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1.
Internet resource in English, Spanish, Portuguese | LIS -Health Information Locator | ID: lis-LISBR1.1-47374

ABSTRACT

Este mapa apresenta uma visão geral da evidência sobre a aplicação das MTCI com base na caracterização de 125 estudos de revisão e estudos clínicos controlados, distribuídos em uma matriz com 57 intervenções sobre uma série de desfechos clínicos agrupados em 3 categorias: Melhora da imunidade/efeito antiviral para vírus respiratórios; Manejo complementar dos sintomas de infecções respiratórias; e Contribuições à Saúde Mental/Emocional em situações de trauma. As intervenções representam especialmente medicamentos fitoterápicos, medicina e terapias tradicionais chinesas, terapias mente-corpo como meditação e yoga, probióticos e outros suplementos nutricionais além de formulações dinamizadas da homeopatia. Este mapa presenta una visión general sobre posibles contribuciones de las MTCI a varias dimensiones de la pandemia por COVID-19. Dichas contribuciones se organizaron en tres categorías: Mejora de la inmunidad y efecto antiviral ante virus respiratorios; tratamiento complementario de los síntomas de las infecciones respiratorias; y salud mental en situaciones de crisis. Para el mapa se caracterizaron 127 estudios de revisión y estudios clínicos controlados, distribuidos en una matriz con 62 intervenciones para las tres categorías mencionadas. Las intervenciones representan especialmente medicinas herbales/fitoterapia, Medicina Tradicional China, terapias de cuerpo-mente como la meditación y el yoga, probióticos y otros suplementos nutricionales además de formulaciones de homeopatía. This map presents an overview of possible TCIM contributions to various dimensions of the COVID-19 pandemic. These contributions are organized into three categories: enhanced immunity / antiviral effect against respiratory viruses; complementary treatment of respiratory infections’ symptoms; and mental health in crisis situations. For the map, 127 systematic reviews and controlled clinical studies were characterized, distributed in a matrix with 62 interventions for the three mentioned categories. The interventions especially represent medicinal herbs, Traditional Chinese Medicine, mind-body therapies such as meditation and yoga, probiotics and other nutritional supplements, and homeopathic formulations.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Treatment Outcome , Evidence-Based Medicine/methods , Medicine, Chinese Traditional/methods
2.
Arch Virol ; 165(6): 1299-1309, 2020 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-32253616

ABSTRACT

Since late 2010, outbreaks of porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) have been reported in the swine industry in China. A variant PEDV strain that differs from strain CV777 causes prevalent PEDV infections which commercial vaccines based on CV777 cannot provide complete protection. In this study, we designed a new vaccine based on the epidemic PEDV strain AH2012/12, adjuvanted with flagellin, a mucosal adjuvant that induces mucosal and systemic production of IgA. Three groups of pregnant sows were immunized twice, with a 14-day interval, with PEDV adjuvanted with flagellin, PEDV alone, or PBS before farrowing, and newborn piglets from each group were selected and challenged with PEDV. Immunization with this vaccine elicited high levels of IgG, IgA, and neutralizing antibodies in the serum and colostrum of sows, and newborn piglets were protected against PEDV while suckling. This study should guide the prevention and control strategies for PEDV infection, thereby reducing the losses associated with this virus.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Flagellin/administration & dosage , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cell Line , Colostrum/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Flagellin/immunology , Immunization , Pregnancy , Swine , Swine Diseases/pathology , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
3.
Sao paulo; APH; abr. 2020. 46 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy | ID: biblio-1088074

ABSTRACT

A infecção humana causada pelo vírus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), diagnosticada como pneumonia de causa desconhecida originalmente na cidade de Wuhan (China), foi considerada como pandemia pela Organização Mundial da Saúde. Sua transmissibilidade parece ser bastante elevada, tendo afetado quase dois milhões de pessoas em todo o mundo e provocado mais de 130 mil mortes. Surgiu no Brasil em fevereiro de 2020, inicialmente na cidade de São Paulo. Afeta de forma mais grave os idosos e portadores de algumas comorbidades (tais como doenças cardiovasculares, hipertensão arterial, diabetes, câncer, DPOC e doenças cerebrovasculares, entre outras), tendo uma sintomatologia variável e tratamentos empíricos que estão sendo testados de forma mais rigorosa desde o seu aparecimento. Na ausência de vacina para proteção dos sadios, tem sido adotada a estratégia de isolamento social e tratamento com medidas de suporte geral e/ou avançado. Neste contexto, cabe investigar a contribuição da terapêutica homeopática no enfrentamento da doença, notadamente no alívio dos sintomas desconfortáveis por ela provocados em sua fase inicial, com acompanhamento e registro dos resultados obtidos pelos médicos homeopatas. Este estudo nacional pretende coletar, durante o período em que durar a pandemia da COVID-19 no Brasil, informações de pacientes diagnosticados com a doença, tratados com medicamentos homeopáticos escolhidos de acordo com a sintomatologia apresentada pelo paciente, por experientes médicos homeopatas. Todos os medicamentos homeopáticos estão descritos na Farmacopéia Homeopática Brasileira, não envolvendo qualquer medicamento que não tenha sido anteriormente aprovado para uso homeopático. Serão avaliados os efeitos no estado de saúde do paciente, por meio de escores e escalas clínicas, bem como aspectos relacionados à segurança do medicamento, variação na duração da doença e medicamentos mais associados a eventuais sucessos terapêuticos. Questionário padronizado e específico para a COVID-19 foi elaborado e disponibilizado em formulários google para preenchimento dos médicos colaboradores do estudo durante o acompanhamento dos pacientes. Os dados serão armazenados em planilhas eletrônicas e serão analisados com técnicas estatísticas descritivas e inferenciais. Todos os dados dos pacientes serão coletados de forma totalmente anonimizada para proteger a privacidade dos pacientes, que serão identificados no formulário eletrônico, única e exclusivamente, por um código alfanumérico, escolhido pelo seu médico homeopata e registrado no seu prontuário médico. Dada a situação pandêmica, nos casos em que não for possível o atendimento presencial será enviado uma folha de informações sobre o estudo e TCLE para preenchimento pelo paciente, bem como feitas as teleconsultas de seguimento para acompanhamento do caso. Além de gerar o desenvolvimento de novas aplicações da telemedicina na área homeopática, o projeto visa também a coleta de informações úteis que poderão ser utilizadas em futuros estudos multicêntricos randomizados e controlados para tratamento com medicamentos homeopáticos de quadros epidêmicos, podendo servir também de modelo para novos estudos clínicos de avaliação dos benefícios do tratamento homeopático em outras doenças ou agravos à saúde. (AU)


Infection in humans caused by the SARS-CoV-2 virus (COVID-19), diagnosed as pneumonia of unknown cause originally in the city of Wuhan (China) in December 2019, was considered a pandemic by the World Health Organization. Its transmissibility seems to be quite high, affecting almost two million people worldwide and causing more than 130 thousand deaths. It appeared in Brazil in February 2020, initially in the city of São Paulo. It affects more severely the elderly and people with some comorbidities (such as cardiovascular diseases, high blood pressure, diabetes, malignancy, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cerebrovascular disease, among others), with a rich clinical symptomatology. Empirical treatments are being tested in more rigorous clinical trials. In the absence of a vaccine to protect the healthy, the strategy of social isolation and treatment with general and / or advanced support measures has been adopted. In this context, it is worth investigating the potential contribution of homeopathy for relieving the distressing symptoms caused by coronavirus in its initial phase, together with monitoring and recording outcomes collected by homeopathic doctors. This national study intends to collect information from suspected or confirmed cases of COVID-19 patients, during the current pandemic in Brazil. The patients will be attended by experienced homeopathic doctors with the prescription of remedies according to the symptoms presented by the patient in the pandemic. All homeopathic medicines are described in the Brazilian Homeopathic Pharmacopoeia. The effects on patients' health status will be evaluated by means of scores and clinical scales, together with measures on safety, duration of the disease and medicines better related with good results. A standardized and specific questionnaire for COVID-19 had been designed and will be available on google forms to be filled out by doctors during the study. The data will be stored in electronic spreadsheets and will be analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistical techniques. All patient data will be collected in a completely anonymous way to protect patients' privacy. Patients will be identified exclusively by an alphanumeric code, to be registered in doctors' medical records. Given the pandemic situation, in cases in which face-to-face health care is not obligatory, an information sheet about the study will be sent to the patient in order to get the informed consent. Teleconsultations will take place in some cases for follow-up of patients. In addition to enlarge telemedicine applications for homeopathy, this project also aims to collect useful information that could be used in future randomized and controlled multicenter trials to evaluate the role of homeopathy in epidemic or transmissible diseases. It could also be helpful for designing clinical studies using homeopathic medicines in other diseases or health problems. (AU)


La infección en humanos causada por el virus SARS-CoV-2 (COVID-19), diagnosticada como neumonía de causa desconocida originalmente en la ciudad de Wuhan (China) en diciembre de 2019, fue considerada una pandemia por la Organización Mundial de la Salud. Su transmisibilidad parece ser bastante alta, afectando a casi dos millones de personas en todo el mundo y causando más de 130 mil muertes. Apareció en Brasil en febrero de 2020, inicialmente en la ciudad de São Paulo. Afecta más severamente a los ancianos y personas con algunas comorbilidades (como enfermedades cardiovasculares, presión arterial alta, diabetes, malignidad, enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y enfermedad cerebrovascular, entre otros), con una rica sintomatología clínica. Los tratamientos empíricos se están probando en ensayos clínicos más rigurosos. En ausencia de una vacuna para proteger a los sanos, se ha adoptado la estrategia de aislamiento social y tratamiento con medidas de apoyo generales y / o avanzadas. En este contexto, se puede investigar la contribución potencial de la homeopatía para aliviar los síntomas causados por el coronavirus en su fase inicial, junto con el monitoreo y registro de los resultados recopilados por los médicos homeópatas. Este estudio nacional tiene la intención de recopilar información de casos sospechosos o confirmados de pacientes con COVID-19, durante la pandemia actual en Brasil. Los pacientes serán atendidos por médicos homeópatas experimentados con la prescripción de remedios de acuerdo con los síntomas presentados por el paciente en la pandemia. Todos los medicamentos homeopáticos se describen en la Farmacopea Homeopática Brasileña. Los efectos sobre el estado de salud de los pacientes se evaluarán mediante puntajes de síntomas y escalas clínicas, junto con medidas de seguridad, duración de la enfermedad y revelación de medicamentos más asociados con buenas respuestas clínicas. Se diseñó un cuestionario estandarizado y específico para COVID-19, que estará disponible en los formularios de Google para que los médicos lo completen durante el estudio. Los datos se almacenarán en hojas de cálculo electrónicas y se analizarán mediante técnicas estadísticas descriptivas e inferenciales. Todos los datos del paciente se recopilarán de forma completamente anónima para proteger la privacidad de los pacientes. Los pacientes serán identificados exclusivamente por un código alfanumérico, que se registrará en los registros médicos de los médicos. Dada la situación de pandemia, en los casos en que la atención médica presencial no es obligatoria, se enviará una hoja de información sobre el estudio al paciente para obtener el consentimiento informado. Se realizarán teleconsultas en algunos casos para el seguimiento de los pacientes. Además de ampliar las aplicaciones de telemedicina para la homeopatía, este protocolo también tiene como objetivo recopilar información útil que podría utilizarse en futuros ensayos multicéntricos controlados y aleatorizados para evaluar el papel de la homeopatía en enfermedades epidémicas o transmisibles. También podría ser útil para diseñar estudios clínicos con medicamentos homeopáticos en otras enfermedades o problemas de salud.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Data Collection , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Coronaviridae Infections/therapy , SARS Virus , Homeopathy , Brazil/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology
4.
São Paulo; AMHB;APH; mar. 2020. 62 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy, MOSAICO - Integrative health | ID: biblio-1087238

ABSTRACT

Além da reconhecida aplicação nas doenças crônicas, a homeopatia individualizada também pode atuar de forma resolutiva ou complementar nos casos agudos, incluindo as doenças epidêmicas. No entanto, para atingir esse intento, apresenta uma metodologia semiológica e terapêutica específica que deve ser seguida e respeitada, com o risco de não apresentar a eficácia e a segurança desejada. No caso das doenças epidêmicas, que pela virulência dos seus agentes provoca um quadro sintomatológico comum na maioria dos indivíduos suscetíveis, o medicamento homeopático individualizado (medicamento homeopático do gênio epidêmico) deve apresentar semelhança com o conjunto de sinais e sintomas característicos dos pacientes acometidos nos diferentes estágios de cada surto epidêmico. Estudos evidenciam a eficácia e a segurança desta prática profilática e/ou terapêutica em diversas epidemias do passado. Assim sendo, após o levantamento dos possíveis medicamentos homeopáticos individualizados do gênio epidêmico de cada epidemia, sua aplicação profilática e/ou terapêutica em larga escala deve ser sustentada por ensaios clínicos prévios que demonstrem sua eficácia e segurança, em consonância com os aspectos éticos e bioéticos da pesquisa envolvendo seres humanos. Cumprindo essas premissas da boa prática clínica, elaboramos o atual protocolo com o objetivo de investigar, em ensaio clínico randomizado, duplo-cego e placebo-controlado, a eficácia e a segurança de possíveis medicamentos homeopáticos individualizados do gênio epidêmico da COVID-19, em tratamento adjuvante e complementar de pacientes acometidos pela doença. Caso a a eficácia e a segurança se confirme, e tão somente, o(s) medicamento(s) poderão ser utilizado de forma generalizada e coletiva no tratamento e na prevenção da atual epidemia. (AU)


In addition to the recognized application in chronic diseases, individualized homeopathy can also act in a resolutive or complementary way in acute cases, including epidemic diseases. However, to achieve this intent, it presents a specific semiological and therapeutic methodology that must be followed and respected, with the risk of not presenting the desired efficacy and safety. In the case of epidemic diseases, which due to the virulence of their agents causes a common symptomatological picture in most susceptible individuals, the individualized homeopathic medicine (homeopathic medicine of the epidemic genius) should present similarity with the set of characteristic symptoms and signs of the patients affected in the different stages of each epidemic outbreak. Studies show the efficacy and safety of this prophylactic and/or therapeutic practice in several epidemics of the past. Therefore, after the survey of possible homeopathic drugs individualized from the epidemic genius of each epidemic, its prophylactic and/or large-scale therapeutic application should be supported by previous clinical trials that demonstrate its efficacy and safety, in line with the ethical and bioethical aspects of research involving human beings. Fulfilling these premises of good clinical practice, we developed the current protocol with the objective of investigating, in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial, the efficacy and safety of possible individualized homeopathic drugs of epidemic genius of COVID-19, in adjuvant and complementary treatment of patients affected by the disease. If efficacy and safety are confirmed, and only in this condition, the medicine may be used in a generalized and collective manner in the treatment and prevention of the current epidemic. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Epidemic Genius , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus , Coronaviridae Infections/prevention & control , Coronaviridae Infections/therapy , Ethics, Research , SARS Virus , Epidemics , Homeopathy , Brazil/epidemiology
5.
São Paulo; AMHB; mar. 3, 2020. 21 p.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, HomeoIndex Homeopathy, MOSAICO - Integrative health | ID: biblio-1087382

ABSTRACT

Estamos no meio da pandemia do Covid-19, em franco desenvolvimento no Brasil. No momento há perspectivas terapêuticas medicamentosa sem fases iniciais de teste, especialmente para o tratamento dos casos graves, aqueles que implicam em internação ou encaminhamento para Unidades de Terapia Intensiva. Pouco tem sido abordado sobre tentativas de tratamento de pacientes com síndrome respiratória leve. Não há escolha terapêutica efetiva para o início do quadro e, desta forma, a doença cursa de acordo com a resposta imune ou suscetibilidade individual do acometido, e há muito pouco de efetivo e específico que altere a história natural dessa enfermidade. (AU)


Subject(s)
Arsenicum Album/therapeutic use , China officinalis/therapeutic use , Chininum Arsenicosum/therapeutic use , Epidemic Genius , Coronaviridae , Coronaviridae Infections , Bryonia , Pandemics , Homeopathy , Brazil/epidemiology
6.
Sâo Paulo; Marcus Zulian Teixeira; mar. 2020. 60 p.
Monography in English | HomeoIndex Homeopathy, LILACS | ID: biblio-1088044

ABSTRACT

In addition to the recognized application in chronic diseases, individualized homeopathy can also act in a resolutive or complementary way in acute cases, including epidemic diseases. However, to achieve this intent, it presents a specific semiologic and therapeutic methodology that must be followed and respected, with the risk of not presenting the desired efficacy and safety. In the case of epidemic diseases, which due to the virulence of their agents causes a common symptomatological picture in most susceptible individuals, the individualized homeopathic medicine (homeopathic medicine of the epidemic genius) should present similarity with the set of characteristic symptoms and signs of the patients affected in the different stages of each epidemic outbreak. Studies show the efficacy and safety of this prophylactic and/or therapeutic practice in several epidemics of the past. Therefore, after the survey of possible homeopathic drugs individualized from the epidemic genius of each epidemic, its prophylactic and/or large-scale therapeutic application should be supported by previous clinical trials that demonstrate its efficacy and safety, in line with the ethical and bioethical aspects of research involving human beings. Fulfilling these premises of good clinical practice, we developed the current protocol with the objective of investigating, in a randomized, double-blind and placebo-controlled clinical trial, the effectiveness and safety of possible individualized homeopathic drugs of epidemic genius of COVID-19, in adjuvant and complementary treatment of patients affected by the disease. If effectiveness and safety are confirmed, and only in this condition, the medicine may be used in a generalized and collective manner in the treatment and prevention of the current epidemic. (AU)


Subject(s)
Epidemic Genius , Clinical Protocols , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Ethics, Research , SARS Virus , Epidemics , Homeopathy , Brazil/epidemiology
7.
Poult Sci ; 98(9): 3548-3556, 2019 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-31220864

ABSTRACT

Vaccination with a live bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease virus (NDV) and infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is a routine practice in poultry industry in China. This study was designed to evaluate ginseng stem-leaf saponins (GSLS) in combination with selenium (Se) for their adjuvant effect on the immune response to vaccination against NDV and IBV in chickens. A live bivalent vaccine of NDV and IBV was diluted in saline solution containing GSLS or Se or both and used to immunize chickens via a intraocular-and-intranasal route. Results showed that GSLS promoted significantly higher NDV- and IBV-specific antibody responses with the highest antibody response detected in GSLS-Se group. The increased antibody was capable of neutralizing NDV and IBV. In addition, GSLS-Se enhanced lymphocyte proliferation and production of IFN-γ and IL-4. More importantly GSLS-Se was found to promote early production and prolong the duration of the antibody responses. In order to improve the efficacy of vaccination in chicken flocks, the diluent containing GSLS-Se deserves further studies to evaluate its effect on other chicken vaccines.


Subject(s)
Chickens , Panax/chemistry , Poultry Diseases/immunology , Saponins/pharmacology , Selenium/pharmacology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/pharmacology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Immunity , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Newcastle Disease/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Saponins/chemistry , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology
8.
Vet Microbiol ; 231: 120-128, 2019 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-30955799

ABSTRACT

We have previously reported the generation of the attenuated KNU-141112-S DEL5/ORF3 virus by continuous propagation of highly virulent G2b porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in Vero cells. The present study aimed to assess the safety of S DEL5/ORF3 and to evaluate its effectiveness as a live vaccine for prime-booster vaccinations. Reversion to virulence experiments revealed that the S DEL5/ORF3 strain retains its attenuated phenotype and genetic stability after five successive passages in susceptible piglets. Pregnant sows were primed orally with an S DEL5/ORF3 live vaccine and boosted intramuscularly twice with a commercial killed vaccine at 2-week intervals prior to parturition. This sow vaccination regimen completely protected nursing piglets against virulent G2b challenge, as evidenced by the increase in survival rate from 0% to 100% and the significant reduction in diarrhea intensity, including the amount and duration of PEDV fecal shedding. In addition, despite a 2-3 day period of weight loss in piglets from vaccinated sows after challenge, their daily weight gain was recovered at 7 days post-challenge and became similar to that of unchallenged pigs from unvaccinated sows over the course of the experiment. Furthermore, strong antibody responses to PEDV were verified in the sera and colostrum of immunized sows with the prime-boost treatment and their offspring. Altogether, our data demonstrated that the attenuated S DEL5/ORF3 strain guarantees the safety to host animals with no reversion to virulence and is suitable as an effective primary live vaccine providing durable maternal lactogenic immunity for passive piglet protection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Vaccine Potency , Vaccines, Attenuated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Female , Genotype , Immunization, Secondary , Injections, Intramuscular , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Pregnancy , Survival Rate , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Vaccines, Attenuated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Virulence , Virus Shedding
9.
Arch Virol ; 163(9): 2327-2335, 2018 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29725899

ABSTRACT

Passive immunity is critical for protection of neonatal piglets against porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV). Here, we investigated the immunogenicity of an orf virus (ORFV) vector expressing the full-length spike (S) protein of PEDV (ORFV-PEDV-S) in pregnant gilts and its ability to confer passive immunity and protection in piglets. Three doses of ORFV-PEDV-S were given to two groups of PEDV-negative pregnant gilts, with the last dose being administered two weeks prior to farrowing. One of the two groups immunized with the ORFV-PEDV-S recombinant virus was also exposed to live PEDV orally on day 31 post-immunization (pi). Antibody responses were assessed in serum, colostrum and milk of immunized gilts, and passive transfer of antibodies was evaluated in piglet sera. The protective efficacy of ORFV-PEDV-S was evaluated after challenge of the piglets with PEDV. PEDV-specific IgG, IgA and neutralizing antibody (NA) responses were detected in ORFV-PEDV-S-immunized and ORFV-PEDV-S-immunized/PEDV-exposed gilts. PEDV NA, IgG and IgA were detected in the serum of piglets born to immunized gilts, demonstrating the transfer of antibodies through colostrum and milk. Piglets born to immunized gilts showed reduced morbidity and a marked reduction in mortality after PEDV challenge in comparison to control piglets. Piglets born to gilts that received ORFV-PEDV-S and were exposed to live PEDV showed stronger NA responses and lower clinical scores when compared to piglets born to gilts immunized with ORFV-PEDV-S alone. These results demonstrate the potential of ORFV as a vaccine delivery platform capable of eliciting passive immunity against PEDV.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunity, Maternally-Acquired , Orf virus/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/administration & dosage , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Colostrum , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Genetic Vectors/administration & dosage , Genetic Vectors/chemistry , Genetic Vectors/immunology , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Milk , Orf virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Pregnancy , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology
10.
Vaccine ; 36(20): 2760-2763, 2018 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-29576306

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) virus is a causative agent of enteric disease characterized by watery diarrhea and dehydration. Because PED has high morbidity and mortality, especially in suckling piglets, it causes a great economic loss to swine farms worldwide. Although various PED vaccines have been developed and commercialized, their efficacies are still controversial. In particular, current PED vaccination protocol (vaccination at 2 and 4 weeks before farrowing) may cause stress in pregnant sows. In this study, we compared the effects of PED vaccination timing and frequency for its efficacy by measuring the PED virus-specific antibodies. We found that vaccination at early stages of pregnancy induces similar levels of serum and colostrum antibodies with those at late stages of pregnancy. As the number of vaccinations increased, the amounts of antibody in serum and colostrum, and neutralizing activities increased. Our results provide important information for establishing a more efficient PED vaccination protocol.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/therapy , Vaccination/veterinary , Viral Vaccines/therapeutic use , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Pregnancy , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Time Factors , Vaccines, Inactivated/therapeutic use
11.
Viral Immunol ; 31(1): 62-68, 2018.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28783456

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, dehydration in pigs, and high mortality rates in piglets <3 weeks of age. Maternal immunity protects piglets, but information on vaccination before or after natural infection in endemically exposed sow herds is limited. Currently, the recovery goal in sow units infected with PEDV is to become fully naive again or use natural virus infection to develop immune gilts through a feedback program before introduction into the sow herd. Since neutralizing antibodies in the gut are critical for protection against enteric viral infections such as PEDV, we evaluated the effect of a conditionally licensed, adjuvanted inactivated PEDV vaccine on neutralizing antibody levels in milk and colostrum in both naive and previously naturally exposed sow herds. The results illustrate that intramuscular vaccination increased neutralizing antibody titers, and anti-PEDV IgA and IgG in milk and colostrum of sows that were previously infected. Thus, inactivated PEDV vaccines may provide increased protection to piglets nursing on previously infected sows against exposure to PEDV through increased delivery of lactogenic neutralizing antibodies to the enteric site of infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Immunization, Secondary/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , Humans , Mammary Glands, Animal/immunology , Mammary Glands, Animal/metabolism , Milk/immunology , Neutralization Tests , Pregnancy , Swine/immunology , Swine/virology , Vaccines, Inactivated/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Inactivated/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology
12.
Planta Med ; 83(18): 1412-1419, 2017 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28575911

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) causes acute diarrhea, vomiting, dehydration, weight loss, and high mortality rate in neonatal piglets. Porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) has been reported in Europe, America, and Asia including Thailand. The disease causes substantial losses to the swine industry in many countries. Presently, there is no effective PEDV vaccine available. In this study, we developed a plant-produced monoclonal antibody (mAb) 2C10 as a prophylactic candidate to prevent the PEDV infection. Recently, plant expression systems have gained interest as an alternative for the production of antibodies because of many advantages, such as low production cost, lack of human and animal pathogen, large scalability, etc. The 2C10 mAb was transiently expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana and lettuce using geminiviral vector. After purification by protein A affinity chromatography, the antibody was tested for the binding and neutralizing activity against PEDV. Our result showed that the plant produced 2C10 mAb can bind to the virus and also inhibit PEDV infection in vitro. These results show excellent potential for a plant-expressed 2C10 as a PEDV prophylaxis and a diagnostic for PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Lettuce/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Tobacco/immunology , Amino Acid Sequence , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Lettuce/genetics , Lettuce/virology , Molecular Farming , Neutralization Tests/veterinary , Plant Leaves/genetics , Plant Leaves/immunology , Plant Leaves/virology , Plantibodies/genetics , Plantibodies/immunology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Swine , Swine Diseases/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Tobacco/genetics , Tobacco/virology , Vero Cells
13.
Poult Sci ; 96(9): 3058-3067, 2017 Sep 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-28633386

ABSTRACT

The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of tea saponins on oxidative stress induced by cyclophosphamide in chickens. One hundred twenty chickens were randomly divided into 5 groups. Groups 3 to 4 received intramuscular injection of cyclophosphamide to induce oxidative stress and immunosuppression. After that, groups 2 and 4 were orally administered tea saponins in drinking water for 7 d. Then, groups 1 to 4 were immunized with a live, bivalent vaccine of Newcastle disease virus and infectious bronchitis virus. Blood samples were collected for analysis of oxidative parameters and specific antibody titers, and splenocytes were prepared for lymphocyte proliferative assay. The results showed that administration of tea saponins significantly increased total antioxidant capacity, total superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione, ascorbic acid, and α-tocopherol, and decreased malondialdehyde and protein carbonyl. Enhanced immune responses, such as lymphocyte proliferation induced by concanavalin A and lipopolysaccharides, and serum Newcastle disease virus- and infectious bronchitis virus-specific antibodies were also observed in chickens injected with or without cyclophosphamide. In addition, no side effects were found in chickens throughout the study. Therefore, tea saponins may be a potential agent to improve imunosuppression induced by oxidative stress in chickens.


Subject(s)
Camellia sinensis/chemistry , Infectious bronchitis virus/immunology , Newcastle disease virus/immunology , Poultry Diseases/prevention & control , Saponins/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Chickens , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Cyclophosphamide/pharmacology , Immunity, Innate/drug effects , Immunomodulation/drug effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/pharmacology , Male , Newcastle Disease/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Random Allocation , Specific Pathogen-Free Organisms
14.
J Gen Virol ; 97(8): 1823-1828, 2016 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27226332

ABSTRACT

We previously identified a third porcine epidemic diarrhoea virus (PEDV) S variant with a large deletion of 582 nucleotides in the 5' terminal region of the S gene, in addition to the North American type and the S INDELs type. To investigate the pathogenicity of this variant, TTR-2/JPN/2014, we performed experimental infection using colostrum-deprived piglets and compared the results with those from the North American type PEDV, OKN-1/JPN/2013. Fifteen newborn piglets were divided into two groups of 7-8 piglets each and inoculated orally with one of PEDV isolates maintained at the eighth passage in Vero cell culture. Although all PEDV-inoculated piglets showed acute watery diarrhoea, lethality clearly differed between both PEDV-inoculated groups. Moreover, there were differences in virus distribution and lesions on the intestines between the two PEDV-inoculated groups. Therefore, our data suggest that the OKN-1/JPN/2013 PEDV isolate is virulent, whereas the TTR-2/JPN/2014 PEDV isolate is avirulent.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Sequence Deletion , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine Diseases/pathology , Animal Experimentation , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Colostrum , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Diarrhea/pathology , Diarrhea/virology , Survival Analysis , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
15.
Virol J ; 13: 57, 2016 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-27036203

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is a highly contagious virus infecting pigs of all ages with high morbidity and mortality among newborn piglets. Currently, there is no effective vaccine available to protect the pigs from PEDV. The N-terminal subunit of spike protein (S1) is responsible for virus binding to the cellular receptor and contains a number of neutralizing antibody epitopes. Thus, we expressed and produced recombinant S1 protein to protect newborn piglets by immunization of sows. METHODS: Affinity tagged PEDV S1 protein was expressed in a secretory form in yeast, insect and mammalian cells to identify the most suitable production system. Purified recombinant protein was analysed by SDS-PAGE, Western blot and deglycosylation assay. A pregnant sow was intramuscularly immunized three times with adjuvanted recombinant protein prior to farrowing. PEDV-specific immune responses in sera and colostrum of the sow and piglets were assayed by ELISA and virus neutralization assays. Piglets were challenged orally with PEDV, and clinical parameters were monitored for 6 days post-challenge. RESULTS AND CONCLUSION: Of three eukaryotic expression systems tested (yeast, insect-cell, and mammalian), expression by HEK-293 T cells gave the highest yield of protein that was N-glycosylated and was the most appropriate candidate for vaccination. Administration of the subunit vaccine in a sow resulted in induction of S1-specific IgG and IgA that were passively transferred to the suckling piglets. Also, high virus neutralization titres were observed in the serum of the vaccinated sow and its piglets. After PEDV challenge, piglets born to the vaccinated sow exhibited less severe signs of disease and significantly lower mortality compared to the piglets of a control sow. However, there were no significant differences in diarrhea, body weight and virus shedding. Thus, vaccination with S1 subunit vaccine failed to provide complete protection to suckling piglets after challenge exposure, and further improvements are needed for the development of a subunit vaccine that fully protects against PEDV infection.


Subject(s)
Antigens, Viral/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adjuvants, Immunologic/administration & dosage , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antigens, Viral/genetics , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Injections, Intramuscular , Neutralization Tests , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/genetics , Pregnancy , Serum/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Swine , Treatment Outcome , Vaccines, Subunit/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Subunit/genetics , Vaccines, Subunit/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage , Viral Vaccines/genetics
16.
Vet Pathol ; 53(1): 44-52, 2016 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-26113613

ABSTRACT

Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) was first recognized in North America in April 2013 and has since caused devastating disease. The objective of this study was to characterize disease and viral detection associated with an original North American PEDV isolate inoculated in neonatal piglets. Thirty-six 1-day-old cesarean-derived and colostrum-deprived piglets were randomly assigned to the control (n = 16) or challenged group (n = 20); the latter were orogastrically inoculated with 1 ml of US/Iowa/18984/2013 PEDV isolate titered at 1 × 10(3) plaque-forming units per milliliter. Rectal swabs were collected from all piglets prior to inoculation and every 12 hours postinoculation (hpi) thereafter, with 4 control and 5 challenged piglets euthanized at 12, 24, 48, and 72 hpi. One piglet had a positive real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction test on rectal swab at 12 hpi, and all remaining piglets were positive thereafter, with highest viral quantities detected at 24 and 36 hpi. Diarrhea was evident in 30% and 100% of challenged piglets at 18 and 24 hpi, respectively. Viral antigen was detected in enterocytes by immunohistochemistry in the duodenum and ileum of piglets euthanized at 12 hpi and was apparent throughout the small intestine of all piglets thereafter, with villus height:crypt depth ratios consistently below 4:1. Viremia was confirmed in 18 of 20 pigs at euthanasia. Clinical disease was severe and developed rapidly following infection with an original North American PEDV isolate, with lesions, viremia, and antigen detection possible by 12 hpi.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/isolation & purification , Swine Diseases/pathology , Animals , Antigens, Viral/analysis , Colostrum/metabolism , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enterocytes/virology , Female , Immunohistochemistry/veterinary , Intestine, Small/virology , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/pathogenicity , Pregnancy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/veterinary , Swine , Swine Diseases/virology
17.
Vet J ; 202(1): 33-6, 2014 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-25135339

ABSTRACT

An indirect porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) anti-immunoglobulin (Ig) G ELISA based on the S1 portion of the spike protein was validated and compared with an indirect immunofluorescence assay. In serum samples from experimentally infected pigs (n = 35), anti-IgG PEDV antibodies were detected as early as 7 days post-infection. In field serum samples (n = 239), the diagnostic sensitivity of the S1 ELISA was 100% and the diagnostic specificity was 94%. The S1 ELISA showed no cross-reactivity with antibodies against other porcine coronaviruses. Colostrum samples (n = 133) were also tested for anti-PEDV IgG and IgA. The diagnostic sensitivity was 92% for IgG and 100% for IgA, and the diagnostic specificity was 90% for IgG and 99.4% for IgA. These data suggest that the S1 ELISA is a sensitive and specific test that could also be used to evaluate PEDV colostral immunity.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Colostrum/chemistry , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/veterinary , Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus/immunology , Swine Diseases/virology , Animals , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay/methods , Female , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Sensitivity and Specificity , Swine , Swine Diseases/blood , Swine Diseases/immunology
18.
Am J Vet Res ; 64(4): 485-90, 2003 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-12693541

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence, fecal shedding pattern, and association of bovine torovirus (BoTV) with diarrhea in veal calves at time of arrival and periodically throughout the first 35 days after their arrival on a veal farm. ANIMALS: 62 veal calves. PROCEDURE: Fecal samples collected on days 0, 4, 14, and 35 after arrival were tested for BoTV by use of ELISA and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. Paired serum samples obtained from blood collected on days 0 and 35 were analyzed for BoTV antibodies with a hemagglutination inhibition assay. Fecal samples were also screened for other enteric pathogens, including rotavirus, coronavirus, and Cryptosporidium spp. RESULTS: Fecal shedding of BoTV was detected in 15 of 62 (24%) calves by use of ELISA and RT-PCR assay, with peak shedding on day 4. A significant independent association between BoTV shedding and diarrhea was observed. In addition, calves shedding > or = 2 enteric pathogens were more likely to have diarrhea than calves shedding < or = 1 pathogen. Calves that were seronegative or had low antibody titers against BoTV (< or = 1:10 hemagglutination inhibition units) at arrival seroconverted to BoTV (> 4-fold increase in titer); these calves were more likely to shed virus than calves that were seropositive against BoTV at arrival. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE: Shedding of BoTV was strongly associated with diarrhea in neonatal veal calves during the first week after arrival at the farm. These data provide evidence that BoTV is an important pathogen of neonatal veal calves.


Subject(s)
Cattle Diseases/virology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Diarrhea/virology , Torovirus Infections/veterinary , Torovirus/isolation & purification , Torovirus/physiology , Virus Shedding , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Cattle , Cattle Diseases/diagnosis , Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Coronavirus, Bovine/isolation & purification , Diarrhea/complications , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Feces/virology , Immunoglobulin G/analysis , Male , Prevalence , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus Infections/complications , Rotavirus Infections/diagnosis , Rotavirus Infections/veterinary , Rotavirus Infections/virology , Torovirus/genetics , Torovirus/immunology , Torovirus Infections/complications , Torovirus Infections/diagnosis , Torovirus Infections/virology , Virus Cultivation
19.
J Vet Med Sci ; 63(6): 655-8, 2001 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11459011

ABSTRACT

The effects of hyperimmune cow colostrum (HCC) on experimentally induced porcine epidemic diarrhea (PED) were investigated in piglets. In experiment 1, four 2-day-old piglets fed HCC containing an antibody titer of 1:512 and another four piglets fed unimmune cow colostrum (UCC) were orally inoculated with 10LD50 of PED virus. The piglets were given colostrum three times a day at 4 hr intervals. Half of the piglets fed HCC showed diarrhea and recovered, and all piglets survived. In contrast, all piglets fed UCC developed diarrhea and three of them died. In experiment 2, 2-day-old piglets fed HCC containing antibody titers of 1:512, 1:128 and 1:32, and UCC were inoculated with PED virus, and survival rates after challenge were 100, 75, 50 and 0 %, respectively. In experiment 3, 1-day-old piglets fed HCC with 1:512 antibody titer or UCC were inoculated and necropsied at 24, 48 and 72 hr after the inoculation for pathological examination. Piglets fed HCC remained healthy and PED virus antigen was not detected in the epithelial cells of the small intestine, and the length of the villi in small intestine was normal. On the other hand, in piglets fed UCC, villous atrophy and PED virus antigen were observed in epithelial cells of the jejunum and ileum from 24 hr. It was concluded that oral administration of HCC to piglets was effective in preventing PED virus infection and reduced their mortality.


Subject(s)
Colostrum/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/veterinary , Diarrhea/veterinary , Swine Diseases/immunology , Animals , Animals, Newborn , Cattle , Coronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Diarrhea/immunology , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Diarrhea/virology , Female , Histocytochemistry/veterinary , Immunization/veterinary , Intestines/pathology , Intestines/virology , Random Allocation , Swine , Swine Diseases/prevention & control , Swine Diseases/virology
20.
Arch Virol ; 145(8): 1725-32, 2000.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-11003480

ABSTRACT

Transgenic plants represent an inexpensive alternative to classical fermentation systems for production of recombinant subunit vaccines. Transgenic potato plants were created that express the N-terminal domain of the glycoprotein S (N-gS) from Transmissible gastroenteritis coronavirus (TGEV), containing the major antigenic sites of the protein. Extracts from potato tubers expressing N-gS were inoculated intraperitoneally to mice, and the vaccinated mice developed serum IgG specific for TGEV. Furthermore, when potato tubers expressing N-gS were fed directly to mice, they developed serum antibodies specific for gS protein, demonstrating the oral immunogenicity of the plant derived spike protein from TGEV.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus/immunology , Membrane Glycoproteins/immunology , Solanum tuberosum , Viral Envelope Proteins/immunology , Administration, Oral , Animals , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, Viral/administration & dosage , Coronavirus/chemistry , Coronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Membrane Glycoproteins/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plants, Genetically Modified , Plasmids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Recombinant Proteins/administration & dosage , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus , Transformation, Genetic , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage , Viral Envelope Proteins/genetics , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
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