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1.
J Environ Manage ; 264: 110516, 2020 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32250922

ABSTRACT

Regime shifts - persistent changes in the structure and function of an ecosystem - are well-documented for some ecosystems and have informed research and management of these ecosystems. In floodplain-river ecosystems, there is growing interest from restoration practitioners in ecological resilience, yet regime shifts remain poorly understood in these ecosystems. To understand how regime shifts may apply to floodplain-river ecosystems, we synthesize our understanding of ecosystem dynamics using an alternate regimes conceptual framework. We present three plausible sets of alternate regimes relevant to natural resource management interests within the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois River. These alternate regimes include: 1) a clear water and abundant vegetation regime vs. a turbid water and sparse vegetation regime in lentic, off-channel areas, 2) a diverse native fish community regime vs. an invasive-dominated fish community regime, and 3) a regime characterized by a diverse and dynamic mosaic of floodplain vegetation types vs. one characterized as a persistent invasive wet meadow monoculture. For each set of potential alternate regimes, we review available literature to synthesize known or hypothesized feedback mechanisms that reinforce regimes, controlling variables that drive regime transitions, and current restoration pathways. Our conceptual models provide preliminary support for the existence of alternate regimes in floodplain-river ecosystems. Quantitatively testing hypotheses contained within the conceptual model are important next steps in evaluating the model. Ultimately, the synthesis and evaluation of alternate regimes can inform the utility of resilience concepts in restoration and management on the Upper Mississippi River and Illinois River and improve our understanding of ecosystem dynamics in other large, heavily managed floodplain-river ecosystems.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Rivers , Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Fishes , Illinois , Introduced Species , Mississippi , Water
2.
PLoS One ; 15(2): e0229298, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32078648

ABSTRACT

Previously, applications of intensity analysis (IA) on land use and land cover change (LULCC) studies have focused on deviations from uniform intensity (UI) and failed to quantify the reasons behind these deviations. This study presents the application of IA with hypothetical errors that could explain non-uniform LULCC in the context of IA at four-time points. LULCC in the Ashi watershed was examined using Landsat images from 1990, 2000, 2010 and 2014 showing the classes: Urban, water, agriculture, close canopy, open canopy and other vegetation. Matrices were created to statistically examine LULCC using IA. The results reveal that the seeming LULCC intensities are not uniform with respect to the interval, category and transition levels of IA. Error analysis indicates that, hypothetical errors in 13%, 19% and 11.2% of the 2000, 2010 and 2014 maps respectively could account for all differences between the observed gain intensities and the UI; while errors in 12%, 21%, and 11% of the 1990, 2000 and 2010 maps respectively could account for all differences between the observed loss intensities and the UI. A hypothetical error in 0.6% and 1.6% of the 1990 map; 1.5% and 4% of the 2000 map; 1.2% and 2.1% of the 2010 map could explain divergences from uniform transitions given URB gain and AGR gain during 1990-2000, 2000-2010 and 2010-2014 respectively. Evidence for a specific deviation from the relevant hypothesized UI is either strong or weak depending on the size of these errors. We recommend that users of IA concept consider assessing their map errors, since limited ground information on past time point data exist. These errors will indicate strength of evidence for deviations and reveals patterns that increase researcher's insight on LULCC processes.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/statistics & numerical data , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers/chemistry
3.
PLoS One ; 15(1): e0227665, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31999717

ABSTRACT

The restoration of mangroves has gained prominence in recent decades. Hydrological rehabilitation has been undertaken to connect impaired mangroves with the sea, lagoons or estuaries. Because mangrove hydrodynamics occurs on the surface and interstitial spaces in the sediment, we propose to determine the hydrological flow paths to restore the hydrological regimes of the impaired mangroves. The hydrological flow paths were determined through a micro basin analysis based on microtopographic data to generate a digital elevation model. Applying this methodological approach, the hydrology of an impaired area on a barrier island in the Gulf of Mexico was restored by excavating, desilting or clearing the channels on the identified hydrological flow paths. This area was compared to one in which impaired mangroves were reconnected to the marine lagoon but disregarding the flow paths. Data collected in both areas were evaluated by flood level analysis, using two methods: (i) a simple linear regression model (SLRM) and (ii) spectral analysis (SA), also known as dominant frequency analysis. The results suggest that restoration based on the hydrological flow paths was more effective than the direct opening to the nearest main water body without accounting for the microtopography. In both areas, soil salinity and sulfides decreased after hydrological reconnection. However, a greater efficiency in the investment of time and human resources was achieved when preferential flow paths were identified and taken into account. The methodological procedures described in this study are of universal application to other mangrove restoration programs.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Wetlands , Climate Change/statistics & numerical data , Conservation of Natural Resources/statistics & numerical data , Conservation of Water Resources/methods , Conservation of Water Resources/statistics & numerical data , Environmental Monitoring/statistics & numerical data , Estuaries , Floods/prevention & control , Floods/statistics & numerical data , Gulf of Mexico , Hydrodynamics , Islands , Linear Models , Mexico , Models, Theoretical , Salinity , Soil
4.
Terminology | DeCS - Descriptors in Health Sciences | ID: 057301

ABSTRACT

Preservation and or management of WATER RESOURCES especially under conditions of scarce supply.


Preservación y/o gestión de RECURSOS HÍDRICOS especialmente en condiciones de suministro escaso.


1. Preservação e/ou gestão de RECURSOS HÍDRICOS, especialmente em condições de escasso abastecimento. 2) Gestão integrada de recursos hídricos: Processo que promove o desenvolvimento e gestão coordenada dos recursos da terra, água e afins, para maximizar o bem-estar econômico e social de uma forma equitativa, sem comprometer a sustentabilidade dos ecossistemas vitais. 3) Conservação da água: Medidas tomadas para economizar a quantidade de água utilizada para quaisquer finalidades ou para preservá-la da poluição.

5.
Water Res ; 172: 115461, 2020 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31951946

ABSTRACT

Coastal lagoons deliver a wide range of valuable ecosystem goods and services. These ecosystems, that are often maintained by direct or indirect groundwater supplies, are collectively known as groundwater dependent ecosystems (GDEs). The importance of groundwater supplies is greatly exacerbated in coastal Mediterranean regions where the lack of surface water and the over-development of anthropogenic activities critically threaten the sustainability of coastal GDEs and associated ecosystem services. Yet, coastal GDEs do not benefit from a legal or managerial recognition to take into account their specificity. Particular attention should be paid to the characterization of environmental and ecological water requirements. The hydrogeological knowledge about the management and behavior of coastal aquifers and GDEs must be strengthened. These investigations must be supplemented by a stronger assessment of potential contaminations to develop local land-uses and human activities according to the groundwater vulnerability. The quantitative management of water resources must also be better supervised and/or more constrained in order to ensure the water needs necessary to maintain coastal GDEs. The transdisciplinary approach between hydrogeology, hydrology, social sciences and law is essential to fully understand the socio-economic and environmental complexity of coastal GDEs. Priority must now be given to the development of an appropriate definition of coastal GDEs, based on a consensus between scientists and lawyers. It is a necessary first step to develop and implement specific protective legislation and to define an appropriate management scale. The investment and collaboration of local water users, stakeholders and decision-makers need to be strengthened through actions to favor exchanges and discussions. All water resources in the coastal areas should be managed collectively and strategically, in order to maximize use efficiency, reduce water use conflicts and avoid over-exploitation. It is important to continue to raise public awareness of coastal aquifers at the regional level and to integrate their specificities into coastal zone management strategies and plans. In the global context of unprecedented anthropogenic pressures, hydro-food crises and climate change, environmental protection and preservation of coastal GDEs represents a major challenge for the sustainable socio-economic and environmental development of Mediterranean coastal zones.


Subject(s)
Ecosystem , Groundwater , Conservation of Natural Resources , Humans , Hydrology , Water Resources
6.
J Environ Manage ; 255: 109823, 2020 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31785458

ABSTRACT

Mismanagement of rangelands worldwide has accelerated processes of overland flow and soil erosion, resulting in extensive land degradation. Wherever self-restoration processes of degraded rangelands are hindered or negated, active recovery efforts, coupled with livestock pressure management, might be needed. The objective of this review paper is to provide land managers and environmental planners with applied and practical knowledge on advantages and disadvantages of the main methodologies and practices for runoff harvesting in rangelands. Preferably, restoration efforts should focus on forming low-footprint runoff harvesting systems on hillslopes which encompass the runoff's source area. These systems should imitate natural patchiness, strengthening source-sink relations, accelerating re-establishment of herbaceous and woody vegetation, maximizing the retaining of water on hillslopes, regulating hydrological connectivity, lessening soil erosion, and minimizing transmission of water to stream channels. The resulting lower-energy floods are expected to negate the need for massive check dams in channels. If flood dissipation in streams is still necessary, then high-to medium-porosity check dams, made of local materials, might be effective for lessening scour processes and sediment transport. Furthermore, in terms of environmental sustainability, a large number of pointed (e.g., branch bundles; brush or woody piles; micro-catchments) or low-to medium-footprint lineal means for regulating surface processes in hillslopes (e.g., stone terraces; contour furrows/trenches/ditches) and channels (e.g., log check dams; loose rock check dams; porous or semi-permeable rock check dams; gabions) are expected to be more cost-effective than a small number of massive means (e.g., contour bench terraces; earth bunds/dykes; concrete check dams). If runoff harvesting systems are properly designed, restoration processes over time are expected to generate geo-ecological feedbacks and recover eco-hydrological functioning, increasing pasture productivity and sustaining rangeland carrying capacity.


Subject(s)
Soil , Water , Conservation of Natural Resources , Hydrology , Rivers
7.
Sci Total Environ ; 688: 1422-1432, 2019 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31726570

ABSTRACT

Tropical forests provide a suite of benefits including biodiversity, cultural value, and a range of ecosystem services. Globally, there is increasing interest in incentivizing native forest protection as a multi-benefit natural infrastructure strategy to secure clean and ample water supplies. In addition to conversion to agriculture and other non-forest land uses, non-native species invasion represents a major threat to these systems, particularly on islands. Whereas several recent efforts have quantified the benefits of reforestation or avoided agricultural expansion in tropical forest areas, the hydrologic and associated economic benefits of avoided invasion have received less attention. To address this gap, we quantified the benefits of protecting native forest from conversion to non-native forest in East Maui, Hawai'i in terms of groundwater recharge, a highly valued hydrologic ecosystem service that water utilities increasingly seek to co-finance. Compared with two counterfactual invasion scenarios, the groundwater recharge benefits of planned conservation activities reached 40.9 to 146.3 million cubic meters over 100 years depending on invasion rate assumptions. This translated to 2.70 to 137.6 million dollars of cost savings to the water utility in present value terms (achieved through reducing reliance on more expensive water alternatives) under a range of discount rates and water scarcity assumptions. Our results suggest that investing in native forest conservation provides an important hydrologic ecosystem service benefit that complements the range of benefits provided by these ecosystems. These findings demonstrate that co-financing native forest conservation represents an important supply side option in water resources planning.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Forests , Hawaii , Water Supply
8.
Nat Commun ; 10(1): 4893, 2019 11 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31695029

ABSTRACT

Water scarcity brings tremendous challenges to achieving sustainable development of water resources, food, and energy security, as these sectors are often in competition, especially during drought. Overcoming these challenges requires balancing trade-offs between sectors and improving resilience to drought impacts. An under-appreciated factor in managing the water-food-energy (WFE) nexus is the increased value of solar and wind energy (SWE). Here we develop a trade-off frontier framework to quantify the water sustainability value of SWE through a case study in California. We identify development pathways that optimize the economic value of water in competition for energy and food production while ensuring sustainable use of groundwater. Our results indicate that in the long term, SWE penetration creates beneficial feedback for the WFE nexus: SWE enhances drought resilience and benefits groundwater sustainability, and in turn, maintaining groundwater at a sustainable level increases the added value of SWE to energy and food production.


Subject(s)
Groundwater/analysis , Solar Energy , Agriculture , California , Conservation of Natural Resources , Droughts , Food Supply , Sustainable Development , Water Resources , Water Supply , Wind
9.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31590458

ABSTRACT

As a primary pioneering region in China's ongoing urbanization process, the Yangtze River Economic Belt's (YREB's) urbanization process is itself continually accelerating, causing increasing pressure on the area's water ecosystem. It is necessary to examine the coordination relationship between the urbanization system and the water ecosystem in the YREB for realizing sustainable urban development. To this purpose, we use two comprehensive index systems, along with an improved coupling coordination degree (CCD) model. This method is used to analyze the coordination between urbanization and the water ecosystem across spatial gradients and temporal scales in the YREB, from 2008 to 2017. The factors acting as obstacles were diagnosed by utilizing the obstacle degree model. The results show that: (1) the coordination state of each region gradually improved during the 2008-2017 period. In terms of spatial distribution, the coordination state between two systems gradually increased from east to west. Moreover, the spatial differences across the 11 analyzed regions gradually narrowed with the passage of time. (2) The coordination between the two systems, from 2008 to 2017, evolved from a state of serious imbalance to a state of good coordination. The two systems passed from an initial period of imbalance or antagonism, coupled with rapid growth (2008-2011), through a period of basic coordination with steady growth (2011-2014), and finally toward a period of good coordination with slow growth (2014-2017). (3) Spatial urbanization and pressures on subsystems are the key factors acting as obstacles in the urbanization system and water ecosystem, respectively. Facing the process of rapid urbanization in China, the coupling analysis of the coordination between urbanization and the water ecosystem can help the government to formulate a reasonable new-type urban development strategy. This strategy will play an important role in China's sustainable urban development and water environmental protection. The findings of this study provide important support for urban planning in the future.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Natural Resources/trends , Ecosystem , Rivers , Urbanization/trends , China , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Water
10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 26(32): 32759-32763, 2019 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31586314

ABSTRACT

The Water Framework Directive (WFD) currently supports chemical and ecological monitoring programmes in order to achieve the good water surface status. Although chemical and ecological assessments are necessary, they have some limitations. Chemical approaches focus on certain substances identified as priorities, but they do not take into account other potentially harmful substances and also ignore the hazards related to contaminant cocktails. On the other hand, while ecological approaches provide holistic information on the impairment of biological communities in ecosystems, they do not distinguish the role of contaminants in these alterations, and consequently do not allow the establishment of contaminant impact reduction plans. Consequently, ecotoxicologists suggest the use of effect-based tools such as biomarkers. Biomarkers highlight the effect of potentially harmful substances (or a cocktail), and their specificity towards the chemicals makes it possible to properly discriminate the role of toxicants within biological community impairments. Thus, the integration of such tools (besides existing chemical and ecological tools) in the WFD could considerably improve its biomonitoring strategy. The B n' B project (Biomarkers and Biodiversity) exposes key objectives that will allow to (i) establish an inventory of the biomarkers developed by French laboratories; (ii) determine their methodological advancement and limits and, on this basis, formulate recommendations for biomonitoring use and future research needs; (iii) discuss the biomarkers' ecological significance, specificity to contaminants and interpretation capacity; (iv) establish, in fine, a selection of valuable biomarkers to enter the WFD; and (iv) propose integrative tools to facilitate the decision-taking by stakeholders.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources/methods , Environmental Biomarkers , Environmental Monitoring , Biodiversity , Biomarkers , Conservation of Water Resources/legislation & jurisprudence , Ecology , Ecosystem , Hazardous Substances , Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Pollution , Water Resources/supply & distribution
11.
Environ Int ; 133(Pt B): 105266, 2019 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31655277

ABSTRACT

How we manage alternative freshwater resources to close the gap between water supply and demand is pivotal to the future of the environment and human well-being. Increased scarcity of water for agricultural irrigation in semi-arid and arid regions has resulted in a growing interest in water reuse practices. However, insight into the life cycle impacts and potential trade-offs of these emerging practices are still limited by the paucity of systematic evaluations of different water reuse implementations. In this study, a host of environmental and human health impacts at three implementation levels of allowing water reclamation for crop irrigation was comparatively evaluated across the operational landscape via a combination of scenario modelling, life-cycle impact analyses and Monte Carlo simulations. Net harvesting of reclaimed water for irrigation was found to be dependent upon the sophistication of the treatment processes, since multistage and complex configurations can cause greater direct water consumption during processing. Further, the direct benefits of water resource recovery can be essentially offset by indirect adverse impacts, such as mineral depletion, global warming, ozone depletion, ecotoxicity, and human health risks, which are associated with increased usage of energy and chemicals for rigorous removal of contaminants, such as heavy metals and contaminants of emerging concern. Nonetheless, expanded simulations suggest the significance of concurrently implementing energy recovery, nutrient recycling, and/or nature-based, chemical-free water technologies to reduce the magnitude of negative impacts from engineered water reclamation processes.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Irrigation , Conservation of Natural Resources , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water , Water Purification , Water Resources , Humans , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Purification/methods
12.
J Environ Manage ; 250: 109505, 2019 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31518799

ABSTRACT

Water stress is an increasing burden in regions with arid climates, aquifer vulnerability, and erratic rainfall. Population growth and competing domestic, industrial, and agricultural uses are also stretching the capacity of water supply systems. Beyond groundwater extraction, surface water overuse, and inter-basin transfers, governments are exploring alternative sources amidst looming supply threats. These alternatives include desalination, greywater recycling, and reclaimed or recycled wastewater. The latter, also known as water reuse with varying levels of treatment, has been applied for irrigation, street cleaning, industrial processes, and groundwater recharge. However, reused water for potable purposes has seen limited uptake, due in part to lack of public acceptance. This article examines the dynamics of public acceptance for potable water reuse. The article's theoretical contribution is a formal mathematical model for understanding public acceptance of water reuse. The model conceptualizes how governments, water utilities and the public interact to facilitate or hinder acceptance of water supply sources, including potable reuse. The article concludes by applying the model to cases of water reuse in Windhoek, Namibia, and Singapore.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Water Purification , Conservation of Natural Resources , Namibia , Singapore , Waste Water , Water Supply
13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31540248

ABSTRACT

The spatial relationship between water use efficiency and water scarcity has been widely discussed, but little attention has been paid to the impact of the pure technical and scale efficiencies of water use on water scarcity. Using input-oriented data envelopment analysis (DEA) and panel spatial Durbin models (SDM), the direct and spillover effects of different water use efficiencies on water scarcity from 2007 to 2016 in China were examined at the regional scale. The results show that the water use pure technical efficiency had significantly negative direct effects on water scarcity; however, the water use scale efficiency did not have a similar effect. The improvement in water use pure technical efficiency in one region could aggravate the water scarcity in neighboring regions through spatial spillover effects, but the same effect was not observed between the water use scale efficiency and water scarcity. Finally, we propose solutions to improve the water use efficiency to reduce the water scarcity.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Water Supply , China , Efficiency
14.
Sci Total Environ ; 685: 1139-1151, 2019 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31390704

ABSTRACT

Water saving techniques, such as alternate wetting and drying (AWD), are becoming a necessity in modern rice farming because of climate change mitigation and growing water use scarcity. Reducing water can vastly reduce methane (CH4) emissions; however, this net climate benefit may be offset by enhanced carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from soil. The main aims of this study were: to determine the effects of AWD on yield and ecosystem C dynamics, and to establish the underlying mechanistic basis for observed trends in net ecosystem C gain or loss in an Italian rice paddy. We investigated the effects of conventional water management (i.e. conventionally flooded paddy; CF) and AWD on biomass accumulation (aboveground, belowground, grain), key ecosystem C fluxes (net ecosystem exchange (NEE), net primary productivity (NPP), gross primary productivity (GPP), ecosystem respiration (ER), autotrophic respiration (RA), heterotrophic respiration (RH)), and soil organic matter (SOM) decay for four common commercial European rice cultivars. The most significant finding was that neither treatment nor cultivar affected NEE, GPP, ER or SOM decomposition. RA was the dominant contributor to ER for both CF and AWD treatments. Cultivar and treatment affected the total biomass of the rice plants; specifically, with greater root production in CF compared to AWD. Importantly, there was no effect of treatment on the overall yield for any cultivar. Possibly, the wetting-drying cycles may have been insufficient to allow substantial soil C metabolism or there was a lack of labile substrate in the soil. These results imply that AWD systems may not be at risk of enhancing soil C loss, making it a viable solution for climate change mitigation and water conservation. Although more studies are needed, the initial outlook for AWD in Europe is positive; with no net loss of soil C from SOM decomposition, whilst also maintaining yield.


Subject(s)
Agriculture/methods , Conservation of Water Resources/methods , Oryza/growth & development , Biomass , Ecosystem , Europe
15.
Conserv Biol ; 33(6): 1329-1337, 2019 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31418485

ABSTRACT

There is increasing pressure to use currently untapped resources in the deep sea, raising questions regarding ecosystem service trade-offs in these often unknown areas. We assessed the trade-offs between protection of cold-water coral reefs and economic activities, such as fisheries and petroleum extraction, through a survey of a representative sample of the populations of Norway and Ireland. Choice-experiment surveys were conducted in workshop settings and through the internet. Both survey approaches provided some similar results, such as preferences for protection. Our cross-country comparison showed the general public in Norway and Ireland was willing, despite possible conflict with extractive and consumptive economic activities in the deep sea, to protect cold-water corals as habitat for fish. On average, people were willing to pay NKr 341 and NKr 424 for a small and large increase in protected areas respectively, and NKr 880 if the area is important habitat for fish, all else held equal. However, there was large variation across individuals and countries. Norwegian respondents valued pure existence of cold-water corals more than the Irish respondents, and the latter were less willing to trade off industrial activities than the former. Nonetheless, the findings support conservation of cold-water corals and more generally of ocean environments that provide habitat for fish, which the current deep sea governance systems are not adequately designed or sufficiently well-structured to secure.


Subject(s)
Anthozoa , Animals , Conservation of Natural Resources , Coral Reefs , Ecosystem , Norway
16.
Animal ; 13(12): 3022-3030, 2019 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31414653

ABSTRACT

Are insects the farm animal of the future? A key agenda for agricultural production systems is the development of sustainable practices whereby food and feed can be produced in an environmentally efficient manner. These goals require novel approaches to complex problems and demand collaboration between scientists, producers, consumers, government and the general population. The provision of feed for animals is a major contributor to land and water use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Further, overfishing and a reduction in available land and water resources on which crops can be grown has led to an increase in price of protein ingredients such as fish meals and oils and soybean meals. Determination of novel solutions to meet the feed protein requirements of production animals is key to the development of sustainable farming practices. The Australian pork industry aims to develop production systems that efficiently use available resources (such as feed and energy) and limit the production of emissions (such as manure waste and GHGs). Invertebrates (insects e.g. black soldier flies) are naturally consumed by monogastric and aquatic species, yet the large-scale production of insects for feed (or food) is yet to be exploited. Most insects are low producers of GHGs and have low land and water requirements. The large-scale production of insects can contribute to a circular economy whereby food and feed waste (and potentially manure) are reduced or ideally eliminated via bioconversion. While the concept of farm-scale production of insects as domestic animal feed has been explored for decades, significant production and replacement of traditional protein sources has yet to be achieved. This review will focus on the potential role of insect-derived protein as a feed source for the Australian pig production industry.


Subject(s)
Animal Feed/analysis , Conservation of Natural Resources , Insecta , Swine/physiology , Animal Feed/economics , Animals , Australia , Diet/veterinary
17.
J Environ Manage ; 247: 867-876, 2019 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31376785

ABSTRACT

The world faces imminent drought-related challenges that, from a tap-water supply perspective, require increasingly expensive infrastructure enhancement and energy expansion to maintain sufficient service levels. This paper argues that enhancing domestic water conservation provides a promising alternative or necessary addition to reduce costs and to stimulate pro-environmental behaviour. Although the number of field experiments on how people's behaviour can be changed with respect to their daily water consumption is growing, to date, most studies in this field have focussed either on explanatory socio-economic factors (e.g. water pricing, income, or family composition) or behavioural intentions and personal characteristics related to behavioural change. Accordingly, there is limited empirically validated knowledge about the use and effectiveness of different influencing tactics to change behaviour. This paper provides a review of the empirically oriented literature in this field and aims to provide an up-to-date assessment that identifies eight different Behavioural Influencing Tactics (BITs) that target long-term water conservation behaviour within households. Our analysis is structured around three information processing routes: the reflective route, the semi-reflective route, and the automatic route. We conclude that the current body of literature is promising and provides a useful body of evidence on the range and effectiveness of individual water conservation mechanisms, but that needs further development to deepen our understanding of how to effectively prolong and reinforce newly formed water conservation routines.


Subject(s)
Conservation of Water Resources , Empirical Research , Family Characteristics , Water Supply
18.
Sci Total Environ ; 693: 133677, 2019 Nov 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31377348

ABSTRACT

Soil loss and erosion is a major environmental problem in the Mediterranean. Soil and water bioengineering uses plants and/or parts of plants along with inert material to create solutions to fulfill soil conservation objectives combined with an ecological rehabilitation approach. The ECOMED project developed novel approaches and tools to specialize the soil and water bioengineering sector within the Mediterranean. The first activity was the Sector Needs Analysis were the responses to an online questionnaire of 110 stakeholders from the region were analyzed. The main conclusion was the need to specialize the soil and water bioengineering sector in the Mediterranean. In addition, 21 soil and water bioengineering case studies in the Mediterranean were reviewed. Many works of this type are implemented in the region, but have flaws because of the lack of training material, design routines, protocols, specific to the region. The second activity developed New Design Routines and Protocols. Specifically, three protocols, one template and one plant database were developed for the region. Finally, in the Training Material activity, six educational modules along with a handbook (that contained modules, protocols, template and case studies) were developed. Overall the ECOMED project generated new and novel material and tools that were lacking in the region to enhance the specialization process of the soil and water bioengineering sector. These should increase the adoption of soil and water bioengineering techniques with better trained and new professionals as well as improve the work performance of these interventions.


Subject(s)
Bioengineering/methods , Agriculture , Conservation of Natural Resources/methods , Ecology , Plants , Soil , Water
19.
Water Environ Res ; 91(10): 1080-1090, 2019 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31410912

ABSTRACT

Literature published in 2018 pertinent to water reclamation and reuse has been classified into five topics: safe reuse, treatment technologies, management, assessment, and case studies. Researches have been conducted to develop new technologies and improve conventional treatments for achieving sustainable wastewater reclamation, and increasing efforts have been made to facilitate safe water reuse. PRACTITIONER POINTS: The way of publicity greatly influences people's acceptance of water reuse and willingness to purchase produce irrigated with recycled water. Integrated process is the most commonly used treatment technology to reclaim water. There is a lack of local or regional regulatory and policy for sustainable water management.


Subject(s)
Water Purification , Water , Conservation of Natural Resources , Recycling , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water , Water Supply
20.
J Environ Manage ; 246: 881-896, 2019 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31261015

ABSTRACT

Strategies for sustainable water resources management require integration of hydrological, ecological and socio-economic concerns. The "Water for all" project has sought to develop a multi-disciplinary science case for innovative management of water levels and flows in a lowland catchment in Scotland. Water demands of arable agriculture, protection from flood risk and conservation needs of lowland mesotrophic wetlands needed to be considered. Water management strategy focused on the outlet zone of Balgavies lake in Eastern Scotland, where the Lunan Water discharges into a partially confined common channel (lade). Water releases to a mill, to the downstream river, and to floodplain wetlands (Chapel Mires) are partially controlled by an existing weir. Based on observations of management of this weir, we postulated that upgrading hydraulic management in this zone could reduce upstream flood risk, help protect mesotrophic wetlands and facilitate downstream water supply at low flows. We considered potential for: (a) installing a remotely operated tilting weir, for improved management of release and routing of flows from the common lade; (b) dredging of the common lade in combination or instead of the tilting weir. Rapid ecological assessment and mixing analysis of the Lunan Water with waters in Chapel Mires showed a gradient of trophic status across the wetlands linked to impact of river-borne nutrients. Stage-discharge relationships, derived from steady-state approximations of the in-channel hydraulics, showed that the proposed tilting weir had potential to divert seasonal nutrient rich water from the upstream Lake away from Chapel Mires. Significant impact of the proposed weir on upstream flood risk was not demonstrated, but carrying out dredging of the channel reduced the current observed probability of upstream flooding. The proposed weir could help to maintain these dredging benefits. Survey and interviews with catchment stakeholders and residents showed constructive interest in the scheme, with half of the respondents willing to pay to support its implementation. The survey also revealed concerns about the proposed project, especially its long-term governance. The lessons learned have wider relevance to development of an integrated approach to water ecosystem services provision, especially where benefits are uncertain and thinly spread across a range of users.


Subject(s)
Floods , Wetlands , Conservation of Natural Resources , Ecosystem , Risk Reduction Behavior , Scotland
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