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1.
Psychol Rep ; : 33294120925392, 2020 May 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32423334

ABSTRACT

Religious ideology and extremism have had an increasing influence on political agendas in the United States and much of the developed world in the past 60 years, with right-wing ideology becoming more prevalent this decade. This article serves as a review of studies investigating the correlations between political ideology, religiosity, right-wing authoritarianism, ingroups/outgroups, and prejudice in an attempt to describe and understand the well-established links between these dimensions. We discuss several group-level theories including Terror Management Theory, Social Identity Theory, Realistic Group Conflict Theory among others to frame the intercorrelations of these constructs in an effort to better understand the underlying mechanisms that drive individuals to embody religious and political beliefs. We then discuss individual-level cognitive and psychological differences such as intelligence, cognitive flexibility, and specific biological and neurological limitations of brain function that may influence people to adopt certain religious and political beliefs. Through a more comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanisms of religious and political extremism, we may be better equipped to assuage the fear and denigration that is associated with many of these beliefs.

2.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 645, 2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32384875

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Caregivers of children with cerebral palsy suffer from a substantial psychosocial burden. However, there is a scarcity of documentation of the various sources of burden in low- and middle-income settings. METHODS: We conducted qualitative in-depth interviews among mothers of children with cerebral palsy attending a physiotherapy facility. We purposively sampled mothers from rural and peri-urban areas in Tamil Nadu, India, till the point of data saturation. We analysed the transcripts using the socio-ecological model to identify the major dimensions of psychosocial burden among these mothers. RESULTS: At the individual level the mothers perceived aches and pains due to the heavy physical activity of caregiving. They also suffered from a feeling of guilt about the child's condition. Due to the difficulty in balancing family and work, they had significant financial burdens. They also perceived a lack of knowledge and awareness about possible options for the treatment of their child. At the interpersonal level, the mothers lacked support from their husband and family in the process of caregiving. They also had to suffer the ill effects of alcoholism and domestic violence from their husbands. They had to compromise on the care they provided to the other family members and their children without cerebral palsy. At the community level, the mothers had no support from the community members and felt isolated from others. The mothers also reported discrimination and lack of participation in social events. Environmental stressors like lack of inclusive public spaces, lack of options for public transport and unfriendly work timings and environment were major sources of burden. The mothers felt that the disability welfare support offered by the government was grossly insufficient and there was no platform for interactions with other peers and mothers suffering from a similar burden. CONCLUSION: Caregivers of children with cerebral palsy have unique burdens in a typical low- and middle-income setting including an intersection of gender norms, poverty, stigmatization and non-inclusive public policy, which need to be addressed to improve the quality of life of caregivers.

3.
Autism Res ; 2020 May 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32441457

ABSTRACT

The low employment rates of persons with Autism Spectrum Conditions in the European Union (EU) are partly due to discrimination. Member States have taken different approaches to increase the employment rate in the recent decades, including quota and anti-discrimination legislation, however, the implications for people with autism are unknown. The purpose of this scoping review was to provide a comprehensive overview of the history of these employment policies, from seven EU Member States (Germany, France, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom [prior to exit], Slovakia, Poland, and Romania), exploring the interdependence on international and EU policies, using a path dependency analysis. The results indicate that internationally a shift in focus has taken place in the direction of anti-discrimination law, though employment quotas remained in place in six out of the seven Member States as a means to address employment of people with disability in combination with the new anti-discrimination laws. LAY SUMMARY: Discrimination is partially responsible for the low employment of people with autism. Several approaches have been taken in recent years, such as anti-discrimination laws and setting a mandatory number of people with disabilities that need to be employed. This study finds that, internationally and in the European Union, the focus was initially on the use of quotas and gradually moved to anti-discrimination, with both being used simultaneously.

4.
Arch Sex Behav ; 2020 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32270398

ABSTRACT

While public acceptance of lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) individuals and same-sex relations has grown over the past few decades, there is still opposition to LGB civil rights in the U.S. Previous literature has found links between political ideology and sexual prejudice, while empathy has been linked to both political ideology and sexual prejudice. However, no study has examined the interrelationships between these three variables. For this study, an online survey was administered to a diverse sample of college students in exchange for course credit, and those who self-identified as heterosexual were retained for analyses (N = 1143; 66.1% female; 45.5% White). Mediation analyses were performed to examine whether two subfacets of empathy (empathic concern and perspective taking) mediated the relationship between political ideology and sexual prejudice. Due to gender differences in sexual prejudice and empathy, gender was included in the model as a moderator. The results of moderated mediation analyses indicated both empathic concern and perspective taking were mediators for women, while perspective taking was the only mediator for men. These results suggest that interventions for sexual prejudice may be more effective when using approaches that promote taking the perspective of LGB individuals. Specifically, interventions that utilize empathy training or direct contact with LGB individuals may result in a decrease in sexual prejudice.

5.
Terminology | DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences | ID: 059209

ABSTRACT

Policies that include the existence of a body responsible for the articulation and implementation of a platform based on an equality perspective that requires the integration of race-ethnicity, differences in sexual orientation, as well as the demands and needs arising from differences within the executive. Its objective is to translate a programmatic vision into action and action axes that reflects the struggle for egalitarian social relations. (From http://bit.ly/28WAaYO)

6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31961723

ABSTRACT

Genetic discrimination (GD) is consistently associated with research and innovation in genetics. Over recent decades, countries around the world have attempted to address GD using various policy measures. In this article, we survey these approaches and provide a critical commentary on their advantages and disadvantages. Our examination begins with regions featuring extensive policy-making activities (North America and Europe), followed by regions with moderate policy-making activities (Australia, Asia, and South America) and regions with minimal policy-making activities (the Middle East and Africa). Our analysis then turns to emerging issues regarding genetic testing and GD, including the expansion of multiomics sciences and direct-to-consumer genetic tests outside the health context. We additionally survey the shortcomings of current normative approaches addressing GD. Finally, we conclude by highlighting the evolving nature of GD and the need for more innovative policy-making in this area. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 21 is August 31, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

7.
Br J Soc Psychol ; 59(1): 157-170, 2020 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31364179

ABSTRACT

Attitudes towards immigrants in the United Kingdom are worsening. It has been posited that these attitudes may reflect covert racial and religious prejudices, particularly among conservatives. To investigate this, two studies examined the role that immigrant race (Black/White; Study 1) and immigrant religion (Muslim/non-Muslim; Study 2) played in immigrant infrahumanization judgements, using political conservatism as a moderating variable. There was a moderating effect of political conservatism; however, it was not in the predicted direction. The results of both studies indicated that immigrant race (Black) and immigrant religion (Muslim) predicted greater infrahumanization when political conservatism was low. Conservatives infrahumanized all immigrants equally (and more than liberals), but liberals were more sensitive to racial/religious biases in their evaluations of immigrants.

8.
Death Stud ; : 1-11, 2019 Dec 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31847718

ABSTRACT

The "death panel" myth holds that the Affordable Care Act sought to determine which Americans are worthy of medical care. Two interview surveys among older adults (Study 1, N = 210, Study 2, N = 196) investigated differences between those who do and do not believe the death panel myth. Those who believed in the death panel myth had more conservative political ideology, lower perceived need for living wills, and higher perceived discrimination on the basis of age. The death panel myth may stem from partisanship and a belief that society places less value on the lives of older adults.

9.
Arq. bras. psicol. (Rio J. 2003) ; 71(3): 105-120, set./dez. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1088048

ABSTRACT

O artigo analisa as narrativas de psicólogas dos Centros de Referência de Assistência Social de São Luís do Maranhão com o objetivo de entender se e como o trabalho com as questões de gênero é desenvolvido no Serviço de Proteção e Atendimento Integral à Família. A partir de referencial teórico dos estudos feministas, de gênero e da psicologia social, foram realizadas e analisadas entrevistas semiestruturadas com cinco profissionais. Os resultados indicam que, embora as questões de gênero atravessem a prática no Serviço, o Trabalho Social realizado foca principalmente em demandas socioeconômicas emergenciais. As entrevistadas trouxeram questões práticas que podem ser pensadas a partir dos estudos de gênero e feministas, mas relataram não possuir ferramentas técnicas e teóricas para abordá-las


This article analyzes the narratives of psychologists from the Social Assistance Referral Centers (CRAS) of São Luís do Maranhão in order to understand if, and how, work with gender issues is developed in the Comprehensive Protection and Care Service Family (PAIF). Based on the theoretical framework of the feminist, gender and social psychology studies, semi-structured interviews were carried out with five professionals. The results indicate that although the gender issues cross the practice in the Service, the Social Work carried out focuses mainly on emergency socioeconomic demands. The interviewees brought practical questions that could be thought from gender and feminist studies , but they reported not having the technical and theoretical tools to approach them


El artículo analiza las narrativas de psicólogas de los Centros de Referencia de Asistencia Social (CRAS) de São Luís de Maranhão con el objetivo de entender si, y cómo, se desarrolla el trabajo con las cuestiones de género en el Servicio de Protección y Atención Integral Familia (PAIF). A partir de referencial teórico de los estudios feministas, de género y de la psicología social, se realizaron y analizaron entrevistas semiestructuradas con cinco profesionales. Los resultados indican que, aunque las cuestiones de género atraviesan la práctica en el Servicio, el Trabajo Social realizado se centra principalmente en demandas socioeconómicas de emergencia. Las entrevistadas trajeron cuestiones prácticas que pueden ser pensadas a partir de los estudios de género y feministas, pero relataron no poseer herramientas técnicas y teóricas para abordarlas


Subject(s)
Psychology, Social , Public Policy , Social Work , Family/psychology , Gender Equity
10.
Fractal rev. psicol ; 31(spe): 228-235, set.-dez. 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, Index Psychology - Scientific journals | ID: biblio-1056223

ABSTRACT

El conflicto armado colombiano se extiende por todos rincones del país; en esa guerra la violencia de género encontró un lugar fértil. Este artículo analiza el enfoque de género a partir de los lineamientos de la Ley 1448 de 2011, y entrevistas con funcionarios estatales, es un análisis de las narrativas propias de estos y de texto de la norma, así como otras normas concomitantes que no solo reconocen el conflicto armado sino que le otorgan importancia necesaria a las afectaciones particulares a la mujer, sumado a esto se explora la aparición de la presencia estatal y el avance que fue necesario en la política pública en Colombia para el reconocimiento de más de 8.000.000 de víctimas del conflicto armado. Se describe la situación vulnerable de las mujeres en el conflicto armado, que ve la luz en el reconocimiento normativo de las afectaciones particulares a este grupo poblacional. Para concluir se explora la importancia para la construcción de nación del reconocimiento del conflicto armado colombiano en el gobierno de Juan Manuel Santos, así como para la construcción de un camino hacia la paz mediante las políticas de reparación, perdón, verdad y reconciliación.(AU)


The Colombian armed conflict extends to all corners of the country; in that war, gender violence found a fertile place. This article analyzes the gender perspective based on the guidelines of Law 1448 of 2011, and interviews with state officials, it is an analysis of the narratives of these and the text of the norm, as well as other concomitant norms that not only they recognize the armed conflict but give necessary importance to the particular affectations on woman, added to this the novelty State presence and the advance that was necessary in the public policy in Colombia for the recognition of more than 8,000,000 victims of the armed conflict. It describes the vulnerable situation of women in the armed conflict, which sees the light in the normative recognition of their particular affectations. To conclude, the importance of recognizing the Colombian armed conflictin the construction of a nation is explored, as well as for the construction of a path towards peace through policies of reparation, forgiveness, truth and reconciliation, a context that was built on Juan Manuel Santos government.(AU)


O conflito armado colombiano se estende a todos os cantos do país; nessa guerra, a violência de gênero encontrou um lugar fértil. O texto analisa a abordagem de gênero, que faz parte da Lei de Vítimas e Restituição de Terras, no país que é traçado pela geografia da violência, enquadrado nas diferenças entre urbano-rural, masculino-feminino, centro - periferia… Depois, analisa a chegada da presença do Estado e o significativo avanço das políticas públicas na Colômbia para dar lugar ao reconhecimento de mais de 8.000.000 de vítimas do conflito armado. A situação particular das mulheres no conflito armado é descrita pelo reconhecimento normativo das afetações particulares nesse grupo populacional, incluindo sua saúde mental. As conclusões expressam a importância que tem para a construção de uma nação e que o governo de Juan Manuel Santos reconheceu a existência de um conflito armado, para a construção de um caminho em direção à paz por meio de políticas de perdão, verdade e reconciliação.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Armed Conflicts , Gender-Based Violence , Colombia
11.
Nicotine Tob Res ; 21(Suppl 1): S5-S12, 2019 12 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31867642

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The Food and Drug Administration may set a maximum nicotine content in cigarettes to minimize smoking's addictiveness. Our recent research may indirectly support setting levels applicable to the population of dependent smokers below 1 mg/g (mg nicotine/g of tobacco filler). METHODS: Using a within-subjects design in laboratory-based studies totaling 61 nontreatment seeking adult dependent smokers, Spectrum research cigarettes with nicotine contents ranging from 1.3 to 17 mg/g (just one per session) were compared with the lowest content available, 0.4 mg/g. Identified for each participant was the smallest difference in nicotine content, or "threshold," between cigarettes that still supported behavioral discrimination (ie, ability to objectively distinguish their difference). The next lower nicotine content cigarette, not discriminated (by definition), was labeled their "subthreshold." Subjective perceptions and choice behavior were also assessed. RESULTS: Thresholds varied widely among all 61 smokers but, importantly, fewer than 7% of smokers could discriminate the two lowest, 1.3 versus 0.4 mg/g nicotine, meaning more than 90% could not do so. Moreover, we found a consistent association between their nicotine discrimination threshold and their subjective perceptions and subsequent reinforcement behavior later in the session. Specifically, a participant's discrimination threshold cigarette was also more highly rated and preferred (ie, self-administered), whereas their subthreshold cigarette was rated similarly to the 0.4 mg/g and not preferred. CONCLUSIONS: Cigarette nicotine content below the threshold for perceiving nicotine's effects (ie, its discriminability) in nearly all smokers from a no nicotine comparison is likely below 1.0 mg/g, or less than or equal to 10% of that in typical commercial cigarettes. IMPLICATIONS: Cigarettes with nicotine contents able to be discriminated (threshold) are also reinforcing, and those unable to be discriminated are not reinforcing, as anticipated. Yet, research explicitly comparing cigarettes with contents below 1.0 mg/g versus no nicotine (ie, a "placebo") is needed with larger samples. Results may confirm what nicotine content lower than 1.0 mg/g is below the threshold for discrimination (and self-administration) in the vast majority (>95%) of adult dependent smokers as well as teens beginning to smoke. Identifying that content would strongly support the Food and Drug Administration policy to establish a maximum nicotine content in cigarettes that will not maintain dependence.


Subject(s)
Nicotine , Smokers , Smoking , Tobacco Products , Adult , Humans , Nicotine/analysis , Nicotine/standards , Smokers/psychology , Smokers/statistics & numerical data , Smoking/epidemiology , Smoking/psychology , Tobacco Products/legislation & jurisprudence , Tobacco Products/standards , United States , United States Food and Drug Administration
12.
RECIIS (Online) ; 13(3): 634-646, jul.-set. 2019. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1021537

ABSTRACT

O presente artigo trata-se de um trabalho descritivo sobre o Coletivo Bee, um movimento estudantil pertencente à Universidade Estadual de Ciências da Saúde de Alagoas que surgiu com o objetivo de implantar o movimento LGBTT na Universidade para discutir o preconceito de gênero e de orientação sexual, por meio de ações de empoderamento e de emancipação das minorias LGBTTs. Ao longo de sua trajetória, o Coletivo desenvolveu atividades como reuniões para discussão das temáticas relacionadas ao movimento, organização de eventos, atividades de protestos, cyber ativismo, participação na regulamentação e implantação do uso do nome social, entre outras atividades com finalidade de trazer a reflexão sobre a cidadania e a saúde da população LGBTT. Sua importância esteve concentrada na integração de lésbicas, gays, bissexuais, travestis e transexuais à sociedade e, sobretudo, na busca de assegurar o direito ao acesso integral aos serviços da rede pública de saúde e fortalecer a Política Nacional de Saúde Integral LGBTT na formação universitária.


This article is about a descriptive work about the Bee Collective, a student movement belonging to the State University of Health Sciences of Alagoas, which came up with the objective of implanting the LGBTT movement in the University to discuss gender bias and sexual orientation, through actions of empowerment and emancipation of LGBTT minorities. Throughout its history, the Collective has developed activities such as meetings to discuss issues related to the movement, organization of events, protest activities, cyber activism, participation in regulation and implementation of the social name, among other activities to bring the reflection on the citizenship and health of the LGBTT population. Its importance was focused on the integration of lesbians, gays, bisexuals, transvestites and transsexuals into society and, above all, in the quest to ensure the right to full access to public health services and to strengthen the National LGBTT Comprehensive Health Policy in university education.


Este artículo trata sobre un trabajo descriptivo sobre Bee Collective, un movimiento estudiantil perteneciente a la Universidad Estatal de Ciencias de la Salud de Alagoas, que tuvo el objetivo de implantar el movimiento LGBTT en la universidad para discutir el sesgo de género y la orientación sexual, a través de acciones de empoderamiento y emancipación de las minorías LGBTT. A lo largo de su historia, el Colectivo ha desarrollado actividades como reuniones para discutir temas relacionados con el movimiento, organización de eventos, actividades de protesta, ciberactivismo, participación en la regulación y la implementación del nombre social, entre otras actividades para llevar la reflexión sobre la ciudadanía y salud de la población LGBTT. Su importancia se centró en la integración de lesbianas, gays, bisexuales, travestis y transexuales en la sociedad y, sobre todo, en la búsqueda de garantizar el derecho al pleno acceso a los servicios de salud pública y de fortalecer la Política nacional de salud integral LGBTT en la educación universitaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Health Equity , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Political Activism , Health Policy , Universities , Community Participation , Sexuality , Students, Public Health , Population Health , Civil Rights , Health Promotion , Holistic Health
13.
Rev. argent. salud publica ; 39(9): 42-47, Julio 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, ARGMSAL | ID: biblio-1007595

ABSTRACT

El presente trabajo aborda el nacimiento de las políticas sociales en Argentina, en un período histórico que abarca aproximadamente desde 1880 hasta el advenimiento del primer gobierno radical de Hipólito Yrigoyen. Para ello, describe el modelo de Estado instituido en Argentina por esos años, las políticas concebidas en ese modelo de un universo de asistencia y las instituciones de la época que llevaron adelante intervenciones concretas respecto del universo social. Dentro del conjunto de instituciones forjadas en las últimas décadas del siglo XIX, como forma de respuesta a las tensiones sociales crecientes y como producto de variados factores políticos, sociales, económicos y culturales, interesa abordar el papel de la Sociedad de Beneficencia de Buenos Aires: la labor realizada por este grupo de mujeres de los sectores dominantes y sus campos de intervención, que incluyeron la creación y el gerenciamiento de establecimientos de salud y salud mental (lo que constituye un antecedente en la gestión de lo público, ámbito que por aquellos años estaba reservado a la participación de los hombres de las clases dirigentes). El accionar inédito de estas mujeres irrumpió en la escena de lo público y retrospectivamente puede habilitar a una mirada con perspectiva de género.


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Policy , Social Control Policies , Gender Identity , Argentina , Socioeconomic Factors
14.
Saúde Soc ; 28(2): 132-146, abr.-jun. 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1014574

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo desdobra-se de pesquisa documental inscrita nos campos dos estudos de gênero e culturais e discute alguns dos modos pelos quais o gênero atravessa as proposições da Política Nacional de Atenção Integral da Saúde do Homem (PNAISH). Para isso, toma como referência um contexto discursivo em que termos como integralidade e equidade são reiteradamente apresentados e acionados, na direção de instituir propostas educativas e de cuidado voltadas à saúde e à educação de homens adultos. Argumentamos que, ao mesmo tempo em que essa amplitude coloca sob suspeita determinadas formas de viver a masculinidade, ela não desloca a centralidade dos processos curativos e parece contribuir para impregnar a política com uma visão utilitária, individualizando e culpabilizando os homens por seu distanciamento dos serviços de saúde.


Abstract This study stemmed from a documental research in the fields of Gender Studies and Cultural Studies, and discusses some of the ways that gender is regarded in the propositions of the PNAISH. To do so, it considers a discursive context in which words such as integrality and equality are repeatedly presented and used to launch educative and care proposals intended for adult men's health and education. We argue that, at the same time that such amplitude puts certain ways of experiencing masculinity under suspicion, it does not deviates the focus on the healing processes and seems to contribute to impregnate the policy with a utilitarian view, thus individualizing men and blaming them for their detachment from health care services.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Policy , Health Equity , Integrality in Health , Health Policy
15.
J Homosex ; : 1-10, 2019 Apr 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31020923

ABSTRACT

In 2013, the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) began allowing anyone who believed that they experienced sexual orientation or gender identity (SOGI) discrimination to file charges of sex discrimination under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act. Very little is known about the impact of the EEOC's decision and whether it has enhanced protections for LGBT people. In this brief report, we present preliminary findings on trends and patterns in charge filing, paying particular attention to differences that emerge in charges filed in states with and without SOGI employment nondiscrimination laws. Differences in the characteristics of charging parties, allegations, and charge outcomes suggest that legal protections operating at the state level shape the experiences and disputing behaviors of LGBT individuals in pursuing Title VII remedies.

16.
BMC Med ; 17(1): 31, 2019 02 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30764826

ABSTRACT

Stigma is a well-documented barrier to health seeking behavior, engagement in care and adherence to treatment across a range of health conditions globally. In order to halt the stigmatization process and mitigate the harmful consequences of health-related stigma (i.e. stigma associated with health conditions), it is critical to have an explicit theoretical framework to guide intervention development, measurement, research, and policy. Existing stigma frameworks typically focus on one health condition in isolation and often concentrate on the psychological pathways occurring among individuals. This tendency has encouraged a siloed approach to research on health-related stigmas, focusing on individuals, impeding both comparisons across stigmatized conditions and research on innovations to reduce health-related stigma and improve health outcomes. We propose the Health Stigma and Discrimination Framework, which is a global, crosscutting framework based on theory, research, and practice, and demonstrate its application to a range of health conditions, including leprosy, epilepsy, mental health, cancer, HIV, and obesity/overweight. We also discuss how stigma related to race, gender, sexual orientation, class, and occupation intersects with health-related stigmas, and examine how the framework can be used to enhance research, programming, and policy efforts. Research and interventions inspired by a common framework will enable the field to identify similarities and differences in stigma processes across diseases and will amplify our collective ability to respond effectively and at-scale to a major driver of poor health outcomes globally.


Subject(s)
Social Stigma , Female , Humans , Male
17.
Soc Sci Med ; 223: 97-103, 2019 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30718009

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Although obesity represents a potential public health crisis, our understanding of public perceptions of obesity, emotional responses to the obese, and related policy preferences is limited. OBJECTIVE: We employed Weiner's attribution theory of controllability (Weiner, 1988, 2011) to examine perceived causes of obesity, emotional responses, and related policy implications. If the perceived cause is controllable (eating and lifestyle habits), we expected less sympathy and greater anger toward obese people and support for prejudicial hiring policies based on weight. If the cause is perceived as uncontrollable (genetic), sympathy is anticipated as well as opposition to such hiring policies. METHOD: We conducted multivariate analyses with data from two nationally representative surveys of U.S. adults. CONCLUSION: Our findings supported the hypotheses, showing that sympathy and lack of anger toward obese people are strongly determined by a genetic attribution for obesity. Moreover, sympathy and the genetic attribution are significant predictors of opposition to hiring policies that discriminate against obese people. Finally, in a second study, chief among several causal attributions for obesity-lack of will power, lack of exercise, marketing of foods, and genetics-we discovered biological attribution functions as the key predictor of perceptions that obese people are frequent targets of discrimination. We suggest governments and the food industry should be more attuned to the underlying beliefs of the public about the causes of obesity when formulating programs and policies to address the issue.

19.
Women Health ; 59(1): 85-100, 2019 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29630490

ABSTRACT

This study examined gender differences in patterns of smokeless tobacco (SLT) use among various socioeconomic and demographic segments in Bangladesh and India, which are home to 80 percent of global SLT users and share similar sociocultural milieus. The objective was to provide evidence of whether gender-focused interventions and policies might be helpful for SLT cessation programs. Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey were used for the analysis. In Bangladesh, data were collected between July and August 2009, and 9,629 individuals were successfully interviewed. In India, data were collected from June 2009 to January 2010, and 69,296 individuals were interviewed. Tests of proportions revealed that the prevalence of SLT use was highest among women in Bangladesh (27.9 percent) and among men (32.9 percent) in India. Logistic regression models revealed that the odds of SLT use was lower among Bangladeshi females in the highest age category. However, in India, a similar observation was made only for females with rural residences. In addition, the odds of SLT use was less among those with a higher level of education and wealth, irrespective of the sex or country. The present findings suggest a need for gender-specific policies and interventions for SLT control.


Subject(s)
Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Public Policy , Tobacco Use/epidemiology , Tobacco, Smokeless/adverse effects , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Bangladesh/epidemiology , Female , Humans , India , Male , Middle Aged , Residence Characteristics , Rural Population , Socioeconomic Factors , Tobacco Use/adverse effects , Urban Population , Young Adult
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