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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947123

ABSTRACT

Developing robust systems for cancer care delivery is essential to reduce the high cancer mortality in small island developing states (SIDS). Indigenous data are scarce, but community-based cancer research can inform care in SIDS where formal research capacity is lacking, and we describe the experiences of cancer survivors in Saint Lucia in accessing health services. Purposive and snowball sampling was used to constitute a sample of survivors for interviews. Subjects were interviewed with a questionnaire regarding socio-demographics, clinical characteristics, health services accessed (physicians, tests, treatment), and personal appraisal of experience. We recruited 50 survivors (13 men, 37 women). Only 52% of first presentations were with general practitioners. The mean turnaround for biopsy results in Saint Lucia was three times longer than overseas (p = 0.0013). Approximately half of survivors commenced treatment more than one month following diagnosis (median of 32 days, IQR 19-86 days), and 56% of survivors traveled out-of-country for treatment. Most survivors (60%) paid for care with family/friends support, followed by savings and medical insurance (38% each). In conclusion, cancer survivors in Saint Lucia are faced with complex circumstances, including access-to-care and health consequences. This study can guide future research, and possibly guide practice improvements in the near term.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1835, 2020 Nov 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33256669

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study is to showcase the image of Sexual Violence (SV) temporal trends through exploring differences in its prevalence rates during 1990-2017 across 195 countries and territories. METHODS: The SV prevalence rates were derived from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) database during 1990-2017, worldwide. First, the Latent Growth Model (LGM) was employed for assessing the change in SV prevalence rate over time in Asia, Africa, Europe, North America, South America, Australia & Oceania, for men and women separately. Then, the change in SV prevalence rate over time was determined within countries with high and low Human Development Index (HDI). Finally, the Latent Growth Mixture Models (LGMM) were applied for identifying classes where countries within each class have similar trend of SV prevalence rate over time. RESULTS: The SV prevalence was higher among women than men and decreased in both genders over time across the world. The declining trend in SV prevalence against men is visible in both countries with high and low HDI, but SV prevalence against women in countries with low HDI shows an increase. The findings of LGMM identified six classes of SV prevalence trajectories. LGMM allocated Bermuda into the class with the highest decrease in SV prevalence against men, and Equatorial Guinea and Luxembourg into the class with the highest increase. Other countries had very slow declining trends. In terms of SV prevalence against women, LGMM allocated China, North Korea, and Taiwan into the class with the most increase among the countries in the world. Bermuda, Guyana, Mexico, Nigeria, and Saint Lucia were placed into the class which witnessed the largest decline and Angola, Congo, and Equatorial Guinea were ranked next. The trend in other countries was mostly decreasing. CONCLUSION: Given the high economic and social burden that SV has on victims and societies, the rate of SV in most countries does not seem to have dropped remarkably and requires special attention by relevant policymakers. The SV prevalence rate is highly heterogeneous among world countries which may be due to the definitions and tools used, and more importantly, the culture norms.

3.
Zootaxa ; 4885(1): zootaxa.4885.1.10, 2020 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311293

ABSTRACT

Sæther (1981) erected the genus Diplosmittia based on a species from Saint Lucia and Saint Vincent in the British West Indies. The genus was revised by Pinho et al. (2009). To date, the genus comprises ten species: Diplosmittia harrisoni Sæther, 1981; D. carinata Sæther, 1985; D. recisus Sæther, 1988; D. beluina Andersen, 1996; D. forficata Andersen, 1996; D. plaumanni Pinho, Mendes Andersen, 2009; D. boraceia Pinho, Mendes Andersen, 2009; D. aragua Pinho, Mendes Andersen, 2009; D. cerayma Pinho, Mendes Andersen, 2009; and D. caribensis Wiedenbrug Silva, 2016. Diplosmittia sasai Makarchenko Makarchenko, 2005 was placed as a synonym of Pseudosmittia mathildae Albu, 1968 by Makarchenko Makarchenko (2008). Except for D. carinata from Michigan, U.S.A., all species are Neotropical and mostly recorded from the Caribbean and northern part of South America. During field work in a remote mountainous region in the Brazilian Amazon, a unique new species with the gonostylus split into three parts was collected and is described and figured below. In addition, new records of D. plaumanni are provided.


Subject(s)
Chironomidae , Diptera , Animals , Brazil
4.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2020-11-09.
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53109

ABSTRACT

All 54 countries and territories in the Region of the Americas have reported COVID-19 cases and deaths. Since the 15 October 2020 PAHO/WHO Epidemiological Update on COVID-19 and as of 5 November 2020, 592,561 additional confirmed cases of COVID-19, including 54,832 deaths, have been reported in the Region of the Americas, representing a 14.3% increase in cases and a 8.5% increase in deaths. In the last 7 weeks (between 16 September and 4 November), a relative increase was observed, both in the number of cases and number of deaths across all subregions. The highest increase was observed in Central America subregion, with a 30.7% increase in cases and a 24.9% increase in deaths, followed by the North America subregion, with a 29.8% increase in cases and a 17.6% increase in deaths, the Caribbean and the Atlantic Ocean Islands subregion, with a 29.7% increase in cases and an 24.4% increase in deaths, and the South America subregion, with a 26.1% increase in cases and a 22.3% increase in deaths. In the last 7 weeks, a relative increase in confirmed cases greater than 50% (range 52.0% to 80.8%) is observed in the Bahamas, Belize, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba, Curacao, Dominica, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinique, Paraguay, Saint Barthelemy, and Saint Lucia. With respect to deaths, a relative increase of ≥ 50% (range 50.0% to 80.5%) is observed in Argentina, the Bahamas, Belize, Bonaire, Sint Eustatius, and Saba, Costa Rica, Guadeloupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Paraguay, and Saint Martin. [...]


Los 54 países y territorios de la Región de las Américas han notificado casos y defunciones de COVID-19. Desde la última actualización epidemiológica publicada por la OPS/OMS el 15 de octubre de 2020 hasta el 4 de noviembre de 2020, fueron notificados 592.561 casos confirmados de COVID-19, incluidas 54.832 defunciones adicionales en la región de las Américas, lo que representa un aumento de 14,3% de casos y de 8,5% de defunciones. En las últimas 7 semanas (entre el 16 de septiembre y el 4 de noviembre) en todas las subregiones se observó un incremento relativo, tanto en el número de casos como en el número de defunciones. En América Central se observó el mayor incremento, con 30,7 % de aumento en casos y 24,9% de aumento en defunciones. El resto de las subregiones, incrementaron de la siguiente manera, en orden decreciente: América del Norte con 29,8 % de incremento en casos y 17,6% de incremento en defunciones, las Islas del Caribe y del Océano Atlántico con 29,7% de aumento en casos y 24,4% de aumento en defunciones y América del Sur con 26,1% de aumento en casos y 22,3% aumento en defunciones. En este mismo período de 7 semanas, Bahamas, Belice, Bonaire, San Eustaquio y Saba, Curazao, Dominica, Guadalupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Martinica, Paraguay, San Bartolomé y Santa Lucía presentaron un incremento relativo de casos confirmados mayor a 50% (rango 52,0% a 80,8%). Respecto de las defunciones, Argentina, Bahamas, Belice, Bonaire, San Eustaquio y Saba, Costa Rica, Guadalupe, Guyana, Jamaica, Paraguay y San Martín presentaron un incremento relativo ≥ 50,0% (rango 50,0%% a 80,5%). [...]


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus Infections , Coronavirus , Infection Control , Betacoronavirus , Emergencies , International Health Regulations , Coronavirus Infections , Infection Control , Emergencies , International Health Regulations
5.
Article in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-53059

ABSTRACT

[ABSTRACT]. Objective. To describe the epidemiology of human leptospirosis cases in Saint Lucia from 2010 to 2017 and determine whether there was a relationship between cases and rainfall and temperature. Methods. A retrospective analytical study was undertaken to describe the seasonal patterns of human leptospirosis cases reported to the Ministry of Health of Saint Lucia between 2010 and 2017. Confirmed cases of leptospirosis were analyzed according to age, sex, seasonality, and geographical distribution. Disease incidence was calculated and the association of cases with geographical distribution, rainfall, and temperature was investigated. Results. A total of 353 leptospirosis cases were reported between 2010 and 2017 and of these, 145 (40.6%) were laboratory confirmed. Cases were aged 7 to 73 years (mean 34 years; median 30 years) with a male to female ratio of 4.2:1. Six deaths were reported during the period, with an overall case fatality rate of 4.1%. There was no relationship between location (district) and incidence of leptospirosis in Saint Lucia. There was a weak correlation between rainfall and leptospirosis cases during the 8-year period (rs = 0.25, p = 0.015) but the correlation between cases and seasons was not statistically significant (dry season rs = 0.13, p = 0.42; wet season rs = 0.23, p = 0.08). There was no correlation between leptospirosis cases and temperature (rs = 0.07, p = 0.49). Conclusions. Leptospirosis has a seasonal distribution in Saint Lucia, with outbreaks during periods following increased rainfall and flooding, such as in the aftermath of tropical storms and hurricanes. Saint Lucia and other Caribbean countries should enhance surveillance for leptospirosis given the likelihood of increased flooding following frequent and intense rainfall due to climate change.


[RESUMEN]. Objetivo. Describir las características epidemiológicas de los casos de leptospirosis humana en Santa Lucía entre el año 2010 y el año 2017, y determinar si hubo un vínculo entre el número de casos, las precipitaciones y la temperatura. Métodos. Se llevó a cabo un estudio analítico retrospectivo para describir el patrón estacional de los casos de leptospirosis humana notificados al Ministerio de Salud de Santa Lucía entre el año 2010 y el año 2017. Los casos confirmados de leptospirosis se analizaron según la edad, el sexo, el carácter estacional y la distribución geográfica. Se calculó la incidencia de la enfermedad y se evaluó la relación entre el número de casos y la distribución geográfica, las precipitaciones y la temperatura. Resultados. Se notificaron 353 casos de leptospirosis entre el 2010 y el 2017, entre ellos, 145 (40,6%) casos confirmados mediante pruebas de laboratorio. Los casos se presentaron en personas de 7 a 73 años (media de 34 años; mediana de 30 años) con una razón hombre:mujer de 4,2:1. Se notificaron 6 muertes durante el mismo período y una tasa de letalidad general de 4,1%. No se encontró un vínculo entre la ubicación (distrito) y la incidencia de la leptospirosis en Santa Lucía. Se estableció una correlación débil entre las precipitaciones y el número de casos de leptospirosis durante el período de 8 años (rs = 0,25, p = 0,015); la correlación entre el número de casos y las estaciones no fue estadísticamente significativa (estación seca, rs = 0,13, p = 0,42; estación húmeda, rs = 0,23, p = 0,08). No se estableció una correlación entre el número de casos de leptospirosis y la temperatura (rs = 0,07, p = 0,49). Conclusiones. La leptospirosis presenta una distribución estacional en Santa Lucía, con brotes que surgen tras períodos de aumento de las precipitaciones e inundaciones; por ejemplo, después de tormentas y huracanes tropicales. Santa Lucía y otros países del Caribe deben mejorar la vigilancia de la leptospirosis dado que el cambio climático aumenta la probabilidad de inundaciones tras períodos de precipitaciones frecuentes e intensas.


[RESUMO]. Objetivo. Descrever a epidemiologia dos casos de leptospirose humana em Santa Lúcia de 2010 a 2017 e determinar se houve uma relação entre a ocorrência de casos e precipitação e temperatura. Métodos. Um estudo retrospectivo analítico foi realizado para descrever o padrão sazonal dos casos de leptospirose humana notificados ao Ministério da Saúde de Santa Lúcia entre 2010 e 2017. Os casos confirmados de leptospirose foram analisados por idade, sexo, sazonalidade e distribuição geográfica. A incidência da doença foi calculada e a associação entre a ocorrência de leptospirose e distribuição geográfica dos casos, precipitação e temperatura foi pesquisada. Resultados. Ao todo, 353 casos de leptospirose foram registrados entre 2010 e 2017. Destes, 145 (40,6%) tiveram confirmação laboratorial. Os casos ocorreram em indivíduos entre 7 e 73 anos de idade (média 34 anos; mediana 30 anos) com uma proporção de 4,2:1 entre os sexos masculino e feminino. Houve seis mortes durante o período estudado, com uma taxa de letalidade global de 4,1%. Não foi verificada uma relação entre localização geográfica (distrito) e incidência de leptospirose em Santa Lúcia. Foi observada uma fraca correlação entre a ocorrência de casos e precipitação no período considerado de 8 anos (rs = 0,25, p = 0,015), mas a correlação entre casos da doença e estações do ano não foi estatisticamente significativa (estação seca rs = 0,13, p = 0,42; estação chuvosa rs = 0,23, p = 0,08). Não foi verificada correlação entre leptospirose e temperatura (rs = 0,07, p = 0,49). Conclusões. A leptospirose tem distribuição sazonal em Santa Lúcia, com a ocorrência de surtos nos períodos que se seguem ao aumento da precipitação e às enchentes, como após tempestades tropicais e furacões. Santa Lúcia e os outros países do Caribe devem intensificar a vigilância da leptospirose diante da possibilidade de maior ocorrência de enchentes com as chuvas intensas e mais frequentes decorrentes da mudança climática.


Subject(s)
Leptospirosis , Saint Lucia , Caribbean Region , Saint Lucia , Caribbean Region , Leptospirosis , Saint Lucia , Caribbean Region
6.
Zootaxa ; 4810(2): zootaxa.4810.2.6, 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33055899

ABSTRACT

Four new species of Alloraphes Franz are described: A. opticus sp. n. (French Guiana), A. cayennensis sp. n. (French Guiana), A. iyonolanus sp. n. (Saint Lucia), and A. ecuadoranus sp. n. (Ecuador). They all represent the first records of Alloraphes in the listed countries. New records are given for A. jamaicae Franz, and A. yucatani Franz; the latter species, previously known to occur in Mexico (Campeche), is for the first time reported to occur also in Guatemala.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Animal Distribution , Animal Structures , Animals , Body Size , Organ Size
7.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(1_Suppl): 50-57, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32400344

ABSTRACT

The Schistosomiasis Consortium for Operational Research and Evaluation (SCORE) was funded in 2008 to conduct research that would support country schistosomiasis control programs. As schistosomiasis prevalence decreases in many places and elimination is increasingly within reach, a sensitive and specific test to detect infection with Schistosoma mansoni and Schistosoma haematobium has become a pressing need. After obtaining broad input, SCORE supported Leiden University Medical Center (LUMC) to modify the serum-based antigen assay for use with urine, simplify the assay, and improve its sensitivity. The urine assay eventually contributed to several of the larger SCORE studies. For example, in Zanzibar, we demonstrated that urine filtration, the standard parasite egg detection diagnostic test for S. haematobium, greatly underestimated prevalence in low-prevalence settings. In Burundi and Rwanda, the circulating anodic antigen (CAA) assay provided critical information about the limitations of the stool-based Kato-Katz parasite egg-detection assay for S. mansoni in low-prevalence settings. Other SCORE-supported CAA work demonstrated that frozen, banked urine specimens yielded similar results to fresh ones; pooling of specimens may be a useful, cost-effective approach for surveillance in some settings; and the assay can be performed in local laboratories equipped with adequate centrifuge capacity. These improvements in the assay continue to be of use to researchers around the world. However, additional work will be needed if widespread dissemination of the CAA assay is to occur, for example, by building capacity in places besides LUMC and commercialization of the assay. Here, we review the evolution of the CAA assay format during the SCORE period with emphasis on urine-based applications.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Helminth/immunology , Glycoproteins/immunology , Helminth Proteins/immunology , Schistosoma/immunology , Schistosomiasis/diagnosis , Animals , Biomarkers , Burundi/epidemiology , Child , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , Feces/parasitology , Female , Humans , Immunologic Tests , Male , Models, Animal , Papio/parasitology , Parasite Egg Count , Prevalence , Rwanda/epidemiology , Saint Lucia/epidemiology , Schistosoma/isolation & purification , Schistosoma haematobium/immunology , Schistosoma haematobium/isolation & purification , Schistosoma japonicum/immunology , Schistosoma japonicum/isolation & purification , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Schistosoma mansoni/isolation & purification , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Sensitivity and Specificity , Tanzania/epidemiology , Urine/parasitology
8.
Zookeys ; 926: 95-131, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32336922

ABSTRACT

The Lesser Antilles, in the Eastern Caribbean, is inhabited by three Iguana species: the Lesser Antillean iguanaIguana delicatissima, which is endemic to the northernmost islands of the Lesser Antilles, the introduced common iguana from South America, Iguana iguana iguana, represented also by the two newly described endemic subspecies Iguana iguana sanctaluciae from Saint Lucia and Iguana iguana insularis from Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, and Grenada, and the introduced Iguana rhinolopha from Central America. Drawing on both morphological and genetic data, this paper describes the Iguana populations from Saba and Montserrat as a new species, Iguana melanoderma. This species is recognized on the basis of the following combination of characteristics: private microsatellite alleles, unique mitochondrial ND4 haplotypes, a distinctive black spot between the eye and tympanum, a dorsal carpet pattern on juveniles and young adults, a darkening of body coloration with aging (except for the anterior part of the snout), a black dewlap, pink on the jowl, the high number of large tubercular nape scales, fewer than ten medium sized-triangular dewlap spikes, high dorsal spikes, and lack of horns on the snout. This new melanistic taxon is threatened by unsustainable harvesting (including for the pet trade) and both competition and hybridization from escaped or released invasive alien iguanas (I. iguana iguana and I. rhinolopha) from South and Central America, respectively. The authors call for action to conserve Iguana melanoderma in Saba and Montserrat and for further research to investigate its relationship to other melanistic iguanas from the Virgin Islands and coastal islands of Venezuela.

9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32230803

ABSTRACT

The independent island nation of Saint Lucia and surrounding Caribbean countries have fairly well-documented high reported rates of trauma, but limited training infrastructure for trauma-related mental health support and treatment services. This study addresses this disparity between high trauma exposure and sparse trauma-related resources by studying how a one-day training workshop impacted self-rated knowledge about trauma and stigma towards trauma survivors. The training was provided by a licensed clinical psychologist in partnership with a local women's rights group. Participants (n = 41) included school counselors, nurses, psychiatric providers, health educators, and advocates on the island. Participants completed pre- and post-workshop measures examining the variables of interest. The one-day workshop provided training on trauma types, post-trauma reactions, options for treatment, and hands-on training for trauma crisis-management and short-term interventions. Following the workshop, participants reported increased knowledge of trauma, more accurate perceptions of its prevalence, better understanding of evidence-based treatments, and lower trauma survivor-related stigma. This is the first trauma-focused workshop tested in St. Lucia, where the need for such training is considerable given few treatment options for trauma survivors in this area. Work is underway to provide more expansive services for trauma across the Caribbean region, given these preliminary promising findings.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Social Stigma , Wounds and Injuries , Adult , Caribbean Region , Female , Health Personnel/education , Humans , Islands , Male , Middle Aged , Saint Lucia , Survivors , West Indies , Young Adult
10.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 102(4): 827-831, 2020 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32043449

ABSTRACT

Saint Lucia at one time had levels of schistosomiasis prevalence and morbidity as high as many countries in Africa. However, as a result of control efforts and economic development, including more widespread access to sanitation and safe water, schistosomiasis on the island has practically disappeared. To evaluate the current status of schistosomiasis in Saint Lucia, we conducted a nationally representative school-based survey of 8-11-year-old children for prevalence of Schistosoma mansoni infections using circulating antigen and specific antibody detection methods. We also conducted a questionnaire about available water sources, sanitation, and contact with fresh water. The total population of 8-11-year-old children on Saint Lucia was 8,985; of these, 1,487 (16.5%) provided urine for antigen testing, 1,455 (16.2%) provided fingerstick blood for antibody testing, and 1,536 (17.1%) answered the questionnaire. Although a few children were initially low positives by antigen or antibody detection methods, none could be confirmed positive by follow-up testing. Most children reported access to clean water and sanitary facilities in or near their homes and 48% of the children reported contact with fresh water. Together, these data suggest that schistosomiasis transmission has been interrupted on Saint Lucia. Additional surveys of adults, snails, and a repeat survey among school-age children will be necessary to verify these findings. However, in the same way that research on Saint Lucia generated the data leading to use of mass drug administration for schistosomiasis control, the island may also provide the information needed for guidelines to verify interruption of schistosomiasis transmission.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Helminth/blood , Schistosomiasis/epidemiology , Schistosomiasis/transmission , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Risk Factors , Saint Lucia/epidemiology , Sanitation , Schistosomiasis/prevention & control , Serologic Tests , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Terminology | DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences | ID: 033215

ABSTRACT

An independent state in the West Indies. Its capital is Castries. It was probably discovered by Columbus in 1502 and first settled by the English in 1605. Contended for by the French and English in the 17th century, it was regarded as neutral in 1748 but changed hands many times in the wars of the 19th century. It became a self-governing state in association with Great Britain in 1967 and achieved independence in 1979. Columbus named it for the day on which he discovered it, the feast of St. Lucy, a Sicilian virgin martyr. (From Webster's New Geographical Dictionary, 1988, p1051 & Room, Brewer's Dictionary of Names, 1992, p477)


Estado independiente de las Indias Occidentales. Su capital es Castries. Probablemente fue descubierta por Colón en 1502 y colonizada por primera vez por los ingleses en 1605. Disputada por los franceses e ingleses en el siglo 17, fue considerada neutral en 1748 pero cambió de manos muchas veces en las guerras del siglo 19. Se convirtió en un estado autónomo en asociación con Gran Bretaña en 1967 y obtuvo la independencia en 1979. Colón le puso el nombre por el día en que la descubrió, la fiesta de Santa Lucía, una mártir siciliana virgen.


Estado independente nas Índias Ocidentais. Sua capital é Castries. Foi provavelmente descoberta por Colombo em 1502 e foi povoada primeiramente pelos ingleses em 1605. Disputada pelos franceses e ingleses no século XVII, foi considerada neutra em 1748, mas mudou de mãos muitas vezes nas guerras do século XIX. Tornou-se um estado autônomo em associação com a Grã-Bretanha em 1967 e alcançou independência em 1979. Colombo a denominou em homenagem ao dia no qual ele a descobriu, a festa de Santa Lúcia, uma mártir virgem Siciliana.

12.
Geneva; World Health Organization; 2020. (WHO/HEP/ECH/CCH/20.01.01).
in English | WHO IRIS | ID: who-336268
13.
Cureus ; 11(10): e6011, 2019 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31815075

ABSTRACT

The first recorded laparoscopic operation in the Caribbean was a cholecystectomy performed in 1991. After a temporary peak in basic laparoscopic operations in subsequent years, the initial interest waned. While laparoscopic surgery was being popularized in the developed world, there was a stagnation in the Caribbean. There were many reasons for this stagnation, including a lack of surgical expertise, the negative attitudes of health-care workers, active opposition from surgical leaders, and equipment deficiencies, all exacerbated by the global financial recession in the early twenty-first century. A similar situation existed on the Caribbean island of St. Lucia, where laparoscopic surgery remained relatively dormant. After a strong desire by community surgeons to incorporate advanced laparoscopy into surgical practice, surgical leaders in St. Lucia engineered a public-private partnership to achieve this. This review article evaluates the available data, documents the obstacles encountered, and explains the mechanisms to overcome these obstacles to incorporate advanced laparoscopy in St. Lucia. This information is important because it can serve as a template for other developing Caribbean countries.

14.
Plants (Basel) ; 8(12)2019 Nov 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31771207

ABSTRACT

Moringa oleifera Lam. has been considered as a multipurpose tree. The studies on it focus on its variable nutritional benefits. It is growing in many regions, but information about nutritional properties of those growing in the Caribbean is missing. The present study focused on biochemical analysis of main nutritional and antioxidant properties in plant material-dried leaves and seeds-of Moringa oleifera. The composition of lipids, proteins, and vitamin E was evaluated in powdered dried leaves and seeds. Fatty acids were evaluated in oil extracted from the moringa seeds. Potential antioxidant properties of the moringa were evaluated in extract from crushed and powdered leaves, as well as from the powdered seeds. The total amounts of lipids, proteins, and vitamin E were higher in powdered seeds (31.85%, 35.13%, and 220.61 mg/kg) than in powdered leaves (12.48%, 20.54%, and 178.10 mg/kg). The main compound of fatty acids presented oleic acid (76.78%) in seeds' oil and oleic (25.01%), palmitic (24.84%), and linolenic (24.71%) acids in leaves. Neohesperidin (126.8 mg/kg), followed by chlorogenic acid (99.96 mg/kg) and quercetin (43.44 and 21.44 mg/kg) were main phenolic compounds identified. Total phenols in powdered leaves' extract (635.6 mg GAE/L) was higher than in powdered seeds' extract (229.5 mg GAE/L). The activity against superoxide radical and hydroxyl radical was 92.4% and 73.1% by leaves' powder extract and 83.6% and 60.7% by crushed-leaf extract; seed-powder extract exhibited a pro-oxidation activity (-68.4%) against superoxide radical and the lowest antioxidant effect against the hydroxyl radical (55.0%).

15.
Zootaxa ; 4608(2): zootaxa.4608.2.1, 2019 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31717144

ABSTRACT

The Lesser Antilles, in the Eastern Caribbean, were long considered to have only two species in the genus Iguana Laurenti 1768: the Lesser Antillean iguana Iguana delicatissima, which is endemic to parts of the Lesser Antilles, and the Common green iguana Iguana iguana, which also occurs throughout Central and South America. No subspecies are currently recognised. However, herpetologists and reptile collectors have pointed out strong physical differences between some of the island populations of Iguana iguana and those from the continent. Drawing on both morphological and genetic data, this paper describes two subspecies of the Common green iguana Iguana iguana from the southern Lesser Antilles, specifically the countries of Saint Lucia Iguana iguana sanctaluciae and Iguana iguana insularis from St Vincent the Grenadines, and Grenada. The form on the island of Saint Vincent has not been identified. The new subspecies are described based on the following unique combination of characters: Presence of high median and medium to small lateral horns on the snout; Small subtympanic plate not exceeding 20% of the eardrum size; Two or three scales of decreasing size anterior to the subtympanic plate; Fewer than ten small to medium triangular gular spikes; Medium sized dewlap; Low number of small to medium dispersed nuchal tubercles; Dark brown iris, with the white of the eye visible; Oval, prominent nostril; Short and relatively flat head; High dorsal spines; No swelling of the jowls in reproductively active males.                Iguana iguana sanctaluciae has in adults vertical black stripes on body and tail and a black dewlap whereas Iguana iguana insularis is pale grey or creamy white in adults.                Both subspecies are globally threatened by unsustainable hunting (including the pet trade) and by invasive alien species,     including hybridization from invasive iguanas from South and Central America (I. iguana iguana and I. rhinolopha, considered here as full species) that have become established in all three countries. The authors call for stronger measures to conserve the remaining purebred Iguana i. insularis and Iguana i. sanctaluciae ssp. nov. throughout their ranges and for further research to identify other cryptic species and subspecies of Iguana in the Lesser Antilles.


Subject(s)
Iguanas , Animals , Caribbean Region , Islands , Male
16.
J Cataract Refract Surg ; 45(10): 1458-1462, 2019 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31564319

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To characterize changes in nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular lens opacities after selective laser trabeculoplasty (SLT) in Afro-Caribbean eyes with primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG). SETTING: Three clinical practices, Saint Lucia and Dominica. DESIGN: Prospective case series. METHODS: Patients with POAG in the West Indies Glaucoma Laser Study (WIGLS) had 360-degree SLT after medication washout. No antiinflammatory therapy was used after SLT. Nuclear, cortical, and posterior subcapsular lens opacities were graded through dilated pupils using the Lens Opacification Classification System III (LOCS III) at baseline and 12, 24, and 36 months after SLT, with the grader masked to all previous values after baseline assessment. Changes in opacity scores from baseline were evaluated using paired t tests. RESULTS: Seventy-two patients (142 phakic eyes) were evaluated. The mean (±SD) baseline LOCS III opacity scores in right eyes and left eyes, respectively, were 2.44 ± 1.23 and 2.40 ± 1.16 (nuclear), 0.39 ± 1.08 and 0.30 ± 0.85 (cortical), and 0.22 ± 0.59 and 0.15 ± 0.36 (posterior subcapsular). Other than a small improvement in bilateral nuclear opacity scores at 12 months, no statistically or clinically significant changes in any opacity score occurred in either eye up to 36 months postoperatively. Three eyes (2.1%) with preexisting lens opacities had cataract surgery for progressive lens changes at 3 months, 21 months, and 26 months, respectively, after SLT. CONCLUSIONS: Selective laser trabeculoplasty was not associated with clinically significant changes in nuclear, cortical, or posterior subcapsular lens opacities in glaucomatous Afro-Caribbean eyes. The rate of cataract surgery is consistent with reported rates from longitudinal natural history studies in Caribbean and non-Caribbean populations.


Subject(s)
Cataract/etiology , Ethnic Groups , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/surgery , Laser Therapy/methods , Lens, Crystalline/diagnostic imaging , Trabeculectomy/methods , Cataract/diagnosis , Cataract/ethnology , Follow-Up Studies , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/diagnosis , Glaucoma, Open-Angle/ethnology , Humans , Incidence , Intraocular Pressure , Prospective Studies , West Indies/epidemiology
17.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; 136: 196-205, 2019 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30999037

ABSTRACT

The West Indian avifauna has provided fundamental insights into island biogeography, taxon cycles, and the evolution of avian behavior. Our interpretations, however, should rely on robust hypotheses of evolutionary relationships and consistent conclusions about taxonomic status in groups with many endemic island populations. Here we present a phylogenetic study of the West Indian thrashers, tremblers, and allies, an assemblage of at least 5 species found on 29 islands, including what is considered the Lesser Antilles' only avian radiation. We improve on previous phylogenetic studies of this group by using double-digest restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (ddRAD-seq) to broadly sample loci scattered across the nuclear genome. A variety of analyses, based on either nucleotide variation in 2223 loci recovered in all samples or at 13,282 loci confidently scored as present or absent in all samples, converged on a single well-supported phylogenetic hypothesis. Results indicate that the resident West Indian taxa form a monophyletic group, exclusive of the Neotropical-Nearctic migratory Gray Catbird Dumetella carolinensis, which breeds in North America; this outcome differs from earlier studies suggesting that Gray Catbird was nested within a clade of island resident species. Thus, our findings imply a single colonization of the West Indies without the need to invoke a subsequent 'reverse colonization' of the mainland by West Indian taxa. Additionally, our study is the first to sample both endemic subspecies of the endangered White-breasted Thrasher Ramphocinclus brachyurus. We find that these subspecies have a long history of evolutionary independence with no evidence of gene flow, and are as genetically divergent from each other as other genera in the group. These findings support recognition of R. brachyurus (restricted to Martinique) and the Saint Lucia Thrasher R. sanctaeluciae as two distinct, single-island endemic species, and indicate the need to re-evaluate conservation plans for these taxa. Our results demonstrate the utility of phylogenomic datasets for generating robust systematic hypotheses.


Subject(s)
Conserved Sequence , Passeriformes/classification , Passeriformes/genetics , Phylogeny , Phylogeography , Animals , Base Sequence , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Restriction Mapping , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Species Specificity , West Indies
18.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 4(1)2019 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30708966

ABSTRACT

Schistosomiasis elimination status in the Caribbean is reviewed with information on historical disease background, attempts to control it and current situation for each locality in the region where transmission has been eliminated (Sint Maarten, Saint Kitts, Vieques), eliminated but not yet verified (Puerto Rico, Dominican Republic, Antigua, Montserrat, Guadeloupe, Martinique) and still ongoing (Saint Lucia, Suriname). Integrated control initiatives based on selective and mass treatment and snail control using environmental, chemical and biological methods along with public service improvements (housing, safe water, sanitation) and changes in demography (urbanization) and economy (change from sugarcane and banana production to tourism) have resulted in reduction in the burden of schistosomiasis over the past century. Introduction of Biomphalaria-competitor snails into the region as a cost-effective, low maintenance control method appears to have had the most sustainable impact on transmission reduction. A regional inventory of B. glabrata, other Biomphalaria species and Biomphalaria-competitor snails as well as investigation of possible animal reservoir hosts in persisting endemic areas would be helpful for control. Elimination of schistosomiasis appears achievable in the Caribbean. However, a regional surveillance and monitoring program is needed to verify elimination in the various localities and identify and monitor areas still endemic or at risk.

19.
Zootaxa ; 4425(3): 511-526, 2018 May 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30313298

ABSTRACT

Most high volcanic islands of Lesser Antilles harbor one single genus of Anostostomatidae: Rhumosa n. gen: Rhumosa bolognei n. gen. n. sp. in Guadeloupe, Rhumosa macoucheriei n. gen. n. sp. in Dominica, Rhumosa depazei n. gen. n. sp. in Martinique, Rhumosa admiralrodneyei n. gen. n. sp. in Saint Lucia, Rhumosa captainblighei n. gen. n. sp., in Saint Vincent. These species are restricted to well preserved rainforests; species from northern islands apparently occurring at higher elevation than species of southern islands. The distribution and generic position of Rhumosa n. gen. species is discussed, as well as the generic position of Lutosa cubaensis (Haan, 1843).


Subject(s)
Animal Distribution , Orthoptera , Animals , Caribbean Region , Dominica , Guadeloupe , Islands , Martinique , Saint Lucia
20.
Washington, D.C.; PAHO; 2018-09. (PAHO/HSS/18-035).
in English, Spanish | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr-49488

ABSTRACT

The Strategic Fund is a regional technical cooperation mechanism for pooled procurement of essential medicines and strategic public health supplies in the Americas. The Strategic Fund was created in 2000 by the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) at the request of the Member States. Since then, the Fund has worked with countries to improve access to medicines and other health technologies, by strengthening demand planning and the organization of national supply management systems, while facilitating access to affordable strategic public health supplies through a pooled procurement mechanism. In accordance with 2016-2017 mandates of the PAHO Governing Bodies, the technical cooperation program of work in support of participation of Member States in the Fund has focused on: a) increasing the response capacity and efficiency of operations of the Fund in countries; b) the development of national and regional market intelligence; and c) the strengthening of the key alliances and strategic partnerships. As of December 2017, 32 countries in Latin America and the Caribbean have signed participation agreements with the PAHO Strategic Fund (Argentina, The Bahamas, Barbados, Belize, Bermuda, Bolivia, Brazil, the British Virgin Islands, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, the Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Grenada, Guatemala, Guyana, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Suriname, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Uruguay, and Venezuela).


Subject(s)
Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies , Health Systems , Americas , Health Services , Access to Essential Medicines and Health Technologies
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