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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253731, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355871

ABSTRACT

Abstract Petroleum water soluble fraction (WSF) impairs organisms, but damages may vary among cell and tissue levels. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the acute (24 h, 48 h, 72 h) and subchronic effects (36 days) of WSF (0%, 25% and 100%) in juveniles of the Neotropical top predator fish Hoplias aff. malabaricus. The effects of WSF were evaluated at a molecular level using the comet assay and micronucleus test for genome damage; and at a morphological level through histological identification of liver pathologic lesions. In both acute and subchronic exposure we found low levels of DNA damage (< 10% of comet tail) and non-significant frequency of micronucleus in WSF exposed fish. The most significant liver lesions in WSF exposed fish were fatty vacuolization, hypertrophy and focal necrosis. Since these tissue injuries were progressive and persistent, their irreversibility may negatively affect fish recruitment, even in a such resistant top predator.


Resumo A fração solúvel de petróleo (WSF) prejudica os organismos, porém os danos podem variar entre os níveis celular e tecidual. O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar o efeito agudo (24 h, 48 h e 72 h) e subcrônico (36 dias) da WSF (0%, 25% e 100%) em juvenis do peixe neotropical predador topo Hoplias aff. malabaricus. Os efeitos da WSF foram avaliados no nível molecular utilizando o ensaio do cometa e o teste do micronúcleo para o dano genômico e no nível morfológico através da identificação histológica de lesões patológicas no fígado. Em ambas exposições (aguda e subcrônica) encontramos baixos níveis de dano no DNA (< 10% de DNA na cauda do cometa) e frequência de micronúcleos não significativa em peixes expostos a WSF. As lesões mais significativas no fígado dos peixes expostos a WSF foram a vacuolização lipídica, hipertrofia e focos de necroses. Como estas lesões foram progressivas e persistentes, sua irreversibilidade pode afetar negativamente o recrutamento dos peixes, mesmo sendo um predador topo resistente.


Subject(s)
Animals , Water Pollutants, Chemical/toxicity , Petroleum/toxicity , Characiformes , Fresh Water , Liver
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250256, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355912

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ferns are often used by indigenous people in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. This study was designed to collect the ethnomedicinal and traditional knowledge of these locals about this group of vascular plants. Forty taxa belong to nineteen genera and ten families are used in the treatment of different diseases. The Pteridaceae was the most representative family with twelve taxa (30%), followed by Athyriaceae and Dryopteridaceae with six taxa each (30%), and Thelypteridaceae with five taxa (12.5%). Regarding the genera, Adiantum, Asplenium and Dryopteris ranked first with four taxa each (30%), followed by Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris and Equisetum with three taxa each (30%), followed by Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum and Pseudophegopteris with two taxa each (20%). These taxa were commonly used in the treatment of respiratory disorders i.e. asthma, bronchitis, emphysema, pneumonia; intestinal ulcer, stomach, urinary ailments and skin disorders by the methods of decoction and infusion. Traditional knowledge about ethnomedicinal plants is a valuable and essential source for the discovery of allopathic, herbal and homeopathic medicines.


Resumo As samambaias são frequentemente usadas pelos indígenas em Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Paquistão. Este estudo foi desenhado para coletar o conhecimento etnomedicinal e tradicional desses moradores sobre este grupo de plantas vasculares. Quarenta táxons pertencem a dezenove gêneros, e dez famílias são utilizadas no tratamento de diferentes doenças. Pteridaceae foi a família mais representativa com doze táxons (30%), seguida por Athyriaceae e Dryopteridaceae com seis táxons cada (30%), e Thelypteridaceae com cinco táxons (12,5%). Em relação aos gêneros, Adiantum, Asplenium e Dryopteris ficaram em primeiro lugar com quatro táxons cada (30%), seguidos por Aleuritopteris, Diplazium, Pteris e Equisetum com três táxons cada (30%), e Athyrium, Oeosporangium, Polystichum e Pseudophegopteris com dois táxons cada (20%). Estes táxons foram comumente usados ​​no tratamento de distúrbios respiratórios, isto é, asma, bronquite, enfisema, pneumonia; úlcera intestinal, estômago, doenças urinárias e doenças da pele pelos métodos de decocção e infusão. O conhecimento tradicional sobre plantas etnomedicinais é uma fonte valiosa e essencial para a descoberta de medicamentos alopáticos, fitoterápicos e homeopáticos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plants, Medicinal , Ferns , Tracheophyta , Pakistan , Phytotherapy , Medicine, Traditional
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e255431, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364530

ABSTRACT

Organic fertilization is a cheaper and highly effective option for profitability and consequent improvement of the soil's physical, chemical, and biological structure. Thus, the objective of this work was to evaluate different types of fertilization: organic (poultry shed litter), mineral, and leaf path on yield parameters of lettuce grown in various types of planting. The treatments consisted of using two planting systems (P1 - Line and P2 - quincunxes) and mineral and organic fertilizers (A1 - mineral fertilization; A2 - mineral fertilization + leaf fertilization; A3 - organic fertilization with poultry shed litter and A4 - fertilization organic + mineral). The experimental units consisted of 36 and 52 plants, respectively, for treatments P1 and P2, and all central plants of the experimental unit were evaluated. Heart height, fresh mass, and leaf number were observed. The mineral and mineral + leaf treatments did not differentiate, either in line or in quincunxes. The treatment that stood out about the analyzed variables was the organic fertilization and quincunxes planting system, reflecting a more significant number of lettuce plants and better use of the area.


A adubação orgânica é uma opção mais barata e de grande eficácia em relação à rentabilidade e consequente melhoria da estrutura física, química e biológica do solo. Desta forma, o objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar diferentes tipos de adubação: orgânica (cama de frango), mineral e via foliar sobre parâmetros de produtividade de alface cultivada em diferentes tipos de plantio. Os tratamentos consistiram na utilização de dois sistemas de plantio (P1 - Linha e P2 - Quincôncio) e adubações minerais e orgânicas (A1 - adubação mineral; A2 - adubação mineral + adubação foliar; A3 - adubação orgânica com cama de aviário e A4 - adubação orgânica + mineral). As unidades experimentais foram compostas por 36 e 52 plantas, respectivamente, para os tratamentos em linha e em quincôncio, sendo avaliadas todas as plantas centrais da unidade experimental. Foram observados a altura do coração, massa fresca e número de folhas. Os tratamentos mineral e mineral + foliar não diferenciaram entre si, tanto em linha quanto em quincôncio. O tratamento que se destacou em relação às variáveis analisadas foi aquele baseado na adubação orgânica e sistema de plantio em quincôncio, refletindo em maior número de pés de alface e melhor aproveitamento da área.


Subject(s)
Agricultural Cultivation , Lettuce/growth & development , Lettuce/drug effects , Fertilizers
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e256944, 2024. tab, graf, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364507

ABSTRACT

In order to ensure the timely and uninterrupted supply of medicinal plant raw materials, the methods of cultivation of plant cell cultures, namely, the production of plant root cultures, are relevant. In this paper, the geroprotective potential of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey root cultures is studied. They were cultured under in vitro conditions by transforming the rhizome (H. neglectum) and seed seedlings (P. ginseng) with Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. To identify the geroprotective potential, the antimicrobial disc-diffusion method and the antioxidant activity were analyzed by titration of KMnO4 extracts of plant root cultures. The qualitative and quantitative composition was analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography, thin-layer chromatography, and gas chromatography with mass spectrometry. In the course of the work, the presence of antimicrobial and antioxidant activity of plant root culture extracts was established. Biologically active substances contained in extracts of Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb root crops and Panax ginseng C. A. Mey are characterized by geroprotective potential, so they can act as a source of natural antioxidants in the functional nutrition of the geroprotective orientation.


Para garantir o abastecimento em tempo e ininterrupto de matérias-primas de plantas medicinais, são relevantes os métodos de cultivo de culturas de células vegetais, nomeadamente a produção de culturas de raízes vegetais. Neste trabalho, foi estudado o potencial geroprotetor de culturas de raízes de Hedysarum neglectum Ledeb e Panax ginseng C. A. Mey. Eles foram cultivados em condições in vitro pela transformação do rizoma (H. neglectum) e mudas de sementes (P. ginseng) com Agrobacterium rhizogenes 15834 Swiss. Para identificar o potencial geroprotetor, o método antimicrobiano de difusão em disco e a atividade antioxidante foram analisados por titulação de extratos de KMnO4 de raízes de plantas. A composição qualitativa e quantitativa foi analisada por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência, cromatografia em camada delgada e cromatografia gasosa com espectrometria de massa. No decorrer do trabalho, foi constatada a presença de atividade antimicrobiana e antioxidante dos extratos de raízes de plantas. Substâncias biologicamente ativas contidas em extratos de raízes de H. neglectum Ledeb e P. ginseng C. A. Mey são caracterizadas pelo potencial geroprotetor, podendo atuar como fonte de antioxidantes naturais na nutrição funcional da orientação geroprotetora.


Subject(s)
Plants, Medicinal , Plant Roots , Panax , Anti-Infective Agents , Antioxidants
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e253083, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1360201

ABSTRACT

Phosphorus (P) use efficiency is crucial for sorghum production. P acquisition efficiency is the most important component of P use efficiency. The early-stage evaluation of plant development is a useful tool for identifying P-efficient genotypes. This study aimed to identify sorghum hybrids that are efficient in P use efficiency and assess the genetic diversity among hybrids based on traits related to P acquisition efficiency. Thus, 38 sorghum hybrids and two inbred lines (checks) were evaluated under low and high P in a paper pouch system with nutrient solution. Biomass and root traits related to P efficiency were measured. There was no interaction between genotypes and P levels concerning all evaluated traits. The biomass and root traits, except root diameter, presented smaller means under low P than high P. Efficient and inefficient hybrids under each P level were identified. The genetic diversity assessment grouped these genotypes in different clusters. The hybrids AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540, and DKB 590 were superior under low-P and high-P. Hybrids SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 presented the lowest means than all other hybrids, under both conditions. The evaluated hybrids showed phenotypic diversity for traits related to P acquisition, such as root length and root surface area, which can be useful for establishing selection strategies for sorghum breeding programs and increasing P use efficiency.


A eficiência do uso do fósforo (P) é fundamental para a produção de sorgo. A avaliação no estágio inicial do desenvolvimento da planta é uma ferramenta útil para a identificação de genótipos eficientes de P. Este trabalho teve como objetivo identificar híbridos de sorgo que sejam eficientes ao uso de P e avaliar a diversidade genética entre os híbridos com base em características relacionadas à eficiência de aquisição de P. Assim, 38 híbridos de sorgo e duas linhagens (testemunhas) foram avaliados sob baixo e alto P em sistema de pastas de papel com solução nutritiva. Características de biomassa e de raiz relacionadas à eficiência de P foram mensuradas. Não houve interação entre genótipos e níveis de P em todas as características avaliadas. As características de biomassa e raiz, exceto o diâmetro da raiz, apresentaram médias menores sob baixo P em comparação com alto P. Híbridos eficientes e ineficientes sob cada nível de P foram identificados e agrupados quanto à diversidade genética. Os híbridos AG1090, MSK326, AG1060, 1G100, AS 4639, DKB 540 e DKB 590 foram superiores sob baixo-P e alto-P. Os híbridos SC121, 1236020 e 1167017 apresentaram as menores médias que todos os outros híbridos, em ambas condições. Os híbridos avaliados apresentaram diversidade fenotípica para características relacionadas à aquisição de P, como comprimento e área superficial da raiz, o que pode ser útil para estabelecer estratégias de seleção para programas de melhoramento de sorgo e aumentar a eficiência de uso do P.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Genetic Variation , Hydroponics , Sorghum/growth & development
6.
Environ Monit Assess ; 195(2): 352, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36723690

ABSTRACT

Loukkos perimeter is among the most important irrigated agricultural areas in Morocco. It covers horticulture and market garden production, including potato. This crop is characterized by the intensive use of pesticides that could lead to health and ecological risks, via the food chain and contamination of natural resources, including groundwater. This study is aimed at assessing the use of pesticides in potato cultivation and their impacts on the environment and human health. Here, pesticide use was characterized by the number of treatments (NT), quantity of active substances indicator (QASI), and the treatment frequency indicator (TFI), through field surveys carried out on 50 Loukkos potato producers. The results showed that farmers use heavy pesticide treatments, mainly against late blight. We determined NT = 19 treatments, total TFI = 28.10, and QASI = 14.86 kg/ha. These values reflect a massive use of pesticides on this crop, which could therefore constitute a challenge and a major constraint for the development of sustainable agriculture in this zone, due to their negative environmental and health effects. It is, therefore, necessary to react quickly to make changes in phytosanitary practices with the aim to monitoring pesticide use via the agro-environmental indicators to reduce health and environmental impact of intensive pesticide use.


Subject(s)
Pesticides , Solanum tuberosum , Humans , Morocco , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Pesticides/analysis , Agriculture/methods
7.
J Clin Epidemiol ; 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36736709

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: A "null field" is a scientific field where there is nothing to discover and where observed associations are thus expected to simply reflect the magnitude of bias. We aimed to characterize a null field using a known example, homeopathy (a pseudoscientific medical approach based on using highly diluted substances), as a prototype. STUDY DESIGN: We identified 50 randomized placebo-controlled trials of homeopathy interventions from highly-cited meta-analyses. The primary outcome variable was the observed effect size in the studies. Variables related to study quality or impact were also extracted. RESULTS: The mean effect size for homeopathy was 0.36 standard deviations (Hedges' g; 95% CI: 0.21, 0.51) better than placebo, which corresponds to an odds ratio of 1.94 (95% CI: 1.69, 2.23) in favor of homeopathy. 80% of studies had positive effect sizes (favoring homeopathy). Effect size was significantly correlated with citation counts from journals in the Directory of Open Access Journals and CiteWatch. We identified common statistical errors in 25 studies. CONCLUSION: A null field like homeopathy can exhibit large effect sizes, high rates of favorable results, and high citation impact in the published scientific literature. Null fields may represent a useful negative control for the scientific process.

8.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(2): 421-429, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725232

ABSTRACT

The chemical constituents in the ethanol extract of Hypericum wightianum(Hypericaceae) were purified by column chromatography and identified via magnetic resonance imaging(NMR), high-resolution mass spectrum, and circular dichroism. A total of 22 compounds were identified, including eight polyprenylated phloroglucinols(1-8), three chromones(9-11), and three terpenoids(14-16) and so on. Among them, compounds 16 and 17 were first reported in the genus Hypericum, and compounds 1-11, 14, 15, and 19 were first isolated from H. wightianum. Compounds 1-4 were previously reported as two pairs of enantiomers. This study reported the chiral resolutions and absolute configurations of compounds 1-4 for the first time.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Hypericum , Phloroglucinol , Hypericum/chemistry , Molecular Structure , Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/chemistry
9.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(1): 220-225, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725274

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to investigate the effect of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf on myocardial cell apoptosis and Wnt/ß-catenin/peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ(PPARγ) pathway in arrhythmic rats. SD rats were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, a low-dose(20 mg·kg~(-1)) group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf, a medium-dose(40 mg·kg~(-1)) group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf, a high-dose(80 mg·kg~(-1)) group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf, a propranolol hydrochloride(2 mg·kg~(-1)) group, with 12 rats in each group. Except the control group, rats in other groups were prepared as models of arrhythmia by sublingual injection of 1 mL·kg~(-1) of 0.002% aconitine. After grouping and intervention with drugs, the arrhythmia, myocardial cells apoptosis, myocardial tissue glutathione peroxidase(GSH-Px), catalase(CAT), malondialdehyde(MDA), serum interleukin-6(IL-6), prostaglandin E2(PGE2) levels, myocardial tissue apoptosis, and Wnt/ß-catenin/PPARγ pathway-related protein expression of rats in each group were measured. As compared with the control group, the arrhythmia score, the number of ventricular premature beats, ventricular fibrillation duration, myocardial cell apoptosis rate, MDA levels in myocardial tissues, serum IL-6 and PGE2 levels, Bax in myocardial tissues, and Wnt1 and ß-catenin protein expression levels increased significantly in the model group, whereas the GSH-Px and CAT levels, and Bcl-2 and PPARγ protein expression levels in myocardial tissues reduced significantly. As compared with the model group, the arrhythmia score, the number of ventricular premature beats, ventricular fibrillation duration, myocardial cell apoptosis rate, MDA leve in myocardial tissues, serum IL-6 and PGE2 levels, Bax in myocardial tissues, and Wnt1 and ß-catenin protein expression levels reduced in the drug intervention groups, whereas the GSH-Px and CAT levels and Bcl-2 and PPARγ protein expression levels in myocardial tissues increased. The groups of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf were in a dose-dependent manner. There was no significant difference in the levels of each index in rats between the propranolol hydrochloride group and the high-dose group of total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf. The total flavonoids of buckwheat flower and leaf inhibit the activation of Wnt/ß-catenin pathway, up-regulate the expression of PPARγ, reduce oxidative stress and inflammatory damage in myocardial tissues of arrhythmic rats, reduce myocardial cell apoptosis, and improve the symptoms of arrhythmia in rats.


Subject(s)
Fagopyrum , PPAR gamma , Rats , Animals , PPAR gamma/metabolism , Fagopyrum/genetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , beta Catenin/genetics , beta Catenin/metabolism , Interleukin-6 , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Propranolol/pharmacology , Ventricular Fibrillation , Dinoprostone , Wnt Signaling Pathway , Plant Leaves/metabolism , Flowers/metabolism , Apoptosis , Cardiac Complexes, Premature
10.
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi ; 48(1): 273-278, 2023 Jan.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725280

ABSTRACT

The paradigm can be summarized as the same methodological principles followed by the members of the learning community who received common education, training, and edification in the common social and historical stage, and had common academic views, concepts, and terms. The "species standardization" paradigm of botanical drugs in China has experienced the period of non-standardization of names(the end of the Warring States period), the period of multi-dimensional textual research paradigm of traditional materia medica(from the end of the Warring States period to 1930s), and periods of modern plant taxonomy system research paradigm(from 1930s to the present). The multi-dimensional textual research paradigm of traditional materia medica is characterized by the textual research of species in different regions and years based on the classification of the natural attributes and the habit of correspondence between names and materials, from the multi-dimensional investigation of the name, appearance, color, smell, texture, growth environment, efficacy, and morphological characteristics of medicinal materials, to find the correspondence between names and materials. The purpose of the progress in traditional species standardization is practicality for humans, and there is a lack of systematic research on the classification and naming principles in line with its laws from the plant itself, resulting in inaccurate research results. The research paradigm of modern plant taxonomy is herbal research. The characteristics of this paradigm are using plant taxonomy knowledge to conduct textual research to confirm the species of the drug and calibrate the scientific name by the double name method, based on the plant morphology, harvest season, origin distribution, ecological habits, names, drug efficacy, and other data in the lite-rature of previous dynasties. This paradigm combines the knowledge of traditional materia medica and modern plant taxonomy, and the results of species research are accurate.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Materia Medica , Humans , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , China , Knowledge
12.
World J Microbiol Biotechnol ; 39(3): 87, 2023 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725731

ABSTRACT

Low phosphorus utilization and phosphorus fertilizer pollution are serious issues primarily affecting soil health. To investigate the effects of biochar on the growth, phosphorus solubilization, and metabolites of phosphorus-solubilizing bacteria (PSB), rice husk biochar (RH) and rice straw biochar (RS) were incubated with Bacillus megatherium (BM1) and Bacillus mucilaginosus (BM2), respectively. The highest phosphorus solubilization was observed in BM2 following the addition of RS. The dissolved amount of phosphorus was 244.99 mg/L, which was 43.86% higher than that of the control group. Hence, biochar can improve the phosphorus solubilization capacity of PSB by affecting the organic acid and polysaccharide contents, and phosphatase activity secreted by the PSB, as the porous structure and surface characteristics of biochar ensured the adsorption of PSB. This study can help improve the functional activity of PSB and provide basis for improving the utilization of soil phosphorus, which in turn, aid in the development of biochar-based microbial fertilizers.


Subject(s)
Bacillus megaterium , Phosphates , Phosphates/metabolism , Phosphorus/metabolism , Bacillus megaterium/metabolism , Soil/chemistry , Fertilizers/analysis
13.
Nature ; 614(7946): 75-80, 2023 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36725995

ABSTRACT

Time-periodic light field has emerged as a control knob for manipulating quantum states in solid-state materials1-3, cold atoms4 and photonic systems5 through hybridization with photon-dressed Floquet states6 in the strong-coupling limit, dubbed Floquet engineering. Such interaction leads to tailored properties of quantum materials7-11, for example, modifications of the topological properties of Dirac materials12,13 and modulation of the optical response14-16. Despite extensive research interests over the past decade3,8,17-20, there is no experimental evidence of momentum-resolved Floquet band engineering of semiconductors, which is a crucial step to extend Floquet engineering to a wide range of solid-state materials. Here, on the basis of time and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy measurements, we report experimental signatures of Floquet band engineering in a model semiconductor, black phosphorus. On near-resonance pumping at a photon energy of 340-440 meV, a strong band renormalization is observed near the band edges. In particular, light-induced dynamical gap opening is resolved at the resonance points, which emerges simultaneously with the Floquet sidebands. Moreover, the band renormalization shows a strong selection rule favouring pump polarization along the armchair direction, suggesting pseudospin selectivity for the Floquetband engineering as enforced by the lattice symmetry. Our work demonstrates pseudospin-selective Floquet band engineering in black phosphorus and provides important guiding principles for Floquet engineering of semiconductors.


Subject(s)
Engineering , Phosphorus , Hybridization, Genetic , Motion , Photons
14.
Curr Oncol Rep ; 2023 Feb 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36735141

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Pancreatic cancer has high mortality and morbidity rates, associated with the issues of typically late diagnosis and the limited effectiveness of current treatments. Patients tend to experience multiple symptoms that can include anxiety, fear, depression, fatigue, weakness, peripheral neuropathy, and abdominal pain, which reduce quality of life (QoL) and may compromise the treatment continuum. Many of those symptoms are amenable to complementary and integrative medicine (CIM) therapies as a part of supportive and palliative care. This article reviews research findings on the beneficial effect of use of CIM modalities in regard to pancreatic cancer, with emphasis on pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). RECENT FINDINGS: Given the often-poor prognosis of the disease, patients with PDAC often seek integrative therapies to help manage the disease itself, to provide support through cancer treatment and its symptoms, and to provide emotional stress relief. Data is accumulating in the past few years on the potential benefits of CIM to the management of pancreatic cancer symptoms and treatment side effects, in order to augment supportive care. This data reveal that nutrition counselling; digestive enzyme therapy; microbiome support; dietary supplements; lifestyle interventions (physical activity and circadian health/sleep hygiene) appear to improve QoL of these patients through reduced symptom burden and meeting psychological needs, such as distress and fatigue. Acupuncture, mindfulness, yoga, reflexology, massage, and homeopathy may also contribute to symptom reduction, both physical and psychological, in all stages of the disease. There is supporting evidence that some CIM modalities may alleviate side effects and symptoms related to pancreatic cancer and its treatment, suggesting that practitioners might consider integrating these modalities in certain situations encountered in the treatment of pancreatic cancer. Further investigation is needed to define the optimal integration of CIM into the treatment and supportive care of patients affected by pancreatic cancer.

15.
J Nutr Sci ; 12: e6, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721717

ABSTRACT

Plums are abundant in bioactive compounds which have been associated with numerous health benefits. In the present study, we aimed at examining the impact of plum supplementation on lipid profile of individuals. Electronic bibliographical databases were searched for relevant randomised clinical trials. Articles meeting our eligibility criteria were included for data extraction and final analysis. Weighted mean difference (WMD) was estimated using a random-effect model. Of the total articles retrieved in the initial search, nine articles were found to be eligible to be included in the analysis. Our results show that plum supplementation significantly improves total cholesterols levels in the unhealthy individuals. Moreover, plum supplementation reduces the LDL-c levels in the pooled sample (WMD = -11⋅52 mg/dl; 95 % CI -21⋅93, -1⋅11, P = 0⋅03, I 2 = 98⋅7 %) and also in some of the subgroups of individuals (dried plum, unhealthy subjects, duration more than 8 weeks). Moreover, it had a significant reducing effect on TC levels just in unhealthy subjects. Although plum supplementation did not have any significant impact on serum levels of TG nor HDL-c. Our results show that supplementation with plums is potentially effective in reducing serum total cholesterol and LDL-c.


Subject(s)
Prunus domestica , Humans , Cholesterol, LDL , Dietary Supplements , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
16.
Braz J Biol ; 84: e264425, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36722676

ABSTRACT

The ixodicidal activity of the methanolic extracts of Artemisia ludoviciana (Astereceae), Cordia boissieri (Boraginaceae) and Litchi chinensis (Sapindaceae) against two field populations of Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus from the state of Nuevo Leon (NL) and Veracruz (VER) was evaluated. The extract of L. chinensis in the concentration of 150 mg/ml showed efficacies of 100% and 99% against engorged females and mortalities of 98% and 99% against larvae. C. boissieri in the same concentration showed efficacies of 71% and 37% against engorged adults and mortalities of 33.04% and 10.33% against larvae and A. ludoviciana had efficacies of 94% and 83% in adults and mortalities of 89.39% and 89.21% against larvae in both populations respectively. The enzymatic activity of Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), Carboxylesterase (CaE), Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST) and Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) was measured in both populations of ticks. As a result, a significant difference between both populations was shown, being the VER population the one that exhibited a higher enzymatic activity (p ≤ 0.05). It can be concluded that the methanolic extract of the seed of L. chinensis shows potential ixodicidal activity and can be used as an alternative source of tick control, however, prior characterization, toxicity and formulation studies are necessary.


Subject(s)
Artemisia , Cordia , Ixodidae , Litchi , Rhipicephalus , Female , Animals , Acetylcholinesterase , Glutathione Transferase , Larva , Methanol , Plant Extracts/pharmacology
17.
Homeopathy ; 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36724815

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: A 32-year-old patient with colon cancer consulted for homeopathic supportive care (HSC). She had also suffered from recurrent urinary tract infections (RUTIs) for 20 years. Could homeopathy treat these two very different issues with the same medicine? THE PATIENT'S MAIN CONCERNS: Though the main reason for the consultation was a fear of the side effects of chemotherapy, the presence of Escherichia coli-induced RUTIs affected the patient's quality of life. INTERVENTIONS AND OUTCOMES: The repertory listing highlighted Pulsatilla as the patient's homeopathic constitutional medicine. It was prescribed both for HSC and also for RUTI. In association with Arsenicum album and Nerves, Pulsatilla enabled a good tolerance to chemotherapy, with rapid recovery from peripheral neuropathies. In combination with Colibacillinum, Pulsatilla provided relapse-free curing of the RUTIs. The MOdified NARanjo Criteria for Homeopathy (MONARCH) Inventory score was +9. CONCLUSION: The one individual's two different clinical complaints were treated with a constitutional homeopathic medicine, Pulsatilla, which covered the whole case. However, in HSC, the use of the constitutional remedy alone is rarely sufficient: it was reinforced by individualised symptomatic medication, organotherapy and isotherapy. For RUTI, isopathic and tubercular miasmatic treatments were each helpful. For both complaints, individualised homeopathy gave rapid, long-lasting and effective results.

18.
BMC Plant Biol ; 23(1): 68, 2023 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721096

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Phosphorus (P) is an essential macronutrient required for plant metabolism and growth. Its acquisition by plants depends on the availability of dissolved P in the rhizosphere and on the characteristics of P uptake mechanisms such as root-system architecture (RSA). Compared to other crops, potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) has a relatively poor P acquisition efficiency. This is mainly due to its shallow and sparsely branched root system, resulting in a rather limited exploitable soil volume. Information about potato genotypes with RSA traits suitable to improve adaptation to nutrient scarcity is quite rare. Aim of this study is to assess phenotypic variation of RSA in a potato diversity set and its reactions to P deficiency. RESULTS: Only one out of 22 RSA-traits showed a significant increase under low-P conditions. This indicates an overall negative effect of P scarcity on potato root growth. Differences among genotypes, however, were statistically significant for 21 traits, revealing a high variability in potato RSA. Using a principal component analysis (PCA), we were able to classify genotypes into three groups with regard to their root-system size. Genotypes with both small and large root systems reacted to low-P conditions by in- or decreasing their relative root-system size to medium, whereas genotypes with an intermediate root system size showed little to no changes. CONCLUSIONS: We observed a huge variation in both the potato root system itself and its adaptation to P deficiency. This may enable the selection of potato genotypes with an improved root-zone exploitation. Eventually, these could be utilized to develop new cultivars adapted to low-P environments with better resource-use efficiencies.


Subject(s)
Solanum tuberosum , Solanum tuberosum/genetics , Genotype , Phenotype , Acclimatization , Biological Variation, Population
19.
J Rural Health ; 2023 Jan 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36721332

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: About 11.4 million individuals admitted to misusing an opioid in the past year. The purpose of this study was to determine if nurses' definitions of pain management differed by location, and to assess the challenges treating patients with pain management concerns. This study fills a gap by comparing quantitative and qualitative feedback from nurses on pain management concerns in their practice location. METHODS: Data were collected using an electronic survey emailed to licensed nurses across the United States. The mixed methods survey used multiple choice, select all that apply, and open-ended responses to gather data on nurses' perceptions of pain management. One hundred and eighty nurses completed the survey and were included in the study. Sixty-six percent practiced in an urban hospital. FINDINGS: Rural and urban nurses defined pain management as nonopioids and opioids. Seventy-one percent of urban nurses defined pain management as physical therapy compared to only 61% of rural nurses. Similarly, 62% of urban nurses identified homeopathic medicines and treatments as pain management techniques compared to 52% of rural nurses. From the qualitative data, 32% of rural nurses stated that patients with pain management concerns only want pain medications compared to 14% of urban nurses. CONCLUSIONS: Nurses have a critical position in and valuable perspective on the opioid epidemic. Rural communities are relatively disadvantaged in combatting the opioid epidemic. The finding that rural residents only want pain medication instead of alternative pain management options further challenges the country's rural health care workforce.

20.
Braz J Biol ; 83: e264237, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36651448

ABSTRACT

The litter deposited on the soil surface at various stages of decomposition is important for primary productivity that impacts the microbial communities and soil carbon storage. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation and decomposition of cultural residues of Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. ex. Spreng) Schum, Paullinia cupana (Mart.) Ducke, Bixa orellana L., and forest in the Amazon region. The study was carried out in the São Francisco settlement, Canutama in the south of Amazonas, in a randomized block experimental design, and the treatments consisted of four areas with different crops: 1 - P. cupana; 2 - T. grandiflorum; 3 - B. orellana; 4 - Native woodland area (forest), in time subdivided plots: 7, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 150, 180, 210, 240, 270, 300, and 330 days after the distribution of the bags in the field, all with four repetitions. To evaluate the contribution and fractions of litter, conical collectors were used in each area, and collections were performed monthly in the period from March 2020 to February 2021. The estimate of the decomposition rate of the litter was done by quantifying the loss of mass, using litter bags, which allow for a direct analysis of the rate of decay over time. The forest and P. cupana environments presented the highest litter production, and greater deposition when compared to environments cultivated with T. grandiflorum and B. orellana. The forest and B. orellana areas showed the highest speed of decomposition, while the opposite situation occurred under T. grandiflorum and P. cupana cultivation.


Subject(s)
Cacao , Paullinia , Bixaceae , Forests , Soil , Plant Leaves/chemistry
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