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1.
Rev Soc Bras Med Trop ; 54: e0891 2020, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33950132

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Cerebrospinal fluid analysis contributes to the diagnosis and neuropathogenesis of neuroinvasive arboviruses. Neurological complications caused by dengue, Zika, and chikungunya infections have high clinical relevance because of their high potential to cause death or neurological deficits. We aimed to evaluate the use of cerebrospinal fluid assays for diagnostic support in neurological disorders associated with dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections. METHODS: A systematic review was carried out by searching the electronic databases LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, and Embase for articles written in English, Portuguese, or Spanish in the last 19 years. Published studies were reviewed using the terms "dengue," "Zika", "chikungunya", alone or in combination with "cerebrospinal fluid" in the period from 2000 to 2019. RESULTS: A total of 98,060 studies were identified; of these, 1.1% (1,041 studies, 58,478 cases) used cerebrospinal fluid assays for neurological investigations. The most frequent neurological disorders included encephalitis (41.4%), congenital syndromes (17%), and microcephaly associated with Zika virus infections (8.9%). Neuroinvasive disorders were confirmed in 8.03% of 58,478 cases by specific cerebrospinal fluid analyses. The main methods used were IgM-specific antibodies (66%) and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (10%). The largest number of scientific papers (29%) originated from Brazil, followed by India (18.4%) and the United States (14.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Although cerebrospinal fluid analysis is of great importance for increasing neurological diagnostic accuracy and contributes to the early diagnosis of neuroinvasive dengue, chikungunya, and Zika infections, it is underused in routine laboratory investigations worldwide.

2.
Analyst ; 146(9): 2928-2935, 2021 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33949387

ABSTRACT

Enhanced electrochemiluminescence (ECL) signals of CdS quantum dots capped with 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA@CdS QDs) have been observed after using N-(3-dimethylaminopropyl)-N'-ethylcarbodiimide (EDC) to activate the carboxyl groups. The generated ECL signals are strong enough that their images can be captured using a Huawei mobile phone. A possible mechanism for the generation of enhanced ECL signals has been proposed. Then, a sandwich immunosensor platform for detecting Zika virus (ZIKV) was fabricated with silica microspheres as the carrier and MPA@CdS QDs as ECL signal labels. Due to the dual signal amplification of EDC activation and microsphere enrichment, good linearity from 1.0 fg mL-1 to 1.0 ng mL-1 was exhibited by the QD-based ECL immunosensor for ZIKV detection. The detection limit was 0.3 fg mL-1.

3.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 2021 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872214

ABSTRACT

The objective of the study was to describe the complexity of diagnosis and evaluation of Zika-exposed pregnant women/fetuses and infants in a U.S. Congenital Zika Program. Pregnant women/fetuses and/or infants referred for clinical evaluation to the Congenital Zika Program at Children's National (Washington, DC) from January 2016 to June 2018 were included. We recorded the timing of maternal Zika-virus (ZIKV) exposure and ZIKV laboratory testing results. Based on laboratory testing, cases were either confirmed, possible, or unlikely ZIKV infection. Prenatal and postnatal imaging by ultrasound and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) were categorized as normal, nonspecific, or as findings of congenital Zika syndrome (CZS). Of 81 women-fetus/infant pairs evaluated, 72 (89%) had confirmed ZIKV exposure; 18% of women were symptomatic; only a minority presented for evaluation within the time frame for laboratory detection. Zika virus could only be confirmed in 29 (40%) cases, was possible in 26 (36%) cases, and was excluded in 17 (24%) cases. Five cases (7%) had prenatal ultrasound and MRI findings of CZS, but in only three was ZIKV confirmed by laboratory testing. Because of timing of exposure to presentation, ZIKV infection could not be excluded in many cases. Neuroimaging found CZS in 7% of cases, and in many patients, there were nonspecific imaging findings that warrant long-term follow-up. Overall, adherence to postnatal recommended follow-up evaluations was modest, representing a barrier to care. These challenges may be instructive to future pediatric multidisciplinary clinics for congenital infectious/noninfectious threats to pregnant women and their infants.

4.
Biomed Microdevices ; 23(2): 24, 2021 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33855638

ABSTRACT

This article describes the fabrication of a low-cost Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) instrument to detect diseases. In order to reduce the instrument price and simplify construction we developed an alternative fabrication process, transforming conventional printed circuit boards (PCB) in heating elements, avoiding the use of aluminum heating/cooling blocks and Peltier devices. To cool down the reaction a simple computer fan was used. The vial holder was fabricated using two double side PCB boards assembled in a sandwich-like configuration. The bottom PCB has a resistance of 0.9 Ω used to heat the reaction mix, while the top layer has a resistance of 1.1 Ω to heat the vial body, preventing vapor condensation. The top board was maintained at ~ 110 ± 1 °C during all cycles. The final device was able to heat and cool down the reaction at rates of ~ 2.0 °C/s, a rate comparable to commercial thermocyclers. An SMD NTC thermistor was used as temperature sensors, and a PID (proportional-integral-derivative) control algorithm was implemented to acquire and precisely control the temperature. We also discuss how the instrument is calibrated. The device was tested successfully for the amplification of T. pallidum (Syphilis) bacterial DNA and Zika virus RNA samples, showing similar performance to a commercial PCR instrument.

5.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(5): 1427-1437, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33900180

ABSTRACT

Dengue virus (DENV) and Zika virus (ZIKV) belong to the Flaviviridae family of viruses spread by Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in tropical and subtropical areas. Accurate diagnostic tests to differentiate the 2 infections are necessary for patient management and disease control. Using characterized ZIKV and DENV patient plasma in a blind manner, we validated an ELISA and a rapid immunochromatographic test for ZIKV detection. We engineered the ZIKV nonstructural protein 1 (NS1) for sensitive serologic detection with low cross reactivity against dengue and developed monoclonal antibodies specific for the ZIKV NS1 antigen. As expected, the serologic assays performed better with convalescent than acute plasma samples; the sensitivity ranged from 71% to 88%, depending on the performance of individual tests (IgM/IgG/NS1). Although serologic tests were generally less sensitive with acute samples, our ZIKV NS1 antibodies were able to complement the serologic tests to achieve greater sensitivity for detecting early infections.

6.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009307, 2021 Apr 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33901172

ABSTRACT

Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have the potential to identify infectious diseases quickly, minimize disease transmission, and could complement and improve surveillance and control of infectious and vector-borne diseases during outbreaks. The U.S. Defense Threat Reduction Agency's Joint Science and Technology Office (DTRA-JSTO) program set out to develop novel point-of-need RDTs for infectious diseases and deploy them for home use with no training. The aim of this formative study was to address two questions: 1) could community members in Iquitos, Peru and Phnom Penh, Cambodia competently use RDTs of different levels of complexity at home with visually based instructions provided, and 2) if an RDT were provided at no cost, would it be used at home if family members displayed febrile symptoms? Test kits with written and video (Peru only) instructions were provided to community members (Peru [n = 202]; Cambodia [n = 50]) or community health workers (Cambodia [n = 45]), and trained observers evaluated the competency level for each of the several steps required to successfully operate one of two multiplex RDTs on themselves or other consenting participant (i.e., family member). In Iquitos, >80% of residents were able to perform 11/12 steps and 7/15 steps for the two- and five-pathogen test, respectively. Competency in Phnom Penh never reached 80% for any of the 12 or 15 steps for either test; the percentage of participants able to perform a step ranged from 26-76% and 23-72%, for the two- and five-pathogen tests, respectively. Commercially available NS1 dengue rapid tests were distributed, at no cost, to households with confirmed exposure to dengue or Zika virus; of 14 febrile cases reported, six used the provided RDT. Our findings support the need for further implementation research on the appropriate level of instructions or training needed for diverse devices in different settings, as well as how to best integrate RDTs into existing local public health and disease surveillance programs at a large scale.

7.
Expert Rev Mol Diagn ; 2021 Apr 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33910444

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Molecular technology has played an important role in arboviruses diagnostics. PCR-based methods stand out in terms of sensitivity, specificity, cost, robustness, and accessibility, and especially the isothermal amplification (IA) method is ideal for field-adaptable diagnostics in resource-limited settings (RLS). AREAS COVERED: In this review, we provide an overview of the various molecular methods for West Nile, Zika, Dengue and Chikungunya. We summarize literature works reporting the assessment and use of in house and commercial assays. We describe limitations and challenges in the usage of methods and opportunities for novel approaches such as Next Generation Sequencing (NGS). EXPERT OPINION: The rapidity and accuracy of differential diagnosis is essential for a successful clinical management, particularly in co-circulation area of arboviruses. Several commercial diagnostic molecular assays are available, but many are not affordable by RLS and not usable as Point-of-care/Point-of-need (POC/PON) such as Real Time RT-PCR, Array-based methods and NGS. In contrast, the IA-based system fits better for POC/PON but it is still not ideal for the multiplexing detection system. Improvement in the characterization and validation of current molecular assays is needed to optimize their translation to the point of care.

8.
PLoS One ; 16(4): e0249602, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33793682

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Early and rapid confirmation of dengue infections strengthens disease surveillance program and are critical to the success of vector control measures. Rapid diagnostics tests (RDTs) are increasingly used to confirm recent dengue infections due to their ease of use and short turnaround time for results. Several studies undertaken in dengue-endemic Southeast Asia have reported the performance of RDTs against enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and virus isolation methods. However, few studies have compared multiple RDTs for the detection of dengue NS1 antigen and IgM antibody in a single combo cassette. We evaluated six RDTs in Singapore for their utility in routine clinical testing to detect recent dengue infections. METHODS: The evaluation comprised two phases. The first phase sought to determine each RDT's specificity to dengue NS1 and IgM using zika and chikungunya virus supernatant and zika convalescent samples. RDTs that cross-reacted with zika or chikungunya were not further tested in phase 2. The second phase sought to determine the sensitivity and specificity of the remaining RDTs to dengue NS1 and IgM using pre-characterised dengue specimens and non-dengue/chikungunya febrile clinical specimens. RESULTS: None of the RDTs cross-reacted with zika IgM in Phase 1. Truquick and Quickprofile cross reacted with zika and chikungunya viruses and were not evaluated thereafter. Standard Q had the highest dengue NS1 and IgM sensitivity at 87.0% and 84.3% respectively whereas Bioline (68.5%) and Multisure (58.3%) had the lowest dengue NS1 and IgM sensitivity respectively. Combining dengue NS1/IgM detection results greatly improved the RDT ability to detect recent dengue infection; Standard Q had the highest sensitivity at 99.1% while Multisure had the lowest at 92.6%. All the RDTs were highly specific for dengue NS1 and IgM (96.7% to 100%). All the RDTs had high positive predictive values (98.4% to 100%) for NS1, IgM and combined NS1/IgM parameters whereas Standard Q had the highest negative predictive values at 68.2% (NS1), 63.8% (IgM) and 96.8% (NS1/IgM). For the RDTs, detection of NS1 declined from acute to convalescent phase of illness whereas IgM detection rate gradually increased over time. CONCLUSION: In our study, several RDTs were evaluated for their diagnostic accuracy and capability in detecting recent dengue infection. Standard Q demonstrated a high degree of diagnostic accuracy and capability in the detection of NS1 and IgM biomarkers. RDTs can provide rapid and accurate confirmation of recent dengue infections and augment dengue surveillance and control programmes. Further studies are required to assess the usefulness of these RDTs in other epidemiology settings.

9.
Microorganisms ; 9(4)2021 Mar 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33808104

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 and arboviruses (ARBOD) epidemics co-occurrence is a great concern. In tropical and subtropical regions, ARBOD diseases such as chikungunya, dengue, and Zika are frequent. In both COVID-19 and ARBOD cases, an accurate diagnosis of infected patients is crucial to promote adequate treatment and isolation measures in COVID-19 cases. Overlap of clinical symptoms and laboratory parameters between COVID-19 and ARBOD present themselves as an extra challenge during diagnosis. COVID-19 diagnosis is mainly performed by quantitative reverse polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), while ARBOD diagnosis is performed by serology, detection of antigen or antibody, and molecular diagnosis. In this review, the epidemiologic profile of arboviruses and SARS-CoV-2 is analyzed, and potential risks of symptom overlap is addressed. The implementation of an analytical platform based on infrared (IR) spectroscopy, MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, and RT-qPCR is discussed as an efficient strategy for a fast, robust, reliable, and cost-effective diagnosis system even during the co-occurrence of virus outbreaks. The spectral data of IR spectroscopy and MALDI-TOF MS obtained from COVID-19 infected and recovered patients can be used to build up an integrated spectral database. This approach can enable us to determine quickly the groups that have been exposed and have recovered from COVID-19 or ARBOD, avoiding misdiagnoses.

10.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(4): e0009336, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33872309

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological diagnosis of Zika virus (ZIKV) infection is challenging because of the antibody cross-reactivity among flaviviruses. At the same time, the role of Nucleic Acid Testing (NAT) is limited by the low proportion of symptomatic infections and the low average viral load. Here, we compared the diagnostic performance of commercially available IgM, IgAM, and IgG ELISAs in sequential samples during the ZIKV and chikungunya (CHIKV) epidemics and co-circulation of dengue virus (DENV) in Brazil and Venezuela. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Acute (day of illness 1-5) and follow-up (day of illness ≥ 6) blood samples were collected from nine hundred and seven symptomatic patients enrolled in a prospective multicenter study between June 2012 and August 2016. Acute samples were tested by RT-PCR for ZIKV, DENV, and CHIKV. Acute and follow-up samples were tested for IgM, IgAM, and IgG antibodies to ZIKV using commercially available ELISAs. Among follow-up samples with a RT-PCR confirmed ZIKV infection, anti-ZIKV IgAM sensitivity was 93.5% (43/46), while IgM and IgG exhibited sensitivities of 30.3% (10/33) and 72% (18/25), respectively. An additional 24% (26/109) of ZIKV infections were detected via IgAM seroconversion in ZIKV/DENV/CHIKV RT-PCR negative patients. The specificity of anti-ZIKV IgM was estimated at 93% and that of IgAM at 85%. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our findings exemplify the challenges of the assessment of test performance for ZIKV serological tests in the real-world setting, during co-circulation of DENV, ZIKV, and CHIKV. However, we can also demonstrate that the IgAM immunoassay exhibits superior sensitivity to detect ZIKV RT-PCR confirmed infections compared to IgG and IgM immunoassays. The IgAM assay also proves to be promising for detection of anti-ZIKV seroconversions in sequential samples, both in ZIKV PCR-positive as well as PCR-negative patients, making this a candidate assay for serological monitoring of pregnant women in future ZIKV outbreaks.

11.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 6770, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33762667

ABSTRACT

Zika virus was responsible for the microcephaly epidemic in Brazil which began in October 2015 and brought great challenges to the scientific community and health professionals in terms of diagnosis and classification. Due to the difficulties in correctly identifying Zika cases, it is necessary to develop an automatic procedure to classify the probability of a CZS case from the clinical data. This work presents a machine learning algorithm capable of achieving this from structured and unstructured available data. The proposed algorithm reached 83% accuracy with textual information in medical records and image reports and 76% accuracy in classifying data without textual information. Therefore, the proposed algorithm has the potential to classify CZS cases in order to clarify the real effects of this epidemic, as well as to contribute to health surveillance in monitoring possible future epidemics.

12.
J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med ; : 1-7, 2021 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33781162

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) is a widespread flavivirus transmitted to humans through the bite of Aedes mosquitoes. The number of ZIKV cases increased significantly between 2015 and 2016, and Brazil was the first to report autochthonous transmission of infection. The main neurological disorder related to ZIKV infection is microcephaly. Fetal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the gold standard examination for the analysis of fetal brain infection, followed by obstetric ultrasonography. Cerebral atrophy, intracranial calcifications, ventriculomegaly, cerebellar, and brain gyrus abnormalities are some of the most common findings. Postnatal MRI shows high sensitivity and specificity. Corpus callosum abnormalities, cerebellar hypoplasia, and choroid plexus dilation can be also observed. We present a review of congenital ZIKV infection with emphasis on pre and postnatal brain findings using ultrasonography, MRI, computed tomography, and three-dimensional reconstruction models.

13.
Pathog Glob Health ; 115(3): 188-195, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33645470

ABSTRACT

Mayaro virus, which can often go undetected due to its clinical manifestations and intimate alignment with dengue and chikungunya viruses, is one of the most neglected arboviruses. The virus has been found in several outbreaks, where a moderate-to-severe and potentially incapacitating joint disease has been observed. MAYV usually circulates in a sylvan cycle of forest mosquitoes and vertebrates, causing sporadic sylvatic infections to humans, and some outbreaks in sub-urban areas. This study focuses on the demonstration of the possible co-circulation of Mayaro virus with chikungunya virus and Zika virus during the outbreaks that occurred in Trinidad and Tobago in 2014 and 2016, respectively. Acute samples from patients who previously tested negative for chikungunya, dengue, and Zika, and specifically exhibiting joint pain were selected and investigated for the presence of Mayaro virus genome using real-time RT-PCR techniques. Nine persons were shown to be positive for Mayaro virus during the chikungunya outbreak of 2014, while no one during the Zika outbreak in 2016. Five results correspond to persons living in highly urbanized areas across Trinidad. These findings provide evidence that multiple arboviral circulations are possible and could easily go undetected especially during outbreak situations. Our study is the first to demonstrate the possible co-circulation of Mayaro and chikungunya viruses and the occurrence of human cases for both diseases during an outbreak in the Caribbean. A possible change in the pattern of distribution of human cases to more urbanized areas is also discussed.

14.
Biosens Bioelectron ; 180: 113112, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706158

ABSTRACT

Infectious diseases caused by viruses can elevate up to undesired pandemic conditions affecting the global population and normal life function. These in turn impact the established world economy, create jobless situations, physical, mental, emotional stress, and challenge the human survival. Therefore, timely detection, treatment, isolation and prevention of spreading the pandemic infectious diseases not beyond the originated town is critical to avoid global impairment of life (e.g., Corona virus disease - 2019, COVID-19). The objective of this review article is to emphasize the recent advancements in the electrochemical diagnostics of twelve life-threatening viruses namely - COVID-19, Middle east respiratory syndrome (MERS), Severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS), Influenza, Hepatitis, Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), Human papilloma virus (HPV), Zika virus, Herpes simplex virus, Chikungunya, Dengue, and Rotavirus. This review describes the design, principle, underlying rationale, receptor, and mechanistic aspects of sensor systems reported for such viruses. Electrochemical sensor systems which comprised either antibody or aptamers or direct/mediated electron transfer in the recognition matrix were explicitly segregated into separate sub-sections for critical comparison. This review emphasizes the current challenges involved in translating laboratory research to real-world device applications, future prospects and commercialization aspects of electrochemical diagnostic devices for virus detection. The background and overall progress provided in this review are expected to be insightful to the researchers in sensor field and facilitate the design and fabrication of electrochemical sensors for life-threatening viruses with broader applicability to any desired pathogens.


Subject(s)
Biosensing Techniques/methods , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Humans , Microfluidic Analytical Techniques , SELEX Aptamer Technique
15.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 25(1): 37-42, jan-abr. 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151406

ABSTRACT

As infecções ocasionadas pelos vírus da Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) e Chikungunya (CHIKV) em gestantes são de grande preocupação pelos possíveis danos causados pelos mesmos às mães e fetos. O ZIKV está relacionado à microcefalia e outras anomalias cerebrais graves em neonatos e a infecção por CHIKV em gestantes no período intraparto pode levar à transmissão vertical, com possibilidade de agravamento no quadro do neonato. E, apesar de ainda não haver relatos de ocorrência de malformações congênitas associadas à infecção por DENV em gestantes, as mesmas são consideradas um grupo de risco, pois apresentam maiores chances de evolução para formas graves ou óbito e aumento no risco de partos prematuros decorrente da infecção materna perinatal. Neste estudo, foi realizada uma análise retrospectiva dos resultados envolvendo os vírus DENV, ZIKV e CHIKV para determinar a taxa de positividade destas arboviroses em gestantes no município de São José do Rio Preto-SP, nos anos de 2018 e 2019. Para isso, foram coletados resultados de PCR em tempo real (RT-PCR) para DENV, ZIKV e CHIKV de amostras de soro e urina obtidas de 557 gestantes com histórico de febre, bem como 93 amostras de recém-nascidos (RN). Na análise dos resultados foi verificado que o sorotipo-2 de Dengue (DENV-2) foi detectado em 106/557 correspondendo a 19% das amostras, o sorotipo-1 (DENV-1) foi detectado em apenas uma amostra e o ZIKV foi detectado em duas amostras. CHIKV não foi detectado. Não foi detectado arbovírus nas amostras de RN testadas pela técnica de RT-PCR. Quanto à idade, 40% das gestantes pertenciam à faixa etária de 25 a 32 anos, seguidas pelas faixas de 33 a 40 anos e 17 a 24 anos com percentuais de 31 e 29%, respectivamente. No período, uma gestante que estava na 13ª semana de gestação foi a óbito por DENV-2. Os resultados obtidos evidenciam a importância do diagnóstico precoce das arboviroses neste grupo, viabilizando a assistência adequada às gestantes. Nesse sentido, o monitoramento da circulação simultânea de arboviroses responsáveis por causarem complicações em gestantes e infecções congênitas deve continuar em áreas endêmicas como a de São José do Rio Preto, visando um diagnóstico materno precoce e manejo adequado de gestantes testadas positivas verificando a presença de sinais de alerta e de dengue grave.


Infections caused by Dengue (DENV), Zika (ZIKV) and Chikungunya (CHIKV) viruses in pregnant women represent great concern because of the possible damage that can be caused by these viruses to both mothers and fetuses. ZIKV is related to microcephaly and other severe brain abnormalities in neonates, while CHIKV infection in pregnant women in the intrapartum period can lead to vertical transmission, with the possibility of worsening in the neonate. And although there are no reports of congenital malformations associated with DENV infection in pregnant women, they are also considered of risk group, since they have greater probability to progress to severe forms or even death. In addition, there is an increased risk of premature childbirth. In this study, a retrospective result analysis involving DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV viruses was carried out to determine the positivity rate of those arboviruses in pregnant women in the city of São José do Rio Preto-SP, in the years 2018 and 2019. For this purpose, real-time PCR results (RT-PCR) were collected for DENV, ZIKV and CHIKV from serum and urine samples obtained from 557 pregnant women with a history of fever, as well as samples from 93 newborns (NB). Dengue serotype-2 (DENV-2) was detected in 106/557, which corresponds to 19% of the samples; dengue serotype-1 (DENV-1) was detected in only one sample, and the ZIKV was detected in two samples. CHIKV was not detected. Arboviruses were not detected in the NB samples tested by the RT-PCR technique. In relation to age groups, 40% of pregnant women were between 25 to 32 years old, followed by the groups of 33 to 40 years old, and 17 to 24 years old, with 31% and 29%, respectively. In the period, a pregnant woman who was in the 13th week of pregnancy died due to DENV-2. The results obtained emphasize the importance of the early diagnosis of arboviruses in this group, thus enabling adequate assistance to pregnant women. In this sense, the monitoring of arboviruses circulation responsible for causing complications and congenital infections in pregnant women should continue in endemic areas such as São José do Rio Preto, aiming at an early maternal diagnosis and adequate management of the patients who tested positive, checking for the presence of any alert signs and severe dengue.

16.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(2): e0009014, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33539393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Chikungunya, dengue, and Zika are three different arboviruses which have similar symptoms and are a major public health issue in Colombia. Despite the mandatory reporting of these arboviruses to the National Surveillance System in Colombia (SIVIGILA), it has been reported that the system captures less than 10% of diagnosed cases in some cities. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To assess the scope and degree of arboviruses reporting in Colombia between 2014-2017, we conducted an observational study of surveillance data using the capture-recapture approach in three Colombian cities. Using healthcare facility registries (capture data) and surveillance-notified cases (recapture data), we estimated the degree of reporting by clinical diagnosis. We fit robust Poisson regressions to identify predictors of reporting and estimated the predicted probability of reporting by disease and year. To account for the potential misclassification of the clinical diagnosis, we used the simulation extrapolation for misclassification (MC-SIMEX) method. A total of 266,549 registries were examined. Overall arboviruses' reporting ranged from 5.3% to 14.7% and varied in magnitude according to age and year of diagnosis. Dengue was the most notified disease (21-70%) followed by Zika (6-45%). The highest reporting rate was seen in 2016, an epidemic year. The MC-SIMEX corrected rates indicated underestimation of the reporting due to the potential misclassification bias. CONCLUSIONS: These findings reflect challenges on arboviruses' reporting, and therefore, potential challenges on the estimation of arboviral burden in Colombia and other endemic settings with similar surveillance systems.

17.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 4111, 2021 Feb 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33602985

ABSTRACT

We have previously developed and validated a one-step assay based on reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) for rapid detection of the Zika virus (ZIKV) from mosquito samples. Patient diagnosis of ZIKV is currently carried out in centralized laboratories using the reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR), which, while the gold standard molecular method, has several drawbacks for use in remote and low-resource settings, such as high cost and the need of specialized equipment. Point-of-care (POC) diagnostic platforms have the potential to overcome these limitations, especially in low-resource countries where ZIKV is endemic. With this in mind, here we optimized and validated our RT-LAMP assay for rapid detection of ZIKV from patient samples. We found that the assay detected ZIKV from diverse sample types (serum, urine, saliva, and semen) in as little as 20 min, without RNA extraction. The RT-LAMP assay was highly specific and up to 100 times more sensitive than RT-qPCR. We then validated the assay using 100 patient serum samples collected from suspected cases of arbovirus infection in the state of Pernambuco, which was at the epicenter of the last Zika epidemic. Analysis of the results, in comparison to RT-qPCR, found that the ZIKV RT-LAMP assay provided sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 93.75%, and an overall accuracy of 95.00%. Taken together, the RT-LAMP assay provides a straightforward and inexpensive alternative for the diagnosis of ZIKV from patients and has the potential to increase diagnostic capacity in ZIKV-affected areas, particularly in low and middle-income countries.

18.
Micromachines (Basel) ; 12(2)2021 Feb 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33578979

ABSTRACT

The last few decades have been plagued by viral outbreaks that present some of the biggest challenges to public safety. The current coronavirus (COVID-19) disease pandemic has exponentiated these concerns. Increased research on diagnostic tools is currently being implemented in order to assist with rapid identification of the virus, as mass diagnosis and containment is the best way to prevent the outbreak of the virus. Accordingly, there is a growing urgency to establish a point-of-care device for the rapid detection of coronavirus to prevent subsequent spread. This device needs to be sensitive, selective, and exhibit rapid diagnostic capabilities. Electrochemical biosensors have demonstrated these traits and, hence, serve as promising candidates for the detection of viruses. This review summarizes the designs and features of electrochemical biosensors developed for some past and current pandemic or epidemic viruses, including influenza, HIV, Ebola, and Zika. Alongside the design, this review also discusses the detection principles, fabrication techniques, and applications of the biosensors. Finally, research and perspective of biosensors as potential detection tools for the rapid identification of SARS-CoV-2 is discussed.

19.
Med Res Rev ; 2021 Feb 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33559917

ABSTRACT

Zika virus (ZIKV) has emerged as a particularly notorious mosquito-borne flavivirus, which can lead to a devastating congenital syndrome in the fetuses of pregnant mothers (e.g., microcephaly, spasticity, craniofacial disproportion, miscarriage, and ocular abnormalities) and cause the autoimmune disorder Guillain-Barre' syndrome of adults. Due to its severity and rapid dispersal over several continents, ZIKV has been acknowledged to be a global health concern by the World Health Organization. Unfortunately, the ZIKV has recently resurged in India with the potential for devastating effects. Researchers from all around the world have worked tirelessly to develop effective detection strategies and vaccines for the prevention and control of ZIKV infection. In this review, we comprehensively summarize the most recent research into ZIKV, including the structural biology and evolution, historical overview, pathogenesis, symptoms, and transmission. We then focus on the detection strategies for ZIKV, including viral isolation, serological assays, molecular assays, sensing methods, reverse transcription loop mediated isothermal amplification, transcription-mediated amplification technology, reverse transcription strand invasion based amplification, bioplasmonic paper-based device, and reverse transcription isothermal recombinase polymerase amplification. To conclude, we examine the limitations of currently available strategies for the detection of ZIKV, and outline future opportunities and research challenges.

20.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200339, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33503145

ABSTRACT

We evaluated sweat, blood and urine specimens obtained from an ongoing cohort study in Brazil. Samples were collected at pre-established intervals after the initial rash presentation and tested for Zika virus (ZIKV) RNA presence by real-time reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR). From 254 participants with confirmed infection, ZIKV RNA was detected in the sweat of 46 individuals (18.1%). Sweat presented a median cycle threshold (Ct) of 34.74 [interquartile range (IQR) 33.44-36.04], comparable to plasma (Ct 35.96 - IQR 33.29-36.69) and higher than urine (Ct 30.78 - IQR 28.72-33.22). Concomitant detection with other specimens was observed in 33 (72%) of 46 participants who had a positive result in sweat. These findings represent an unusual and not yet investigated virus shedding through eccrine glands.


Subject(s)
RNA, Viral/genetics , Sweat/virology , Zika Virus Infection/diagnosis , Zika Virus/isolation & purification , Adult , Blood/virology , Brazil/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , RNA, Viral/classification , RNA, Viral/isolation & purification , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Urine/virology , Zika Virus/genetics , Zika Virus Infection/epidemiology
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