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1.
Antioxidants (Basel) ; 11(11)2022 Oct 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36358499

ABSTRACT

The challenge of sustainable agriculture is to increase yields and obtain higher quality products. Increased antioxidant compounds such as polyphenols in harvest products may be an added value for sustainable agriculture. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether three organic fertilization treatments with different levels of carbon and nitrogen, i.e., N-rich, N-rich+C, and N-poor+C, affected the phenolic content of different tomato varieties. The examined parameters were productivity, plant nutritional status, δ13C, and tomato phenolic content as an indication of the antioxidant capacity. The best production was obtained with 'Cornabel', a high-yielding Pebroter variety. The total phenolic content was highest in the traditional 'Cuban Pepper' variety regardless of treatment, while naringenin levels were high in all the Pebroter varieties. In N-poor+C fertilized plants, a lower N-NO3 content in leaves was correlated with higher levels of total polyphenols in the fruit. The high-water stress suffered by Montserrat varieties coincided with a low total phenolic content in the tomatoes. In conclusion, organic fertilization with reduced N did not influence the tomato yield but positively affected phenolic compound levels in varieties less sensitive to water stress.

2.
Animals (Basel) ; 12(19)2022 Oct 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36230401

ABSTRACT

Lizards within the Iguana iguana species complex are among the most common reptilian pets, with the widest natural geographic range among iguanids. Deep phylogenetic divergence distinguishes multiple mitochondrial clades, and several taxonomic changes have recently been proposed. These small populations, typically island endemics, are threatened by numerous factors, including the international pet trade. Recent investigations reveal the absence of required CITES permits for lawful export of animals, providing evidence of ongoing illegal trade. Additional monitoring of trade in iguanas can be achieved through the application of forensic molecular techniques. In this study, two captive melanistic iguanas were genotyped for molecular markers for which geographic distributions of alleles have been established. Mitochondrial sequencing indicates that both animals carry a haplotype known to originate from the islands of Saba and Montserrat, populations taxonomically proposed to be Iguana melanoderma. Genotypes at 15 microsatellite loci are equally consistent with this origin, given the results of a principal component analysis. This first forensic genetic assessment within the extensive I. iguana pet trade highlights the presence of illegal activity. The need for additional forensic assessments of pet-trade iguanas is evident, especially given that their value is driven by variety and rarity, which is further intensified by recent taxonomic changes.

3.
Arch Prev Riesgos Labor ; 25(4): 349-352, 2022 10 17.
Article in Spanish | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36265097

ABSTRACT

En tres meses Archivos de Prevención de Riesgos Laborales cumple un cuarto de siglo. En 1998, la entonces Societat Catalana de Seguretat i Medicina del Treball, hoy Associació Catalana de Salut Laboral, presidida por Jaume de Montserrat, anunciaba una nueva revista, que nacía con 35 años de historia y 120 números publicados en la extinguida Medicina de Empresa. Fernando G. Benavides asumía la tarea (1998-2005). Archivos nació con una clara voluntad de hacer realidad un instrumento "de difusión de información relevante, rigurosa y actual que necesita todo campo de conocimiento para su desarrollo y evolución" parafraseando a su segunda directora, Ana M García (2005-2015) y además de acuerdo con los criterios internacionales de calidad científica.….


Subject(s)
Bibliometrics , Pulmonary Medicine
4.
PLoS One ; 17(9): e0269873, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36129880

ABSTRACT

The Iberian ibex is one of the most singular species of the Iberian Peninsula. Throughout the years, this species suffered several threats which led the population to its decline. Many reintroductions and translocations were made, however, none of those actions took into account the genetic patterns of both reintroduced individuals and the target populations. In this paper, we explored the genetic traits of three populations of Iberian ibex in Catalonia, which experienced blind reintroductions in past years: The populations of Iberian ibex from Els Ports de Tortosa i Beseit National Game Reserve (TBNGR), Montserrat Natural Park (Monserrat) and Montgrí, les Illes Medes i el Baix Ter Natural Park (Montgrí) Based on the genetic patterns of the three populations coupled with the absence of genetic introgression with domestic goats-inferred using mitochondrial and nuclear markers-we propose that these should be regarded as two different management units: TBNGR coupled with Montserrat, and Montgrí. Montserrat population should be targeted as a population model for ecology and evolution studies. Although we did not detect evidences of recent bottleneck events, this population seems to be monomorphic for the mtDNA haplotype. Our results suggest that the blind reintroductions from TBNGR to Montserrat failed on maximizing the genetic diversity of the latter. We enhance the importance of genetic monitoring of both the source population and the selected individuals to be re-introduced. We conclude that the three studied population of Iberian ibex must be monitored to explore which strategy would be advantageous for maintaining the genetic diversity. On the other hand, TBNGR should be monitored to assess the existence of its singular genetic variation, where stochastic events could preserve this lost genetic variation.


Subject(s)
DNA, Mitochondrial , Goats , Animals , DNA, Mitochondrial/genetics , Goats/genetics , Spain/epidemiology , West Indies
5.
Int J Ment Health Syst ; 16(1): 39, 2022 Aug 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35962382

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Small island developing states (SIDS) have particular mental health system needs due to their remoteness and narrow resource base. We conducted situational analyses to support mental health system strengthening in six SIDS: Anguilla, Bermuda, British Virgin Islands, Cayman Islands, Montserrat and Turks and Caicos Islands. METHODS: The situational analyses covered five domains: 1. Socio-economic context and burden of mental disorders, 2. Leadership and governance for mental health 3. Mental health and social care services 4. Strategies for promotion and prevention in mental health and 5. Information systems, evidence and research for mental health. First, a desk-based exercise was conducted, in which data was drawn from the public domain. Second, a field visit was conducted at each site, comprising visits to facilities and consultation meetings with key stakeholders. RESULTS: Our key findings were 1. Despite most of these SIDS being high-income economies, social inequalities within states exist. There was no population-level data on mental health burden. 2. All SIDS have a mental health policy or plan, but implementation is typically limited due to lack of funds or staff shortages. There was minimal evidence of service user involvement in policy or service development. 3. All SIDS have a specialist, multi-disciplinary mental health workforce, however Montserrat and Anguilla rely on visiting psychiatrists. Child and adolescent and dedicated crisis intervention services were found in only two and one SIDS respectively. A recovery-oriented ethos was not identified in any SIDS. 4. Mental illness stigma was prevalent in all SIDS. Promotion and prevention were objectives of mental health strategies for all SIDS, however activities tended to be sporadic. No mental health non-Governmental organisations were identified in three SIDS. 5. Health information systems are generally underdeveloped, with paper-based systems in three SIDS. There has been no rigorous local mental health research. CONCLUSION: Cross-cutting recommendations include: to develop mental health action plans that include clear implementation indicators; to facilitate community surveys to ascertain the prevalence of mental disorders; to explore task-sharing approaches to increase access to primary mental health care; and to develop programmes of mental health promotion and prevention.

6.
Disasters ; 46 Suppl 1: S10-S50, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35362632

ABSTRACT

This paper uses volcanic eruptions on the Caribbean islands of Montserrat and Saint Vincent to explore the role that British colonial rule in the past and near past (1800-2000) has played in response to and recovery from hazardous events, and in turn, the influence that the nature of the hazards has on these responses. It shows that systemic vulnerabilities to natural hazards have been created by inadequate aid responses and longer-term chronic problems and demonstrates that hazard impacts are compounded by them. Vulnerabilities could be reduced by analysing integrated hazard impacts to generate mitigative measures across hazards and identify actions that more closely match timescales of political decision-making. Incorporating local knowledge and experience into risk analysis will enable the most effective use of aid resources, ahead of emergencies. Finally, coupling aid for long-term development with emergency response would improve outcomes and adaptation to longer-term vulnerabilities in immediate rebuilding and short-term recovery.


Subject(s)
Disasters , Volcanic Eruptions , Caribbean Region , Humans , Risk Assessment , West Indies
7.
Anon.
Metas enferm ; 25(2)Mar 2022.
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-206361

ABSTRACT

Los enfermeros Jordi Torralbas y Montserrat Selvas del Consorci Corporació Parc Taulí, en Sabadell, han encabezado una iniciativa de investigación, el Proyecto SELTO, orientado a los pacientes pediátricos portadores de un reservorio venoso subcutáneo y del impacto de este en su vida social y cómo conjugarlo con su seguridad. Nos atienden para hablar de su proyecto y de la importancia de compaginar estos dos aspectos para la calidad de vida de este tipo de afectados.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Safety , Quality of Life , Vascular Access Devices , Adolescent , Pediatrics , Health Programs and Plans
8.
Bridgetown; PAHO; 2022-01-30.
in English | PAHO-IRIS | ID: phr2-55756

ABSTRACT

The situation in some countries and territories (hitherto referred to as countries) follows the trend from last week of peaks in the current Omicron wave having been reached and declining cases & hospitalizations. This week, Antigua & Barbuda, Guadeloupe, Montserrat, St. Lucia and St. Vincent and the Grenadines have joined British Virgin Islands, French Guiana, Grenada and St. Kitts and Nevis in showing a declining 7 day moving incidence rates as well as a decline in the 7 day average of test positivity. Both these indicators are converging in these nine countries. In St. Vincent & the Grenadines, information for total RDTs tested, albeit partial, has recently been published so estimates of test positivity aren't sufficiently reliable. Nonetheless including RDTs, the test positivity in last 3 days is around 16%, comparable to other countries who consider RDT results to be confirmatory and are showing declining trend (Grenada). In Barbados and Martinique, 7 day case incidence shows a slight dip in the last 2-3 days but it is too early to say that a peak has been reached. The new Minister of Health of Barbados mentioned that the country is at "...halfway point in Omicron surge" on Jan 29, 2022. Currently the rate of increase in total tests conducted in seven days in that country is higher than than the increase in cases, which shows that health authorities are prioritizing the right areas even when one of every four people tested in the last week in Barbados had Barbados. Anguilla, on the other hand, shows a clear decline in incidence but in the absence of testing information, a decline in COVID-19 is plausible for now.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections , Betacoronavirus , Analysis of Situation , Immunization , Vaccines , Emergencies , Caribbean Region
9.
J Public Health Manag Pract ; 28(2): E480-E486, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33797503

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Caribbean is a unique region of islands and cays home to nearly 43 million people. A significant challenge facing this population is the burden of traumatic brain injury, which disproportionately affects younger individuals and carries a significant economic burden. A preventive measure to reduce this burden is consistent wearing of helmets. This study aims to assess TBI prevention through helmet safety in Caribbean nations in order to demonstrate the regional impact of public health solutions. METHODS: We assess the member states of the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and sought to evaluate CARICOM nations' TBI prevention through helmet safety with relation to public health, policy, laws, infrastructure, and regulations. We produced the Rolle Scoring System (RSS) to ascertain the influence of governance around helmet safety for TBI prevention. The RSS aims to provide a quantifiable method of how well a CARICOM nation is performing in efforts to reduce TBI. The RSS is broken down into 2 categories, with scores ranging from 1 (worst) to 5 (best). The range of possible scores a CARICOM nation could receive was 8 to 40. RESULTS: Fourteen CARICOM nations were ultimately incorporated into our analysis. From the initial cohort, 3 were removed. These nations were Anguilla, Saint Kitts & Nevis, and Montserrat. We analyzed values derived from the RSS, finding a mean Rolle score of 22. We further subdivided the nations into low Rolle score (8-24) and high Rolle score (>24). Trinidad and Tobago had the highest Rolle score at 29. Haiti was found to have the lowest Rolle score at 8. CONCLUSION: Several Caribbean nations have demonstrated leadership pertaining to TBI prevention through helmet safety. The regional momentum of helmet safety in the Caribbean can serve as a model for other geographical regional blocs that share interests and culture to consider comprehensive approaches to public health challenges.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Head Protective Devices , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/prevention & control , Caribbean Region , Health Services , Humans , West Indies
10.
São Paulo; Dialética; 2022. 103 p. il.
Monography in Portuguese | HISA - History of Health | ID: his-44447

ABSTRACT

Analisa o papel das Delegacias de Saúde e do Hospital de Isolamento de Mont'Serrat, no processo da Reforma Sanitária que ocorreu na Bahia na década de 1920


Subject(s)
Preventive Medicine , Hospitals, Isolation , Health Care Reform , Brazil
11.
São Paulo; Dialética; 2022. 103 p. il.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1381743

ABSTRACT

Analisa o papel das Delegacias de Saúde e do Hospital de Isolamento de Mont'Serrat, no processo da Reforma Sanitária que ocorreu na Bahia na década de 1920


Subject(s)
Preventive Medicine , Health Care Reform , Hospitals, Isolation , Brazil
12.
PLoS One ; 16(12): e0261119, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34890426

ABSTRACT

Coral reef fisheries are vital to the livelihoods of millions of people worldwide but are challenging to manage due to the high diversity of fish species that are harvested and the multiple types of fishing gear that are used. Fish traps are a commonly used gear in reef fisheries in the Caribbean and other regions, but they have poor selectivity and frequently capture juvenile fish, impacting the sustainability of the fishery. One option for managing trap fisheries is the addition of escape gaps, which allow small fish to escape. We compared catches of traps with and without two 2.5 cm (1 inch) escape gaps on the Caribbean island of Montserrat. No significant differences were found in the mean fish length, total fish biomass, number of fish, fish species richness, and Shannon diversity index between hauls of the two trap designs, though traps with escape gaps did catch larger proportions of wider-bodied fish and smaller proportions of narrow-bodied fish. Furthermore, traps with gaps caught a smaller proportion of small-sized fish and fewer immature fish (though differences were not statistically significant). Linear mixed effect models predict that soak time (the length of time between trap hauls) increases the mean catch length, total catch biomass and total number of species in the catch. The relatively modest evidence for the effect of the gaps on catch may be explained by the long soak times used, which could have allowed most smaller-sized fish to escape or be consumed by larger individuals before hauling in both traps with and without escape gaps. Despite the small differences detected in this study, escape gaps may still offer one of the best options for improving sustainability of catches from fish traps, but larger escape gaps should be tested with varying soak times to determine optimum escape gap size.


Subject(s)
Fisheries , Fishes/physiology , Animals , Biomass , Body Size , Coral Reefs , West Indies
13.
Zootaxa ; 4985(4): 459481, 2021 Jun 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34186792

ABSTRACT

The subfamily Ostomopsinae of Cerylonidae is revised. Six nominal species are recognized and described or redescribed: Ostomopsis cudak sp. n. (Thailand), O. kuscheli sp. n. (New Caledonia), O. neotropicalis Lawrence Stephan (USA: Florida; Mexico: San Luis Potosi, Veracruz; Panama, Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, Guadeloupe, Montserrat), O. solitaria Scott (Seychelles, New Caledonia, Christmas Island, Northern Mariana Islands), O. solomon sp. n. (Solomon Islands), and O. watti sp. n. (New Caledonia). Morphological structures of the type species of Ostomopsis are illustrated and described in detail, and identification key to Ostomopsis species is given.


Subject(s)
Coleoptera/classification , Animal Distribution , Animals
14.
Mitochondrial DNA B Resour ; 6(4): 1372-1373, 2021 Apr 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33889754

ABSTRACT

The mountain chicken frog (Leptodactylus fallax) is a critically endangered frog native to the Caribbean islands of Dominica and Montserrat. Over the past 25 years their populations have declined by over 85%, largely due to a chytridiomycosis outbreak that nearly wiped out the Montserratian population. Within the context of developing tools that can aid in the conservation of the mountain chicken frog, we assembled its complete mitochondrial genome, contributing the first complete mitogenome of the genus Leptodactylus (Genbank Accession number MW260634). The circular genome is 18,669 bp long and contains 37 genes. A phylogenetic analysis reveals that L. fallax forms a clade with Leptodactylus melanonotus, highlighting the close relationship of Leptodactylus spp. relative to other species from the superfamily Hyloidea included in the analysis.

15.
Tree Physiol ; 41(10): 1861-1876, 2021 10 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33864363

ABSTRACT

Drought can lead to important shifts in population dynamics if it occurs during seedling establishment. With the aim of elucidating the underlying mechanisms of drought tolerance and resilience, here we monitored the survival of seedlings of the Mediterranean shrub Cistus albidus L. throughout a year growing in the natural Park of the Montserrat Mountains (Spain) and, additionally, we studied the response to severe drought and subsequent recovery after rewatering of seedlings grown in growth chambers. To find possible mechanisms explaining how seedlings respond to drought, growth and survival together with physiological-related parameters such as chlorophyll contents, vitamin E and stress-related phytohormones were measured. We found that survival decreased by 30% at the end of summer and that the main proxy of seedling survival was total chlorophyll. This proxy was further confirmed in the growth chambers, where we found that seedlings that recovered from drought had higher levels of total chlorophyll compared with the seedlings that did not recover. Furthermore, modulation of vitamin E and jasmonates contents appeared to be crucial in the drought response of C. albidus seedlings. We propose a prediction model of survival that includes total chlorophyll height, leaf mass area and maximum photosystem II efficiency with chlorophyll contents being a good long-term predictor of C. albidus seedling survival under severe stress, which, in turn, could help to better foresee population fluctuations in the field.


Subject(s)
Cistus , Chlorophyll , Droughts , Plant Leaves , Seedlings
16.
Animal ; 15(3): 100145, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33573931

ABSTRACT

An evaluation is made of the complementarity between two non-invasive techniques, cuticle microhistological analysis (CMA) and PCR-capillary electrophoresis (PCR-CE) DNA-based analysis, for the determination of herbivore diet composition from faecal samples. Cuticle microhistological analysis is based on the different microanatomical characteristics of the epidermal fragments remaining in the faeces. The PCR-CE technique combines PCR amplification of a trnL(UAA) genomic DNA region with amplicon length determination by CE, with this length being characteristic for each species or taxon. A total of 37 fresh stool samples were analyzed, including 16 from feral goats (Capra hircus) from the Tramuntana mountain range (Mallorca, Baleares) and 11 from Bruna dels Pirineus cattle breed (Bos taurus) from the surrounding Montserrat mountain range (Barcelona, Spain). All the animals were in a free grazing Mediterranean pine habitat, dominated by Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis). The results showed that both techniques detected a similar number of plant components in the faeces of goats and cows. In the case of goats, a positive correlation was obtained between the percentage of samples in which a particular taxon is detected by CMA and the percentage of samples in which that taxon is detected by PCR-CE. This correlation was not observed in the case of cows. It is concluded that PCR-CE is a fast and reliable method to detect the different plant components in the faeces of herbivores. However, it cannot be considered as an alternative to CMA, but as a complementary method, since both techniques can detect some taxa that are not detected by the other technique. In addition, CMA detected the presence of the different taxa in a greater number of samples, and at the same time, it enables quantitative data to be obtained for plant diet composition. The species of herbivore also seems to influence the results obtained by PCR-CE, so more studies are required to address this aspect.


Subject(s)
Goats , Plant Breeding , Animals , Cattle , Diet/veterinary , Electrophoresis, Capillary/veterinary , Feces , Female , Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Spain , West Indies
17.
Geosci Model Dev ; 14(9): 5751-5768, 2021 Sep 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35350842

ABSTRACT

The state-of-the-science Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) Modeling System has recently been extended for hemispheric-scale modeling applications (referred to as H-CMAQ). In this study, satellite-constrained estimation of the degassing SO2 emissions from 50 volcanoes over the Northern Hemisphere is incorporated into H-CMAQ, and their impact on tropospheric sulfate aerosol ( SO 4 2 - ) levels is assessed for 2010. The volcanic degassing improves predictions of observations from the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET), the United States Clean Air Status and Trends Network (CASTNET), and the United States Integrated Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments (IMPROVE). Over Asia, the increased SO 4 2 - concentrations were seen to correspond to the locations of volcanoes, especially over Japan and Indonesia. Over the USA, the largest impacts that occurred over the central Pacific were caused by including the Hawaiian Kilauea volcano, while the impacts on the continental USA were limited to the western portion during summertime. The emissions of the Soufrière Hills volcano located on the island of Montserrat in the Caribbean Sea affected the southeastern USA during the winter season. The analysis at specific sites in Hawaii and Florida also confirmed improvements in regional performance for modeled SO 4 2 - by including volcanoes SO2 emissions. At the edge of the western USA, monthly averaged SO 4 2 - enhancements greater than 0.1µgm-3 were noted within the boundary layer (defined as surface to 750hPa) during June- September. Investigating the change on SO 4 2 - concentration throughout the free troposphere revealed that although the considered volcanic SO2 emissions occurred at or below the middle of free troposphere (500hPa), compared to the simulation without the volcanic source, SO 4 2 - enhancements of more than 10% were detected up to the top of the free troposphere (250hPa). Our model simulations and comparisons with measurements across the Northern Hemisphere indicate that the degassing volcanic SO2 emissions are an important source and should be considered in air quality model simulations assessing background SO 4 2 - levels and their source attribution.

18.
Zootaxa ; 4838(4): zootaxa.4838.4.7, 2020 Aug 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33056806

ABSTRACT

The known cicada fauna of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago is identified. Calyria hyperochelabrys n. sp., Carineta trinidadensis n. sp., and Herrera grammosticta n. sp. are described as new. The first records of Fidicinoides descampsi Boulard Martinelli, 1996, Proarna hilaris (Germar, 1834), Guyalna bogotana (Distant, 1892a), Majeorona aper (Walker, 1850), Taphura boulardi Sanborn, 2011a, Carineta matura Distant, 1892b, and Herrera nigropercula Sanborn, 2020b are provided. The first reports for the genera Guyalna Boulard Martinelli, 1996, Majeorona Distant, 1905d, Calyria Stål, 1862, Carineta Amyot Audinet-Serville, 1843 and Herrera Distant, 1905c and the tribes Parnisini Distant, 1905e and Carinetini Distant, 1905c are represented by the records for the new species and new records. The first records of Proarna hilaris (Germar, 1830) for Anegada, Antigua, Grenada, Canoun Island, Mayreau Island and Union Island in the Grenadines, Little St. James, Little Thatch Island, Montserrat, Mosquito Island, and St. Kitts, Proarna palisoti (Metcalf, 1963a) for Navarro Island, Majeorona aper (Walker, 1850) for Grenada, and Ariasa albimaculosa Sanborn, 2016c for Bonaire are provided to increase the known distributions of these species and the Caribbean fauna. The currently known cicada fauna for Trinidad is increased here to 15 species representing ten genera, four tribes and two subfamilies. Only Quesada gigas (Olivier, 1790) is known currently from Tobago.


Subject(s)
Culicidae , Hemiptera , Animals , Trinidad and Tobago
19.
Zookeys ; 966: 57-151, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32982546

ABSTRACT

The long-legged flies (Dolichopodidae) of the island of Montserrat in the Lesser Antilles have been surveyed and include 63 species in 27 genera. The following eleven new species are described and illustrated: Amblypsilopus marskeae sp. nov., Medetera iviei sp. nov., Medetera montserratensis sp. nov., Systenus ladonnae sp. nov., Thrypticus mediofuscus sp. nov., Chrysotus antillensis sp. nov., Chrysotus callichromoides sp. nov., Chrysotus interfrons sp. nov., Chrysotus montserratensis sp. nov., Diaphorus robinsoni sp. nov., and Sympycnus montserratensis sp. nov. Six species have only been found on Montserrat (ca. 10% endemicity). Keys are provided to the genera and species on Montserrat, their known distribution summarized, and additional new island records provided for many species. Asyndetus wirthi Robinson is synonymized with A. interruptus (Loew) and Achradocera apicalis (Aldrich) is removed from synonymy with A. barbata (Loew). Diaphorus flavipes Aldrich is transferred to Chrysotus as a new combination. A new replacement name, Chrysotus milvadu nom. nov., is provided for the Nearctic Chrysotus parvulus Van Duzee. Lectotypes are designated for Achradocera apicalis (Aldrich) and Asyndetus fratellus Aldrich. The fauna of Montserrat is summarized and compared with that of Dominica. Collecting methods are compared and threats to the dolichopodid fauna of Montserrat discussed.

20.
Am J Trop Med Hyg ; 103(6): 2268-2277, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32901608

ABSTRACT

Investigations leading to a WHO-validated declaration of elimination of schistosomiasis transmission are contemplated for several countries, including Caribbean island nations. With assistance from the Pan American Health Organization, we undertook freshwater snail surveys in two such nations, Antigua and Barbuda, and Montserrat in September and October 2017. Historically, the transmission of Schistosoma mansoni supported by the Neotropical vector snail Biomphalaria glabrata occurred in both countries. Transmission on the islands is thought to have been interrupted by the treatment of infected people, improved sanitation, introduction of competitor snails, and on Montserrat with the eruption of the Soufrière volcano which decimated known B. glabrata habitats. Guided by the available literature and local expertise, we found Biomphalaria snails in seven of 15 and one of 14 localities on Antigua and Montserrat, respectively, most of which were identified anatomically and molecularly as Biomphalaria kuhniana. Two localities on Antigua harbored B. glabrata, but no schistosome infections in snails were found. For snail-related aspects of validation of elimination, there are needs to undertake basic local training in medical malacology, be guided by historical literature and recent human schistosomiasis surveys, improve and validate sampling protocols for aquatic habitats, enlist local expertise to efficiently find potential transmission sites, use both anatomical and molecular identifications of schistosomes or putative vector snail species found, if possible determine the susceptibility of recovered Biomphalaria spp. to S. mansoni, publish survey results, and provide museum vouchers of collected snails and parasites as part of the historical record.


Subject(s)
Biomphalaria/parasitology , Disease Reservoirs/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/physiology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/prevention & control , Animals , Antigua and Barbuda/epidemiology , Biomphalaria/classification , Biomphalaria/genetics , Disease Eradication , Geography , Humans , Phylogeny , Schistosomiasis mansoni/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/transmission , West Indies/epidemiology
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