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1.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2024 Apr 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38606799

ABSTRACT

Body weight is influenced by an interplay of individual and environmental factors. In people with HIV (PWH), weight is also influenced by disease status with loss accompanying disease progression that is reversed with effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). Weight changes in comparative ART trials differ by regimen, with greater gains observed with the integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) dolutegravir and bictegravir, particularly when co-administered with tenofovir alafenamide fumarate (TAF), compared to regimens that include agents such as tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) that attenuate weight gain. We review weight changes in major randomized trials of pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) and initial and switch HIV therapy, highlighting the challenges to assessing the role of ART in weight change. This examination forms the basis for a model that questions assumptions regarding an association between INSTI and TAF and excessive weight gain and calls for more careful consideration of these data when making HIV treatment decisions.

2.
Br J Clin Pharmacol ; 2024 Apr 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38599659

ABSTRACT

We here present a case providing valuable insights for clinicians who deliver care to patients identifying as transgender or nonbinary. A 30-year-old trans woman presented to sexual health services requesting a routine sexual health screen and was subsequently diagnosed with HIV and syphilis. She started antiretrovirals for HIV (bictegravir/tenoforvir alafenamide/emtricitabine) 12 days later and was treated with benzathine penicillin G. The patient also had a positive tuberculosis (TB) ELIspot blood test result and further investigations proved the presence of active TB in the chest with mediastinal involvement. She commenced treatment for TB with quadruple therapy, including rifampicin. Due to the clinically significant interaction between rifampicin and bictegravir, the patient's antiretroviral treatment was switched to dolutegravir 50 mg twice daily in combination with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate and emtricitabine. As the patient had transitioned from male to female and was self-medicating with oestrogen-containing feminizing hormone therapy, her hormonal treatment was optimized and blood levels of oestradiol were closely monitored and titrated to manage the drug-drug interaction between rifampicin and oestrogen to ensure the latter would be maintained within the expected therapeutic range. Our case report demonstrates the importance of combining treatment of multiple conditions under 1 team ideally integrated with gender services to prevent multiple attendances and mismanagement of feminizing hormone therapies.

3.
Adv Sci (Weinh) ; : e2305484, 2024 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38572510

ABSTRACT

Delivering cargo to the central nervous system (CNS) remains a pharmacological challenge. For infectious diseases such as HIV, the CNS acts as a latent reservoir that is inadequately managed by systemic antiretrovirals (ARTs). ARTs thus cannot eradicate HIV, and given CNS infection, patients experience neurological deficits collectively referred to as "neuroHIV". Herein, the development of bioinspired ionic liquid-coated nanoparticles (IL-NPs) for in situ hitchhiking on red blood cells (RBCs) is reported, which enables 48% brain delivery of intracarotid arterial- infused cargo. Moreover, IL choline trans-2-hexenoate (CA2HA 1:2) demonstrates preferential accumulation in parenchymal microglia over endothelial cells post-delivery. This study further demonstrates successful loading of abacavir (ABC), an ART that is challenging to encapsulate, into IL-NPs, and verifies retention of antiviral efficacy in vitro. IL-NPs are not cytotoxic to primary human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and the CA2HA 1:2 coating itself confers notable anti-viremic capacity. In addition, in vitro cell culture assays show markedly increased uptake of IL-NPs into neural cells compared to bare PLGA nanoparticles. This work debuts bioinspired ionic liquids as promising nanoparticle coatings to assist CNS biodistribution and has the potential to revolutionize the delivery of cargos (i.e., drugs, viral vectors) through compartmental barriers such as the blood-brain-barrier (BBB).

4.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38591356

ABSTRACT

Nineteen youth living with HIV (YLWH) opted for injectable cabotegravir and rilpivirine without oral lead in and without achieving an undetectable HIV viral load (VL) for the 3 months prior to initiation. All achieved undetectable status within 3 months (3 injections) and maintained an undetectable status through 6-12 months of therapy.

5.
JBMR Plus ; 8(5): ziae037, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38590756

ABSTRACT

Bone mineral density (BMD) loss in people living with HIV occurs with the initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), particularly with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate (TDF) containing cART. Switching from TDF to abacavir (ABC) or dolutegravir (DTG) leads to increased BMD. Whether BMD gains are due to cessation of TDF or anabolic effects of ABC or DTG is unclear. We investigated the effects of ABC and DTG on osteoblast lineage cells in vitro and in vivo. Primary human osteoblasts and male C57BL/6 mice were treated with individual antiretrovirals (ARVs) or a combination of ABC/DTG/lamivudine (3TC). Nearly all ARVs and cART inhibited osteogenic activity in vitro. Due to the importance of Wnt/ß-catenin in bone formation, we further investigated ARV effects on the Wnt/ß-catenin pathway. ABC, alone and as part of ABC/DTG/3TC, increased osteoblastic ß-catenin activity as indicated by increased TOPFlash activity, hypo-phosphorylated (active) ß-catenin staining, and ß-catenin targeted gene expression. Mice treated with TDF had decreased lumbar spine BMD and trabecular connectivity density in the vertebrae, while those treated with ABC/DTG/3TC reduced cortical area and thickness in the femur. Mice treated with ABC alone had no bone structural changes, increased circulating levels of the bone formation marker, P1NP, and elevated expression of the Wnt/ß-catenin target gene, Lef1, in osteocyte enriched samples. Further, bones from ARV-treated mice were isolated to evaluate ARV distribution. All ARVs were detected in the bone tissue, which was inclusive of bone marrow, but when bone marrow was removed, only TDF, ABC, and DTG were detected at ~0.1% of the circulating levels. Overall, our findings demonstrate that ABC activates Wnt/ß-catenin signaling, but whether this leads to increased bone formation requires further study. Assessing the impact of ARVs on bone is critical to informing ARV selection and/or discovery of regimens that do not negatively impact the skeleton.

6.
J Trace Elem Med Biol ; 84: 127446, 2024 Apr 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38615498

ABSTRACT

Osteoporosis is associated with an imbalance in bone formation, with certain drugs used in disease treatment being implicated in its development. Supplementation with trace elements may contribute to bone regeneration, offering an alternative approach by enhancing bone mineral density (BMD) and thereby thwarting the onset of osteoporosis. This review aims to assess the mechanisms through which trace elements such as copper (Cu), iron (Fe), selenium (Se), manganese (Mn), and zinc (Zn) are linked to increased bone mass, thus mitigating the effects of pharmaceuticals. Our findings underscore that the use of drugs such as aromatase inhibitors (AIs), proton pump inhibitors (PPIs), antiretrovirals, glucocorticoids, opioids, or anticonvulsants can result in decreased BMD, a primary contributor to osteoporosis. Research indicates that essential elements like Cu, Fe, Se, Mn, and Zn, through various mechanisms, can bolster BMD and forestall the onset of the disease, owing to their protective effects. Consequently, our study recommends a minimum daily intake of these essential minerals for patients undergoing treatment with the aforementioned drugs, as the diverse mechanisms governing the effects of trace elements Cu, Fe, Mn, Se, and Zn facilitate bone remodeling.

7.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 11(4): ofae171, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38595957

ABSTRACT

Background: The life expectancy of people with human immunodeficiency virus (PWH) has significantly increased, thanks to combined antiretrovirals with improved potency and tolerability. One further step has been achieved with the development of long-acting (LA) injectable antiretrovirals, which allow for infrequent dosing. However, the pharmacokinetics of LA antiretrovirals has been poorly characterized in older PWH, as they are generally excluded from trials. We performed virtual studies using physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling to determine the anticipated exposure of LA cabotegravir/rilpivirine in older individuals. Methods: Our PBPK model was verified against available observed data for LA cabotegravir and rilpivirine. Cohorts of virtual individuals aged 20-50, 50-65, or 65-85 years were generated to simulate the exposure of LA cabotegravir/rilpivirine for each age group. The fold changes in trough concentration (Cmin) and in drug exposure (area under the time-concentration curve [AUC]) were determined for older relative to young individuals. Results: The verified PBPK models predicted an increase in exposure within the 0.8-1.25 fold range for monthly LA cabotegravir/rilpivirine. The Cmin and AUC were predicted to be 29% and 26% higher in older compared with young adults for LA cabotegravir administered bimonthly (every 2 months) and 46% and 41% higher for LA rilpivirine bimonthly. The Cmin and AUC of LA cabotegravir and rilpivirine were predicted to be modestly increased in female compared with male individuals for all age groups. Conclusions: LA cabotegravir/rilpivirine exposure and trough concentrations are predicted to be higher in older than in young PWH; thus, older adults could have a lower risk to present suboptimal concentrations during the dosing interval.

8.
Chemosphere ; 355: 141782, 2024 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38548083

ABSTRACT

While anthropogenic pollution is a major threat to aquatic ecosystem health, our knowledge of the presence of xenobiotics in coastal Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) is still relatively poor. This is especially true for water bodies in the Global South with limited information gained mostly from targeted studies that rely on comparison with authentic standards. In recent years, non-targeted tandem mass spectrometry has emerged as a powerful tool to collectively detect and identify pollutants and biogenic DOM components in the environment, but this approach has yet to be widely utilized for monitoring ecologically important aquatic systems. In this study we compared the DOM composition of Algoa Bay, Eastern Cape, South Africa, and its two estuaries. The Swartkops Estuary is highly urbanized and severely impacted by anthropogenic pollution, while the Sundays Estuary is impacted by commercial agriculture in its catchment. We employed solid-phase extraction followed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry to annotate more than 200 pharmaceuticals, pesticides, urban xenobiotics, and natural products based on spectral matching. The identification with authentic standards confirmed the presence of methamphetamine, carbamazepine, sulfamethoxazole, N-acetylsulfamethoxazole, imazapyr, caffeine and hexa(methoxymethyl)melamine, and allowed semi-quantitative estimations for annotated xenobiotics. The Swartkops Estuary DOM composition was strongly impacted by features annotated as urban pollutants including pharmaceuticals such as melamines and antiretrovirals. By contrast, the Sundays Estuary exhibited significant enrichment of molecules annotated as agrochemicals widely used in the citrus farming industry, with predicted concentrations for some of them exceeding predicted no-effect concentrations. This study provides new insight into anthropogenic impact on the Algoa Bay system and demonstrates the utility of non-targeted tandem mass spectrometry as a sensitive tool for assessing the health of ecologically important coastal ecosystems and will serve as a valuable foundation for strategizing long-term monitoring efforts.

9.
Lancet HIV ; 2024 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38513674

ABSTRACT

Collective antiretroviral protection is an evolving sexual health strategy in HIV prevention, used in particular by gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men. The strategy involves HIV-negative individuals who engage in condomless sexual activities but, instead of using pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) themselves, choose partners who either have undetectable viral loads or are on PrEP. This biomedical-sorting practice, rooted in the scientific principles of undetectable equals untransmittable (U=U) and PrEP, relies on an indirect protection strategy. Collective antiretroviral protection allows for HIV-negative individuals not on PrEP to benefit from their partner's antiretroviral use, without directly consuming antiretrovirals themselves for HIV prevention, during condomless sex. Empirical research is needed to evaluate the public health implications of this emerging sexual health approach. Research and public health initiatives should adopt a non-stigmatising approach to individuals engaging in collective antiretroviral protection and look beyond individual behaviour to understand the broader community-level effects of this innovative HIV prevention strategy.

10.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 11(3): ofae110, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486814

ABSTRACT

To gauge the safety and utility of extended tecovirimat/cidofovir for severe mpox, here we report our experience caring for 4 patients with mpox and advanced human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) at the Hospitals of the University of Pennsylvania during the 2022 global outbreak. Three patients had recurrent courses complicated by superinfections, coinfections and insufficient nutrition/housing, requiring extended tecovirimat (5-16 weeks) and cidofovir (1-12 doses) with probenecid and fluids. At follow-up, patients had undetectable HIV RNA on antiretrovirals, improved ulcers and stable renal function on antivirals. Serology guided cessation for one 7-month cidofovir course. Overall findings support a comprehensive approach of prolonged tecovirimat/cidofovir with antiretrovirals for severe mpox, while addressing social factors.

11.
Int J Antimicrob Agents ; : 107137, 2024 Mar 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38508536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Blood brain barrier impairment is frequent in people living with HIV (PLWH), affecting the penetration of target cells and antiretrovirals into the central nervous system, through transporters (e.g. ABCB1), leading to neuroinflammation. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to identify variants of genes encoding transporters able to predict neuroinflammation biomarker levels. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples were obtained from PLWH. CSF biomarkers were quantified by commercial assays. Genetic variants were evaluated through real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). RESULTS: 107 PLWH (163 samples) were included in the study: 79% were male, median age was 48.5 years, CD4% was 25%, HIV-associated neurolocognitive disorder (HAND) was observed in 17.8% of patients. ABCB1 2677G>T genetic variant showed a different allelic distribution according to the clinical group (p=0.026). In linear regression analyses, HIV-related central nervous system disorders, ABCG2 1194+928CC genotype, log viral load, CSAR, ß-1,42 levels and CSF proteins were retained in the final model as factors independently associated with CSF neopterin levels; CSF proteins and integrase inhibitors use were associated with CSF tau level in the multivariate model. Phospho-tau regression analysis reported ABCB1 2677GT/TT genotype and CSF proteins as predictors in the final model; gender and protease inhibitors, neopterin, ABCB1 2677 GT/ TT genotype resulted predictors in the multivariate regression for ß-1,42. CONCLUSIONS: For the first time, pharmacogenetic and clinical features were predictors of neuro-inflammation biomarkers.

12.
Front Public Health ; 12: 1336845, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38500732

ABSTRACT

Introduction: HIV late presentation (LP) remains excessive in Europe. We aimed to analyze the factors associated with late presentation in the MSM population newly diagnosed with HIV in Portugal between 2014 and 2019. Methods: We included 391 newly HIV-1 diagnosed Men who have Sex with Men (MSM), from the BESTHOPE project, in 17 countrywide Portuguese hospitals. The data included clinical and socio-behavioral questionnaires and the viral genomic sequence obtained in the drug resistance test before starting antiretrovirals (ARVs). HIV-1 subtypes and epidemiological surveillance mutations were determined using different bioinformatics tools. Logistic regression was used to estimate the association between predictor variables and late presentation (LP). Results: The median age was 31 years, 51% had a current income between 501-1,000 euros, 28% were migrants. 21% had never been tested for HIV before diagnosis, with 42.3% of MSM presenting LP. 60% were infected with subtype B strains. In the multivariate regression, increased age at diagnosis, higher income, lower frequency of screening, STI ever diagnosed and higher viral load were associated with LP. Conclusion: Our study suggests that specific subgroups of the MSM population, such older MSM, with higher income and lower HIV testing frequency, are not being targeted by community and clinical screening services. Overall, targeted public health measures should be strengthened toward these subgroups, through strengthened primary care testing, expanded access to PrEP, information and promotion of HIV self-testing and more inclusive and accessible health services.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , Adult , Homosexuality, Male , HIV Infections/diagnosis , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Portugal/epidemiology , Europe
13.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 343, 2024 Mar 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38515041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Dolutegravir is an integrase strand transfer inhibitor that has been recommended for use in first-line antiretroviral regimens by the World Health Organisation and is currently being rolled out globally. There has been safety concerns with dolutegravir which has caused concern about its use in the general population. Dolutegravir first-line regimens have been used in South Africa since early 2020. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of first-line dolutegravir-based antiretrovirals amongst adults living with HIV in Durban, South Africa. METHODS: This was a mixed-methods study, which comprised a cross-sectional survey and longitudinal retrospective follow-up of medical records. The study was conducted between October 2020 and January 2022. Data were described using descriptive and summary statistics. Bivariate logistic regression was applied to socio-demographic and clinical variables and crude odds ratios with a 95% confidence interval was calculated. Pearson chi-square tests, paired sample T-tests, and cross-tabulations were performed on selected variables. RESULTS: A total of 461 participants were enrolled in the study. There was a significant change in immunological outcomes (p < 0.001) after dolutegravir initiation. Furthermore, an assessment of laboratory parameters showed that there was a significant decrease in cholesterol (p < 0.001) and increase in creatinine (p < 0.001) levels. Increased weight was shown by 60.7% of the participants but was not associated with age, gender, CD4 counts, and previous antiretroviral usage. The study found that 43.6% of the participants experienced at least one side-effect. A total of 21.6% and 23.2% of the participants experienced neuropsychiatric and central nervous system side-effects, respectively. In the bivariate analyses, only gender was shown to be associated with side-effects, and only 1.7% of the participants discontinued the study due to side-effects. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that dolutegravir is effective, safe, and well tolerated in the study population.


Subject(s)
HIV Infections , HIV Integrase Inhibitors , Oxazines , Piperazines , Pyridones , Adult , Humans , HIV Infections/drug therapy , Cohort Studies , Retrospective Studies , South Africa , Cross-Sectional Studies , Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring/adverse effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/adverse effects
14.
PLoS One ; 19(3): e0290810, 2024.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38446777

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has caused a lot of havoc since the early 1970s, affecting 37.6 million people worldwide. The 90-90-90 treatment policy was adopted in Ghana in 2015 with the overall aim to end new infections by 2030, and to improve the life expectancy of HIV seropositive individuals. With the scale-up of Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy, the lifespan of People Living with HIV (PLWH) on antiretrovirals (ARVs) is expected to improve. In rural districts in Ghana, little is known about the survival probabilities of PLWH on ARVs. Hence, this study was conducted to estimate the survival trends of PLWH on ARVs. METHODS: A retrospective evaluation of data gathered across ARV centres within Tatale and Zabzugu districts in Ghana from 2016 to 2020 among PLWH on ARVs. A total of 261 participants were recruited for the study. The data was analyzed using STATA software version 16.0. Lifetable analysis and Kaplan-Meier graph were used to assess the survival probabilities. "Stptime" per 1000 person-years and the competing risk regression were used to evaluate mortality rates and risk. RESULTS: The cumulative survival probability was 0.8847 (95% CI: 0.8334-0.9209). The overall mortality rate was 51.89 (95% CI: 36.89-72.97) per 1000 person-years. WHO stage III and IV [AHR: 4.25 (95%CI: 1.6-9.71) p = 0.001] as well as age group (50+ years) [AHR: 5.02 (95% CI: 1.78-14.13) p = 0.002] were associated with mortality. CONCLUSION: Survival probabilities were high among the population of PLWH in Tatale and Zabzugu with declining mortality rates. Clinicians should provide critical attention and care to patients at HIV WHO stages III and IV and intensify HIV screening at all entry points since early diagnosis is associated with high survival probabilities.


Subject(s)
Anti-Retroviral Agents , HIV Infections , Humans , Middle Aged , Ghana/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Antiretroviral Therapy, Highly Active , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology
15.
Sci Adv ; 10(9): eadn0042, 2024 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38427738

ABSTRACT

People living with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) receiving integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) have been reported to experience virological failure in the absence of resistance mutations in integrase. To elucidate INSTI resistance mechanisms, we propagated HIV-1 in the presence of escalating concentrations of the INSTI dolutegravir. HIV-1 became resistant to dolutegravir by sequentially acquiring mutations in the envelope glycoprotein (Env) and the nucleocapsid protein. The selected Env mutations enhance the ability of the virus to spread via cell-cell transfer, thereby increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI). While the selected Env mutations confer broad resistance to multiple classes of antiretrovirals, the fold resistance is ~2 logs higher for INSTIs than for other classes of drugs. We demonstrate that INSTIs are more readily overwhelmed by high MOI than other classes of antiretrovirals. Our findings advance the understanding of how HIV-1 can evolve resistance to antiretrovirals, including the potent INSTIs, in the absence of drug-target gene mutations.


Subject(s)
HIV Integrase Inhibitors , HIV Integrase , HIV-1 , Humans , Raltegravir Potassium/pharmacology , HIV Integrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , HIV-1/genetics , HIV-1/metabolism , HIV Integrase/genetics , HIV Integrase/metabolism , Mutation
16.
Int J Infect Dis ; 143: 106956, 2024 Mar 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38447754

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Heavily treatment-experienced (HTE) people living with HIV (PLWH) pose unique challenges due to limited antiretroviral treatment (ART) options. Our study aimed to investigate the prevalence and features of HTE individuals followed up in the Italian Cohort Naïve Antiretrovirals (ICONA) cohort as of December 31, 2021. METHODS: HTE were defined based on meeting specific conditions concerning their current ART and their ART history up to December 31, 2021. Descriptive statistics were performed by HTE status. Regression analyses explored factors associated with becoming HTE based on pre-ART patients' characteristics. Cluster dendrogram analysis provided insights into subgroups with inadequate responses based on clusters of differentiation (CD4) counts and viral load (VL) trajectories. RESULTS: Among the 8758 PLWH actively followed in our cohort, 163 individuals (1.9%), mainly female, younger, Italian, and infected through heterosexual contact, met the HTE criteria. A lower CD4 count at ART initiation (odds ratio [OR] 1.60 per 100 cells/mmc lower CD4, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-2.41, P = 0.03) and hepatitis C virus antibody positivity (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.16-3.11, P = 0.01) were associated with higher HTE risk. Thirty PLWH exhibited ongoing immune-virological failure (18% of the HTE subgroup and 0.003% of the total population). Thirty PLWH exhibited ongoing immune-virological failure (i.e., with a current CD4 count <200 cells/mmc or VL>200 copies/mL). A cluster analysis identified 13 (43%) with a current CD4 count <200 cells/mmc. Also, notably, 19/30 (63%) had major acquired resistance-associated mutations to at least one antiretroviral drug class. CONCLUSIONS: HTE is rare in our cohort and tends to co-exist with major resistance mutations. A focused investigation into treatment history and immuno-virological response is warranted, particularly given the availability of new antiretroviral drugs.

17.
Antimicrob Agents Chemother ; 68(4): e0134423, 2024 Apr 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38456707

ABSTRACT

Lenacapavir is a novel, first-in-class, multistage inhibitor of HIV-1 capsid function approved for the treatment of multidrug-resistant HIV-1 infection in combination with other antiretrovirals for heavily treatment-experienced people with HIV. Two Phase 1, open-label, parallel-group, single-dose studies assessed the pharmacokinetics (PK) of lenacapavir in participants with moderate hepatic impairment [Child-Pugh-Turcotte (CPT) Class B: score 7-9] or severe renal impairment [15 ≤ creatinine clearance (CLcr) ≤29 mL/min] to inform lenacapavir dosing in HIV-1-infected individuals with organ impairment. In both studies, a single oral dose of 300 mg lenacapavir was administered to participants with normal (n = 10) or impaired (n = 10) hepatic/renal function who were matched for age (±10 years), sex, and body mass index (±20%). Lenacapavir exposures [area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time 0 to infinity (AUCinf) and maximum concentration (Cmax)] were approximately 1.47- and 2.61-fold higher, respectively, in participants with moderate hepatic impairment compared to those with normal hepatic function, whereas lenacapavir AUCinf and Cmax were approximately 1.84- and 2.62-fold higher, respectively, in participants with severe renal impairment compared to those with normal renal function. Increased lenacapavir exposures with moderate hepatic or severe renal impairment were not considered clinically meaningful. Lenacapavir was considered generally safe and well tolerated in both studies. These results support the use of approved lenacapavir dosing regimen in patients with mild (CPT Class A: score 5-6) or moderate hepatic impairment as well as in patients with mild (60 ≤ CLcr ≤ 89 mL/min), moderate (30 ≤ CLcr ≤ 59 mL/min), and severe renal impairment.


Subject(s)
Liver Diseases , Renal Insufficiency , Humans , Area Under Curve , Renal Insufficiency/metabolism , Kidney/metabolism , Liver Diseases/drug therapy , Liver Diseases/metabolism
18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38530862

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Large inter-individual variability in the pharmacokinetics of rilpivirine and cabotegravir has been reported in the first weeks after starting long-acting injectable (LAI) therapy. Here, we assessed the distribution of rilpivirine and cabotegravir trough concentrations in people with HIV (PWH) on long-term LAI treatment. METHODS: Adult PWH treated with LAI for at least 32 weeks with an assessment of drug plasma trough concentrations were considered. The proportion of rilpivirine and cabotegravir plasma trough concentrations below four-times the protein-adjusted concentrations required for 90% inhibition of viral replication (4×PA-IC90) was estimated. RESULTS: Sixty-seven PWH were identified. LAI treatment duration was 216 ±â€Š80 weeks (range 32-320 weeks). Cabotegravir concentrations were associated with lower inter-individual variability compared with rilpivirine (45% versus 84%; P < 0.05). No differences were found in rilpivirine (160 ±â€Š118 versus 189 ±â€Š81 ng/mL; P = 0.430) and cabotegravir (1758 ±â€Š807 versus 1969 ±â€Š802 ng/mL; P = 0.416) trough concentrations in males (n = 55) versus females (n = 12). A non-significant trend for lower cabotegravir concentrations was found in PWH with a body mass index >30 kg/m2 (n = 9) versus non-obese participants (1916 ±â€Š905 versus 1606 ±â€Š576 ng/mL; P = 0.131). Three out of the 67 PWH had at least one drug concentration <4×PA-IC90: 100% of PWH had undetectable HIV viral load. CONCLUSIONS: At steady state, optimal systemic exposure of cabotegravir and rilpivirine was found in most PWH; cabotegravir trough concentrations were associated with lower inter-individual variability compared with rilpivirine. The study was not powered to assess the contribution of sex and/or body weight on LAI exposure due to the small number of females and obese PWH included.

19.
BMC Infect Dis ; 24(1): 316, 2024 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38486188

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: In 2022, the WHO reported that 29.8 million people around the world were living with HIV (PLHIV) and receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART), including 25| 375 people in Gabon (54% of all those living with HIV in the country). The literature reports a frequency of therapeutic failure with first-line antiretrovirals (ARVs) of between 20% and 82%. Unfortunately, data relating to the failure of second-line ARVs are scarce in Gabon. This study aims to determine the profiles of HIV drug resistance mutations related to protease inhibitors in Gabon. METHODOLOGY: Plasma from 84 PLHIV receiving ARVs was collected from 2019 to 2021, followed by RNA extraction, amplification, and sequencing of the protease gene. ARV resistance profiles were generated using the Stanford interpretation algorithm version 8.9-1 ( https://hivdb.stanford.edu ) and statistical analyses were performed using EpiInfo software version 7.2.1.0 (CDC, USA). RESULTS: Of 84 HIV plasma samples collected from 45 men and 39 women, 342 mutations were detected. Of these, 43.3% (148/342) were associated with nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs), 30.4% (104/342) with non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTIs), and 26.3% (90/342) with protease inhibitors (PIs). Most NRTI mutations were associated with thymidine analogues (TAMs) (50.7%; 75/148), including T215F/V (14.9%; 22/148), D67DN/E/G/N/T (10.1%; 15/148), M41L (9.5%; 14/148), and K70E/KN/S/R (9.5%; 14/148). Resistance mutations related to non-TAM NRTIs (33.1%; 49/148) were M184V (29.1%; 43/148), and L74I/V (8.1%; 12/148). NNRTI mutations were predominantly K103N/S (32.7%; 34/104), V108I (10.6%; 11/104), A98G (10.6%; 11/104), and P225H (9.6%; 10/104). Minor mutations associated with PIs (60.0%; 54/90) were predominantly K20I (15.6%; 14/90) and L10F/I/V (14.5%; 13/90). The major mutations associated with PIs (40.0%; 36/90) were M41L (12.2%; 11/90), I84V (6.7%; 06/90), and V82A (6.7%; 06/90). The four most prescribed therapeutic regimens were TDF + 3TC + LPV/r (20.3%; 17/84), ABC + DDI + LPV/r (17.9%; 15/84), TDF + FTC + LPV/r (11.9%; 10/84), and ABC + 3TC + LPV/r (11.9%; 10/84). CONCLUSION: This study revealed that HIV drug resistance mutations are common in Gabon. The major mutations associated with PIs were M41L, I84V, and V82A. There is a need for access to new NRTIs, NNRTIs, and PIs for a better therapeutic management of PLHIV in Gabon.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , HIV-1 , Male , Humans , Female , Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-HIV Agents/pharmacology , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Protease/genetics , Gabon , HIV-1/genetics , Anti-Retroviral Agents/therapeutic use , Protease Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Mutation , Drug Resistance, Viral/genetics
20.
Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther ; 22(4): 153-167, 2024 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-38517686

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The HIV/AIDS epidemic has been one of the greatest challenges in global health, significantly affecting women of reproductive potential. Considerable advances in antiretroviral therapy for women living with HIV have contributed to improvements in quality of life, better reproductive and birth outcomes, and a reduced risk of perinatal transmission. AREAS COVERED: Despite the progress made, persistent challenges in access and adherence to antiretroviral drugs may limit their benefits for some women. More pharmacokinetic and safety studies in pregnant and lactating women are urgently needed, as are prospective surveillance systems to evaluate associations between fetal and infant antiretroviral exposures, drug-drug interactions, and pregnancy outcomes. EXPERT OPINION: Multipurpose technologies, such as combined HIV and other STI or unintended pregnancy prevention, and innovative delivery methods, such as the development of long-acting antiretrovirals, have the potential to reduce adherence challenges and enhance quality of life for women with HIV. Parallel advances in drug safety testing and surveillance are needed to ensure the health and safety of women with or at risk for HIV and children at risk for perinatal transmission.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , HIV Infections , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious , Pregnancy , Infant , Child , Female , Humans , Anti-HIV Agents/adverse effects , Pregnancy Complications, Infectious/drug therapy , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Lactation , Infectious Disease Transmission, Vertical/prevention & control , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control
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