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1.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 139057, 2020 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32438167

ABSTRACT

Urbanisation will be one of the 21st century's most transformative trends. By 2050, it will increase from 55% to 68%, more than doubling the urban population in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa. Urbanisation has multifarious (positive as well as negative) impacts on the wellbeing of humans and the environment. The 17 UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) form the blueprint to achieve a sustainable future for all. Clean Water and Sanitation is a specific goal (SDG 6) within the suite of 17 interconnected goals. Here we provide an overview of some of the challenges that urbanisation poses in relation to SDG 6, especially in developing economies. Worldwide, several cities are on the verge of water crisis. Water distribution to informal settlements or slums in megacities (e.g. >50% population in the megacities of India) is essentially non-existent and limits access to adequate safe water supply. Besides due to poor sewer connectivity in the emerging economies, there is a heavy reliance on septic tanks, and other on-site sanitation (OSS) system and by 2030, 4.9 billion people are expected to rely on OSS. About 62-93% of the urban population in Vietnam, Sri Lanka, the Philippines and Indonesia rely on septic tanks, where septage treatment is rare. Globally, over 80% of wastewater is released to the environment without adequate treatment. About 11% of all irrigated croplands is irrigated with such untreated or poorly treated wastewater. In addition to acute and chronic health effects, this also results in significant pollution of often-limited surface and groundwater resources in Sub-Saharan Africa and Asia. Direct and indirect water reuse plays a key role in global water and food security. Here we offer several suggestions to mitigate water and food insecurity in emerging economies.

2.
Sci Total Environ ; 732: 139251, 2020 May 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32442770

ABSTRACT

China's food security is facing serious threats because the virtual water triggered by grain trade flows from the water-scarce north region to the water-rich south region in recent years. Thus, quantitatively evaluating grain virtual water flow is increasingly important. We established a multi-objective linear optimization model based on analyzing drivers of grain trade by the entropy method, and the two drivers of transport cost and grain consumption structure between provinces were analyzed. The results show that the virtual water flow of inter-provincial grain trade of China was 98.38 Gm3 in 2015, accounting for 15% of the total water consumption of grain production. The impact weights of grain transportation cost and difference of grain consumption structure between provinces on virtual water flow were 0.665 and 0.335, respectively. Although the production and consumption of grain in northern region were almost the same, the virtual water imbedded in grain trade still flowed from the north to the south under the influence of grain imports from abroad and grain consumption structure. Compared to previous methods, the model added the principle of the entropy method into linear programming analysis. This innovative model not only quantitatively evaluated the driving forces of grain trade through the weight coefficient, but also established a universal model of quantifying grain virtual water flow. Moreover, we reduced data assumptions, such as not considering actual grain imports and transport modes of grain, which improves the credibility of quantitative results. The model quantified virtual water from the perspective of driving impacts and precluded the limitations of trade data. The model can be used in other countries and regions, where trade data is difficult to obtain, to calculate trade patterns. The results are useful for decision makers to implement virtual water strategies, mitigate national water scarcity, and facilitate sustainable development of grain production.

3.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32429582

ABSTRACT

The water resources of Central Asia play an important role in maintaining the fragile balance of ecosystems and the sustainable development of human society. However, the lack of research on the heavy metals in river waters has a far-reaching influence on public health and the sustainable development in Central Asia. In order to reveal the possible sources of the heavy metals and to assess the associated human health risks, thirty-eight water samples were collected from the rivers of the Issyk-Kul Basin during the period with low river flow (May) and the period with high river flow (July and August), and the hydrochemical compositions and major ions of heavy metals were analyzed. No changes in hydrochemical facies were observed between the two periods and the river water type was calcium bicarbonate. Carbonate dissolution and silicate weathering controlled the variation of cations and anions in river waters from the Issyk-Kul Basin. There were some differences in the sources of heavy metals in water bodies between the two periods. During the period with low river flow, heavy metals (Cr) were closely clustered with major ions, indicating that they were mainly affected by water-rock interactions. During the period with high river flow, all heavy metals studied in this paper had different sources of major ions, and the heavy metals maybe influenced by human activities. From the human health risk assessment, the hazard quotients for all samples were less than 1, reflecting that there was no noncarcinogenic risk in the river waters of the Issyk-Kul Basin during the two sampling periods. However, the water samples with carcinogenic risk of arsenic exceeding the threshold (10-4) accounted for 21.1% of the total, indicating that there were some certain carcinogenic hazards for human health via water drinking with direct oral ingestion. The results are of certain significance for the utilization and protection of water resources in the basin as well as the protection of public health.

4.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 228: 113547, 2020 May 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32387880

ABSTRACT

Achievement of United Nations Sustainable Development Goal 6.1 centers on the availability of a safely managed drinking water source for all. However, meeting the criteria for this goal is challenging on island systems and elsewhere with limited freshwater supplies. We measured microbial and chemical water quality over three years on San Cristobal Island, Galapagos, an island with limited freshwater supply, necessitating use of cisterns or roof tanks to ensure water availability in households. Our results showed that the municipal water treatment plants generally produced high quality drinking water but detection of Escherichia coli in 2-30% of post-treatment distribution samples suggests contamination and/or regrowth during distribution and storage. Linear regression revealed a modest, negative relationship between residual chlorine and microbial concentrations in drinking water samples, while 24-h antecedent rainfall only slightly increased microbial counts. Taken together, our results underscore the challenge of providing a safely managed drinking water source where limited freshwater quantities result in intermittent flow and require storage at the household level. Efforts to meet sustainable development goals for island systems will likely need to consider water availability for any treatment technologies or programs aimed at meeting water quality goals.

5.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 8730, 2020 May 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32457428

ABSTRACT

The Hun-Taizi River watershed includes the main part of the Liaoning central urban agglomeration, which contains six cities with an 80-year industrial history. A total of 272 samples were collected from different land use areas within the study area to estimate the concentration levels, spatial distributions and potential sources of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), mercury (Hg), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) with a geographic information system (GIS), principal component analysis (PCA) and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA). Only the concentration of Cd was over the national standard value (GB 15618-2018). However, the heavy metal concentrations at 24.54%, 71.43%, 63.37%, 85.71, 70.33%, 53.11%, and 72.16% of the sampling points were higher than the local soil background values for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn, respectively, which were used as standard values in this study. The maximal values of Cd (16.61 times higher than the background value) and Hg (12.18 times higher than the background value) had high concentrations, while Cd was present in the study area at higher values than in some other basins in China. Cd was the primary pollutant in the study area due to its concentration and potential ecological risk contribution. The results of the potential ecological risk index (RI) calculation showed that the overall heavy metal pollution level of the soil was considerably high. Three groups of heavy metals with similar distributions and sources were identified through PCA. The results of the CCA showed that the distribution of mines was the strongest factor affecting the distributions of Ni, As, Zn, Pb, and Cd. However, Cu was strongly influenced by the distance to the nearest river. These findings can provide scientific support for critical planning and strategies for soil pollution control and removal to support the sustainable development of the study area.

6.
Sci Total Environ ; 730: 139126, 2020 May 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32416507

ABSTRACT

Solar water disinfection (SODIS) is a simple, inexpensive and sustainable Household Water Treatment (HWT) that is appropriate for low-income countries or emergency situations. Usually, SODIS involves solar exposure of water contained in transparent polyethylene terephthalate (PET) bottles for a minimum of 6 h. Sunlight, especially UVB radiation, has been demonstrated to photoinactivate bacteria, viruses and protozoa. In this work, an in-depth study of the optical and mechanical properties, weathering and production prices of polymeric materials has been carried out to identify potential candidate materials for manufacturing SODIS devices. Three materials were ruled out (polystyrene (PS), polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE)) and four materials were initially selected for study: polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA), polypropylene (PP), polycarbonate (PC) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET). These plastics transmit sufficient solar radiation to kill waterborne pathogens with production costs compensated by their durability under solar exposure. A predictive model has been developed to quantitatively estimate the radiation available for SODIS inside the device as a function of the material and thickness. This tool has two applications: to evaluate design parameters such as thickness, and to estimate experimental requirements such as solar exposure time. In this work, this model evaluated scenarios involving different plastic materials, device thicknesses, and pathogens (Escherichia coli bacterium, MS2 virus and Cryptosporidium parvum protozoon). The developed Solar UV Calculator model is freely available and can be also applied to other customized materials and conditions.

7.
J Environ Manage ; 265: 110508, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32421553

ABSTRACT

The UN Sustainable Development Goals constitute a bench of directives with a universal scope to establish actions to mitigate poverty and protect the environment. Benefiting from the Environmental-Economic Accounting for Water recently published in Brazil, it is possible to harmonize the demand of water and the economic sectors. To this end, this study conducted an input-output analysis and structural decomposition analysis to explore the water consumption of the Brazilian Economy and its driving forces during an unprecedented drought and economic recession between 2013 and 2015. The results indicate that the total variation of the water consumption in the period is 15%. Between 2013 and 2014, the total effect was positive, causing an increase of 45% in the embodied water consumption, having as main driver the final demand and the intensity effect. In the second period, the total intensity effect was negative, provoking a decrease of -10% in the total water consumption. The "Agriculture, livestock, forestry and fishing" is the main sector responsible for these positive and negative results, while the "Energy and gas natural supply" sector has a strategic position to avoid a structural increase on the economic water demand.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Water , Animals , Brazil , Livestock , Water Supply
8.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32372251

ABSTRACT

The prolonged persistence of toxic arsenic (As) in environment is due to its non-biodegradable characteristic. Meanwhile, several studies have reported higher concentrations of As in Langat River. However, it is the first study in Langat River Basin, Malaysia, that As concentrations in drinking water supply chain were determined simultaneously to predict the health risks of As ingestion. Water samples collected in 2015 from the four stages of drinking water supply chain were analysed for As concentration by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Determined As concentrations along with the time series data (2004-2015) were significantly within the maximum limit 0.01 mg/L of drinking water quality standard set by World Health Organization. The predicted As concentration by auto-regression moving average was 3.45E-03 mg/L in 2020 at 95% level based on time series data including climatic control variables. Long-term As ingestion via household filtration water at Langat Basin showed no potential lifetime cancer risk (LCR) 9.7E-06 (t = 6.68; p = 3.37E-08) as well as non-carcinogenic hazard quotient (HQ) 4.8E-02 (t = 6.68; p = 3.37E-08) risk at 95% level. However, the changing landscape, ex-mining ponds and extensive use of pesticides for palm oil plantation at Langat Basin are considered as the major sources of increased As concentration in Langat River. Therefore, a two-layer water filtration system at Langat Basin should be introduced to accelerate the achievement of sustainable development goal of getting safe drinking water supply.

9.
Environ Monit Assess ; 192(5): 298, 2020 Apr 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32307607

ABSTRACT

Monitoring the qualitative status of freshwaters is an important goal of the international community, as stated in the Sustainable Development Goal (SDGs) indicator 6.3.2 on good ambient water quality. Monitoring data are, however, lacking in many countries, allegedly because of capacity challenges of less-developed countries. So far, however, the relationship between human development and capacity challenges for water quality monitoring have not been analysed systematically. This hinders the implementation of fine-tuned capacity development programmes for water quality monitoring. Against this background, this study takes a global perspective in analysing the link between human development and the capacity challenges countries face in their national water quality monitoring programmes. The analysis is based on the latest data on the human development index and an international online survey amongst experts from science and practice. Results provide evidence of a negative relationship between human development and the capacity challenges to meet SDG 6.3.2 monitoring requirements. This negative relationship increases along the course of the monitoring process, from defining the enabling environment, choosing parameters for the collection of field data, to the analytics and analysis of five commonly used parameters (DO, EC, pH, TP and TN). Our assessment can be used to help practitioners improve technical capacity development activities and to identify and target investment in capacity development for monitoring.

10.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(17): 21590-21603, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32279273

ABSTRACT

China is facing great challenges to balance its natural water resource use and eco-environment protection, especially in the north semi-arid region with large water consumption due to the rapid economic growth. This highlights the urgency to use water resource carrying capacity (WRCC) as a measure to maintain the sustainable development of the human and natural water system. Here, we used a coupled model based on the system dynamics and cellular automaton models to assess the WRCC under the critical value of water resource withdrawal ratio (40%) and its sustainability in the Yongding River watershed in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei region, where the water use highly depends on river flow and nonrenewable groundwater resources. The analytical results showed that the current regional WRCC is severely overloaded due to strong human activities. The predicted results based on four scenarios, i.e., existing development, water saving, industrial restructuring, and integrated development schemes, showed that although the improvement of water saving and water use efficiency has mitigated the regional water shortage, evidenced by the increased WRCC, the water shortage would continue due to the increased water demand. Under the integrated development scenario, it will need at least additional 7.1 × 108 m3 water per year (Beijing: 2.5 × 108 m3, Tianjin: 0.8 × 108 m3, Hebei: 3.8 × 108 m3) via the water transfer project to maintain the sustainability in the next decades. Our research provides recommendations for reasonable water utilization and supplementation under the severe water crisis.

11.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 227: 113514, 2020 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32247226

ABSTRACT

Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) 6 aims to achieve universal access to safe drinking water sources. However, the health benefits of meeting this goal will only be fully realized if improved sources are used to the exclusion of unimproved sources. Very little is known about how rural African households balance the use of improved and unimproved water sources when multiple options are present. We assessed parallel use of untreated surface water and unimproved hand-dug wells (HDWs) in the presence of boreholes (BHs) using a semi-quantitative water use survey among 750 residents of 15 rural Ghanaian communities, distributed across three BH water quality clusters: control, high salinity, and high iron. Multivariate mixed effects logistic regression models were used to assess the impact of water quality cluster on the use of BHs, HDWs, and surface water, controlling for distance to the nearest source of each type. Reported surface water use was significantly higher in the high salinity and high iron clusters than in the control cluster, especially for water-intensive activities. Respondents in the non-control clusters had approximately eight times higher odds of clothes washing with surface water (p < 0.01) than in the control. Respondents in the high salinity cluster also had 4.3 times higher odds of drinking surface water (p < 0.05). BH use was high in all clusters, but decreased substantially when distance to the nearest BH exceeded 300 m (OR = 0.17-0.25, p < 0.001). Water use from all sources was inversely correlated with distance, with the largest effect observed on HDW use in multivariate models (OR = 0.02, p < 0.001). Surface water and HDW use will likely continue despite the presence of BHs when perceived groundwater quality is poor and other water sources are in close proximity. It is essential to account for naturally-occurring but undesirable groundwater quality parameters in rural water planning to ensure that SDG 6 is met and health benefits are realized.

12.
J Public Health Dent ; 2020 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32242926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To identify trends and determinants of drinking water practices [bottled (BW) versus community water (CW) consumption] among families of pediatric patients presenting to an academic dental institution over 15 years. METHODS: Electronic health record data were obtained for all first-time routine-care patients ages 0-16 presenting to UNC-Chapel Hill's Pediatric Dentistry Clinics from 2002 to 2016, including families' primary drinking water source and patient demographics (e.g., age, gender, residence, insurance status). Data analyses included descriptive and bivariate methods and multivariable modeling using a P < 0.05 statistical significance criterion. RESULTS: BW consumption has increased over time, from 17 percent in 2004 to 42 percent in 2016 (n = 2,920; P < 0.05). Medicaid-enrolled children [prevalence ratio (PR) = 2.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.8-2.4] and residents of rural counties (PR = 1.3, 95% CI = 1.1-1.5) were significantly more likely to consume BW versus CW. CONCLUSIONS: BW consumption among NC children has been increasing and is most prevalent among low-income families and in rural areas.

13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32344678

ABSTRACT

Although toxic Cd (cadmium) and Cr (chromium) in the aquatic environment are mainly from natural sources, human activities have increased their concentrations. Several studies have reported higher concentrations of Cd and Cr in the aquatic environment of Malaysia; however, the association between metal ingestion via drinking water and human health risk has not been established. This study collected water samples from four stages of the drinking water supply chain at Langat River Basin, Malaysia in 2015 to analyze the samples by inductivity coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Mean concentrations of Cd and Cr and the time-series river data (2004-2014) of these metals were significantly within the safe limit of drinking water quality standard proposed by the Ministry of Health Malaysia and the World Health Organization. Hazard quotient (HQ) and lifetime cancer risk (LCR) values of Cd and Cr in 2015 and 2020 also indicate no significant human health risk of its ingestion via drinking water. Additionally, management of pollution sources in the Langat Basin from 2004 to 2015 decreased Cr concentration in 2020 on the basis of autoregression moving average. Although Cd and Cr concentrations were found to be within the safe limits at Langat Basin, high concentrations of these metals have been found in household tap water, especially due to the contamination in the water distribution pipeline. Therefore, a two-layer water filtration system should be introduced in the basin to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) 2030 agenda of a better and more sustainable future for all, especially via SDG 6 of supplying safe drinking water at the household level.

14.
Sci Total Environ ; 724: 138155, 2020 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32272402

ABSTRACT

In this study, a fuzzy-vertex-based virtual-water analysis method (FVAM) is developed for assessing the virtual water content (VWC) of main agricultural products, imports, and exports at a national scale. FVAM has advantages in quantifying state-level VWC with a bottom-up approach and reflecting uncertain parameters based on vertex analysis technique. FVAM is applied to a real case of Kazakhstan in Central Asia. Results reveal that (i) the VWC of Kazakhstan's agricultural products is between 55.61 and 83.98 billion m3/yr in 2000-2016, where wheat is the largest water consumer and the Kostanay state has the largest VWC; (ii) Kazakhstan is a net exporter of virtual water, most of which flows to neighboring countries such as Russia and Azerbaijan; (iii) uncertainties in crop coefficient (Kc), feed water requirement (FWR), drinking water requirement (DWR) and service water requirement (SWR) can affect the VWC assessment; (iv) the massive export of water-intensive products makes the water resources more severe in Kazakhstan, which further squeezes the local ecological water use. Therefore, reducing the export of virtual water should be the focus of future agricultural policies. The findings are useful for decision makers to optimize Kazakhstan's agricultural structure, mitigate the national water scarcity, and facilitate the regional sustainable development.

15.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 226: 113493, 2020 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32155581

ABSTRACT

In addition to the conventional wisdom of categorizing countries based on nationally-averaged coverage in access to improved drinking water sources (IDWS), this study incorporated sub-national inequality into a novel categorisation framework. The association between access to IDWS and the incidence of childhood diarrhoea (ICD) was also quantified. Information from 1.63 million households obtained through nationally representative and cross-sectional demographic and health survey (DHS) and multiple indicator cluster survey (MICS) from 81 countries were analysed. Sub-national inequalities in the access to IDWS were measured using proportional variability (PV). Most studied countries with low coverage and high inequalities in accessing IDWS were from Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Wealth status of households showed a higher variability in the IDWS than the variability across locations. Significant negative associations between accessing IDWS and ICD were observed for regional models, except for SSA. This study adds knowledge towards understanding the state of sustainable development goal achievements in terms of accessing IDWS. The knowledge may be helpful in designing country-specific, achievable, short- and long-term strategies. The non-decisive relation between access to IDWS and ICD indicates the adoption of additional measures in the modelling mechanism.

16.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int ; 27(12): 12839-12841, 2020 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32172414
17.
Environ Pollut ; 263(Pt B): 114389, 2020 Mar 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32220691

ABSTRACT

The present work reported a high-throughput strategy for the analysis of 21 perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water, tap water, river water and plant effluent from southern China by supramolecular solvent (SUPARS) vortex-mixed microextraction combined with high performance liquid chromatography-Orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry (HPLC-Orbitrap HRMS). The SUPRAS without heating assistance is less solvent-consumption, meeting the requirements for green environmental protection and sustainable development. Parameters in the microextraction such as volume of dodecanol and tetrahydrofuran (THF), vortexing extraction and centrifugation time, salt concentration were investigated. The optimal extraction conditions were 250 µL of undecanol, 1.0 mL of THF and 20.0% (w/v, 4 g) NaCl. Under the optimum conditions, method limit of detection and method limit of quantitation in the ranges of 0.01-0.08 µg/L and 0.03-0.25 µg/L, good recoveries (72.5-117.8%) and intra-day precision (1.1-11.2%, n = 6), high enrichment factors (48-78) were obtained. The developed method was successfully applied for analysis of PFCs in 13 drinking water, tap water, river water and plant effluent samples collected from southern China. Perfluorobutane sulfonic acid was detected in one river water with concentration of 0.48 µg/L and 1H,1H,2H,2H-Perfluorooctane sulfonic acid was detected in one river water and two plant effluent samples with concentrations in the range of 0.14-0.67 µg/L.

18.
PLoS One ; 15(3): e0227611, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32196493

ABSTRACT

This paper presents country-level estimates of water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH)-related mortality and the economic losses associated with poor access to water and sanitation infrastructure in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) from 1990 to 2050. We examine the extent to which the changes that accompany economic growth will "solve" water and sanitation problems in SSA and, if so, how long it will take. Our simulations suggest that WASH-related mortality will continue to differ markedly across countries in sub-Saharan Africa. In many countries, expected economic growth alone will not be sufficient to eliminate WASH-related mortality or eliminate the economic losses associated with poor access to water and sanitation infrastructure by 2050. In other countries, WASH-related mortality will sharply decline, although the economic losses associated with the time spent collecting water are forecast to persist. Overall, our findings suggest that in a subset of countries in sub-Saharan Africa (e.g., Angola, Niger, Sierra Leone, Chad and several others), WASH-related investments will remain a priority for decades and require a long-term, sustained effort from both the international community and national governments.


Subject(s)
Economic Development/trends , Hygiene/standards , Mortality/trends , Sanitation/standards , Water Quality/standards , Africa South of the Sahara/epidemiology , Forecasting , Humans , Hygiene/economics , Sanitation/economics , Sustainable Development/economics , Sustainable Development/trends , Water Supply/economics , Water Supply/standards
19.
Sci Rep ; 10(1): 4150, 2020 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32139773

ABSTRACT

Ecological degradation impedes sustainable development in Southwest China, and artificial afforestation has been a key strategy of the Government of China to effectively curb it. However, the water consumed by large-scale afforestation has a huge impact on water supply in Southwest China, which also arise a new challenge causing severe drought here recently. In order to determine the impact of artificial afforestation on the region, this study conducts spatiotemporal, abrupt change, and correlation and regression analyses. Results show that although water resources fluctuate, they exhibit a general declining trend. Especially after 2000, water resources showed a significant downward trend. In terms of spatial tendency, there has been an obvious decrease in water resources in the Sichuan Basin, the mountainous region of eastern Chongqing, and the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Due to extensive afforestation and vegetation cover growth, there has been an increase in most trends of forest-shrub ecosystems, resulting in substantially enhanced evapotranspiration effects. The uptake of water by afforestation in Southwest China could reach 40.42 billion m3, which is equivalent to 10.69% of its annul available water supply (1980-2015). Generally, afforestation disrupts the water balance of the region. This study recommends substituting afforestation for natural restoration or, at the very least, selecting vegetation that requires less water for the restoration of the ecological environment of Southwest China, which provide scientific method for regional sustainable development.

20.
Nat Commun ; 11(1): 1553, 2020 Mar 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32214097

ABSTRACT

Sustainable inland waterways should meet the needs of navigation without compromising the health of riverine ecosystems. Here we propose a hierarchical model to describe sustainable development of the Golden Inland Waterways (GIWs) which are characterized by great bearing capacity and transport need. Based on datasets from 66 large rivers (basin area > 100,000 km2) worldwide, we identify 34 GIWs, mostly distributed in Asia, Europe, North America, and South America, typically following a three-stage development path from the initial, through to the developing and on to the developed stage. For most GIWs, the exploitation ratio, defined as the ratio of actual to idealized bearing capacity, should be less than 80% due to ecological considerations. Combined with the indices of regional development, GIWs exploitation, and riverine ecosystem, we reveal the global diversity and evolution of GIWs' sustainability from 2015 to 2050, which highlights the importance of river-specific strategies for waterway exploitation worldwide.

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