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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145077, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736122

ABSTRACT

While we officially live in the Holocene epoch, global warming and many other impacts of global change have led to the proposal and wide adoption of the Anthropocene to define the present geological epoch. The Anthropocene Working Group (AWG) established that it should be treated as a formal stratigraphic unit, demonstrated by a reference level commonly known as "golden spike", still under discussion. Here we show that the onset of bomb-derived plutonium recorded in two banded massive corals from the Caribbean Sea is consistent (1955-1956 CE), so sites far from nuclear testing grounds are potentially suitable to host a type section of the Anthropocene. Coastal coral demonstration sites are feasible, could foster economic development, and may serve as focal points for scientific dissemination and environmental education.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , Plutonium , Animals , Caribbean Region , Coral Reefs , Geology , West Indies
2.
Zootaxa ; 4903(4): zootaxa.4903.4.1, 2021 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33757074

ABSTRACT

Species and genera of Bairdiidae can be difficult to discriminate, because of the somewhat limited morphological range of the carapace and limbs and the prevalence of homeomorphy. Attention to the esophageal flapper valve, an uncalcified but relatively well sclerotized structure, may contribute to more reliable identifications. Living species of Neonesidea exhibit sufficient variability in the architecture of this structure to suggest that it may have taxonomic value. Twelve named and three new species are examined to test this premise: N. bacata, N. caraionae n. sp., N. decipiens, N. credibilis n. sp., N. forea n. sp., N. edentulata, N. gerda, N. holdeni, N. longisetosa, N. manningi, N. mediterranea, N. omnivaga, N. plumulosa, N. schulzi, N. tenera. The geographic range of N. gerda is extended across the Gulf of Mexico, while the ranges of N. longisetosa and N. dinochelata are restricted. This supplemental information helps to clarify the relationships of several poorly known species from carbonate environments of Bermuda, the Bahamas, Florida, the Gulf of Mexico, and the Caribbean.


Subject(s)
Crustacea , Animals , Caribbean Region , Gulf of Mexico , West Indies
3.
Am J Bot ; 108(2): 200-215, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33598914

ABSTRACT

PREMISE: The Caribbean islands are in the top five biodiversity hotspots on the planet; however, the biogeographic history of the seasonally dry tropical forest (SDTF) there is poorly studied. Consolea consists of nine species of dioecious, hummingbird-pollinated tree cacti endemic to the West Indies, which form a conspicuous element of the SDTF. Several species are threatened by anthropogenic disturbance, disease, sea-level rise, and invasive species and are of conservation concern. However, no comprehensive phylogeny yet exists for the clade. METHODS: We reconstructed the phylogeny of Consolea, sampling all species using plastomic data to determine relationships, understand the evolution of key morphological characters, and test their biogeographic history. We estimated divergence times to determine the role climate change may have played in shaping the current diversity of the clade. RESULTS: Consolea appears to have evolved very recently during the latter part of the Pleistocene on Cuba/Hispaniola likely from a South American ancestor and, from there, moved into the Bahamas, Jamaica, Puerto Rico, Florida, and the Lesser Antilles. The tree growth form is a synapomorphy of Consolea and likely aided in the establishment and diversification of the clade. CONCLUSIONS: Pleistocene aridification associated with glaciation likely played a role in shaping the current diversity of Consolea, and insular gigantism may have been a key innovation leading to the success of these species to invade the often-dense SDTF. This in-situ Caribbean radiation provides a window into the generation of species diversity and the complexity of the SDTF community within the Antilles.


Subject(s)
Phylogeny , Animals , Bahamas , Caribbean Region , Florida , Puerto Rico , West Indies
4.
Animal ; 15(3): 100145, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573931

ABSTRACT

An evaluation is made of the complementarity between two non-invasive techniques, cuticle microhistological analysis (CMA) and PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) DNA-based analysis, for the determination of herbivore diet composition from faecal samples. Cuticle microhistological analysis is based on the different microanatomical characteristics of the epidermal fragments remaining in the faeces. The PCR-CE technique combines PCR amplification of a trnL(UAA) genomic DNA region with amplicon length determination by CE, with this length being characteristic for each species or taxon. A total of 37 fresh stool samples were analyzed, including 16 from feral goats (Capra hircus) from the Tramuntana mountain range (Mallorca, Baleares) and 11 from Bruna dels Pirineus cattle breed (Bos taurus) from the surrounding Montserrat mountain range (Barcelona, Spain). All the animals were in a free grazing Mediterranean pine habitat, dominated by Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). The results showed that both techniques detected a similar number of plant components in the faeces of goats and cows. In the case of goats, a positive correlation was obtained between the percentage of samples in which a particular taxon is detected by CMA and the percentage of samples in which that taxon is detected by PCR-CE. This correlation was not observed in the case of cows. It is concluded that PCR-CE is a fast and reliable method to detect the different plant components in the faeces of herbivores. However, it cannot be considered as an alternative to CMA, but as a complementary method, since both techniques can detect some taxa that are not detected by the other technique. In addition, CMA detected the presence of the different taxa in a greater number of samples, and at the same time, it enables quantitative data to be obtained for plant diet composition. The species of herbivore also seems to influence the results obtained by PCR-CE, so more studies are required to address this aspect.


Subject(s)
Goats , Plant Breeding , Animals , Cattle , Diet/veterinary , Electrophoresis, Capillary/veterinary , Feces , Female , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Spain , West Indies
5.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33557252

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: The Caribbean diaspora in the United States is a diverse community that is afflicted with high morbidity and mortality due to preventable chronic diseases. OBJECTIVE: Our goal is to determine which culturally sensitive health and nutrition educational modalities have the highest efficacy for improving general health in the Caribbean diaspora. METHODS: A scoping literature review was performed on the MEDLINE, CINAHL, and Web of Science databases using terms related to health and nutrition in the Caribbean population. Original, peer-reviewed research published from 2010 to 2020, which took place in the U.S. and Caribbean countries, were included in our review. RESULTS: We identified a total of nine articles that met our inclusion criteria. Rate differences for individual education program features were calculated to assess the likelihood of a positive impact on diet, physical activity, and diabetes. CONCLUSION: Our review helps to identify key educational modalities targeting diabetes, diet, and physical activity levels that can be used to meet the health and nutritional needs of the Caribbean diaspora population.


Subject(s)
Human Migration , Nutrition Therapy , Caribbean Region , Health Education , United States , West Indies
6.
J Zoo Wildl Med ; 51(4): 933-947, 2021 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33480574

ABSTRACT

The blue iguana (Cyclura lewisi) is an endangered rock iguana species native to Grand Cayman, in the Cayman Islands. Health assessments were conducted on captive and free-roaming iguanas in 2001 and 2003-2014 and were performed in the summer wet season (June-July) of 2003-2004 and 2010-2014 and in the winter dry season (November-December) of 2001 and 2005-2009. Morphometric data were recorded from iguanas when blood samples were collected: 903 samples were collected and data from 890 samples from 775 iguanas were included. Samples were analyzed for hematology, plasma biochemistry, protein electrophoresis, mineral panels, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, and testosterone. Reference intervals were created for captive subadults, captive adults, and free-roaming adults when data were sufficient. Significant differences among these groups were described, as were differences on the basis of sex, season, and origin (captive vs free-roaming). In captive iguanas, most analytes were significantly different between subadults and adults, mature heterophils and copper were significantly higher in the dry season, zinc levels were significantly higher in the wet season, and cholesterol and triglycerides were significantly higher in adult females than adult males. Testosterone in adult males was significantly higher in the dry season. These results will aid in future health assessments and disease investigations in wild and captive populations of blue iguanas and are of comparative value for other Cyclura species that are free-roaming, captive, and, especially, in similar conservation release programs.


Subject(s)
Blood Proteins/chemistry , Electrophoresis/veterinary , Erythrocyte Count/veterinary , Hematocrit/veterinary , Iguanas/blood , Leukocyte Count/veterinary , Amylases/blood , Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blood Glucose , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Chlorides/blood , Cholesterol/blood , Creatine Kinase/blood , Creatinine/blood , Electrolytes/blood , L-Lactate Dehydrogenase/blood , Minerals/blood , Reference Values , West Indies
7.
Mar Pollut Bull ; 164: 112010, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33485022

ABSTRACT

Caribbean islands, including Puerto Rico, are biodiversity hotspots threatened by microplastics (<5 mm). Little is known about the extent of microplastic pollution in coastal sandy beaches of Puerto Rico. Sand from six northern beaches was collected in the high tide line to determine microplastic abundance (0.3-4.75 mm). Península La Esperanza, the most polluted beach, exhibited higher average abundance (17 items/kg dw) and diversity. High urbanization, industrial/port activities, and riverine input are likely sources of plastic debris on this beach. The other beaches showed lower and similar average abundance (3 to 7 items/kg dw) despite having distinct potential point and non-point sources. Overall, fibers (40%), fragments (28%) and foams (27%) predominated (n = 102 particles). Results showed comparable levels to other world beaches, some classified as highly contaminated, but only when transforming units to items/m2. Preliminary ATR-FTIR analysis identified mainly polyethylene. It is imperative to have plastics source reduction through waste management.


Subject(s)
Microplastics , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Bathing Beaches , Environmental Monitoring , Plastics , Puerto Rico , Waste Products/analysis , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , West Indies
8.
Environ Sci Technol ; 55(4): 2296-2306, 2021 02 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33507080

ABSTRACT

The widespread use of pesticides in agriculture during the last several decades has contaminated soils and different Critical Zone (CZ) compartments, defined as the area extended from the top of the vegetation canopy to the groundwater table, and it integrates interactions of the atmosphere, lithosphere, biosphere, and hydrosphere. However, the long-term fate, storage, and transfer dynamics of persistent pesticides in CZ in a changing world remain poorly understood. In the French West Indies, chlordecone (CLD), a toxic organochlorine insecticide, was extensively applied to banana fields to control banana weevil from 1972 to 1993 after which it was banned. Here, to understand CZ trajectories we apply a retrospective observation based on marine sediment core analyses to monitor long-term CLD transfer, fate, and consequences in Guadeloupe and Martinique islands. Both CLD profiles show synchronous chronologies. We hypothesized that the use of glyphosate, a postemergence herbicide, from the late 1990s onward induced CZ modification with an increase in soil erosion and led to the release of the stable CLD stored in the soils of polluted fields. CLD fluxes drastically increased when glyphosate use began, leading to widespread ecosystem contamination. As glyphosate is used globally, ecotoxicological risk management strategies should consider how its application affects persistent pesticide storage in soils, transfer dynamics, and widespread contamination.


Subject(s)
Chlordecone , Insecticides , Soil Pollutants , Chlordecone/analysis , Ecosystem , Glycine/analogs & derivatives , Guadeloupe , Insecticides/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Soil Pollutants/analysis , West Indies
9.
NeuroRehabilitation ; 48(1): 109-117, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33361616

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: With structured interviews being an established method for assessing one's exposure to traumatic brain injury across their lifetime, effective assessment tools are needed to serve the large population of Spanish speakers in the U.S. and abroad. OBJECTIVE: To obtain preliminary evidence of validity for a Spanish version of a web-based, structured interview designed to assess lifetime exposure to TBI. METHODS: A sample of 720 Spanish-speaking individuals between the ages of 18 through 65 from the continental U.S. (34.3%), South America (30.8%), the Caribbean (12.6%), Spain (12.4%), and Mexico and Central America (9.9%) completed an online survey containing the Ohio State University Traumatic Brain Injury Identification Method (Self-Administered-Brief; OSU TBI-ID SAB), Neurobehavioral Symptom Inventory, and PROMIS Cognitive Concerns Scale. RESULTS: Indices of severity of worst TBI, time since most recent TBI, and multiple injuries demonstrated expected relationships with neurobehavioral symptoms such that greater symptom reporting was observed among those who had more severe injuries, more recent injuries, and multiple injuries over a period of time. CONCLUSIONS: Findings provide preliminary evidence of validity for three of the indices derived from OSU TBI-ID SAB among Spanish-speaking individuals. Further study is needed to assess other aspects of this instrument to pave the way for further epidemiological studies involving lifetime exposure to TBI among Spanish-speaking individuals across the U.S., Spain, and Latin America.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic/diagnosis , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/ethnology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Central America/ethnology , Female , Humans , Male , Mexico/ethnology , Middle Aged , South America/ethnology , Spain/ethnology , Surveys and Questionnaires/standards , United States/ethnology , West Indies/ethnology , Young Adult
10.
Toxicon ; 190: 39-40, 2021 Jan 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33321147

ABSTRACT

Cases of human envenomation by Centruroides pococki are exceptionally reported in human. We report a Class III human envenomation by C. pococki in Guadeloupe, French West Indies, with neuromuscular toxicity that has never been described before. Symptoms resolved within a few hours, without the need for intravenous scorpion-specific antivenom.


Subject(s)
Nervous System/drug effects , Scorpion Venoms/toxicity , Scorpions , Administration, Intravenous , Adult , Animals , Antivenins , Female , Guadeloupe , Humans , Scorpion Stings , West Indies
11.
Zootaxa ; 4861(3): zootaxa.4861.3.1, 2020 Oct 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311211

ABSTRACT

A key for identification of the 46 genera of Acanthocinini without erect setae on the elytra and which occur in Mexico and Central America is provided. The 46 genera include 809 species of which 302 in Mexico and Central America. Diagnosis for each genus is provided, as well as type-locality and geographical distribution of the type-species. The monophyly (a non-exclusive cladistic term, already in use since the 19th century) of Acanthocinus (Acanthocinus) Dejean, 1821 is questioned, indicating the need for a complete review of the subgenus, including American and non-American species. The dubious monophyly of Eleothinus Bates, 1881, and Pseudastylopsis Dillon, 1956 is also indicated. The inclusion of Alphinellus Bates, 1881 in Acanthocinini is questioned, but its maintenance or exclusion from the tribe depends on the study of the type species, which was not possible at the moment. The possibility of the synonymy between Lepturginus Gilmour, 1959 and Urgleptes Dillon, 1956, as well as the synonymy between the two species currently included in the former, are suggested.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Animals , Central America , Mexico , Sensilla , West Indies
12.
Zootaxa ; 4885(1): zootaxa.4885.1.1, 2020 Nov 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33311284

ABSTRACT

A key for identification of the 34 genera of Acanthocinini with erect setae on the elytra occurring in Mexico and Central America (excluding the Caribbean Islands) is provided. Leptrichillus Gilmour, 1960 is synonymized with Lepturgotrichona Gilmour, 1957, and Leptrichillus minutus Gilmour, 1960 is synonymized with Lepturges stigmaticus Bates, 1881 (currently, Lepturgotrichona stigmatica).


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Sensilla , Animals , Mexico , United States , West Indies
13.
PLoS One ; 15(12): e0244117, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33351836

ABSTRACT

The American Flamingo, Phoenicopterus ruber, is a charismatic bird distributed throughout the Caribbean, North and South America. Its wide distribution, the complexity of international monitoring due to its capacity for long-distance flying, and a focus mostly on local populations, make it difficult to understand the dynamics between sites. Here, we took advantage of the citizen eBird science project to present a global perspective on the distribution of the American Flamingo, and identify the potentially most important countries for breeding. We obtained 16,930 records for the Americas from the 1960s until October 2018, of which 9,283 could be used for our objectives. The eBird database indicated a considerable increase in the total number of records over the last decade (2010s), probably reflecting an increase in tourism facilities, research investment, technological advancement, interest in conservation, and the worldwide availability of eBird. We also observed a range extension in the Gulf of Mexico in the United States and a significant recolonization in the Florida Peninsula. The apparent range extension to the South is more likely to be linked to biases in the data; for example, in any given country the number of records might reflect either reporting efforts or actual numbers. eBird data confirmed that six countries host the main breeding colonies (Bahamas, Bonaire, Cuba, Ecuador, Mexico, and Venezuela). We suggest three additional countries as potential breeding areas for the species (Colombia, Curaçao, Turks and Caicos Islands) for which more field observations are necessary to support this possibility. This global appraisal of the distribution of the American Flamingo using citizen science data provides valuable information for national and international management and conservation programs such as the need to verify the species breeding status in areas where it appears to be expanding its distribution.


Subject(s)
Birds/physiology , Nesting Behavior/physiology , Americas , Animals , Female , Male
15.
PLoS One ; 15(10): e0236498, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33052952

ABSTRACT

In high-income countries, emerging research suggests sibling bereavement can have significant health and life course consequences for young people. Yet, we know far less about its burden in lower-income countries. Due to higher fertility and mortality in lower-income countries, the level, timing, intensity, and circumstances surrounding sibling mortality are likely to follow patterns distinct from those in higher-income settings. Thus, in this study, we offer a descriptive overview of sibling death in 43 countries across sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and Latin America and the Caribbean. Specifically, we analyze Demographic and Health Survey data from nationally representative samples of 352,930 15- to 34-year-old women, born between 1985 and 2003, to document experiences of sibling death before age 25. On average, roughly one-third of individuals report a deceased sibling in these countries; estimates reach 40-50% of respondents in multiple African countries, particularly those that have experienced conflict and war. Although some sibling deaths occurred before the focal respondent was born, most bereaved individuals recalled a death during their lifetime-often in late childhood/early adolescence. High proportions of bereaved respondents report multiple sibling deaths, highlighting the clustering of deaths within families. Even so, bereaved individuals tend to come from large families and thus frequently have a comparable number of surviving siblings as people who never experienced a sibling die. Together, the results offer a window into global inequality in childhood experiences, and they attest to the need for research that explores the implications of sibling mortality for young people in world regions where the experience is concentrated.


Subject(s)
Cost of Illness , Mortality/trends , Poverty , Siblings , Adolescent , Adult , Asia , Caribbean Region , Child , Child, Preschool , Developing Countries , Female , Global Health , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Latin America , Male , Middle Aged , Socioeconomic Factors , West Indies , Young Adult
16.
Zootaxa ; 4830(3): zootaxa.4830.3.4, 2020 Aug 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056145

ABSTRACT

After reviewing the systematics and distribution of the living and fossil small West Indian taxa of Tytonidae (Tyto), we reached the following conclusions: (1) Strix tuidara J. E. Gray, 1827, type locality of Brazil, is the earliest available and correct name to be used in a binomen for New World mainland barn owls; (2) the North American mainland subspecies Tyto tuidara pratincola (Bonaparte, 1838), new combination, is resident in the Bahamas ("Tyto perlatus lucayanus" Riley, 1913, is a synonym), where it probably did not colonize until after the European introduction of Rattus Fischer, in Hispaniola (Dominican Republic and Haiti) where it became established in the 20th century, and subsequently in Puerto Rico; (3) Tyto furcata (Temminck, 1827) of Cuba, Jamaica and the Cayman Islands is a different species restricted to its insular distribution, with "T. alba niveicauda" Parkes Phillips, 1978, of the Isle of Pines (now Isla de la Juventud) as a synonym; (4) the distinct species Tyto glaucops (Kaup, 1852), now endemic to Hispaniola, once occurred in Puerto Rico, as the fossil species "T. cavatica" Wetmore, 1920, is here shown to be a synonym; (5) the smallest taxon Tyto insularis (Pelzeln, 1872) of the southern Lesser Antilles is treated as a separate species, in which the nominate subspecies T. i. insularis (St. Vincent, Grenada, and the Grenadines) differs slightly but consistently in coloration from T. i. nigrescens (Lawrence, 1878) of Dominica; (6) another barn owl, Tyto maniola, new species, of this group of small tytonids from the West Indies inhabited Cuba during part of the Quaternary, and is here named and described.


Subject(s)
Strigiformes , Animals , Fossils , Rats , West Indies
17.
Zootaxa ; 4786(1): zootaxa.4786.1.1, 2020 May 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056493

ABSTRACT

Menudos Linzmeier Konstantinov, a new genus of moss inhabiting flea beetles, containing five species, three of them are new (M. illariosus, M. maricao, and M. toronegro-the type species of the genus), from Puerto Rico is described and illustrated. The new genus is compared to Aedmon Clark, Apleuraltica Bechyne, Andersonaltica Linzmeier Konstantinov, Distigmoptera Blake and Ulrica Scherer. Aedmon barberi (Blake, 1943b) and Distigmoptera chamorrae Konstantinov Konstantinova, 2011 are transferred to Menudos. A key to Menudos species identification is provided. Methods for collecting moss inhabiting flea beetles and other arthropods are described in detail for the first time.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera , Animal Structures , Animals , Puerto Rico , West Indies
18.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(33): 41132-41142, 2020 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32949358

ABSTRACT

In Guadeloupe, the use between 1972 and 1993 of chlordecone, an organochlorine insecticide, has permanently contaminated the island's soil, thus contaminating the food chain at its very beginning. There is today a strong societal requirement for an improved mapping of the contaminated zones. Given the extent of the areas to be covered, carrying out soil tests on each plot of the territory would be a long and expensive process. In this article, we explore a method of demarcating polluted areas. The approach adopted consists in carrying out, using surface water analyses, a hydrological delimitation that makes it possible to distinguish contaminated watersheds from uncontaminated ones. The selection of sampling points was based on the spatial analysis of the actual and potential contamination data existing at the beginning of the study. The approach was validated by soil analyses, after having compared the contamination data of the watersheds with the soil contamination data of the plots within them. The study thus made it possible to highlight new contaminated areas and also those at risk of contamination and to identify the plots to be targeted as a priority during future analysis campaigns by State services.


Subject(s)
Chlordecone , Insecticides , Pesticides , Soil Pollutants , Chlordecone/analysis , Guadeloupe , Insecticides/analysis , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Water , West Indies
19.
Dis Aquat Organ ; 141: 53-69, 2020 Sep 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32940251

ABSTRACT

Streptococcus iniae is a Gram-positive, opportunistically zoonotic bacterium infective to a wide variety of farmed and wild fish species worldwide. Outbreaks in wild fish can have detrimental environmental and cultural impacts, and mortality events in aquaculture can result in significant economic losses. As an emerging or re-emerging pathogen of global significance, understanding the coalescing factors contributing to piscine streptococcosis is crucial for developing strategies to control infections. Intraspecific antigenic and genetic variability of S. iniae has made development of autogenous vaccines a challenge, particularly where the diversity of locally endemic S. iniae strains is unknown. This study genetically and phenotypically characterized 11 S. iniae isolates from diseased wild and farmed fish from North America, Central America, and the Caribbean. A multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) scheme was developed to phylogenetically compare these isolates to 84 other strains of Streptococcus spp. relevant to aquaculture. MLSA generated phylogenies comparable to established genotyping methods, and isolates formed distinct clades related to phenotype and host species. The endothelial Oreochromis mossambicus bulbus arteriosus cell line and whole blood from rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss, Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, and white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus were used to investigate the persistence and virulence of the 11 isolates using in vitro assays. In vivo challenges using an O. niloticus model were used to evaluate virulence by the intragastric route of infection. Isolates showed significant differences (p < 0.05) in virulence and persistence, with some correlation to genogroup, establishing a basis for further work uncovering genetic factors leading to increased pathogenicity.


Subject(s)
Fish Diseases , Streptococcal Infections/veterinary , Streptococcus iniae , Animals , Caribbean Region , Central America , Multilocus Sequence Typing/veterinary , West Indies
20.
Sci Total Environ ; 748: 141216, 2020 Dec 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32798861

ABSTRACT

Historically, pelagic Sargassum were only found in the Sargasso Sea. Since 2011, blooms were regularly observed in warmer water, further south. Their developments in Central Atlantic are associated with mass strandings on the coasts, causing important damages and potentially dispersion of new bacteria. Microbiomes associated with pelagic Sargassum were analysed at large scale in Central Atlantic and near Caribbean Islands with a focus on pathogenic bacteria. Vibrio appeared widely distributed among pelagic Sargassum microbiome of our samples with higher occurrence than previously found in Mexico Gulf. Six out the 16 Vibrio-OTUs (Operational Taxonomic Unit), representing 81.2 ± 13.1% of the sequences, felt in cluster containing pathogens. Among the four different microbial profiles of pelagic Sargassum microbiome, Vibrio attained about 2% in two profiles whereas it peaked, in the two others, at 6.5 and 26.8% respectively, largely above the concentrations found in seawater surrounding raft (0.5%). In addition to sampling and measurements, we performed backward Lagrangian modelling of trajectories of rafts, and rebuilt the sampled rafts environmental history allowing us to estimate Sargassum growth rates along raft displacements. We found that Vibrio was favoured by high Sargassum growth rate and in situ ammonium and nitrite, modelled phosphate and nitrate concentrations, whereas zooplankters, benthic copepods, and calm wind (proxy of raft buoyancy near the sea surface) were less favourable for them. Relations between Vibrio and other main bacterial groups identified a competition with Alteromonas. According to forward Lagrangian tracking, part of rafts containing Vibrio could strand on the Caribbean coasts, however the strong decreases of modelled Sargassum growth rates along this displacement suggest unfavourable environment for Vibrio. For the conditions and areas observed, the sanitary risk seemed in consequence minor, but in other areas or conditions where high Sargassum growth rate occurred near coasts, it could be more important.


Subject(s)
Microbiota , Sargassum , Vibrio , Animals , Caribbean Region , Mexico , Seawater , West Indies
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