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1.
Qual Quant ; : 1-40, 2022 Jan 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35017745

ABSTRACT

Simulation and computer modeling have a key role in understanding transportation systems. Focusing on the main system, real-time retrieval of outputs based on mutual interactions of the whole autonomous entities makes the agent-based simulation very promising. This paper deals with an agent-based simulation to investigate and evaluate the potential impacts of implementing Shared Public Transports (SPT) in urban areas. Such a system is intended to integrate the two flows of passengers and containerized freights in Public Transportation (PT) patterns towards more sustainable, efficient, and socially suitable mobility. The proposed model is coupled with a stochastic process in order to provide a range of real-world data of Casablanca city (Morocco) based on institutional surveys. In this respect, two urban transportation systems of freight are tested: (1) the conventional transportation system, (2) the SPT system with heterogeneous fleets. In an effort to sustain efficient and safe movements, this paper examines SPT performances according to a set of key evaluation metrics. Results show that PT stopping remains the most relevant factor when evaluating metrics of the number of waiting containers and waiting time of demand by rates of 82.440% and 62.580%, respectively. Such a waiting containers metric is significantly affected by the volume of demand to transport per time slot by a rate of 78.140%. Under SPT, traffic congestion is the main factor to consider in managing PT with a rate of 65.690% in order to reduce potential accidents. However, demand volume could increase the on-street illegal parking metric by 90.070%. More details are provided below.

2.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35013962

ABSTRACT

Public transportation is often considered as a green travel mode to alleviate the negative externalities such as traffic congestion and haze pollution generated from transport. However, is prioritizing urban public transportation actually conducive to haze emission reduction? In this study, considering special emphasis on the cumulative effect of haze, a dynamic panel model is constructed to analyze and quantify the impact of public transportation on haze pollution by using the data of 284 cities in China, and the heterogeneity of the impact in cities with different pollution levels is examined. Several interesting findings are derived from the empirical results. First, the development of urban public transportation can significantly alleviate urban haze pollution. Second, the haze reduction effect of public transportation in cities with different pollution levels is non-universal. Comparatively speaking, the haze reduction effect of public transportation in lightly polluted cities is more evident than that in heavily polluted cities. Therefore, in order to reduce haze pollution in a more effective manner, China should continue to promote urban public transportation priority strategy. Moreover, the government should also formulate differentiated traffic development strategies to effectively alleviate the urban traffic burdens.

3.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 116: 304-314, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34975239

ABSTRACT

While developed nations have established policy frameworks for dealing with various macroeconomic shocks, developing countries respond to the influx of COVID-19 on heterogeneous scales, borne out of varying institutional bottlenecks. These inadequate transport facilities are not diversified enough to deal with an impending public health crisis. With the growing divergence in public transport management procedures and societal responses and willingness to adjust to a "new normal" transport procedures in time of COVID-19 and post-pandemic, it becomes expedient to learn evidence-based policy responses to transport service delivery. Qualitative data from semi-structured interviews with commuters and operators were thematically analysed to understand the impact of COVID-19 on transportation in Lagos Nigeria. The analysis revealed that increased cost of transportation, financial sustainability, changes in travel needs and loss of revenue were the significant impacts of the pandemic. This study contributes such that transport stakeholders can better understand how to navigate their transportation needs at this time of global uncertainty. The understanding of these impacts advances policy recommendations that are most inclined to the development objectives of developing nations in the time of COVID-19 and beyond. The limitations and suggestions for further research were discussed.

4.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262535, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030209

ABSTRACT

Improving travel time prediction for public transit effectively enhances service reliability, optimizes travel structure, and alleviates traffic problems. Its greater time-variance and uncertainty make predictions for short travel times (≤35min) more subject to be influenced by random factors. It requires higher precision and is more complicated than long-term predictions. Effectively extracting and mining real-time, accurate, reliable, and low-cost multi-source data such as GPS, AFC, and IC can provide data support for travel time prediction. Kalman filter model has high accuracy in one-step prediction and can be used to calculate a large amount of data. This paper adopts the Kalman filter as a travel time prediction model for a single bus based on single-line detection: including the travel time prediction model of route (RTM) and the stop dwell time prediction model (DTM); the evaluation criteria and indexes of the models are given. The error analysis of the prediction results is carried out based on AVL data by case study. Results show that under the precondition of multi-source data, the public transportation prediction model can meet the accuracy requirement for travel time prediction and the prediction effect of the whole route is superior to that of the route segment between stops.

5.
PLoS One ; 17(1): e0262496, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35030219

ABSTRACT

Since ride-hailing has become an important travel alternative in many cities worldwide, a fervent debate is underway on whether it competes with or complements public transport services. We use Uber trip data in six cities in the United States and Europe to identify the most attractive public transport alternative for each ride. We then address the following questions: (i) How does ride-hailing travel time and cost compare to the fastest public transport alternative? (ii) What proportion of ride-hailing trips do not have a viable public transport alternative? (iii) How does ride-hailing change overall service accessibility? (iv) What is the relation between demand share and relative competition between the two alternatives? Our findings suggest that the dichotomy-competing with or complementing-is false. Though the vast majority of ride-hailing trips have a viable public transport alternative, between 20% and 40% of them have no viable public transport alternative. The increased service accessibility attributed to the inclusion of ride-hailing is greater in our US cities than in their European counterparts. Demand split is directly related to the relative competitiveness of travel times i.e. when public transport travel times are competitive ride-hailing demand share is low and vice-versa.

6.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 116: 165-174, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34898864

ABSTRACT

As countries across the world modify their travel in the face of the Covid-19 pandemic, the first casualty becomes the public transport sector. Transport authorities across the world have reported about 95% reduction in users during peak COVID-19, decrease of fare box revenues and additional costs for disinfecting and implementing physical distancing measures. The public transport companies in India face a larger crisis as nearly 85% people travelling intercity use public road transport in normal times. In this paper we drawpassenger clusters based on their travel dynamics and develop two frameworks, namely, passenger driven transportation strategy framework and epidemic prevention strategy framework to deal with the COVID-19 induced travel changes. The frameworks use three tenets of mobility, namely, agility, integrated movement, and public based partnership. The strategies aim to enable the transport enterprises to open new windows of travel and efficiencies for the passengers rather than restricting access and choices. However, security remains fundamental to making these new and innovative service changes possible.

7.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(1): E119-E126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32487920

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Municipal bodies such as planning or zoning commissions and active transportation advisory committees can influence decisions made by local governments that support physical activity through active transportation. Public health professionals are encouraged to participate in and inform these processes. However, the extent of such collaboration among US municipalities is currently unknown. OBJECTIVE: To estimate the prevalence of active transportation bodies among US municipalities and the proportion with a designated public health representative. DESIGN: A cross-sectional survey administered from May through September 2014. SETTING: Nationally representative sample of US municipalities with populations of 1000 or more people. PARTICIPANTS: Respondents were the city or town manager, planner, or person with similar responsibilities (N = 2018). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The prevalence of planning or zoning commissions and active transportation advisory committees among municipalities and whether there was a designated public health representative on them. RESULTS: Approximately 90.9% of US municipalities have a planning or zoning commission, whereas only 6.5% of these commissions have a designated public health representative. In contrast, while 16.5% of US municipalities have an active transportation advisory committee, 22.4% of them have a designated public health representative. These active transportation bodies are less common among municipalities that are smaller, rural, located in the South, and where population educational attainment is lower. Overall, few US municipalities have a planning or zoning commission (5.9%) or an active transportation advisory committee (3.7%) that also has a designated public health representative. CONCLUSIONS: Approximately 9 in 10 US municipalities have a planning or zoning commission, whereas only 1 in 6 has an active transportation advisory committee. Public health representation on active transportation bodies across US municipalities is low. Increasing the adoption of active transportation advisory committees and ensuring a designated public health representative on active transportation bodies may help promote the development of activity-friendly communities across the United States.

8.
Transp Res Interdiscip Perspect ; 13: 100523, 2022 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34931180

ABSTRACT

This article focuses on possible approaches to safe regional public transport during the COVID-19 pandemic. The purposes of the research are examination the conditions for ensuring safe transport and the impact on the planning of transport services. The result is an assessment of the operation of regional public transport, consisting of the possibility of maintaining safe distances in public transport. Authors work on suburban transport cases in selected regions of the Czech Republic (Prague and Moravian-Silesian Region). Census devices in public transport, periodical transport surveys, Google mobility reports and data on fare sales from regional transport were used as data sources. Emphasis is placed on a safe distance between commuters, this condition leads to lower occupancy of the vehicle while maintaining the capacity of the vehicles. The value of this new occupancy is determined for selected vehicles and the coefficient that represents the maximum occupancy level to ensure safe transport is established. The capacity of the connections is examined in the period before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Compared to the period before COVID-19, the daily variation of passengers is expected to change significantly, leading to different occupancy rates during the day.

9.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 116: 217-236, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34924701

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 outbreak affected the daily lives of people around the globe, and authorities proposed numerous interventions to make activity participation and traveling safer during the pandemic period. This study investigates the potential implication of such interventions on executing physical distancing on public transport in Mumbai, India. The study reviews the demand-supply gap of public transport during the pre-pandemic and pandemic period and evaluates the challenges in practicing physical distancing with the short-term interventions, such as lockdown guidelines at different phases and long-term interventions, such as flexible work arrangements, on public transport. The study findings indicate that physical distancing on public transport is difficult to achieve at peak hours, even with the very high travel restrictions and lockdown measures, unless flexible work arrangements are implemented. The flexible work arrangements, such as staggered working hours and work from home, can significantly reduce peak-hour demand and total excess demand without altering the supply pattern. The study can guide in constituting transport and broader policy decisions, including developing low-risk public transport for the post-pandemic period.

10.
Transp Policy (Oxf) ; 116: 258-268, 2022 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34934267

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic strongly affected mobility around the world. Public transport was particularly hindered, since people may perceive it as unsafe and decide to avoid it. Moreover, in Switzerland, several restrictions were applied at the beginning of the first pandemic wave (16/03/2020), to reduce the contagion. This study observes how the pandemic affected travel behaviour of public transport users, focusing on route choice and recurrent trips. We conducted a travel survey based on GPS tracking during the first pandemic wave, following 48 users for more than 4 months. The very same users were also tracked in spring 2019, allowing a precise comparison of travel behaviour before and during the pandemic. We analyse how the pandemic affected users, in terms of travel distance, mode share and location during the day. We specifically focus on recurrent trips, commuting and non-commuting, observing how mode and route changed between the two different periods. Finally, we estimate a route choice model for public transport (Mixed Path Size Logit), based on trips during the two different years, to identify how the route choice criteria changed during the pandemic. The main differences identified in travel behaviour during the pandemic are a different perception of costs of transfers and of travel time in train, and that users no longer have a clear preferred route for a recurrent trip, but often choose different routes.

11.
Ergonomics ; : 1-13, 2022 Jan 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34939893

ABSTRACT

This study verified typing performance on smartphones of public transportation passengers using subjective assessments of comfort and difficulty and objective assessments of the number of errors and typing speed. Three frequency values (5, 10, and 15 Hz), two magnitudes (0.6 and 1.2 m/s2) and two types of operating systems (Android and IOS) were adopted. Tests without vibration were applied to analyse the residual effect of vibration. The results showed that vibration significantly influences comfort. The higher the frequency, the less errors and the faster the typing speed. In the magnitude analysis, the increase caused a greater number of errors and greater difficulty. In both assessments, the discomfort was proportional to the increase in frequency or magnitude and the number of errors was inversely proportional to the typing speed. Finally, the IOS operating system showed worse comfort when compared to Android, although no significant differences were observed for the objective assessment. Practitioner summary: Public transportation passengers are exposed to WBV while typing on smartphones. The results showed that vibration influences comfort, the number of errors and the typing speed. Therefore, manufacturers should be aware of the level of vibration that vehicles are exposed to in order to provide more performance to the user. Abbreviations: WBV: whole-body vibration; PID: proportional-integral-derivative; RMS: root mean square; HLM: hierarchical linear modeling; OLS: ordinary least squares; STH: seat-to-head.

12.
Chem Eng J ; 430: 132761, 2022 Feb 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34642569

ABSTRACT

Human-generated droplets constitute the main route for the transmission of coronavirus. However, the details of such transmission in enclosed environments are yet to be understood. This is because geometrical and environmental parameters can immensely complicate the problem and turn the conventional analyses inefficient. As a remedy, this work develops a predictive tool based on computational fluid dynamics and machine learning to examine the distribution of sneezing droplets in realistic configurations. The time-dependent effects of environmental parameters, including temperature, humidity and ventilation rate, upon the droplets with diameters between 1 and 250 µ m are investigated inside a bus. It is shown that humidity can profoundly affect the droplets distribution, such that 10% increase in relative humidity results in 30% increase in the droplets density at the farthest point from a sneezing passenger. Further, ventilation process is found to feature dual effects on the droplets distribution. Simple increases in the ventilation rate may accelerate the droplets transmission. However, carefully tailored injection of fresh air enhances deposition of droplets on the surfaces and thus reduces their concentration in the bus. Finally, the analysis identifies an optimal range of temperature, humidity and ventilation rate to maintain human comfort while minimising the transmission of droplets.

13.
Sustain Cities Soc ; 76: 103524, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34751239

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has made transportation hubs vulnerable to public health risks. In response, policies using nonpharmaceutical interventions have been implemented, changing the way individuals interact within these facilities. However, the impact of building design and operation on policy efficacy is not fully discovered, making it critical to investigate how these policies are perceived and complied in different building spaces. Therefore, we investigate the spatial drivers of user perceptions and policy compliance in airports. Using text mining, we analyze 103,428 Google Maps reviews of 64 major hub airports in the US to identify representative topics of passenger concerns in airports (i.e., Staff, Shop, Space, and Service). Our results show that passengers express having positive experiences with Staff and Shop, but neutral or negative experiences with Service and Space, which indicates how building design has impacted policy compliance and the vulnerability of health crises. Furthermore, we discuss the actual review comments with respect to 1) spatial design and planning, 2) gate assignment and operation, 3) airport service policy, and 4) building maintenance, which will construct the foundational knowledge to improve the resilience of transportation hubs to future health crises.

14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34963755

ABSTRACT

The rapid surge of COVID-19 cases worldwide drew attention to COVID-19 infection as a new source of risk in transport. The virus introduced a need for viral transmission mitigation as a major priority when selecting a mode of travel, and caused a significant drop in public transport use. The recovery of public transport use in the post-COVID period requires that the transport authorities favourably address people's demand for mitigation of the risk of COVID-19 transmission in public transport. The present study aims to explore the role of risk perception, worry and priority of COVID-19 risk reduction along with fatalistic beliefs and public trust in authorities in explaining public demand for risk mitigation. The present study is among the first to investigate the role of fatalistic beliefs, social trust and risk perception for public transport and public demand for risk mitigation. The link between priority of infection prevention and demand for risk mitigation has also been less explored in public transport research. An online survey was conducted among university students in Iran between 19th April and 16th June 2020, during the first wave of the pandemic, when the country was a major epicentre of the disease. A total of 271 out of 370 respondents whose dominant mode on university travels was public transport were included in the analysis. Results of structural equation modelling confirmed the paradox of trust, indicating that social trust is negatively associated with perceived risk of COVID-19 infection, which in turn may lead people to place less importance on COVID-19 prevention as a priority in travel mode choice, and consequently demand less risk mitigation efforts to prevent COVID-19 infection in public transport. Dissimilar to trust, however, the results revealed no relationship between fatalistic beliefs and risk perception, but a significant direct effect of fatalistic beliefs on demand for risk mitigation. To reinforce public demand for mitigating the risk of COVID-19 in public transport, the study calls on policymakers to exploit public trust resources for more effective risk communication, through disseminating the gradually accumulating evidence-based information regarding the infectivity and the virulence of COVID-19 and the scientific risk of infection. The study also underlined the potential importance of considering fatalistic beliefs when developing effective risk communication policies and practices to enhance public support for COVID-19 risk mitigation in public transport.

15.
Environ Res ; : 112451, 2021 Nov 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34848209

ABSTRACT

Measurements of CO2 and counting of occupants were carried out in 37 public bus trips during commuting rush hours in Barcelona (NE Spain) with the aim of evaluating parameters governing ventilation inside the vehicles and proposing actions to improve it. The results show that CO2 concentrations (1039 and 934 ± 386 ppm, as average and median, during rush hours but with average reduced occupancy due to the fair to be infected by SARS-CoV-2 during the measurement period, and measured in the middle of the busses) are in the lower range of values recorded in the literature for public buses, however an improvement in ventilation is required in a significant proportion of the journeys. Thus, we found better ventilation in the older Euro 3+ (retrofitted with filter traps and selective catalytic reduction) and Euro 5 buses (average 918 ± 257 ppm) than in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 ones (1111 ± 432 ppm). The opening of the windows in the older buses yielded higher ventilation rates (778 ± 432 ppm). The opening of all doors at all stops increases the ventilation by causing a fall in concentrations of 200-350 ppm below inter-stop concentrations, with this effect typically lasting 40-50 s in the hermetically closed new Euro 6 hybrid buses. Based on these results a number of recommendations are offered in order to improve ventilation, including measurement of CO2 and occupancy, and installation of ventilation fans on the top of the hermetically closed new buses, introducing outdoor air when a given concentration threshold is exceeded. In these cases, a CO2 sensor installed in the outdoor air intake is also recommended to take into account external CO2 contributions.

16.
Health Promot Int ; 2021 Nov 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34849929

ABSTRACT

The design of the built environment in communities influences active transport and physical activity levels of citizens. Existing instruments for quantitatively assessing built environments were developed for use in urban areas and mainly by experts. Participative assessment of built environment modifications (PABEM) is a needs assessment tool that involves citizens and community decision-makers within a structured process for identifying needed changes to promote walking and cycling in rural areas. This article describes the development of the PABEM process and evaluates its initial use in three rural towns in Austria. PABEM consists of the following seven steps: (i) qualitative interviews; (ii) expert assessment of the built environment; (iii) citizen assessment of the built environment; (iv) social media interaction; (v) household questionnaire; (vi) participatory workshop; and (vii) evaluation and scoring workshop. The main modifications identified as necessary in rural towns were the revitalization of existing walking and cycling facilities and the construction of new barrier-free and safe sidewalks. In addition cycling routes to schools, to public transport facilities and to central public places as well as cleaner and inviting seating, a car-free school environment, speed reduction in town centres, more crosswalks and improved cleanliness in public places were also deemed necessary modifications. PABEM's provisions to ensure collaborative participation of citizens and local decision-makers fostered a continuous dialogue about the requirements of the built environment, user needs and opportunities for realization throughout the whole process.

17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886516

ABSTRACT

South Korea's social distancing policies on public transportation only involve mandatory wearing of masks and prohibition of food intake, similar to policies on other indoor spaces. This is not because public transportation is safe from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), but because no suitable policies based on accurate data have been implemented. To relieve fears regarding contracting COVID-19 infection through public transportation, the government should provide accurate information and take appropriate measures to lower the risk of COVID-19. This study aimed to develop a model for determining the risk of COVID-19 infection on public transportation considering exposure time, mask efficiency, ventilation rate, and distance. The risk of COVID-19 infection on public transportation was estimated, and the effectiveness of measures to reduce the risk was assessed. The correlation between the risk of infection and various factors was identified through sensitivity analysis of major factors. The analysis shows that, in addition to the general indoor space social distancing policy, ventilation system installation, passenger number reduction in a vehicle, and seat distribution strategies were effective. Based on these results, the government should provide accurate guidelines and implement appropriate policies.

18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886559

ABSTRACT

Road and transportation plays a vital role in the sustainable development and prosperity of the area. This study investigates the impact of road and transportation on the health of the host community and its sustainable destination development. Data were collected from the host community and were analyzed through factor analysis and structure equation modeling to evaluate the in-hand data of the structural relationship. It is revealed that road and transportation has a significant role in the improvement of health. Moreover, income mediates the effects of accessibility and employment on health. This study will help the authorities and policy maker to formulate policy regarding road and transportation that will improve health of the host community and its sustainable development. The study is limited to the seven districts of Hazara division and explores the societal aspect of CPEC on the host community, future researcher may investigate other regions and may select some other variables such as effect on GDP, per capita income, etc.

19.
Public Health Nutr ; : 1-21, 2021 Dec 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34886922

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Outdoor advertisements for food and drink products form a large part of the food environment and they disproportionately promote unhealthy products. However, less is known about the social patterning of such advertisements. The main aim of this study was to explore the socioeconomic patterning of food and drink advertising at bus stops in Scotland's capital city, Edinburgh. DESIGN: Bus stop advertisements were audited to identify food/drink adverts and classify them by food/drink category (i.e. 'advert category'). This data was then linked to area-based deprivation and proximity measures. Neighbourhood deprivation was measured using the bus stop x/y co-ordinates, which were converted to postcodes to identify the matching 2012 deprivation level via the Scottish Index of Multiple Deprivation (SIMD). Distance to schools and leisure centres were also collected using location data. Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) and linear regression analyses were used to assess associations between the promotion of advert categories and deprivation and proximity to schools/leisure centres, respectively. SETTING: Edinburgh city, United Kingdom. RESULTS: 561 food/drink advertisements were identified across 349 bus stops, with eight advertisement categories noted and included in the final analysis, including alcohol, fast food outlets and confectionary. The majority of adverts were for 'unhealthy' food and drink categories, however there was no evidence for any socioeconomic patterning of these advertisements. There was no evidence of a relationship between advertisements and proximity to schools and leisure centres. CONCLUSIONS: While there is no evidence for food and drink advertising being patterned by neighbourhood deprivation, the scale of unhealthy advertising is an area for policy evaluations and interventions on the control of such outdoor advertising.

20.
N Z Med J ; 134(1546): 59-69, 2021 11 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34855734

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Lack of transport is a contributor to poor access to healthcare and missed appointments. This research aimed to understand the accessibility of primary care for patients using public transport in Otautahi Christchurch, and to describe spatial and social distribution. METHODS: We measured access to primary care using geospatial analysis based on the time taken to reach the nearest general practice, the number of practices accessible within given time thresholds and the frequency of public transport services. Results are disaggregated by ethnicity, age, socioeconomic deprivation and car ownership. RESULTS: The poorest levels of access were in areas with the least deprivation and a greater NZ European population. Children aged 5-14 had low levels of access. Only 58.4% of the population in the most deprived areas had access to high-frequency bus services. CONCLUSIONS: This study highlights connectivity gaps between public transport and primary healthcare for key groups known to have a greater dependence upon public transport and poorer health outcomes. From an equity perspective, it highlights the need for further investigation into transport and health solutions to improve access to primary care for lower socioeconomic groups.

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