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1.
Science ; 369(6503): 500-502, 2020 07 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32732407
2.
Food Chem ; 334: 127608, 2020 Jul 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32711280

ABSTRACT

Food analysis to ensure food safety and quality are relevant to all countries. This study aimed to develop a detection technique by combining recombinase polymerase amplification with CRISPR-Cas12a for food safety (termed RPA-Cas12a-FS). Our data showed that this novel method could be detected via fluorescence intensity for the molecular identification of foodborne pathogenic bacteria, genetically modified crops, and meat adulteration. After optimization, the sensitivity and stability of RPA-Cas12a-FS was further enhanced. The RPA-Cas12a-FS system could specifically detect target gene levels as low as 10 copies in 45 min at 37 °C. The RPA-Cas12a-FS system was sensitive both using standard samples in the lab and using samples from the field, which indicated that this detection method was practical. In conclusion, a simple, rapid, and highly sensitive detection method based on CRISPR-Cas12a was developed for molecular identification in the food safety field without requiring technical expertise or ancillary equipment.

4.
J Food Prot ; 2020 Jul 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32730572

ABSTRACT

Difficulties in addressing research problems can revolve around the data collection process from private entities. Potential issues can arise when collecting food samples or food safety data from industry or third-party sources because of concerns about distribution or exposure of potentially sensitive information. Industry is cautious of its involvement in research projects because effects on production levels, capital investment, regulatory inquiries, unwarranted publicity, or other legal issues can arise depending on the nature of information gathered, and possible inadvertent information released into the public domain. Well-designed clinical trials with animals or humans use blinding methods to reduce bias. This project applied a similar strategy to sensitive data acquisition in the effort to gather meaningful food safety related data while assuring information provided was not at risk. Blinding methods for collecting electronic data and material samples were created to obtain materials and records directly from participating frozen food companies. This provided insight into current industry practices without potential downsides for participating companies. Analysis of food safety concerns using industry data and distribution of findings can be of assistance industry-wide in conducting risk assessments and developing improved research-based food safety plans. The method described was designed to collect information using blinding protocols to reduce bias and prevent traceback to the original source. The benefit of blinding protocols promotes industry participation and creates data collection with anonymity of the original source that can improve reliability of the research and applicability for conclusion to the industry. These blinding protocols are suitable for use in future food safety research projects involving data within and between different segments of the food industry and could be used to encourage collection of valuable industry samples and data.

6.
Toxins (Basel) ; 12(8)2020 Jul 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32722138

ABSTRACT

Oleander is a spontaneous shrub widely occurring in Mediterranean regions. Poisoning is sporadically reported in livestock, mainly due to the ingestion of leaves containing toxic cardiac glycosides (primarily oleandrin). In this study, 50 lactating Fleckvieh cows were affected after being offered a diet containing dry oleander pruning wastes accidentally mixed with fodder. Clinical examination, electrocardiogram, and blood sampling were conducted. Dead animals were necropsied, and heart, liver, kidney, spleen, and intestine were submitted to histological investigation. Oleandrin detection was performed through ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry in blood, serum, liver, heart, milk, and cheese samples. Severe depression, anorexia, ruminal atony, diarrhea, serous nasal discharge, tachycardia, and irregular heartbeat were the most common clinical signs. The first animal died within 48 h, and a total of 13 cows died in 4 days. Disseminated hyperemia and hemorrhages, multifocal coagulative necrosis of the cardiac muscle fibers, and severe and diffuse enteritis were suggestive of oleander poisoning. The diagnosis was confirmed by the presence of oleandrin in serum, liver, heart, milk, and cheese. Our results confirm the high toxicity of oleander in cattle and report for the first time the transfer into milk and dairy products, suggesting a potential risk for the consumers.

7.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0236300, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32702056

ABSTRACT

Breadfruit is a traditional staple crop from Pacific islands with the potential to improve worldwide food security and mitigate diabetes. Flour produced from breadfruit is a gluten-free, low glycemic index, nutrient dense and complete protein option for modern foods but basic scientific knowledge of health impacts of a breadfruit-based diet in animals and humans was lacking. We designed a series of studies to provide basic and fundamental data on impacts of a breadfruit-based diet through an in vitro and in vivo model. Cooked breadfruit flour was digested through a multi-stage enzyme digestion model to estimate protein digestibility in comparison to wheat flour. Breadfruit protein was found to be easier to digest than wheat protein in the enzyme digestion model. The flour digestions were applied to Caco-2 cells to test the cytotoxicity and to measure the immunogenicity through cytokine expression. No significant differences were observed for immune factors and cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IL-8, TNF-α, IFN-γ) on Caco-2 cells between the breadfruit and wheat groups. A breadfruit-based rodent chow was formulated by substitution of all of the wheat in the standard formulation with breadfruit. The diets were isocaloric, nutrient equivalent and used to feed male and female C57BL/6 mice for 21 days. No sign of malnutrition, discomfort, illness or death was observed among the mice because of the diet. The histology and the cytokine expression of the mice ileum from both groups were analyzed and showed similar results. The expression of major bacteria was measured in the colon and showed similar results. Mice fed the breadfruit diet had a significantly higher growth rate and body weight than standard diet fed mice. No negative health outcomes were observed in studies with in vitro or in vivo models and breadfruit flour is a healthy alternative to other starches for modern foods.

8.
PLoS One ; 15(7): e0235950, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32716964

ABSTRACT

Study on fresh food safety reliability and temperature control has being a research focus in the fresh food cold distribution optimization study field. On this basis, optimization of transportation routing problem with time windows for fresh food in time-varying road network is studied by considering both economic cost and fresh food safety loss. A calculation method for path division strategy is designed. A food safety value loss measurement function, a metric function of energy and heat conversion a measure function of carbon emission rate are employed by considering time-varying vehicle speeds, fuel consumptions, cost of temperature control, the loss of food safety reliability and carbon emissions from transportation and temperature control. The fresh food cold chain distribution vehicle routing problem model with time windows in time-varying road network is formulated based on the objective of the distribution cost and food safety value loss minimization. According to the characteristics of the model, an adaptive improved ant colony algorithm is designed. Finally, the experimental data show that the model can effectively avoid the congestion period, reasonably control the refrigeration temperature, reduce the distribution cost, and improve food safety.

9.
Nutrients ; 12(8)2020 Jul 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32718054

ABSTRACT

Food literacy interventions are widely implemented to improve the food security and health of low-socioeconomic adults. The purpose of this study was to conduct an inquiry into the value of OzHarvest's six-week NEST (Nutrition Education and Skills Training) program in promoting food security and food literacy, and to identify the barriers and enablers that participants experienced in sustaining food security, and in utilising their food literacy skills beyond the program. A descriptive evaluation study with pre-post surveys (n = 21) and post-program interviews (n = 17) was conducted, with a convenience sample of NEST program participants living in Sydney, Newcastle, and Melbourne, Australia. Participants demonstrated improvements in food security status (p = 0.030), cooking confidence (p = 0.001), food preparation behaviours (p = 0.006), nutrition knowledge (p = 0.033), vegetable consumption (p = 0.043), and a reduction in intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (p = 0.017), and salty snack foods (p = 0.011). The interviews revealed that participants learned to stretch their food budgets and make meaningful changes to their food utilisation (a key dimension of food security). Interviews also identified enablers (e.g., social support) and barriers (e.g., health conditions) to achieving food security. Acknowledging the need for a multi-faceted approach that also addresses upstream determinants, interventions like NEST may play a role in promoting food security and food literacy.

10.
Rev Sci Tech ; 39(1): 245-252, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32729563

ABSTRACT

Establishing trust in national systems for assurance of animal health and food safety is a key step in any importing country's consideration of whether a potential trading partner can meet its appropriate level of protection. Private veterinarians, veterinary para-professionals (VPPs) and aquatic animal health professionals (AAHPs) play a crucial role in national Veterinary Services, formally or informally, and across the whole spectrum of national animal and public health activities. Private veterinarians, AAHPs or VPPs are engaged as part of the national Veterinary Services and in various forms of public-private partnerships (PPPs) in many countries worldwide. In many cases, authorised private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs enable the national Veterinary or Aquatic Animal Health Services as a whole to do more work over a wider geographical area and thus have a greater impact than publicly employed professionals working alone. The deployment of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs directly or in PPP arrangements strengthens national services and enhances their ability to deliver reliable animal health and food safety assurance. To ensure that private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs deliver to their full potential, effective and efficient systems for training, accreditation, monitoring and audit are essential. This article draws on data from published OIE Performance of Veterinary Services evaluations (from 2007 to the present) and unpublished responses to the OIE 2017 questionnaire on PPPs, to draw insights into the use and accreditation of private veterinarians, AAHPs and VPPs globally.

11.
Nutrients ; 12(7)2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32708904

ABSTRACT

Food insecurity and other nutritional risks in infancy pose a lifelong risk to wellbeing; however, their effect on diet quality in Native Hawaiian, Pacific Islander, and Filipino (NHPIF) infants in Hawai'i is unknown. In this cross-sectional analysis, the association between various indicators of food security and NHPIF infant diet quality were investigated in 70 NHPIF infants aged 3-12 months residing on O'ahu, Hawai'i. The dietary assessments of the infants were collected using a mobile food recordTM. Foods consumed across four days were categorized into seven food groups. Indicators for food security were examined through an adapted infant food security index and other indicators. Data were analyzed using chi-square tests, independent sample t-tests, multinomial logistic regression, and linear regression models. In models adjusting for age and sex, infants defined as food insecure by the adapted index were found to consume foods from more food groups and consume flesh foods on a greater proportion of days. Of the indicators examined, the adapted index was shown to be the best indicator for food group consumption. Further work is needed on a more representative sample of NHPIF infants to determine the impact that food security has on nutritional status and other indicators of health.

12.
Crit Rev Anal Chem ; : 1-20, 2020 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32715728

ABSTRACT

Zearalenone (ZEN) is a toxic compound produced by the metabolism of fungi (genus Fusarium) that threaten the food and agricultural industry belonging to the in foods and feeds. ZEN has toxic effects on human and animal health due to its mutagenicity, teratogenicity, carcinogenicity, nephrotoxicity, immunotoxicity, and genotoxicity. To ensure food safety, rapid, precise, and reliable analytical methods can be developed for the detection of toxins such as ZEN. Different selective molecular diagnostic elements are used in conjunction with different detection strategies to achieve this goal. In this review, the use of electrochemical, colorimetric, fluorometric, refractometric as well as other strategies were discussed for ZEN detection. The success of the sensors in analytical performance depends on the development of receptors with increased affinity to the target. This requirement has been met with different immunoassays, aptamer-assays, and molecular imprinting techniques. The immobilization techniques and analysis strategies developed with the combination of nanomaterials provided high precision, reliability, and convenience in ZEN detection, in which electrochemical strategies perform the best.

14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32630242

ABSTRACT

Food safety has long been a major public concern in China. One question of the food processing industry's emphasis on food safety social responsibility is whether a food processing company should pursue food safety certification for its products. As part of their corporate image, some food processing companies focus on food safety in their corporate mission statements. To enhance the legitimacy of a mission statement, as a guide for a firm, can provide food companies the legitimacy of perhaps pursuing food safety certification. However, we find that under different equity natures, the pressures on the normative legitimacy of the firm are different and the impact of mission statements on the acquisition of food safety certifications is also different. By analyzing the mission statement of companies in the Chinese food industry, we find that firms with a mission focusing on food safety concerns are more willing to pursue food safety certification. Moreover, compared to the firms with more distributed shareholder ownership, in firms where a majority shareholder has substantial control, the relationship between mission statements and the possession of food safety certification is stronger; compared to non-state-owned enterprises, in state-owned enterprise (SOEs), the relationship between firm mission statements of and the acquisition of food safety certification is stronger.

15.
Food Chem ; 332: 127397, 2020 Jun 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645675

ABSTRACT

Polyphosphates are permitted as food additives (Regulation EC No 1129/2011) but their undeclared utilisation is considered fraudulent. They improve water holding capacity of the seafood, preventing biochemical/physical changes during commercialization. The key objective of this study was the detection of polyphosphate in various seafood categories, by means of high-performance ion-exchange chromatography with suppressed conductometry (HPIEC-SCD) coupled to Q-Exactive Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS-Orbitrap). Ten frozen cuttlefish samples did not reveal any treatment, while in ten frigate tunas, high concentration of orthophospate was found. Unambiguous hexametaphosphate presence was demonstrated in four prawn samples, while triphosphate was quantified (11.2 ± 4 ug/g) in another four prawn samples that contained orthophosphate (10225 ± 1102 ug/g), as well. Other samples sporadically encompassed polyphosphates profiles that varied according species and processing type. This analytical approach provided sustenance in better understanding regarding utilization of polyphosphates through HRMS fingerprinting of anionic species that would be specific in food safety control.

16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32645941

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to analyze the food safety conditions in home kitchens from the Brazilian Federal District. A previously validated instrument composed of 77 items (in four blocks) was used to evaluate the safety conditions in home kitchens. A survey was carried out with on-site application with 226 home kitchens' food handlers in the Federal District, Brazil to evaluate Brazilian home kitchens' good practices. Of the home kitchen food handlers, most of them were female (64.6%), had completed undergraduate education (29.2%), and were 45-59 years old (23.5%). The visited households had an average of 3.38 ± 1.48 residents that ate some of their meals at home, and 40% declared the monthly family income to be between 5 and 15 Brazilian minimum wages (MW). Regarding the reliability of the instrument, from the KR-20 test, it was verified that the instrument presents good internal consistency (α = 0.758). According to the instrument classification, the home kitchens' sample was considered as at a medium risk of food contamination (46.5% of them presented from 51 to 75% of conformities to the instrument). There was a statistical difference between house-kitchens with a family income from zero to one minimum wage (MW) and those receiving from 5 to 15 MW (p = 0.017), as well as between those from zero to one MW and who earn above 15 MW (p = 0.009). The result of the on-site evaluation shows that the instrument was able to measure food safety conditions in Brazilian Federal District domestic kitchens. Such findings can contribute positively to the development of actions in health education that help in the adoption of good practices of food manipulation and, consequently, in the reduction in foodborne disease outbreaks in residences.

17.
BMC Public Health ; 20(1): 1124, 2020 Jul 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32680475

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Among food pantry users there is a high prevalence of both smoking and food insecurity, which may be related to one another. This study aims to evaluate the impact of a smoking cessation program carried out in food pantries on the smoking status and the food security status of food pantry users. METHODS / DESIGN: Before starting the cluster randomised controlled trial, stakeholders will be engaged to adapt a behavioural group counselling program for smoking cessation to the needs of the food pantry users in a pre study. Food pantry users and workers as well as other experts, such as smoking cessation trainers, social workers, and psychologists, will be involved, using the world café technique and telephone interviews and a qualitative thematic analysis for data analysis to design the concept of the intervention program will be applied. In the second phase, the impact of the intervention on the smoking status and on food insecurity will be investigated by a cluster randomised controlled trial. A total of 416 food pantry users across 32 clusters (food pantries) in Berlin, Germany, should be recruited and randomly assigned to either the intervention group or the waiting list control group. The intervention will consist of a behavioural group counselling program for smoking cessation, specially tailored for food pantry users, as well as optional nicotine replacement therapy and the implementation of environmental smoking reduction measures in the food pantries. The primary outcomes 6 months after the treatment will be self-reported continuous smoking abstinence, validated by exhaled carbon monoxide (< 10 ppm of carbon monoxide), and increased food security level (the percentage of participants with an improved food security level). DISCUSSION: This study will be the first long-term investigation into the effect of a smoking cessation program on smoking status and food insecurity. The results of this study will inform the implementation of smoking cessation programs in food pantries throughout Germany. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Prospectively registered DRKS00020037 . Registered 29 April 2020.

18.
GM Crops Food ; : 1-11, 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32687427

ABSTRACT

The importance of food security and nourishment is recognized in Southern African region and in many communities, globally. However, the attainment of food security in Southern African countries is affected by many factors, including adverse environmental conditions, pests and diseases. Scientists have been insistently looking for innovative strategies to optimize crop production and combat challenges militating against attainment of food security. In agriculture, strategies of increasing crop production include but not limited to improved crop varieties, farming practices, extension services, irrigation services, mechanization, information technology, use of fertilizers and agrochemicals. Equally important is genetic modification (GM) technology, which brings new prospects in addressing food security problems. Nonetheless, since the introduction of genetically modified crops (GMOs) three decades ago, it has been a topic of public discourse across the globe, conspicuously so in Southern African region. This is regardless of the evidence that planting GMOs positively influenced farmer's incomes, economic access to food and increased tolerance of crops to various biotic and abiotic stresses. This paper looks at the issues surrounding GMOs adoption in Southern Africa and lack thereof, the discourse, and its potential in contributing to the attainment of food security for the present as well as future generations.

19.
Risk Anal ; 2020 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32691435

ABSTRACT

Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness (i.e., salmonellosis) outbreaks, which on occasion are attributed to ground turkey. The poultry industry uses Salmonella prevalence as an indicator of food safety. However, Salmonella prevalence is only one of several factors that determine risk of salmonellosis. Consequently, a model for predicting risk of salmonellosis from individual lots of ground turkey as a function of Salmonella prevalence and other risk factors was developed. Data for Salmonella contamination (prevalence, number, and serotype) of ground turkey were collected at meal preparation. Scenario analysis was used to evaluate effects of model variables on risk of salmonellosis. Epidemiological data were used to simulate Salmonella serotype virulence in a dose-response model that was based on human outbreak and feeding trial data. Salmonella prevalence was 26% (n = 100) per 25 g of ground turkey, whereas Salmonella number ranged from 0 to 1.603 with a median of 0.185 log per 25 g. Risk of salmonellosis (total arbitrary units (AU) per lot) was affected (p ≤ 0.05) by Salmonella prevalence, number, and virulence, by incidence and extent of undercooking, and by food consumption behavior and host resistance but was not (p > 0.05) affected by serving size, serving size distribution, or total bacterial load of ground turkey when all other risk factors were held constant. When other risk factors were not held constant, Salmonella prevalence was not correlated (r = -0.39; p = 0.21) with risk of salmonellosis. Thus, Salmonella prevalence alone was not a good indicator of poultry food safety because other factors were found to alter risk of salmonellosis. In conclusion, a more holistic approach to poultry food safety, such as the process risk model developed in the present study, is needed to better protect public health from foodborne pathogens like Salmonella.

20.
Glob Chang Biol ; 2020 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32697859

ABSTRACT

Balancing crop production and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emissions from agriculture soil requires a better understanding and quantification of crop GHGs emission intensity, a measure of GHG emissions per unit crop production. Here, we conduct a state-of-the-art estimate of the spatial-temporal variability of GHG emission intensities for wheat, maize, and rice in China from 1949-2012 using an improved agricultural ecosystem model (DLEM-AG2.0) and meta-analysis covering 172 field-GHG emission experiments. The results show that the GHG emission intensities of these croplands from 1949-2012, on average, were 0.10-1.31 kg CO2 -eq kg-1 , with a significant increase rate of 1.84-3.58×10-3 kg CO2 -eq kg-1 yr-1 . Nitrogen fertilizer was the dominant factor contributing to the increase in GHG emission intensity in northern China and increased its impact in southern China in the 2000s. Increasing GHG emission intensity implies that excessive fertilizer failed to markedly stimulate crop yield increase in China but still exacerbated soil GHG emissions. This study found that overfertilization of more than 60% was mainly located in the winter wheat-summer maize rotation systems in the North China Plain, the winter wheat-rice rotation systems in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River and southwest China, and most of the double rice systems in the South. Our simulations suggest that roughly a one-third reduction in the current N fertilizer application level over these "overfertilization" regions would not significantly influence crop yield but decrease soil GHG emissions by 29.60%-32.50% and GHG emission intensity by 0.13-0.25 kg CO2 -eq kg-1 . This reduction is about 29% and 5% of total agricultural soil GHG emissions in China and the world, respectively. This study suggests that improving nitrogen use efficiency would be an effective strategy to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions and sustain China's food security.

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