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1.
Bioact Mater ; 19: 569-580, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574062

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is influencing global health. Moreover, there is a major threat of future coronaviruses affecting the entire world in a similar, or even more dreadful, manner. Therefore, effective and biocompatible therapeutic options against coronaviruses are urgently needed. To address this challenge, medical specialists require a well-informed and safe approach to treating human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Herein, an environmental friendly approach for viral inactivation, based on plasma technology, was considered. A microwave plasma system was employed for the generation of the high amount of gaseous nitric oxide to prepare nitric oxide enriched plasma-activated water (NO-PAW), the effects of which on coronaviruses, have not been reported to date. To determine these effects, alpha-HCoV-229E was used in an experimental model. We found that NO-PAW treatment effectively inhibited coronavirus infection in host lung cells, visualized by evaluating the cytopathic effect and expression level of spike proteins. Interestingly, NO-PAW showed minimal toxicity towards lung host cells, suggesting its potential for therapeutic application. Moreover, this new approach resulted in viral inactivation and greatly improved the gene levels involved in host antiviral responses. Together, our findings provide evidence of an initiation point for further progress toward the clinical development of antiviral treatments, including such coronaviruses.

2.
Langmuir ; 38(13): 4048-4058, 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35313104

ABSTRACT

Herein, we report a thermodynamic model that relates the adsorption (aggregation) parameters of surfactants at solid/liquid interfaces to particle radius (r). The adsorption (aggregation) parameters include adsorption amounts, equilibrium constants (or the standard Gibbs free energy changes), the critical surface micelle concentration (csmc), and the average aggregation number of surface micelles (n). The model predicts the size dependence of the surface aggregation of surfactants, which is determined by the changes in the interfacial tension and the molar volume of surface components caused by adsorption. In addition, the adsorption of cetylpyridinium chloride (CPyCl), a cationic surfactant, on silica nanoparticles with different r values (ca. 6-61 nm) was determined at 298 K and pH 4, showing an obvious size dependence, consistent with the prediction of the model. With an increase in r, the adsorption isotherm changes from the double-plateau type to the Langmuir type, accompanied by obvious changes in the adsorption parameters. The size-dependent adsorption data can be well described using the model equations, indicating that the model presented here is acceptable. In addition, the model can extract information on the interfacial tensions from adsorption data. We think that the model deepens the understanding of the aggregation phenomena of surfactants at solid/liquid interfaces.

3.
Referência ; serVI(1): e21099, dez. 2022. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS-Express | BDENF - Nursing | ID: biblio-1387123

ABSTRACT

Resumo Enquadramento: O modelo de cuidados prestados durante o parto na água é interpessoal, integral e respeitado. Objetivo: Conhecer a perceção das mulheres sobre os cuidados recebidos pelas enfermeiras especialistas de saúde materna e obstétrica durante o parto na água na perspetiva da teoria de enfermagem de Jean Watson. Metodologia: Investigação empírica, qualitativa, interpretativa com 24 mulheres portuguesas que vivenciaram o parto na água no hospital ou no domicílio, com tratamento dos dados baseados no método de análise de conteúdo de Bardin. Resultados: A partir das narrativas, emergiram cinco categorias - ambiente acolhedor; a mulher no controlo do seu próprio parto; relação de confiança; expectativas correspondidas e o companheiro como parte do processo. Conclusão: O Processo Clinical Caritas foi percebido nas narrativas através do respeito e do carinho durante os cuidados prestados, proporcionando uma relação e cooperação, que promoveu posteriormente uma cura interior através desse processo de cuidados. A perceção das participantes do estudo quanto aos cuidados recebidos revelou um ambiente seguro, íntimo, respeitado, acolhedor, sem intervenções desnecessárias, favorável e amparado pelo companheiro.


Abstract Background: The model for care provided during water birth is interpersonal, comprehensive, and respected. Objective: To identify women's perceptions of the care provided by nurses specialized in maternal and obstetric health nursing nurses specialized in maternal and obstetric health nursing during water birth from the perspective of Jean Watson's nursing theory. Methodology: Empirical, qualitative, and interpretative research with 24 Portuguese women who had a water birth in hospitals or at home. Data were analyzed using Bardin's content analysis method. Results: Five categories emerged from the narratives: welcoming environment; women in control during labor; trusting relationship; expectations fulfilled; and the partner as part of the process. Conclusion: The Clinical Caritas Process was perceived in the narratives through respect and affection during care delivery to develop a relationship and promote cooperation, leading to inner healing through this care process. Participants' perceptions of the care received during their water birth revealed a safe, intimate, respectful, welcoming, and favorable environment, without unnecessary interventions and supported by the partner.


Resumen Marco contextual: El modelo de atención al parto en el agua es interpersonal, integral y respetado. Objetivo: Conocer la percepción de las mujeres sobre la atención recibida por las enfermeras especializadas en salud materna y obstetricia durante el parto en el agua desde la perspectiva de la teoría de la enfermería de Jean Watson. Metodología: Investigación empírica, cualitativa e interpretativa con 24 mujeres portuguesas que tuvieron un parto en el agua en el hospital o en casa, con un tratamiento de datos basado en el método de análisis de contenido de Bardin. Resultados: De las narrativas surgieron cinco categorías, ambiente acogedor; la mujer en el control de su propio parto; relación de confianza; expectativas cumplidas y la pareja como parte del proceso. Conclusión: El Proceso Clinical Caritas fue percibido en las narrativas a través del respeto y el afecto durante la atención prestada, lo que proporcionó una relación y cooperación, que posteriormente promovió una curación interior a través de este proceso de atención. La percepción de las participantes en el estudio sobre la atención recibida mostró un ambiente seguro, íntimo, respetuoso, acogedor, sin intervenciones innecesarias, favorable y apoyado por la pareja.

4.
Int J Dent ; 2022: 1344258, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090126

ABSTRACT

Objectives: This study aimed to compare the effectiveness of super floss and water flosser in plaque removal for patients undergoing orthodontic treatment. Methods: A single-blind, randomized, controlled, parallel clinical trial with a split-mouth protocol was conducted on young adult orthodontic patients who were recruited from Riyadh Specialized Dental Center in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The type of floss used was randomly assigned to each side of the oral cavity; Super-Floss® (Oral-B) was used on one side, while the Waterpik® water flosser was used on the other. Patients' plaque level was assessed using Rustogi et al. modified navy plaque index (RMNPI) at baseline and immediately after cleaning. Results: A total of 62 subjects were screened; however, only 34 subjects were enrolled in the study with an equal number of males and females. Overall, the plaque score was significantly reduced from 0.56 ± 0.35 to 0.13 ± 0.26 in the super floss group and from 0.61 ± 0.35 to 0.13 ± 0.28 in the water flosser group. There was no significant difference between the mean difference of super floss and water flosser (p=0.951). On the other hand, there was no significant difference between both groups in terms of the preintervention plaque score (p=0.379). The water flosser had a greater effect size on plaque removal compared to super floss on distal interproximal surface of the molar tooth with a mean difference of (-0.21, 95% CI: 00.37 to -0.04, p=0.033). Conclusions: The use of super floss or water flosser as interproximal aids for plaque removal in patients undergoing orthodontic treatment are both effective. Trial registration. ISRCTN, ISRCTN83875016. Registered 12 September 2021-retrospectively registered, https://www.isrctn.com/ISRCTN83875016.

5.
Heliyon ; 8(8): e10239, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090227

ABSTRACT

As the persistence of per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) become a global concern, information about the occurrence and characteristics of PFAS in estuarine and marine ecosystems is poorly represented. In this study, the presence of 51 PFAS were monitored in the Pensacola Bay System (PBS), Florida, USA. Due to the presence of many potential PFAS sources in close proximity to the PBS (e.g., military bases, industries, airports and several firefighting stations), the distribution and concentration of PFAS in this estuarine environment provides insights into the fate of these complex compounds as well as the possible impacts on coastal systems. Surface water was collected and analyzed from 45 different sites via Strata-X-AW cartridge extractions and ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) analysis. Recoveries for many PFAS (13/51) were >60% (mean 77 %), with relative standard deviations below 20%, except for N-methylperfluoro-1-octanesulfonamidoacetic acid (N-MeFOSAA) (22%). Of the perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs), which comprised the majority of PFAS detected: perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) were present in all samples; however, perfluoropentanoic acid (PFPeA) was the individual PFAS with the highest concentration of this group (51.9 ng.L-1, at site 81). The PFAS detected at the highest concentrations were perfluoroalkyl sulfonic acids (PFSA), with perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) having the highest detected concentration (269 ng.L-1, at site 81). At all sites, at least eight or more PFAS were quantified. Past and current use of PFAS-containing materials and their fate in areas surrounding military bases, airports, and industries, require more in-depth monitoring efforts to better determine the need for regulation, management, and/or remediation. Here, sites located close to areas suspected of PFAS use had elevated concentrations. For example, one coastal location near an airfield had a ΣPFAS of 677 ng.L-1. Expansion from these ongoing efforts will focus on assessment of PFAS-related effects in local wildlife and evaluating the distribution of PFAS at these "hotspot" sites during large episodic weather events, a critically understudied phenomenon regarding PFAS and vulnerable coastal environments.

6.
Water Air Soil Pollut ; 233(9): 374, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36090740

ABSTRACT

The scientific data review shows that advanced oxidation processes based on the hydroxyl or sulfate radicals are of great interest among the currently conventional water and wastewater treatment methods. Different advanced treatment processes such as photocatalysis, Fenton's reagent, ozonation, and persulfate-based processes were investigated to degrade contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) such as pesticides, personal care products, pharmaceuticals, disinfectants, dyes, and estrogenic substances. This article presents a general overview of visible light-driven advanced oxidation processes for the removal of chlorfenvinphos (organophosphorus insecticide), methylene blue (azo dye), and diclofenac (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug). The following visible light-driven treatment methods were reviewed: photocatalysis, sulfate radical oxidation, and photoelectrocatalysis. Visible light, among other sources of energy, is a renewable energy source and an excellent substitute for ultraviolet radiation used in advanced oxidation processes. It creates a high application potential for solar-assisted advanced oxidation processes in water and wastewater technology. Despite numerous publications of advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), more extensive research is needed to investigate the mechanisms of contaminant degradation in the presence of visible light. Therefore, this paper provides an important source of information on the degradation mechanism of emerging contaminants. An important aspect in the work is the analysis of process parameters affecting the degradation process. The initial concentration of CECs, pH, reaction time, and catalyst dosage are discussed and analyzed. Based on a comprehensive survey of previous studies, opportunities for applications of AOPs are presented, highlighting the need for further efforts to address dominant barriers to knowledge acquisition.

7.
Chem Sci ; 13(31): 8963-8967, 2022 Aug 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091207

ABSTRACT

Many stereoselective peptide catalysts have been established. They consist, like nature's catalysts, of amino acids but have significantly lower molecular weights than enzymes. Whereas enzymes operate with exquisite chemoselectivity in complex biological environments, peptide catalysts are used in pure organic solvents and at higher concentrations. Can a peptide catalyst exhibit chemoselectivity reminiscent of enzymes? Here, we investigated the properties of tripeptide catalysts in complex mixtures in hydrophobic and aqueous solvents. We challenged the catalysts with biomolecules bearing functional groups that could interfere by coordination or reaction with the peptide, the substrates, or intermediates. H-dPro-αMePro-Glu-NHC12H15 emerged through tailoring of the trans/cis ratio of the tertiary amide as a conformationally well-defined tripeptide that catalyzes C-C bond formations with high reactivity and stereoselectivity - regardless of the solvent and compound composition. The chemoselectivity of the tripeptide is so high that it even catalyzes reactions in cell lysates. The findings provoke the question of the potential role of peptide catalysis in nature and during the evolution of enzymes.

8.
J Parasit Dis ; 46(3): 627-636, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36091281

ABSTRACT

Blastocystis sp. is a commonly encountered gut protozoan with unclear pathogenicity. The presence of proteases in this organism may be related to its potential pathogenicity or other physiological differences. This study aimed to identify the various proteases that may be present in different subtypes (STs) of Blastocystis sp. using azocasein assay and gelatin zymography. In this study, cysteine, serine, aspartic protease, metalloproteases, and unknown proteases were identified in Blastocystis sp. cultures obtained from animal and water samples belonging to ST1-ST5 and ST7. Azocasein assay and gelatin zymography were conducted on different batches of protease extracts, which showed varying results. Cysteine protease was the most commonly encountered. Protease activity in general is not associated with ST or source (animal or water). However, the presence of cysteine protease alone was associated with animal samples, whereas the presence of more than two protease types was associated with water samples. Azocasein assay and gelatin zymography were conducted on different batches of protease extracts, which showed varying results. Protease activity and the types present may change over time. Blastocystis sp. shows high protease diversity, including possible novel types.

9.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 967210, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092403

ABSTRACT

Improving water use efficiency (WUE) has been proven to be a prosperous way to produce more grain in drought-prone areas. Transpiration efficiency (TE) has been proposed as a criterion for screening cultivars with high WUE. This study quantifies the relations of TE to relative soil water content (RSWC) gradients using pot experiments and evaluates the capability of the relations of TE-RSWC on assessing the cultivar performance in field yield and WUE. Twelve winter wheat cultivars were grown at 6 RSWC, 12.1, 24.2, 36.3, 48.4, 60.5, and 72.6% of field capacity (FC = 24.8 g/g) for 33 days in tightly sealed pots preventing soil evaporation. The results showed that TE decreased power functionally following the increase in RSWC for all cultivars. The relationship could be described as TE = TE FC × (RSWC) b , named TE-RSWC curve. This curve could be divided into an orderly area where the rank of cultivars was stable when RSWC ≤ 12.1% or RSWC ≥ 72.6% and a disorderly area where the rank was unstable when 12.1% < RSWC < 72.6%. To assess the consistency of pot TE to field yield and WUE, the same 12 varieties were grown under rainfed and two irrigations (75 mm at the jointing and flowering stages, respectively). TE FC was found to be positively related to field yield and WUE independent of irrigation. TE measured near the wilting point was negatively related to field yield and WUE. These results indicated that TE FC could be used as a surrogate for screening high-yield and high-WUE cultivars. The consistency and inconsistency can be attributed to the orderly area and disorderly area of the TE-RSWC curves.

10.
Front Plant Sci ; 13: 974050, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36092408

ABSTRACT

The search for drought tolerant species or cultivars is important to address water scarcity caused by climate change in Mediterranean regions. The anisohydric-isohydric behavior concept has been widely used to describe stomatal regulation during drought, simply in terms of variation of minimal water potential (Ψmin) in relation to pre-dawn water potential (Ψpd). However, its simplicity has sometimes failed to deliver consistent results in describing a complex behavior that results from the coordination of several plant functional traits. While Prunus dulcis (almond) is known as a drought tolerant species, little information is available regarding consistent metrics to discriminate among cultivars or the mechanisms underlying drought tolerance in almond. Here we show a sequence of plant stomatal, hydraulic, and wilting responses to drought in almonds, and the main differences between anisohydric and isohydric cultivars. In a pot desiccation experiment we observed that stomatal closure in P. dulcis is not driven by loss in turgor or onset of xylem cavitation, but instead, occurs early in response to decreasing Ψmin that could be related to the protection of the integrity of the hydraulic system, independently of cultivar. Also, we report that anisohydric cultivars of P. dulcis are characterized by maximum stomatal conductance, lower water potentials for stomatal closure and turgor loss, and lower vulnerability to xylem cavitation, which are traits that correlated with metrics to discriminate anisohydric and isohydric behavior. Our results demonstrate that P. dulcis presents a strategy to avoid cavitation by closing stomata during the early stages of drought. Future research should also focus on below-ground hydraulic traits, which could trigger stomatal closure in almond.

11.
Environ Sci Technol ; 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095156

ABSTRACT

Arsenic (As) is a toxic element, and elevated levels of geogenic As in drinking water pose a threat to the health of several hundred million people worldwide. In this study, we used microfluidics in combination with optical microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy to investigate zerovalent iron (ZVI) corrosion, secondary iron (Fe) phase formation, and As retention processes at the pore scale in ZVI-based water treatment filters. Two 250 µm thick microchannels filled with single ZVI and quartz grain layers were operated intermittently (12 h flow/12 h no-flow) with synthetic groundwater (pH 7.5; 570 µg/L As(III)) over 13 and 49 days. Initially, lepidocrocite (Lp) and carbonate green rust (GRC) were the dominant secondary Fe-phases and underwent cyclic transformation. During no-flow, lepidocrocite partially transformed into GRC and small fractions of magnetite, kinetically limited by Fe(II) diffusion or by decreasing corrosion rates. When flow resumed, GRC rapidly and nearly completely transformed back into lepidocrocite. Longer filter operation combined with a prolonged no-flow period accelerated magnetite formation. Phosphate adsorption onto Fe-phases allowed for downstream calcium carbonate precipitation and, consequently, accelerated anoxic ZVI corrosion. Arsenic was retained on Fe-coated quartz grains and in zones of cyclic Lp-GRC transformation. Our results suggest that intermittent filter operation leads to denser secondary Fe-solids and thereby ensures prolonged filter performance.

12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095329

ABSTRACT

Ingestible electronics monitor biometric information from outside the body. Making them with harmless or digestible materials will contribute to further reducing the burden on the patient's oral intake. Here, considering that the inductive part plays an important role in communications, we demonstrate a degradable inductor fabricated with harmless substances. Such a transient component must meet conflicting requirements for both operation and disassembly. Therefore, we integrated a substrate made of gelatin, a thermally degradable material, and a precision coil pattern made of edible gold or silver leaf. However, gelatin itself lost its initial shape easily due to quick sol-gel changes in physiological conditions. Thus, we managed the gelatin's thermal responsiveness by using a tangle of gelatin/chitosan gel networks and genipin, an organic cross-linking agent, and gained insights into the criteria for developing transient devices with thermo-degradability. In addition, to compensate for the lack of water resistance and low conductivity of thin metal foils, we propose a laminated structure with oleogel (beeswax/olive oil). LCR resonance circuits, by connecting a commercial capacitor to the coil, worked wirelessly in the megahertz band and gradually degraded in a warm-water environment. The presented organic electronics will contribute to the future development of transient wireless communications for implantable and ingestible medical devices or environmental sensors with natural and harmless ingredients.

13.
Trop Med Int Health ; 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096154

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Sanitation, Hygiene Education and Water Supply in Bangladesh Programme (SHEWA-B) was a 5-year intervention aiming to improve water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices among 20 million rural residents through community hygiene promoters. This analysis evaluates the impact of SHEWA-B on knowledge, behaviour and childhood diarrhoea outcomes. METHODS: The evaluation included repeated cross-sectional surveys and health surveillance in matched cohorts in intervention and control clusters. Cross-sectional surveys and structured observations at baseline, midline, and endline assessed the availability of WASH technology, caregiver knowledge and behaviour. Fieldworkers collected monthly health data in a subset of control and intervention households to determine the prevalence of diarrhoea. RESULTS: Of 5091 households surveyed, participants residing in intervention clusters showed minimal improvements in knowledge, reported behaviour, or use of WASH technology compared to the control clusters. During structured observations, intervention households increased more than control households at handwashing before preparing food and after cleaning a baby's anus when comparing endline to baseline, but these changes were not seen when comparing endline to the midline. The prevalence of childhood diarrhoea remained similar in both groups before (10.2% in intervention, 10.0% in control) and after (8.8% in intervention, 11.7% in control) midline changes were made to improve the intervention. Intervention clusters showed no improvement in diarrhoea over time compared to control clusters. CONCLUSIONS: SHEWA-B's community-based WASH promotion did not yield the intended impact on knowledge, behaviour or health. Greater priority should be given to approaches that have demonstrated effectiveness. Including rigorous evaluations would broaden the evidence base to support and improve large-scale programmes.

14.
Mol Phylogenet Evol ; : 107626, 2022 Sep 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096463

ABSTRACT

Acariform mites are an ancient and megadiverse lineage that may have experienced a complex pattern of invasions into terrestrial and aquatic habitats. These among-realm transitions may relate to periods of turmoil in Earth's history or be simply results of uneven biodiversity patterns across habitats. Here, we inferred a dated, representative acariform phylogeny (five genes, 9,200 bp aligned, 367 terminals belonging to 150 ingroup plus 15 outgroup families, 23 fossil calibration points) which was used to infer transitions between marine/freshwater/terrestrial habitats. We detected four unambiguous transitions from terrestrial to freshwater habitats (Hydrozetes, Naiadacarus, Fusohericia, Afronothrus, Homocaligus); one from freshwater to marine (Pontarachnidae), and four from marine to brackish or freshwater transitions (all among Halacaridae: Acarothrix; Halacarellus petiti; Copidognathus sp.; clade Limnohalacarus + Soldanellonyx + Porohalacarus + Porolohmannella). One transition to the sea was inferred ambiguously with respect to the ancestor being either terrestrial or freshwater (Hyadesiidae), and another must be most carefully examined by adding potential related taxa (Selenoribatidae + Fortuyniidae). Finally, we inferred a single, remarkable transition from aquatic to terrestrial habitats involving early evolution of the large and ecologically diverse lineage: the ancestor of the Halacaridae + Parasitengona clade was probably freshwater given our dataset, thus making terrestrial Parasitengona secondarily terrestrial. Overall, our results suggested a strong asymmetry in environmental transitions: the majority occurred from terrestrial to aquatic habitats. This asymmetry is probably linked to mites' biological properties and uneven biodiversity patterns across habitats rather than Earth's geological history. Since the land holds more acariform diversity than water habitats, a shift from the former is more likely than from the latter. We inferred the following relationships: alicid endeostigmatid + eriophyoid (Alycidae, (Nanorchestidae, (Nematalycidae, Eriophyoidea))) being sister group to the remaining Acariformes: (proteonematalycid Endeostigmata, alicorhagiid Endeostigmata, Trombidiformes, Oribatida (including Astigmata)). Trombidiform relationships had several novel rearrangements: (i) traditional Eupodina lacked support for the inclusion of Bdelloidea; (ii) Teneriffidae, traditionally placed among Anystina, was consistently recovered in a clade including Heterostigmata in Eleutherengona; (iii) several lineages, such as Adamystidae, Paratydeidae, Caeculidae and Erythracaridae, were recovered in a large clade along other Anystina and Eleutherengona, suggesting single origins of several fundamental character states, such as the reduction of the cheliceral fixed digit and development of the palpal thumb-claw complex.

15.
Talanta ; 253: 123829, 2022 Aug 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36087410

ABSTRACT

Thermal Extraction-Desorption (TED) using a thermobalance coupled to a gas chromatograph (GC) with mass spectrometer (MS) detector is an extended method for polymers identification in complex matrixes. A new TED-GC/MS method for microplastics identification is developed in this study, where the whole filter with solids collected from water is thermal treated in a furnace, instead of using a small portion in a Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) device, avoiding sample handling. Pyrolyzing the whole filter in a tubular furnace has advantages with respect to the standard procedure of using a TGA with a small crucible in TED-GC/MS. The main advantage is the easy manipulation of the sample, since the filter does not have to be manipulated to extract the sample or cut some portions, avoiding sample losses during handling and ensuring that inhomogeneity on the filter surface is not a problem. Furthermore, there are no limitations on the weight of the sample beyond the adsorbent's ability to trap decomposition compounds without becoming saturated, so high intensity signals can be obtained in order to avoid confuse signals with noise, false negatives or values so close of the quantification limit.

16.
Water Res ; 224: 119054, 2022 Sep 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36088770

ABSTRACT

Nitrite can be transformed to nitrophenolic byproducts in sulfate radical oxidation processes (SR-AOPs). These nitrophenols are highly mobile in subsurface and can potentially contaminate drinking water sources. However, their fate in a drinking water treatment remains ambiguous. Herein, the removal and transformation of four nitrophenolic byproducts formed during a heat activated peroxydisulfate oxidation process, i.e., 4-nitrophenol, 2,4-dinitrophenol, 5-nitrosalicylic acid, and 3,5-dinitrosalicylic acid, in a simulated drinking water treatment train were comprehensively examined. The removal of these nitrophenolic compounds in coagulation by either aluminum sulfate or ferric chloride ranged from 3.8% to 13.4%. In the chlorination process, 4-nitrophenol was removed only by 45.4% in 24 h at a chlorine dose of 5.0 mg/L. The removal of the other three nitrophenolic byproducts were less than 20%. Reaction between nitrophenolic byproducts and chlorine via electrophilic substitution gave rise to their chlorinated derivatives. Chlorinated nitrophenolic byproducts were more recalcitrant and toxic than their parent compounds, but still a tiny fraction of them could undergo further oxidation to form trichloronitromethane. This work implied that once nitrophenolic byproducts enter water source, they can penetrate the drinking water treatment train and react with the residual chlorine in distribution pipelines to form more hazardous byproducts. The findings raised additional concerns to the potential risk of the nitrophenolic byproducts formed in SR-AOPs.

17.
J Colloid Interface Sci ; 629(Pt A): 670-684, 2022 Sep 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36095899

ABSTRACT

HYPOTHESIS: Switchable assemblies relevant for bio-applications may be accessed from water-soluble tetra-ortho-substituted azobenzenes that reversibly self-assemble and form complexes with ß-cyclodextrin under visible light. EXPERIMENTS: Two azobenzenes bearing either four fluorines or two chlorines and two fluorines in the ortho positions were synthesised with short poly(ethylene oxide) tails for water solubility. Photophysical properties were determined by UV-vis and 1H NMR spectroscopies, complexation with ß-cyclodextrin was assessed by 1H NMR spectroscopy, and self-assembly in water was investigated by static and dynamic light scattering. FINDINGS: Both molecules underwent trans-cis isomerization at 530 nm and cis-trans isomerization at 415 nm, with the cis forms exhibiting thermal half-lives > 300 days at room temperature. Both molecules formed inclusion complexes with ß-cyclodextrin in water, with cis-4F-AZO-PEO binding 3-fold stronger than trans, and 2Cl2F-AZO-PEO binding significantly weaker. Self-assembly of pure 2Cl2F-AZO-PEO in water showed an open association process regardless of configuration, while 4F-AZO-PEO showed an open association process for cis (Nagg increasing from 30 to 1000) but a closed association process for trans (Nagg stable at âˆ¼ 170). Aqueous solutions of 2Cl2F-AZO-PEO showed cloud points close to 45 °C, while the 4F-AZO-PEO isomers presented well-separated cloud points allowing reversible and all-visible transition between clear and turbid states at room temperature.

18.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0274673, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36107924

ABSTRACT

This work proposed a novel procedure of Water Quality Index (WQI) development that could be used for practical applications on a local or regional scale, based on available monitoring data. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to the monthly data of 11 water quality parameters (pH, conductivity (EC), total suspended solid (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), five -day biological oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), ammonia (N-NH4), nitrate (N-NO3), phosphate (P-PO4), total coliform, and total dissolved iron monitored at 11 sites at Huong river in the years 2014-2016. From the PCA, the three extracted principal components explained 67% of the total variance of original variables. From the set of communality values, the weight (wi) for each parameter was determined. Linear sub-index functions were established based on the permissible limits from the National Technical Regulations on Surface Water Quality set up by the Vietnam Environment Agency (VEA) to derive the sub-index (qi) for each parameter. The multiplicative formula that is the product of the sub-indices (qi) raised to the respective weights (wi), was used for calculation of the final WQI values. The proposed index (WQI) was then applied to the river with quarterly data of the 11 parameters monitored at ten sites in the years 2017-2020. The WQI representatively reflected the actual status of the river overall water quality, of which 97.8% of the WQI values belonged to grades of EXCELLENT and GOOD, and 2.2% of grade MODERATE. Comparison between the river water quality evaluations resulting from the developed WQI with the WQI adopted by National Sanitation Foundation (NSF-WQI) and the index issued by Vietnam Environment Agency (VN-WQI) indicated that the proposed WQI was more suitable for river quality assessment.


Subject(s)
Rivers , Water Quality , Ammonia/analysis , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Iron/analysis , Nitrates/analysis , Oxygen/analysis , Phosphates/analysis , Vietnam
19.
Food Chem ; 401: 134187, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116300

ABSTRACT

This study explored the effects of coatings based on glutathione-loaded cactus Opuntia dillenii polysaccharide (ODP) on the preservation of freshly cut Chinese water chestnut. Freshly cut Chinese water chestnut samples were treated with one of the three dipping solutions, namely, distilled water (control), 0.4 % glutathione (treatment-1) or 1 % ODP + 0.4 % glutathione (treatment-2) and stored at 3 °C for 10 days. All treatments suppressed respiration rate, weight loss and decreases in firmness and browning and increased soluble solid content and likeness score compared with the control (P < 0.05). In terms of sensory quality, treatment-2 extended the shelf life of the freshly cut Chinese water chestnut at least by 6 days compared with the control group. Results verified that treatment with ODP-based coatings incorporated with glutathione may be a promising method for preserving freshly cut Chinese water chestnut.

20.
Biochim Biophys Acta Biomembr ; : 184052, 2022 Sep 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36116514

ABSTRACT

Proteins that bind protons at cell membrane interfaces often expose to the bulk clusters of carboxylate and histidine sidechains that capture protons transiently and, in proton transporters, deliver protons to an internal site. The protonation-coupled dynamics of bulk-exposed carboxylate clusters, also known as proton antennas, is poorly described. An essential open question is how water-mediated bridges between sidechains of the cluster respond to protonation change and facilitate transient proton storage. To address this question, here I studied the protonation-coupled dynamics at the proton-binding antenna of PsbO, a small extrinsinc subunit of the photosystem II complex, with atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and systematic graph-based analyses of dynamic protein and protein-water hydrogen-bond networks. The protonation of specific carboxylate groups is found to impact the dynamics of their local protein-water hydrogen-bond clusters. Regardless of the protonation state considered for PsbO, carboxylate pairs that can sample direct hydrogen bonding, or bridge via short hydrogen-bonded water chains, anchor to nearby basic or polar protein sidechains. As a result, carboxylic sidechains of the hypothesized antenna cluster are part of dynamic hydrogen bond networks that may rearrange rapidly when the protonation changes.

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