2 African green monkeys from the Caribbean island of St. Kitts. In mongooses, cystacanths were encysted or free in the subcutaneous tissue, skeletal muscle, or peritoneal or pericardial cavities, whereas in the monkeys, they were in the cavity and parietal layer of the, tunica vaginalis, skeletal muscle, and peritoneal cavity. Morphological, histological, and molecular characterization identified these cystacanths as Oncicola venezuelensis (Acanthocephala: Oligacanthorhynchidae). There was minimal to mild lymphoplasmacytic inflammation associated with the parasite in the mongooses and moderate inflammation, mineralization, hemorrhage, and fibrosis in the connective tissue between the testis and epididymis in 1 monkey. We identified a mature male O. venezuelensis attached in the aboral jejunum of a feral cat, confirming it as the definitive host. Termites serve as intermediate hosts and lizards as paratenic hosts. This report emphasizes the role of the small Indian mongoose and African green monkey as paratenic hosts for O. venezuelensis.


Subject(s)
Acanthocephala/isolation & purification , Chlorocebus aethiops , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Herpestidae , Monkey Diseases/parasitology , Animals , Helminthiasis, Animal/pathology , Monkey Diseases/epidemiology , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology
10.
J Vet Diagn Invest ; 31(3): 343-349, 2019 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30973088

ABSTRACT

Free-roaming chickens on Caribbean islands are important sentinels for local avian diseases and those introduced by birds migrating through the Americas. We studied 81 apparently healthy unvaccinated free-roaming chickens from 9 parishes on St. Kitts, an eastern Caribbean island. Using commercial ELISAs, no chickens had antibodies against avian influenza virus, West Nile virus, or Salmonella Enteritidis, although seropositivity was high to infectious bursal disease virus (86%), infectious bronchitis virus (84%), Mycoplasma (37%), and avian avulavirus 1 (Newcastle disease virus, 31%). Examination of small and large intestinal contents revealed cestodes in 79% and nematodes in 75% of the chickens. Although ectoparasites and endoparasites were common (74% and 79%, respectively), only a few chickens had lesions at postmortem examination, mainly intestinal serosal nodules (12%) and feather loss (6%). Histologic examination of 18 organs from each bird revealed lesions in high percentages of organs, mainly the liver (86%), lung (75%), spleen (60%), small intestine (56%), skin (42%), and kidney (40%). Lesions included degenerative, reactive, inflammatory, and neoplastic, and were not correlated with the serologic status of the chickens except in one case of infectious bursal disease. Microscopically, Paratanaisia bragai was seen in the kidneys of 3 chickens and intestinal coccidiasis in 1 chicken. Pulmonary silicate aggregates were common, were present in intestinal serosal nodules, and were suggestive of environmental exposure.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/veterinary , Chickens , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Poultry Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/veterinary , Animal Husbandry/methods , Animals , Bacterial Infections/epidemiology , Bacterial Infections/microbiology , Bacterial Infections/pathology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Female , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/microbiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/pathology , Male , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Poultry Diseases/parasitology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Prevalence , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Virus Diseases/epidemiology , Virus Diseases/pathology , Virus Diseases/virology
11.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 51(6): 1645-1650, 2019 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30877524

ABSTRACT

This pilot study describes the prevalence of Leptospira infection and exposure in livestock species, cattle, pig, sheep, and goats in Saint Kitts in the Caribbean region. Serum and kidney samples were collected from cattle, pigs, sheep, and goats at a local abattoir between September 2016 and March 2017. Cattle had the highest seroprevalence (79.8%) followed by pigs (64.8%), sheep (39.4%), and goats (24.8%). Highest seroprevalence was observed to serovars, Mankarso in cattle, Bratislava in pigs, Hardjo in sheep, and goats. Leptospira DNA was amplified from kidney samples of 18/99 cattle (18.2%), 11/106 pigs (10.4%), 4/106 sheep (3.8%), and 2/105 goats (1.9%). Our findings warrant further studies to assess leptospirosis associated economic burden to subsistence farmers and public health impact.


Subject(s)
Leptospira/isolation & purification , Leptospirosis/veterinary , Livestock , Animals , Leptospira/genetics , Leptospirosis/epidemiology , Leptospirosis/microbiology , Pilot Projects , Prevalence , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serogroup
12.
Vet Radiol Ultrasound ; 60(3): 338-345, 2019 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30859678

ABSTRACT

Ultrasonography is commonly used to examine testes as part of a breeding soundness examination in sheep, especially, in cases of infertility or when gross testicular abnormalities are present. A descriptive, prospective, prevalence study was conducted to characterize the ultrasonographic, histopathologic, and spermatozoal morphology abnormalities present in a group of yearling tropic hair rams on the island of St. Kitts. Hyperechoic and shadowing abnormalities increased over a 6 month study period. Hyperechoic abnormalities were present in one or both testes in 89% (25/28) of yearling rams and 71% (40/56) of testes at castration. Shadowing abnormalities were present in one or both testes in 46% (13/28) of rams and 34% (19/56) of testes at castration. Shadowing was present more with moderate and severe hyperechoic abnormalities, with few testes in the mild category having any shadowing. As hyperechoic and shadowing abnormalities increased in severity, so did the severity of microscopic lesions including increased interstitial cellularity/fibrosis, interstitial mineralization, seminiferous tubules mineralization (hyperechoic only), and chronic lymphoplasmacytic orchitis. There were no spermatozoal morphologic abnormalities other than an increase in distal cytoplasmic droplets. The study findings detail a pathologic event in this group of yearling rams that has an unknown etiology. Potential causes may include scrotal insulation, trauma, infectious causes, immunity alterations, nutritional imbalances, and ingestion of a toxin. Further studies are required to elucidate the causative agent.


Subject(s)
Sheep Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Testicular Diseases/veterinary , Testis/diagnostic imaging , Animals , Male , Prospective Studies , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Sheep , Sheep Diseases/epidemiology , Sheep Diseases/pathology , Sheep, Domestic/abnormalities , Spermatozoa/cytology , Testicular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Testicular Diseases/epidemiology , Testicular Diseases/pathology , Testis/abnormalities , Testis/pathology , Ultrasonography/veterinary
13.
Parasitol Res ; 118(4): 1171-1177, 2019 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30761425

ABSTRACT

The agents of equine piroplasmosis, Theileria equi and Babesia caballi, are endemic in Trinidad, West Indies. While transmission is mainly by ixodid ticks, transplacental transmission of T. equi has also been reported. This disease has contributed to foetal losses as well as morbidity and mortality of neonatal foals and adult horses. Previous 18S rRNA-based phylogenetic studies indicated a noticeable degree of variation within and among B. caballi and T. equi isolates from different geographical regions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diversity of T. equi and B. caballi obtained from horses in Trinidad by amplifying a region of the 18S rRNA gene. The phylogenetic trees for T. equi sequences obtained from horses in 2006 and 2011-2013 revealed that Trinidad sequences were of genotype A. Additionally, all of the B. caballi sequences from Trinidad were grouped together with other B. caballi sequences of genotype A. However, T. equi sequences from horses in Saint Kitts and Nevis clustered with sequences of genotype C. This study also identified two genotypes of T. equi in the equine population of Brazil. All of the T. equi and B. caballi sequences obtained from horses in Trinidad belong to genotype A and were similar to T. equi and B. caballi sequences of the same genotype that were submitted to GenBank™ databases. Countries in close proximity to Trinidad have T. equi sequences belonging to genotype C; therefore, movement of horses between these countries can introduce a new genotype of T. equi into the equid population of Trinidad.


Subject(s)
Babesia/genetics , Babesiosis/epidemiology , Horse Diseases/parasitology , Horses/parasitology , RNA, Ribosomal, 18S/genetics , Theileria/genetics , Theileriasis/epidemiology , Animals , Babesiosis/parasitology , Babesiosis/transmission , Brazil/epidemiology , DNA, Protozoan/genetics , Female , Genotype , Ixodidae/parasitology , Male , Phylogeny , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Theileriasis/parasitology , Trinidad and Tobago/epidemiology
14.
J Infect Dev Ctries ; 13(3): 233-239, 2019 03 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32040453

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: After a large outbreak of dengue virus (DENV) serotype-3 in Saint Kitts and Nevis (SKN) in 2008, we performed a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of anti-DENV immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies in expatriate and local persons affiliated with an American veterinary school there. METHODOLOGY: This campus community comprised mostly expatriate students and faculty and Kittitian administrative staff. In 2009, a stratified random sample of students, faculty and staff was invited to complete an electronic survey to assess risk factors for DENV and provide blood for testing for anti-DENV IgG antibodies by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. IgG-positive specimens were also tested by a 90% plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT90) to determine immunoreactivity to DENV (1-4) serotypes and West Nile virus. Risk factors for anti-DENV IgG seropositivity were determined using simple and adjusted logistic regression. RESULTS: Of the 118 participants, the overall prevalence of DENV IgG antibodies was 44.1% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 35.1-53.0%), ranging from 30.1% in students, 100.0% in staff and 57.9% in faculty (p < 0.001). Duration of residence in St. Kitts was the only variable significantly associated with seropositivity on multiple logistic regression (adjusted odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.21 [1.07-1.37]). The serotype of DENV was determined in 11 persons: DENV-1 (n = 4), DENV-2 (n = 3), and DENV-3 (n = 4). CONCLUSIONS: Expatriate students and faculty moving to St. Kitts from non-endemic areas were at high risk of DENV infection. There is a need for increased emphasis on pre-travel mosquito-borne virus prevention education for persons moving to St. Kitts to study and work.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Adult , Aged , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Risk Factors , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Serologic Tests , Universities , Young Adult
15.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 136(3): 209-218, 2019 Oct 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32129173

ABSTRACT

The Caribbean spiny lobster Panulirus argus supports a large and valuable fishery in the Caribbean Sea. In 2007-2008, a rare microsporidian parasite with spore characteristics typical of the Ameson genus was detected in 2 spiny lobsters from southeast Florida (FL). However, the parasite species was not confirmed by molecular analyses. To address this deficiency, reported here are structural and molecular data on single lobsters displaying comparable 'cotton-like' abdominal muscle containing ovoid microsporidian spores found at different locations in FL in 2014 and 2018 and in Saint Kitts and Nevis Islands in 2017. In the lobster from 2014, multiple life stages consistent with an Ameson-like monokaryotic microsporidian were detected by transmission electron microscopy. A partial (1228 bp) small subunit (SSU) rRNA gene sequence showed each microsporidia to be identical and positioned it closest phylogenetically to Ameson pulvis in a highly supported clade also containing A. michaelis, A. metacarcini, A. portunus, and Nadelspora canceri. Using ecological, pathological, ultrastructural, and molecular data, the P. argus microsporidian has been assigned to a distinct species: Ameson herrnkindi.


Subject(s)
Brachyura , Microsporidia , Palinuridae , Animals , Caribbean Region , Florida , Phylogeny
16.
Vet Rec ; 183(19): 596, 2018 11 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30282662

ABSTRACT

Studies investigating perceived stress and mindfulness awareness support mind-body therapy (MBT) effectiveness in reducing stress and anxiety and, thus, has potential to decrease work-related stress. A pre/postexperimental design involved 30 faculty and staff working at Ross University School of Veterinary Medicine, Saint Kitts and Nevis, who experienced a two-day MBT intervention programme. An additional 16 faculty and staff not involved in MBT who went about their daily work schedules served as contemporary controls. Demographics, Perceived Stress Scale 10 (PSS-10), Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS), 16 Personality Factor (16PF) Openness to Change subscale and saliva cortisol concentrations were analysed. Control participants reported significantly perceived less stress (PSS-10: M=13; sd=1.4) than intervention participants (M=20; sd=6.6) during pretest. However, at post-test the intervention group reported a significant decrease in perceived stress (M=11; sd=6.0). MAAS pretest results indicated the intervention group displayed a lower average score (M=54; sd=15.3) than control participants (M=68; sd=2.0). Post-MAAS intervention scores showed improvements in mindfulness (M=63; sd=15.3). Correlations between the 16PF Openness to Change subscale and MAAS were r=0.03 and r=-0.17 for the intervention and control groups, respectively. Mean concentrations of saliva cortisol indicated a larger and significant decline in cortisol for the intervention group both during day 1 (P=0.0001) and day 2 (P=0.0008). In conclusion, these preliminary results provide support that MBTs in veterinary academia can improve psychological and physiological aspects of personal wellbeing.


Subject(s)
Mind-Body Therapies , Occupational Stress/prevention & control , Schools, Veterinary/organization & administration , Adult , Female , Humans , Hydrocortisone/analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Stress/epidemiology , Pilot Projects , Program Evaluation , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology , Saliva/chemistry
17.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2018-09. (PAHO/HSS/18-035).
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49488

ABSTRACT

The Strategic Fund is a regional technical cooperation mechanism for pooled procurement of essential medicines and strategic public health supplies in the Americas. The Strategic Fund was created in 2000 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) at the request of the Member States. Since then, the Fund has worked with countries to improve access to medicines and other health technologies, by strengthening demand planning and the organization of national supply management systems, while facilitating access to affordable strategic public health supplies through a pooled procurement mechanism. In accordance with 2016-2017 mandates of the PAHO Governing Bodies, the technical cooperation program of work in support of participation of Member States in the Fund has focused on: a) increasing the response capacity and efficiency of operations of the Fund in countries; b) the development of national and regional market intelligence; and c) the strengthening of the key alliances and strategic partnerships. As of December 2017, 32 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have signed participation agreements with the PAHO Strategic Fund (Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, the British Virgin Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uruguay, and Venezuela).


Subject(s)
Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Health Systems , Americas , Health Services , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
18.
Vet Pathol ; 55(6): 861-870, 2018 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30071782

ABSTRACT

The authors used microscopy and synchrotron-based small-angle X-ray scattering analysis (SAXS) to describe lesions macroscopically typical of tropical keratopathy ("Florida spots") from 6 cats on St Kitts. Microscopically, there were varying degrees of epithelial hyperplasia and thinning of the cornea (by 4% to 18%) due to loss of corneal stroma associated with dense accumulations of collagen in the superficial stroma. The collagen fibrils in lesions were wider and had more variable diameters (39.5 ± 5.0 nm, mean ± SD) than in normal corneas (25.9 ± 3.6 nm; P < .01). There were occasional vacuoles (<1 µm) in the corneal epithelial basement membrane but no evidence of inflammation, edema, stromal neovascularization, fibrosis, acid-fast organisms, or structures suggestive of a fungal organism. SAXS analysis showed collagen fibril diameters and variation in size were greater in stroma containing the lesions compared to normal corneas (48.8 ± 4.5 nm vs 35.5 ± 2.6; P < .05). The d-spacing of collagen in the stroma of lesions and normal corneas was the same, but the average orientation index of collagen in lesions was greater (0.428 ± 0.08 vs 0.285 ± 0.03; P < .05). A survey revealed Florida spots lesions were static over time and became less obvious in only 1 of 6 affected cats adopted on St Kitts and taken to areas in the US where lesions are not reported. An anterior stromal collagen disorder with various degrees of epithelial hyperplasia is the pathologic hallmark of lesions clinically identical to Florida spots in cats from St Kitts.


Subject(s)
Cat Diseases/pathology , Corneal Diseases/veterinary , Animals , Cats , Corneal Diseases/pathology , Corneal Stroma/pathology , Corneal Stroma/ultrastructure , Female , Male , Microscopy, Electron, Transmission/veterinary , Saint Kitts and Nevis , Scattering, Small Angle , Skin/pathology , X-Ray Diffraction/methods , X-Ray Diffraction/veterinary
19.
Folia Primatol (Basel) ; 89(1): 63-80, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29631262

ABSTRACT

Primates occupy a liminal space between humans and animals. On the Caribbean island of St. Kitts, translocated vervet monkeys (Chlorocebus aethiops sabaeus) are respected creatures, yet they cause problems. Vervets regularly consume crops on farms and are considered "pests"; still, Kittitians express empathy and understanding for them based largely on the monkeys' display of human-like behaviours. Using data from interviews with 64 Kittitian farmers, we deconstruct the symbolism of the vervet monkey in St. Kitts and analyse how farmers give the monkeys identities that are meaningful only within human social expectations. Our findings reveal that Kittitian farmers consider monkeys to be clever and emotive, displaying complex intentions such as revenge and remorse. Yet, crop-foraging behaviour is a regular and negative experience for the majority of farmers in this study, and the monkeys' presence itself is a constant reminder of the multitude of challenges farmers face in a newly adopted tourism economy that no longer prioritises agriculture. Our results reveal that while vervet crop consumption is a significant problem in St. Kitts, it is the monkeys' boundary-crossing status that drives the growing mentality that "the monkey problem" is completely out of control.


Subject(s)
Chlorocebus aethiops/physiology , Farmers/psychology , Feeding Behavior , Introduced Species , Animals , Anthropology, Cultural , Humans , Saint Kitts and Nevis
20.
Trop Anim Health Prod ; 50(5): 1171-1173, 2018 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29430608

ABSTRACT

Trichomonosis is an endemic disease in cattle that are reared under extensive conditions and bred by natural mating. It causes profound economic losses to the producers by increasing calving interval, increasing embryo losses, and decreasing pregnancy rates. The aim of this study was to determine whether Tritrichomonas foetus infections were absent from cattle in St. Kitts. Using the modified hypergeometric method, preputial samples from bulls (n = 78) were tested using the InPouch™ culture for presence of T. foetus. Results highlighted an absence of trichomoniasis in bulls on St. Kitts with a 95% confidence.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections, Animal/epidemiology , Tritrichomonas foetus , Animals , Cattle , Female , Male , Pregnancy , Protozoan Infections , Saint Kitts and Nevis/epidemiology
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