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1.
J R Soc Interface ; 18(178): 20210165, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33947225

ABSTRACT

When a rare pathogen emerges to cause a pandemic, it is critical to understand its dynamics and the impact of mitigation measures. We use experimental data to parametrize a temperature-dependent model of Zika virus (ZIKV) transmission dynamics and analyse the effects of temperature variability and control-related parameters on the basic reproduction number (R0) and the final epidemic size of ZIKV. Sensitivity analyses show that these two metrics are largely driven by different parameters, with the exception of temperature, which is the dominant driver of epidemic dynamics in the models. Our R0 estimate has a single optimum temperature (≈30°C), comparable to other published results (≈29°C). However, the final epidemic size is maximized across a wider temperature range, from 24 to 36°C. The models indicate that ZIKV is highly sensitive to seasonal temperature variation. For example, although the model predicts that ZIKV transmission cannot occur at a constant temperature below 23°C (≈ average annual temperature of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil), the model predicts substantial epidemics for areas with a mean temperature of 20°C if there is seasonal variation of 10°C (≈ average annual temperature of Tampa, Florida). This suggests that the geographical range of ZIKV is wider than indicated from static R0 models, underscoring the importance of climate dynamics and variation in the context of broader climate change on emerging infectious diseases.

2.
Med Sci Monit ; 27: e932915, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33942804

ABSTRACT

There have been rapid developments in safe and effective mRNA vaccines for zoonotic infections in the past year. Years of research have made these advances possible, leading to in vitro-transcribed (IVT) mRNA expressing therapeutic proteins. There are several advantages of mRNA vaccines that include their low-cost manufacturing process, large-scale and rapid production, and the ability to modify the vaccines in response to emerging infections and viral variants. The COVID-19 pandemic and successful vaccination programs for SARS-CoV-2 have highlighted the advantages of mRNA vaccines. Also, mRNA vaccines are in development for several other potential pandemic zoonotic infections, including Ebola virus, rabies virus, Zika virus, HIV-1, and influenza. There may also be hope for the control of pandemic avian influenza by the combination of improved and rapid viral genotyping and the rapid development and mass production of mRNA vaccines. This Editorial aims to present a brief overview of how mRNA vaccines may help control and future epidemic, pandemic, and endemic zoonotic virus infections.

3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 8474, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33875756

ABSTRACT

Not every neonate with congenital Zika virus (ZIKV) infection (CZI) is born with microcephaly. We compared inflammation mediators in CSF (cerebrospinal fluid obtained from lumbar puncture) between ZIKV-exposed neonates with/without microcephaly (cases) and controls. In Brazil, in the same laboratory, we identified 14 ZIKV-exposed neonates during the ZIKV epidemic (2015-2016), 7(50%) with and 7(50%) without microcephaly, without any other congenital infection, and 14 neonates (2017-2018) eligible to be controls and to match cases. 29 inflammation mediators were measured using Luminex immunoassay and multidimensional analyses were employed. Neonates with ZIKV-associated microcephaly presented substantially higher degree of inflammatory perturbation, associated with uncoupled inflammatory response and decreased correlations between concentrations of inflammatory biomarkers. The groups of microcephalic and non-microcephalic ZIKV-exposed neonates were distinguished from the control group (area under curve [AUC] = 1; P < 0.0001). Between controls and those non-microcephalic exposed to ZIKV, IL-1ß, IL-3, IL-4, IL-7 and EOTAXIN were the top CSF markers. By comparing the microcephalic cases with controls, the top discriminant scores were for IL-1ß, IL-3, EOTAXIN and IL-12p70. The degree of inflammatory imbalance may be associated with microcephaly in CZI and it may aid additional investigations in experimental pre-clinical models testing immune modulators in preventing extensive damage of the Central Nervous System.

4.
Anat Rec (Hoboken) ; 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33834635

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging pathogen of public health concern, associated with a dramatic burden in places where the virus caused outbreaks between 2015 and 2017. In the Americas, the ZIKV was first reported in Brazil and rapidly spread through the Americas. Since its first report, a number of studies have been published as we continue to learn, not only about modes of transmission, but also clinical manifestations, risk of congenital anomalies, including microcephaly and neurological malformations in fetuses born from mothers infected during pregnancy. Interventions to reduce the burden of ZIKV infection are restricted to mosquito control, and for Aedes spp mosquitoes the strategies implemented to that end proved to be unsuccessful so far. Hence the lessons we can learn following the ZIKV epidemics become of paramount importance in the development of drug treatments and in search for a vaccine.

5.
Rev Bras Epidemiol ; 24(suppl 1): e210020, 2021.
Article in English, Portuguese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33886893

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the prevalence at birth and the spatial and temporal distribution of congenital anomalies (CAs) among live births in the state of Maranhão in 2001 to 2016. To describe demographic, gestational and neonatal variables of interest. METHODS: Ecological, population-based study, using secondary data from the Live Birth Information System (SINASC). Annual prevalence of total and per-group CAs was calculated. Spatial analyzes were based on the Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA) and the Moran I Index, and interactive maps were generated. Demographic, gestational and neonatal variables of interest available from SINASC were described in the group of newborns with CAs. RESULTS: 1,831,830 live births, 6,110 with CAs (33.4/10,000) were included. Higher frequencies occurred in more recent years. Spatial clusters have been observed in specific years. The prevalence of newborns with CAs was different between categories of variables considered as risk factors for this outcome. CONCLUSION: The prevalence at birth of total CAs was lower than expected for major human defects (3%). The temporal peak of records in 2015/2016 is probably related to the increase in CAs caused by gestational infection by the Zika virus. The spatial clusters were probably due to variations at random due to the small number of births as they are not repeated in other years. Studies like this are the basis for the establishment of CA surveillance programs.


Subject(s)
Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Live Birth/epidemiology , Parturition , Pregnancy , Prevalence , Spatial Analysis
6.
J Virol ; 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910950

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) infection during pregnancy has been linked to congenital abnormalities such as microcephaly in infants. An efficacious vaccine is still desirable for preventing the potential recurrence of ZIKV epidemic. Here, we report the generation of an attenuated ZIKV (rGZ02a) that has sharply decreased virulence in mice but grows to high titers in Vero cells, a widely approved cell line for manufacturing human vaccines. Compared to the wild-type ZIKV (GZ02) and a plasmid-launched rGZ02p, rGZ02a has 3 unique amino acid alterations in the envelope (E, S304F), non-structural protein 1 (NS1, R103K), and NS5 (W637R). rGZ02a is more sensitive to type I interferon than GZ02 and rGZ02p, and causes no severe neurological disorders in either wild-type neonatal C57BL/6 mice or type I interferon receptor knock-out (Ifnar1-/- ) C57BL/6 mice. Immunization with rGZ02a elicits robust inhibitory antibody responses with a certain long-term durability. Neonates born to the immunized dams are effectively protected against ZIKV-caused neurological disorders and brain damage. rGZ02a as a booster vaccine greatly improves the protective immunity primed by Ad2-prME, an adenovirus vectored vaccine expressing ZIKV prM and E proteins. Our results illustrate that rGZ02a-induced maternal immunity can be transferred to the neonates and confer effective protection. Hence, rGZ02a may be developed as an alternative live-attenuated vaccine and warrants a further evaluation.IMPORTANCEZika virus (ZIKV), a mosquito-borne flavivirus that has caused global outbreaks since 2013, is associated with severe neurological disorders such as Guillian-Barré syndrome in adults and microcephaly in infants. The ZIKV epidemic has gradually subsided, but a safe and effective vaccine is still desirable to prevent its potential recurrence, especially in endemic countries with competent mosquito vectors. Here, we describe a novel live-attenuated ZIKV, rGZ02a, that carries 3 unique amino acid alterations compared to the wild-type GZ02 and a plasmid-launched rGZ02p. The growth capacity of rGZ02a is comparable to GZ02 in Vero cells, but the pathogenicity is significantly attenuated in two mice models. Immunization with rGZ02a elicits robust inhibitory antibody responses in the dams and effectively protects their offspring against ZIKV disease. Importantly, in a heterologous prime-boost regimen, rGZ02a effectively boosts the protective immunity primed by an adenovirus vectored vaccine. Thus, rGZ02a is a promising candidate for live-attenuated ZIKV vaccine.

7.
Virus Res ; : 198388, 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33887282

ABSTRACT

The 2015/16 Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic led to almost 1 million confirmed cases in 84 countries and was associated to the development of congenital microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. More recently, a ZIKV African lineage was identified in Brazil raising concerns about a future outbreak. The long-term consequences of viral infection emphasizes the need for the development of effective anti-ZIKV drugs. In this study, we developed and characterized a ZIKV replicon cell line for the screening of viral replication inhibitors. The replicon system was developed by engineering the IRES-Neo cassette into the 3' UTR terminus of the ZIKV Rluc DNA construct. After in vitro transcription, replicon RNA was used to transfect BHK-21 cells, that were selected with G418, thus generating the BHK-21-RepZIKV_IRES-Neo cell line. Through this replicon-based cell system, we identified two molecules with potent anti-ZIKV activities, an imidazonaphthyridine and a riminophenazine, both from the MMV/DNDi Pandemic Response Box library of 400 drug-like compounds. The imidazonaphthyridine, known as RO8191, showed remarkable selectivity against ZIKV, while the riminophenazine, the antibiotic Clofazimine, could act as a non-nucleoside analog inhibitor of viral RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp), as evidenced both in vitro and in silico. The data showed herein supports the use of replicon-based assays in high-throughput screening format as a biosafe and reliable tool for antiviral drug discovery.

8.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33916084

ABSTRACT

This cohort profile aims to describe the ongoing follow-up of children in the Microcephaly Epidemic Research Group Paediatric Cohort (MERG-PC). The profile details the context and aims of the study, study population, methodology including assessments, and key results and publications to date. The children that make up MERG-PC were born in Recife or within 120 km of the city, in Pernambuco/Brazil, the epicentre of the microcephaly epidemic. MERG-PC includes children from four groups recruited at different stages of the ZIKV microcephaly epidemic in Pernambuco, i.e., the Outpatient Group (OG/n = 195), the Microcephaly Case-Control Study (MCCS/n = 80), the MERG Pregnant Women Cohort (MERG-PWC/n = 336), and the Control Group (CG/n = 100). We developed a comprehensive array of clinical, laboratory, and imaging assessments that were undertaken by a 'task force' of clinical specialists in a single day at 3, 6, 12, 18 months of age, and annually from 24 months. Children from MCCS and CG had their baseline assessment at birth and children from the other groups, at the first evaluation by the task force. The baseline cohort includes 711 children born between February 2015 and February 2019. Children's characteristics at baseline, excluding CG, were as follows: 32.6% (184/565) had microcephaly, 47% (263/559) had at least one physical abnormality, 29.5% (160/543) had at least one neurological abnormality, and 46.2% (257/556) had at least one ophthalmological abnormality. This ongoing cohort has contributed to the understanding of the congenital Zika syndrome (CZS) spectrum. The cohort has provided descriptions of paediatric neurodevelopment and early epilepsy, including EEG patterns and treatment response, and information on the frequency and characteristics of oropharyngeal dysphagia; cryptorchidism and its surgical findings; endocrine dysfunction; and adenoid hypertrophy in children with Zika-related microcephaly. The study protocols and questionnaires were shared across Brazilian states to enable harmonization across the different studies investigating microcephaly and CZS, providing the opportunity for the Zika Brazilian Cohorts Consortium to be formed, uniting all the ZIKV clinical cohorts in Brazil.

9.
BMJ Glob Health ; 6(4)2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33849897

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: There has been no systematic comparison of how the policy response to past infectious disease outbreaks and epidemics was funded. This study aims to collate and analyse funding for the Ebola epidemic and Zika outbreak between 2014 and 2019 in order to understand the shortcomings in funding reporting and suggest improvements. METHODS: Data were collected via a literature review and analysis of financial reporting databases, including both amounts donated and received. Funding information from three financial databases was analysed: Institute of Health Metrics and Evaluation's Development Assistance for Health database, the Georgetown Infectious Disease Atlas and the United Nations Financial Tracking Service. A systematic literature search strategy was devised and applied to seven databases: MEDLINE, EMBASE, HMIC, Global Health, Scopus, Web of Science and EconLit. Funding information was extracted from articles meeting the eligibility criteria and measures were taken to avoid double counting. Funding was collated, then amounts and purposes were compared within, and between, data sources. RESULTS: Large differences between funding reported by different data sources, and variations in format and methodology, made it difficult to arrive at precise estimates of funding amounts and purpose. Total disbursements reported by the databases ranged from $2.5 to $3.2 billion for Ebola and $150-$180 million for Zika. Total funding reported in the literature is greater than reported in databases, suggesting that databases may either miss funding, or that literature sources overreport. Databases and literature disagreed on the main purpose of funding for socioeconomic recovery versus outbreak response. One of the few consistent findings across data sources and diseases is that the USA was the largest donor. CONCLUSION: Implementation of several recommendations would enable more effective mapping and deployment of outbreak funding for response activities relating to COVID-19 and future epidemics.


Subject(s)
Disease Outbreaks/economics , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/economics , Zika Virus Infection/economics , Ebolavirus , Hemorrhagic Fever, Ebola/epidemiology , Humans , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33802042

ABSTRACT

Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental condition of the central nervous system (CNS) that presents with severe communication problems, impairment of social interactions, and stereotypic behaviours. Emerging studies indicate possible associations between viral infections and neurodegenerative and neurobehavioural conditions including autism. Viral infection during critical periods of early in utero neurodevelopment may lead to increased risk of autism in the offspring. This review is aimed at highlighting the association between viral infections, including viruses similar to COVID-19, and the aetiology of autism. A literature search was conducted using Pubmed, Ovid/Medline, and Google Scholar database. Relevant search terms included "rubella and autism", "cytomegalovirus and autism", "influenza virus and autism", "Zika virus and autism", "COVID-19 and autism". Based on the search terms, a total of 141 articles were obtained and studies on infants or children with congenital or perinatal viral infection and autistic behaviour were evaluated. The possible mechanisms by which viral infections could lead to autism include direct teratogenic effects and indirect effects of inflammation or maternal immune activation on the developing brain. Brain imaging studies have shown that the ensuing immune response from these viral infections could lead to disruption of the development of brain regions and structures. Hence, long-term follow up is necessary for infants whose mothers report an inflammatory event due to viral infection at any time during pregnancy to monitor for signs of autism. Research into the role of viral infection in the development of ASD may be one avenue of improving ASD outcomes in the future. Early screening and diagnosis to detect, and maybe even prevent ASD are essential to reduce the burden of this condition.


Subject(s)
Autism Spectrum Disorder , Autistic Disorder , Virus Diseases , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Autism Spectrum Disorder/epidemiology , Autism Spectrum Disorder/etiology , Autistic Disorder/epidemiology , Autistic Disorder/etiology , Child , Female , Humans , Infant , Pregnancy , Virus Diseases/epidemiology
11.
Viruses ; 13(4)2021 04 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33924302

ABSTRACT

The emergence or re-emergence of viruses with epidemic and/or pandemic potential, such as Ebola, Zika, Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV), Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 1 and 2 (SARS and SARS-CoV-2) viruses, or new strains of influenza represents significant human health threats due to the absence of available treatments. Vaccines represent a key answer to control these viruses. However, in the case of a public health emergency, vaccine development, safety, and partial efficacy concerns may hinder their prompt deployment. Thus, developing broad-spectrum antiviral molecules for a fast response is essential to face an outbreak crisis as well as for bioweapon countermeasures. So far, broad-spectrum antivirals include two main categories: the family of drugs targeting the host-cell machinery essential for virus infection and replication, and the family of drugs directly targeting viruses. Among the molecules directly targeting viruses, nucleoside analogues form an essential class of broad-spectrum antiviral drugs. In this review, we will discuss the interest for broad-spectrum antiviral strategies and their limitations, with an emphasis on virus-targeted, broad-spectrum, antiviral nucleoside analogues and their mechanisms of action.

12.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(3)2021 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808706

ABSTRACT

The neurological complications of infection by the mosquito-borne Zika virus (ZIKV) include Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuritis. GBS was first associated with recent ZIKV epidemics caused by the emergence of the ZIKV Asian lineage in South Pacific. Here, we hypothesize that ZIKV-associated GBS relates to a molecular mimicry between viral envelope E (E) protein and neural proteins involved in GBS. The analysis of the ZIKV epidemic strains showed that the glycan loop (GL) region of the E protein includes an IVNDT motif which is conserved in voltage-dependent L-type calcium channel subunit alpha-1C (Cav1.2) and Heat Shock 70 kDa protein 12A (HSP70 12A). Both VSCC-alpha 1C and HSP70 12A belong to protein families which have been associated with neurological autoimmune diseases in central nervous system. The purpose of our in silico analysis is to point out that IVNDT motif of ZIKV E-GL region should be taken in consideration for the development of safe and effective anti-Zika vaccines by precluding the possibility of adverse neurologic events including autoimmune diseases such as GBS through a potent mimicry with Heat Shock 70 kDa protein 12A (HSP70 12A).

13.
Rev Saude Publica ; 55: 15, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909869

ABSTRACT

We report cognitive, language and motor neurodevelopment, assessed by the Bayley-III test, in 31 non-microcephalic children at age 3 with PCR-confirmed maternal Zika virus exposure (Rio de Janeiro, 2015-2016). Most children had average neurodevelopmental scores, however, 8 children (26%) presented delay in some domain. Language was the most affected: 7 children (22.6%) had a delay in this domain (2 presenting severe delay). Moderate delay was detected in the cognitive (3.2%) and motor (10%) domains. Maternal illness in the third trimester of pregnancy and later gestational age at birth were associated with higher Bayley-III scores. Zika-exposed children require long-term follow-up until school age.


Subject(s)
Neurodevelopmental Disorders , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Neurodevelopmental Disorders/etiology , Pregnancy , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
15.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 Apr 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33922578

ABSTRACT

The Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic in Brazil occurred in regions where dengue viruses (DENV) are historically endemic. We investigated the differences in adverse pregnancy/infant outcomes in two cohorts comprising 114 pregnant women with PCR-confirmed ZIKV infection in Rio de Janeiro, Southeastern Brazil (n = 50) and Manaus, in the north region of the country (n = 64). Prior exposure to DENV was evaluated through plaque reduction neutralizing antibody assays (PRNT 80) and DENV IgG serologies. Potential associations between pregnancy outcomes and Zika attack rates in the two cities were explored. Overall, 31 women (27%) had adverse pregnancy/infant outcomes, 27 in Rio (54%) and 4 in Manaus (6%), p < 0.001. This included 4 pregnancy losses (13%) and 27 infants with abnormalities at birth (24%). A total of 93 women (82%) had evidence of prior DENV exposure, 45 in Rio (90%) and 48 in Manaus (75%). Zika attack rates differed; the rate in Rio was 10.28 cases/10,000 and in Manaus, 0.6 cases/10,000, p < 0.001. Only Zika attack rates (Odds Ratio: 17.6, 95% Confidence Interval 5.6-55.9, p < 0.001) and infection in the first trimester of pregnancy (OR: 4.26, 95% CI 1.4-12.9, p = 0.011) were associated with adverse pregnancy and infant outcomes. Pre-existing immunity to DENV was not associated with outcomes (normal or abnormal) in patients with ZIKV infection during pregnancy.

16.
Viruses ; 13(3)2021 03 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808725

ABSTRACT

The rapid spread of the virus in Latin America and the association of the infection with microcephaly in newborns or Guillain-Barré Syndrome in adults prompted the WHO to declare the Zika virus (ZIKV) epidemic to be an international public health emergency in 2016. As the virus was first discovered in monkeys and is spread not only by mosquitos but also from human to human, we investigated the stability to the human complement of ZIKV derived from mosquito (ZIKVInsect), monkey (ZIKVVero), or human cells (ZIKVA549 and ZIKVFibro), respectively. At a low serum concentration (10%), which refers to complement concentrations found on mucosal surfaces, the virus was relatively stable at 37 °C. At higher complement levels (up to 50% serum concentration), ZIKV titers differed significantly depending on the cell line used for the propagation of the virus. While the viral titer of ZIKVInsect decreased about two orders in magnitude, when incubated with human serum, the virus derived from human cells was more resistant to complement-mediated lysis (CML). By virus-capture assay and Western blots, the complement regulator protein CD55 was identified to be incorporated into the viral envelope. Blocking of CD55 by neutralizing Abs significantly increased the sensitivity to human complement. Taken together, these data indicate that the incorporation of CD55 from human cells contributes to the stability of ZIKV against complement-mediated virolysis.

17.
Braz Oral Res ; 35: e043, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33909865

ABSTRACT

Numerous studies have reported abnormalities in the development of oral structures in congenital infections that also involve microcephaly. In this context, it is necessary to identify possible dental anomalies of shape and/or number in patients with Zika virus syndrome using radiography. The study population consisted of 35 children born with congenital ZIKV who underwent intraoral radiographic examinations for 24 consecutive months. A modified periapical technique was performed in an occlusal position for the maxilla and mandible. Categorical data were expressed as absolute and percentage frequencies and compared using Pearson's Chi-square test, with a 95% confidence interval. Of the entire sample, eight children (22.8%) had dental anomalies of shape and/or number, and four children (11.4%) presented with both anomalies, with agenesis of the upper and lower deciduous/permanent incisors and dental form modifications, such as microdontia and anomalous cusps. When we considered age and sex, there was no statistically significant difference between patients who presented with agenesis and those who presented with modifications. Children with congenital Zika virus syndrome were more likely to have dental modifications in the number and shape of their teeth, and it is essential to implement medium- to long-term monitoring to diagnose other possible alterations throughout the development of the mixed and permanent dentition, favoring their treatment.


Subject(s)
Microcephaly , Tooth Abnormalities , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Child , Humans , Mandible , Microcephaly/diagnostic imaging , Tooth Abnormalities/diagnostic imaging , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/diagnostic imaging , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
18.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6770, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762667

ABSTRACT

Zika virus was responsible for the microcephaly epidemic in Brazil which began in October 2015 and brought great challenges to the scientific community and health professionals in terms of diagnosis and classification. Due to the difficulties in correctly identifying Zika cases, it is necessary to develop an automatic procedure to classify the probability of a CZS case from the clinical data. This work presents a machine learning algorithm capable of achieving this from structured and unstructured available data. The proposed algorithm reached 83% accuracy with textual information in medical records and image reports and 76% accuracy in classifying data without textual information. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has the potential to classify CZS cases in order to clarify the real effects of this epidemic, as well as to contribute to health surveillance in monitoring possible future epidemics.

19.
BMC Med Res Methodol ; 21(1): 50, 2021 03 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706715

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Outbreaks of infectious diseases generate outbreaks of scientific evidence. In 2016 epidemics of Zika virus emerged, and in 2020, a novel severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) caused a pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We compared patterns of scientific publications for the two infections to analyse the evolution of the evidence. METHODS: We annotated publications on Zika virus and SARS-CoV-2 that we collected using living evidence databases according to study design. We used descriptive statistics to categorise and compare study designs over time. RESULTS: We found 2286 publications about Zika virus in 2016 and 21,990 about SARS-CoV-2 up to 24 May 2020, of which we analysed a random sample of 5294 (24%). For both infections, there were more epidemiological than laboratory science studies. Amongst epidemiological studies for both infections, case reports, case series and cross-sectional studies emerged first, cohort and case-control studies were published later. Trials were the last to emerge. The number of preprints was much higher for SARS-CoV-2 than for Zika virus. CONCLUSIONS: Similarities in the overall pattern of publications might be generalizable, whereas differences are compatible with differences in the characteristics of a disease. Understanding how evidence accumulates during disease outbreaks helps us understand which types of public health questions we can answer and when.


Subject(s)
/prevention & control , Publications/statistics & numerical data , Publications/trends , Zika Virus Infection/prevention & control , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , /epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pandemics , Periodicals as Topic/statistics & numerical data , Periodicals as Topic/trends , Zika Virus/physiology , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology , Zika Virus Infection/virology
20.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e08372020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656154

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluated the epidemiological implications of arbovirus infections and coronavirus disease (COVID-19) co-occurrences in Espírito Santo, Brazil. METHODS: This ecological study of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19 was performed from January 1 to July 31, 2020. RESULTS: Espírito Santo registered 44,614, 8,092, 3,138, and 91,483 cases of dengue, chikungunya, zika, and COVID-19, respectively (January-July, 2020). In the 27 and four municipalities with a high incidence of dengue and chikungunya, respectively, the incidence of COVID-19 was 647.0-3,721.7 and 1,787.2-3,403.0 cases per 100,000 inhabitants, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Espírito Santo experienced an overlap of epidemics, especially in urban areas.


Subject(s)
Chikungunya Fever , Coronavirus , Dengue , Epidemics , Zika Virus Infection , Zika Virus , Brazil/epidemiology , Chikungunya Fever/epidemiology , Dengue/epidemiology , Humans , Zika Virus Infection/complications , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
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