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1.
Osong Public Health Res Perspect ; 13(4): 273-281, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36097749

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Menstrual hygiene management (MHM) in developing countries is linked to human rights, social justice, and the education and empowerment of young girls. The objective of this study was to assess menstrual hygiene practices and their determinants among adolescent girls, including school dropouts, and the effects of pad distribution programs in urban resettlement areas of Delhi, India. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2019 to February 2020 in urban resettlement colonies and 2 villages of Delhi among 1,130 adolescent girls aged 10 to 19 years, who were interviewed face to face. RESULTS: In total, 954 participants (84.4%) used only disposable sanitary pads, 150 (13.3%) used both sanitary pads and cloths, and 26 (2.3%) used only cloths (n=1,130). Most school-going girls utilized the scheme for pad distribution, but only two-thirds of the girls who were out of school utilized the scheme. In the adjusted analysis, girls with lower educational status, those who had dropped out of school, and those from the Muslim religious community were more likely to use cloths for MHM. CONCLUSION: More than 4 out of 5 adolescent girls in Delhi in low-income neighborhoods preferred sanitary pads for MHM. The government free pad scheme reached near-universal utilization among school-going girls (97%), but the subsidized pad scheme for girls who did not attend school was insufficiently utilized (75%).

2.
Front Public Health ; 10: 888741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36117608

ABSTRACT

Mental and emotional issues are the top-level concerns of public health worldwide. These issues surged during Coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic due to varied medical, social, and personal reasons. The social determinants highlighted in the literature mainly focus on household solutions rather than on increasing the financial wellbeing of individuals, especially for the most vulnerable groups where the psychological distress coming from the social inequalities cannot be entirely treated. Hence, this study attempts to familiarize the financial capability (the financial literacy, attitude, skills and behavior required for effective financial management) construct into public health domain in the times of COVID-19 as a determinant of psychological distress, and also explores the role of gender in it. The study uses Ordinary Least Square (OLS) regression analysis and employs mental distress questions and Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) 2018 financial capability toolkit to collect data from a large sample of households from all over Pakistan. It is inferred that the higher the financial capability, the lower the financial and mental distress during COVID-19. Additionally, females are less financially knowledgeable, depict poor financial behaviors, and face more psychological issues than their counterparts. Age and education are also linked to mental stress during COVID-19. Finally, gender plays a moderating role in financial behavior, and financial and mental stress of households. As evident, COVID-19 is not going away soon hence the findings are relevant for policymakers to proactively plan for the pandemic's upcoming waves and help people be better financially equipped to fight against this or any upcoming crisis, and achieve better mental and physical health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , COVID-19/epidemiology , Developing Countries , Female , Humans , Socioeconomic Factors , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
3.
Huan Jing Ke Xue ; 43(9): 4636-4646, 2022 Sep 08.
Article in Chinese | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36096604

ABSTRACT

Efficient utilization of organic materials based on the rich resources in the karst region can promote soil fertility. Microorganisms have a crucial influence on soil phosphorus availability. phoD is considered to be the encoding phosphatase gene that can reflect the hydrolysis of organophosphorus compounds for the soil bacterial community. Molecular analysis of the phoD-harboring bacterial gene provides insight into promoting soil phosphorus availability under different fertilization managements. However, the effects of organic materials on soil phosphorus fractions associated with phoD-harboring bacterial communities are poorly understood. This study comprehensively investigated the effects of organic materials on soil phosphorus availability and explored environmental drivers of phoD-harboring bacteria in the Karst region. Here, six treatments were designed in the field as follows:non-fertilized control (CK), inorganic fertilization (NPK), inorganic fertilization combined with straw (NPKS), inorganic fertilization combined with manure (NPKM), inorganic fertilization combined with sludge (NPKL), and inorganic fertilization combined with sugarcane ash (NPKA). The phoD-harboring bacterial community in Karst region soil was analyzed using high-throughput sequencing. The results showed that the content of total P (TP), Olsen-P, and Ca2-P increased with the years after organic material application, whereas the content of CaCl2-P first decreased and then increased. Compared to that under the CK treatment, organic material application, especially NPKL treatment, significantly increased soil total nitrogen (TN), TP, Olsen-P, CaCl2-P, and Ca2-P contents, followed by those in the NPKA and NPKM treatments. Correlation analysis showed that the contents of CaCl2-P, Ca2-P, and Olsen-P were significantly positively correlated with soil exchangeable calcium (Ca-ex) content. Redundancy analysis (RDA) showed that TN, Ca-ex, soil organic carbon (SOC), and total potassium (TK) contents were the key factors affecting soil P fractions. Using high-throughput sequencing, we found that only NPKS increased the richness of phoD-harboring bacteria compared to that under the control treatment. No significant difference was observed in the phoD-harboring bacterial community among all treatments. The RDA model selected the Ca-ex, TK, Olsen-P, pH, and SOC as the key environmental predictors for the phoD-harboring bacterial community. In summary, soil phosphorus availability can be improved through the input of organic materials and inorganic fertilizer combined with manure, sludge, and ash. These additions were suitable for nutrient management and sustainable development in farmland soil in the Karst region of Guangxi.


Subject(s)
Phosphorus , Soil , Bacteria/genetics , Calcium Chloride , Carbon , China , Manure , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Sewage , Soil/chemistry
4.
Sci Total Environ ; : 158689, 2022 Sep 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36108848

ABSTRACT

In 2015, the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) set out 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) to be achieved by 2030. These goals highlight key objectives that must be addressed. Each target focuses on a unique perspective crucial to meeting these goals. Social, political, and economic issues are addressed to comprehensively review the main issues combating climate change and creating sustainable and environmentally friendly industries, jobs, and communities. Several mechanisms that involve judicious use of biological entities are among instruments that are being explored to achieve the targets of SDGs. Microalgae have an increasing interest in various sectors, including; renewable energy, food, environmental management, water purification, and the production of chemicals, biofertilizers, cosmetics and healthcare products. The significance of microalgae also arises from their tendency to consume CO2, which is the main significant greenhouse gas and the major contributor to the catastrophe of climate change and covert it to bioproducts. This work discusses the roles of microalgae in achieving the various SDGs. Moreover, this work elaborates on the contribution of microalgae to the circular economy. It was found that the microalgae contribute to all the 17th SDGs, where they directly contribute to the 9th of the SDGs and indirectly contribute to the rest. The major contribution of the Microalgae is clear in SDG-6 "Clean water and sanitation", SDG-7 "Affordable and clean energy", and SDG-13 "Climate action. Furthermore, it was found that Microalgae have a significant contribution to the circular economy.

5.
Cureus ; 14(7): e27377, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36046281

ABSTRACT

Background The magnitude of child malnutrition, including severe child malnutrition, is high in India, and Gujarat has a higher prevalence of child malnutrition. Prior studies have employed anthropometric measures to identify the prevalence and associated factors of children's undernutrition. The present study explored community-level determinants of malnutrition among malnourished and well-nourished children in Devbhumi Dwarka district of Gujarat State, India. Methods A qualitative research employing focused ethnographic methodologies was used. In-depth observations of 60 families in a home food environment were carried out. Each child was observed at their respective homes for three consecutive days. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis techniques. Results The study revealed that lack of knowledge on malnutrition, inadequate feeding practices, poor socioeconomic status, insufficient hygiene and sanitation practices, lack of food variety, use of health facilities, and birth complications were the major community-based determinants of malnutrition. Conclusion The study identified community-level determinants of malnutrition among children under five years in the Devbhumi Dwarka district. To tackle the immediate and underlying causes of malnutrition, interventions are urgently needed to create community awareness about malnutrition as a disease and optimal infant and young child feeding (IYCF) practices using behavior change communication strategies.

6.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36078273

ABSTRACT

This study explores the incidence and trend of zoonoses in China and its relationship with environmental health and proposes suggestions for promoting the long-term sustainable development of human, animal, and environmental systems. The incidence of malaria was selected as the dependent variable, and the consumption of agricultural diesel oil and pesticides and investment in lavatory sanitation improvement in rural areas were selected as independent variables according to the characteristics of nonpoint source pollution and domestic pollution in China's rural areas. By employing a fixed effects regression model, the results indicated that the use of pesticides was negatively associated with the incidence of malaria, continuous investment in rural toilet improvement, and an increase in economic income can play a positive role in the prevention and control of malaria incidence. Guided by the theory of One Health, this study verifies human, animal, and environmental health as a combination of mutual restriction and influence, discusses the complex causal relationship among the three, and provides evidence for sustainable development and integrated governance.


Subject(s)
Environmental Pollution , Pesticides , Agriculture , Animals , China/epidemiology , Economic Development , Humans , Sanitation
7.
Stud Health Technol Inform ; 297: 315-322, 2022 Sep 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36073409

ABSTRACT

Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WASH) for all is fundamental for sustenance. Goal 6 of the UN's Sustainable Development Goals urges that 'universal access to drinking water, sanitation and hygiene' is fundamental as a response in the current post-COVID scenario. Despite Government of India's efforts through programs like Swachh Bharat (Clean India) Mission, there is a long way to go to integrate equity and inclusion in the sanitation facilities of the public realm. This paper is an attempt to understand the aspect of inclusion in sanitation systems of urban public spaces of India, limiting the study to Delhi and Noida, which are in the National Capital Region (NCR). The aim is to explore the contextual challenges of universal design in public sanitation and develop an understanding of what makes a public toilet inclusive in the urban Indian context. A field-based, mixed methods approach is followed which begins with a literature review of government policies & schemes and theoretical understanding of inclusion as well as the role of universal design as an approach to achieve inclusion. This is followed by on-ground studies involving ethnographic surveys, analysis of imagery and field observations. The results show an analysis of the inclusive aspects of sanitation under the thematic domains of public perception, usage preferences and issues in the public toilet experience. The sanitation facilities in urban public spaces are used by a diverse population and the results showcase a collection of the qualitative experiences of a varied set of user groups. The subjective challenges of inclusive sanitation are highlighted through the various stages and components of the entire sanitation system - the design & infrastructure, operations & maintenance, and behavioural patterns. This paper tries to raise new grounded questions to further explore the highlighted marginal distinctions between inclusion and accessibility in the urban public sanitation experience of India.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sanitation , Humans , India , Sustainable Development , Universal Design
8.
Int J Hyg Environ Health ; 245: 114024, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36029740

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Despite considerable progress improving water and sanitation access globally, unsafe child feces disposal remains common in many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), posing an important health risk. The present study characterizes the current prevalence of child feces disposal practices and child latrine use across low- and middle-income countries and investigates determinants associated with appropriate disposal practices. METHODS: Data for children ranging from 0 through 4 years of age were analyzed from standardized and nationally-representative surveys of 42 LMICs collected from 2016 to 2020 to assess child feces disposal practices. We report child feces disposal in three categories: disposal in any type of latrine, disposal in an improved latrine, and disposal through means other than in a latrine. Survey weighted multiple Poisson regression models were used to explore factors associated with these practices. RESULTS: Data on 403,036 children (weighted N = 191 million) demonstrated that a minority (40.3%) of children have their feces disposed of in a latrine of any kind, and just 29% have feces disposed of in an improved latrine. Prevalence varied considerably by country and region. In adjusted analyses, both child feces disposal in any latrine and disposal in an improved latrine increased with child age, higher intra-country relative wealth, and urban living, and decreased with breastfeeding and shared sanitation facilities. Disposal in improved latrines additionally increased with access to higher levels of service for drinking water and higher mother's education. Nevertheless, the role of facility access alone was insufficient, as only about half of children with household access to any latrine or improved latrines had their feces disposed of in these facilities. Child latrine use among households with latrine access was also low and highly variable across countries. CONCLUSIONS: Children's feces in LMICs are infrequently disposed of in any latrine type, and even less frequently in improved latrines. In order to minimize health risks in LMICs, increased effort must be undertaken not just to increase sanitation coverage but to address these common barriers to safe child feces disposal and child latrine use.


Subject(s)
Developing Countries , Toilet Facilities , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces , Female , Humans , Rural Population , Sanitation , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Molecules ; 27(16)2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36014454

ABSTRACT

This study presents a biophotocatalytic system as a sustainable technology for the recovery of clean water and renewable energy from wastewater, thereby providing a unique opportunity to drive industrialization and global sustainable development throughputs. Herein, inhouse magnetized photocatalyst (Fe-TiO2) with surface area 62.73 m2/g synthesized via co-precipitation, was hypothesized to hasten an up-flow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor for the treatment of local South Africa municipality wastewater with the benefit of high-quality biogas production. A lab scale UASB process with a working volume of 5 L coupled with two UV-lights (T8 blacklight-blue tube, 365 nm, 18 W) was operated batchwise under mesophilic conditions for the period of 30 days with a constant organic load charge of 2.76 kg COD/m3. d. This biophotocatalytic system performance was investigated and compared with and without the Fe-TiO2 charge (2-6 g) with respect to effluent quality, biogas production and CO2 methanation. Using chemical oxygen demand (COD) measured as the degree of degradation of the pollutants, the best efficiency of 93% COD removal was achieved by a 4 g Fe-TiO2 charge at 14 days and pH of 7.13, as compared to zero charge where only 49.6% degradation was achieved. Under the same charge, cumulative biogas and methane content of 1500 mL/g COD.d and 85% were respectively attained as compared with the control with 400 mL/g COD.d and 65% methane content. Also, the energy produced can be used to offset the energy utilized by the UV-light for the wastewater abatement and other limitations of photocatalysis. The BP system was found to be an eco-friendly and cost-effective technology to be explored in water treatment settings.


Subject(s)
Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water , Anaerobiosis , Biofuels , Bioreactors , Carbon Dioxide , Methane/chemistry , Sewage/chemistry , Titanium , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods
10.
Sustain Water Resour Manag ; 8(5): 146, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36033358

ABSTRACT

One-fourth of the global population is without basic drinking water and half of the global population lacks sanitation facilities. The attainment of water and sanitation targets is difficult due to administrative, operational, political, transborder, technical, and policy challenges. Conducted after 5 years from the adoption of sustainable development goals by the United Nations reviews the initiatives for improving access, quality, and affordability of water and sanitation. The bibliometric and thematic analyses are conducted to consolidate the outcomes of scientific papers on sustainable development goal 6 (SDG 6). Africa is struggling in relation with water and sanitation goals, having 17 countries with less than 40% basic drinking water facilities and 16 countries with less than 40% basic sanitation facilities. Globally, the attainment of water and sanitation goals will be depended on economic development, the development of revolutionary measures for wastewater treatment, and creating awareness related to water usage, water recycling, water harvesting, hygiene, and sanitation. Behavioral changes are also required for a new water culture and the attainment of water and sanitation goals by 2030.

11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36011699

ABSTRACT

This study evaluated the impact of packaged interventions for operation and maintenance (O&M) on the usability and cleanliness of toilets in public schools in the Philippines. In this cluster-randomized controlled trial, the divisions of Roxas City and Passi City were randomly assigned to the intervention or control group. Schools in Roxas City (n = 14) implemented the packaged O&M interventions; schools in Passi City (n = 16) formed the control group. Outcome variables were toilet usability-defined as accessible, functional and private-and toilet cleanliness, measured using the Sanitation Assessment Tool (SAT) and the Cleaner Toilets, Brighter Future (CTBF) instruments at baseline and at four months follow-up through direct observation of school toilets. SAT results showed that intervention schools had a 32.0% (4.6%; 59.3%) higher percentage of usable toilets than control schools at follow-up after full adjustment (p = 0.024). CTBF results found a similar result, although this was not statistically significant (p = 0.119). The percentage of toilets that were fully clean was 27.1% (3.7%; 50.6%) higher in intervention schools than in control schools after adjustment (p = 0.025). SAT results also showed an improvement in cleanliness of toilets in intervention schools compared to those in controls, but this did not remain significant after adjustment. The findings indicate that the additional implementation of O&M interventions can further stimulate progress towards reaching Water, Sanitation and Hygiene service levels aligned with the Sustainable Development Goals.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment , Philippines , Sanitation/methods , Schools , Toilet Facilities
12.
J Environ Manage ; 320: 115778, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35952559

ABSTRACT

Bioelectrochemical system (BES) is an emerging technology that can treat wastewater via microbial activity while producing energy simultaneously. The system can couple with conventional systems to improve system performance. This study aims to compare the environmental performance of BES and the integrated microbial fuel cell (MFC) systems via a life cycle assessment methodology and identify the major environmental hotspots of the system. Fifteen treatment options are assessed with the ReCiPe 2016 characterization method using SimaPro 9.2 software. The results show double chamber air-cathode microbial electrolysis cell (MEC1) and membrane distillation integrated MFC (MD + MFC) treatment options present as the most environmental favourable among the BES and integrated MFC systems, respectively, due to the offset of the environmental loads from the avoided impacts contributed by their value-added by-product, which is hydrogen fuel for MEC1 and tap water for MD + MFC. Electricity consumption dominates the environmental loads of all the BES options for up to 90% of the global warming impact category. The environmental benefits from the electricity generation of BES are minor (i.e., MFC: 0.01-2% while microbial desalination cell: 0.01-7% of the total environmental impact in a system) to offset the environmental loads incurred by the system. Platinum-based cathode incurs 2.5-24 times higher environmental burdens than non-platinum configurations in MFC under the human carcinogenic toxicity impact category. In line with Sustainable Development Goals 6 and 13, this study provides scientific references to wastewater treatment stakeholders in selecting suitable BES and integrated MFC systems to improve water sanitation and address climate change simultaneously.


Subject(s)
Bioelectric Energy Sources , Water Purification , Animals , Electricity , Electrodes , Humans , Life Cycle Stages , Waste Water/chemistry , Water , Water Purification/methods
13.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0273072, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-36044420

ABSTRACT

This study identified the social determinants of health (SDoH) associated with psychological distress in adults with and without a self-reported history of traumatic brain injury (TBI), stratified by sex. Data from the 2014-2017 cycles of the Centre for Addiction and Mental Health Monitor Survey, a representative survey of adults ≥18 years in Ontario, Canada, were analyzed (N = 7,214). The six-item version of the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale was used to determine moderate to severe psychological distress. Self-reported lifetime TBI was defined as a head injury resulting in a loss of consciousness for ≥5 minutes or at least one-night stay in the hospital (16.4%). Among individuals reporting a history of TBI, 30.2% of males and 40.1% of females reported psychological distress (p = 0.0109). Among individuals who did not report a history of TBI, 17.9% of males and 23.5% of females reported psychological distress (p<0.0001). Multivariable logistic regression analyses showed that the SDoH significantly associated with elevated psychological distress were similar between individuals with and without a history of TBI. This included unemployment, student, or 'other' employment status among both males and females; income below the provincial median and age 65+ among males; and rural residence among females. This study highlighted opportunities for targeted population-level interventions, namely accessible and affordable mental health supports for individuals with lower income. Notably, this study presented evidence suggesting adaptations to existing services to accommodate challenges associated with TBI should be explored, given the finite and competing demands for mental health care and resources.


Subject(s)
Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Psychological Distress , Adult , Aged , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/complications , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Ontario/epidemiology , Social Determinants of Health , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology
14.
PLoS One ; 17(8): e0272925, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35951623

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We examined the determinants of adolescents' Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and psychological distress (self-reported and parent-reported) during the COVID-19 pandemic, using a random sample of the population of Geneva, Switzerland. METHODS: Data was drawn from participants aged 14-17 years, who participated with their families to a serosurvey conducted in November and December 2020. Adolescents' HRQoL was evaluated using the validated adolescent-reported KIDSCREEN-10 and parent-reported KINDL® scales. Psychological distress was assessed with self-reported sadness and loneliness, and using the KINDL® emotional well-being scale. Using generalized estimating equations, we examined the role of socio-demographic, family and behavioural characteristics in influencing adolescents' mental health status and wellbeing. RESULTS: Among 240 adolescents, 11% had a low HRQoL, 35% reported sadness and 23% reported loneliness. Based on parents' perception, 12% of the adolescents had a low HRQoL and 16% a low emotional well-being. Being a girl (aOR = 3.20; 95%CI: 1.67-6.16), increased time on social media (aOR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.08-3.97), parents' average to poor mood (aOR = 2.62; 95%CI: 1.10-6.23) and average to poor household financial situation (aOR = 2.31; IC95%: 1.01-6.10) were associated with an increased risk of sadness. Mismatches between adolescents' and their parents' perception of HRQoL were more likely for girls (aOR = 2.88; 95%CI: 1.54-5.41) and in households with lower family well-being (aOR = 0.91; 95%CI: 0.86-0.96). CONCLUSIONS: A meaningful proportion of adolescents experienced low well-being during the second wave of COVID-19, and average well-being was lower than pre-pandemic estimates. Adolescents living in underprivileged or distressed families seemed particularly affected. Monitoring is necessary to evaluate the long-term effects of the pandemic on adolescents.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Psychological Distress , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Parents/psychology , Quality of Life/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Sci Total Environ ; 847: 157620, 2022 Nov 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35901899

ABSTRACT

Aquaculture is one of the fastest growing fields of global food production industry in recent years. To maintain the ecological health of aquaculture water body and the sustainable development of aquaculture industry, the treatment of aquaculture tail water (ATW) is becoming an indispensable task. This paper discussed the demand of environmentally friendly and cost-effective technologies for ATW treatment and the potential of algal-bacterial symbiosis system (ABSS) in ATW treatment. The characteristics of ABSS based technology for ATW treatment were analyzed, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission, environmental adaptability and the possibility of removal or recovery of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus as resource simultaneously. Based on the principle of ABSS, this paper introduced the key environmental factors that should be paid attention to in the establishment of ABSS, and then summarized the species of algae, bacteria and the proportion of algae and bacteria commonly used in the establishment of ABSS. Finally, the reactor technologies and the relevant research gaps in the establishment of ABSS were reviewed and discussed.


Subject(s)
Greenhouse Gases , Water Purification , Aquaculture , Bacteria , Carbon , Nitrogen/analysis , Phosphorus/analysis , Symbiosis , Waste Water/microbiology
16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35897360

ABSTRACT

Universal access to clean and safe drinking water is essential for life maintenance since exposure to poor quality water is harmful to health. Drinking water quality is part of public health actions and, together with sanitation, a human right essential for life and a sustainable development goal. Moreover, an independent surveillance system conducted by the Ministry of Health or government agencies is needed for the safety of drinking water quality. We propose a scoping review protocol to identify and map worldwide surveillance actions and initiatives of drinking water quality implemented by government agencies or public health services. This scoping review protocol is based on the Joanna Briggs Institute manual and guided by the PRISMA-ScR. Articles, theses, dissertations, and official documents consulted in the following databases will be included: Medline/PubMed, Scopus, LILACS, Web of Science, Embase, Engineering Village, and gray literature. No date limit or language will be determined. The authors will develop a worksheet for data extraction. Quantitative (simple descriptive statistics) and qualitative data (thematic analysis) will be analyzed. The final scoping review will present the main findings, impacts, challenges, limitations, and possible research gaps related to surveillance of drinking water quality on population health.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , Water Quality
17.
Sci Total Environ ; 844: 157080, 2022 Oct 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35810911

ABSTRACT

Significant changes in wastewater services are necessary for achieving the sustainable development goals (SDGs), by utilizing resource recovery, recycle, and reuse in urban wastewater-treatment plants. Based on recent experiences, to improve the filtration behavior of a membrane bioreactor, a hybrid system including an upgraded anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with an electrolysis process and a nanocomposite-membrane was developed. The system, called an anaerobic membrane bioreactor with electrolytic regeneration (AMBER), is a bio-electrochemical process that is expected to be simultaneously efficient in both biogas augmentation and fouling mitigation. The goals were to enhance the stability and efficiency of the anaerobic membrane bioreactor. The integration of the electrolytic process with the ABR (EABR) using a pair of iron electrodes enhanced the removal of contaminants in the ABR while successfully maintained pH in the optimum range for anaerobic digestion (6.8 to 7.2). Then, the performance of AMBER in pollutant removal, including organic load, suspended solids, and microbial load, were investigated over 240 days. The results showed that configuration considerably enhanced permeate flux, as it reduced the deposition of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) on the surface of the nanocomposite membrane, leading to a reduction in membrane fouling. EPS was extracted and quantified to compare the effect of biogas backwash on the function of the membrane reactor. After 7 d of operation with a daily biogas backwash, the flux reduction was approximately 13 % for the conventional combination of the anaerobic baffled reactor and the membrane bioreactor (AMBR), while it was limited to 4 % in AMBER. After cleaning by the biogas, EPS formation decreased 63 % in AMBER when compared to the AMBR. The results revealed that AMBER can be considered an environmentally competitive bioenergy technology for wastewater treatment with the purpose of water recovery and reuse, employing optimized operational conditions, application of antifouling membranes, and electrically-based strategies.


Subject(s)
Waste Water , Water Purification , Anaerobiosis , Biofuels , Bioreactors , Electrolysis , Membranes, Artificial , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid/methods , Waste Water/chemistry , Water Purification/methods
18.
Trop Med Int Health ; 27(9): 781-794, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35842926

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Intestinal parasitic infections (IPIs) are a public health challenge in developing countries such as Colombia, causing anaemia and delayed growth and development in children. We aimed to estimate the geographical and prevalence trend of IPIs in the last 30 years in school and preschool children in Colombia. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis. We identified potential manuscripts through PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, LILACS, Scielo and Google Scholar on the IPIs prevalence in school and preschool children in Colombia. Articles included in the qualitative analysis were published between 1990 and 2020 in English or Spanish and met the inclusion criteria. Subsequently, a random-effects meta-analysis, a meta-regression and a trend analysis were performed. RESULTS: We identified 2292 articles; 109 were included in the qualitative review, and 79 articles were included in the meta-analysis. The estimated IPI prevalence was 55% (95% CI: 48-63). By age group, the prevalence in preschool children was 37% (95% CI: 26-49) and 66% (95% CI: 52-78) in schoolchildren. The prevalence by region was heterogeneous, with the Amazon being the highest (69%) and the Santanderes the lowest (28%). In the last 20 years, the prevalence of helminthiasis has decreased (from 64.66% in 1990-1995 to 22.09% in 2016-2020). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of IPIs is high (>30%) in three of the seven regions in Colombia. Biannual administration of mass deworming in schoolchildren is recommended in the Amazon region. Public policies aiming to control IPIs should be reinforced. Further prevalence studies should include Cesar, Guaviare, Vichada and Vaupés, where the epidemiology of IPIs is unknown. SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT GOALS: Good health and wellbeing, clean water and sanitation, sustainable cities and communities.


Subject(s)
Helminthiasis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Child , Child, Preschool , Colombia/epidemiology , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Humans , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Prevalence , Schools
19.
Sci Total Environ ; 845: 157110, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35787906

ABSTRACT

Sustainable environmental management is one of the important aspects of sustainable development goals. Increasing amounts of wastewaters (WW) from exponential economic growth is a major challenge, and conventional treatment methods entail a huge carbon footprint in terms of energy use and GHG emissions. Microalgae-based WW treatment is a potential candidate for sustainable WW treatment. The nutrients which are otherwise unutilized in the conventional processes are recovered in the beneficial microalgal biomass. This review presents comprehensive information regarding the potential of microalgae as sustainable bioremediation agents. Microalgae-bacterial consortia play a critical role in synergistic nutrient removal, supported by the complex nutritional and metabolite exchange between microalgae and the associated bacteria. Design of effective microalgae-bacteria consortia either by screening or by recent technologies such as synthetic biology approaches are highly required for efficient WW treatment. Furthermore, this review discusses the crucial research gap in microalgal WW treatment - the application of a multi-omics platform for understanding microalgal response towards WW conditions and the design of effective microalgal or microalgae-bacteria consortia based on genetic information. While metagenomics helps in the identification and monitoring of the microbial community throughout the treatment process, transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics aid in studying the algal cellular response towards the nutrients and pollutants in WW. It has been established that the integration of microalgal processes into conventional WW treatment systems is feasible. In this direction, future research directions for microalgal WW treatment emphasize the need for identifying the niche in WW treatment, while highlighting the pilot sale plants in existence. Microalgae-based WW treatment could be a potential phase in the waste hierarchy of circular economy and sustainability, considering WWs are a rich secondary source of finite resources such as nitrogen and phosphorus.


Subject(s)
Microalgae , Water Purification , Bacteria , Biomass , Microalgae/metabolism , Waste Water
20.
Heliyon ; 8(7): e09859, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35815120

ABSTRACT

Menstrual hygiene waste management has received lack of attention and hence it has been poorly investigated, mainly due to its association to social and cultural aspects of a natural process, that is often surrounded of entrenched stigma and taboos. Therefore, data about quantities and full lifecycle of the generated waste are often not available or suffer of large incertitude. However, this argument represents a relevant and critical issue, not only for the health of the women, their equality, and dignity, but also possible associated environmental concerns. This work highlights the necessity and the urgency to face the problems associated with menstrual hygiene waste, which cannot be still considered only relegated to low-income countries. It gives the dimension of the waste associated to migrants in the incoming areas, which is often neglected in sanitation program implementation. This work also describes the existing knowledge gaps and suggests some actions to implement in the next future. In the pandemic context, menstrual hygiene needs urgent attention, also to understand the possible implication of this waste, generated for example in refugees' camps, in SARS-CoV-2 spread, and to prevent eventual unknown environmental issues connected with the reconvention of some factories from the production of menstrual hygiene products to facemasks manufacture.

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