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1.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33804085

ABSTRACT

Least developed countries (LDCs) are home to over a billion people throughout Africa, Asia-Pacific, and the Caribbean. The people who live in LDCs represent just 13% of the global population but 40% of its growth rate. Characterised by low incomes and low education levels, high proportions of the population practising subsistence living, inadequate infrastructure, and lack of economic diversity and resilience, LDCs face serious health, environmental, social, and economic challenges. Many communities in LDCs have very limited access to adequate sanitation, safe water, and clean cooking fuel. LDCs are environmentally vulnerable; facing depletion of natural resources, the effects of unsustainable urbanization, and the impacts of climate change, leaving them unable to safeguard their children's lifetime health and wellbeing. This paper reviews and describes the complexity of the causal relationships between children's health and its environmental, social, and economic influences in LDCs using a causal loop diagram (CLD). The results identify some critical feedbacks between poverty, family size, population growth, children's and adults' health, inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH), air pollution, and education levels in LDCs and suggest leverage points for potential interventions. A CLD can also be a starting point for quantitative systems science approaches in the field, which can predict and compare the effects of interventions.

2.
Environ Monit Assess ; 193(5): 246, 2021 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33821337

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the occurrence of drugs and endocrine disrupters in water supplies and in water for human consumption. Twelve sampling campaigns were carried out during the rainy and dry season at four sampling points in the Bolonha Complex, in the city of Belém, northern region of Brazil: Bolonha reservoir (catchment) and Water Treatment Plant (WTP) Bolonha (filtered water chamber, treated water tank, and washing water from the filters). The determination of the compounds was performed by solid phase extraction followed by gas and liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. The results confirmed the anthropic influence that the reservoir and WTP-Bolonha have been suffering, as consequence of the discharge of domestic sewage in natura. Among 25 microcontaminants analyzed, 12 were quantified in raw water and 10 in treated water. The antiallergic Loratadine (LRT) was the contaminant that occurred most frequently in all sample points, having been poorly removed (median 12%) in the conventional treatment used. Losartana (LST), 4-octylphenol (4-OP), and Bisphenol A (BPA) also occurred very frequently in raw water with concentrations ranging from 3.7 to 194 ng L-1. Although such contaminants occurred in treated water in concentrations varying from 4.0 to 135 ng L-1, the estimated margin of exposure ranged from 55 to 3333 times which indicates low risk of human exposure to such contaminants through ingestion of treated water.


Subject(s)
Endocrine Disruptors , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Brazil , Endocrine Disruptors/analysis , Environmental Monitoring , Humans , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
3.
Sao Paulo Med J ; 139(1): 72-76, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33656128

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus is a family of viruses that cause respiratory infections. From cases first recorded in China at the end of 2019, a new type of virus in this family, named severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was discovered. The disease caused by this virus, COVID-19, was brought into Brazil by people in social classes with greater purchasing power, but groups with larger demographic dimensions have tended to become more affected over time. Poor sanitation can generate risky situations and behavior among people who live in spaces with characteristics that limit their quality of life. Installation of piped water in homes and basic education for the population are fundamental measures for disease control, including in relation to COVID-19. In this updating article, the COVID-19 pandemic was analyzed in the context of iniquities in Brazil (comparing these with the situation in other countries). A bibliographic search of texts relating to basic sanitation, socioeconomic development and transmission of COVID-19 in Brazil and worldwide was conducted.


Subject(s)
/epidemiology , Pandemics , Sanitation , Brazil/epidemiology , Humans , Quality of Life , Socioeconomic Factors
5.
Ecotoxicol Environ Saf ; 214: 112049, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647852

ABSTRACT

The disposal of untreated sanitary sewage in the soil has several consequences for human health and leads to environmental risks; thus, it is necessary investigating, monitoring and remediating the affected sites. The aims of the current study are to evaluate ecotoxicological effects on Eisenia andrei earthworms exposed to soil subjected to sources of sanitary sewage discharge and to investigate whether prevention values established by the Brazilian legislation for soil quality, associated with the incidence of chemical substances in it, are satisfactory enough to assure the necessary quality for different organisms. Earthworms' behavior, reproduction, acetylcholinesterase activity, catalase, superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels were evaluated. The reproduction and behavior of earthworms exposed to sanitary sewage were adversely affected. Increased superoxide dismutase and catalase activity acted as antioxidant defense mechanism. Significantly increased lipid peroxidation levels and acetylcholinesterase activity inhibition have indicated lipid peroxidation in cell membrane and neurotransmission changes, respectively. Results have confirmed that sanitary sewage induced oxidative stress in earthworms. In addition, based on biochemical data analysis, the integrated biomarker response (IBR) has evidenced different toxicity levels in earthworms between the investigated points. Finally, results have indicated that effluents released into the soil, without proper treatment, lead to contaminant accumulation due to soil saturation and it can hinder different processes and biological development taking place in the soil. In addition, the current study has shown that physical-chemical analyses alone are not enough to assess soil quality, since it is also requires adopting an ecotoxicological approach. Brazilian legislation focused on soil quality must be revised and new guiding values must be proposed.


Subject(s)
Oligochaeta/physiology , Soil Pollutants/analysis , Animals , Antioxidants/metabolism , Brazil , Catalase/metabolism , Ecotoxicology , Environmental Pollution/analysis , Humans , Malondialdehyde/metabolism , Oligochaeta/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Sewage , Soil/chemistry , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism
6.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 47(2): 388-394, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154447

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: To describe penile fracture (PF) findings with non-sexual etiology in a referral emergency hospital, with emphasis on demographic data, clinical and intraoperative findings and long-term outcomes. Materials and Methods: Patients with PF of non-sexual cause operated at our institution from January 2014 to January 2019 were submitted to surgical treatment and monitored for at least three months after surgery. Etiology of trauma, epidemiological and clinical presentation data, time to intervention and operative findings were reviewed retrospectively. The evaluation of postoperative erectile function was carried out by filling out the International Index of Erection Function - 5 (IIEF-5). The tool used to assess urinary function was the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) questionnaire. Results: Of a total of 149 patients submitted to surgical treatment for PF, 18 (12%) reported non-sexual etiology. Twelve (66.6%) cases were due to penile manipulation through the act of bending the penis during morning erection, three (16.6%) when rolling over in bed with erect penis, one (5.5%) when embracing the wife during erection, one (5.5%) to laying on the partner with erect penis and the other (5.5%) when sitting on the toilet with an erection. Operative findings were unilateral corpus cavernosum injury in all cases. Only one (5.5%) patient had a partial urethral lesion. Follow-up time varied from 3 to 18 months (mean, 10.1 months). Three (16.6%) patients developed erectile dysfunction six months after surgery. However, all of them responded to treatment with IPDE-5 and reported improvement of erection, with no need for medication, on reevaluation after 18 months. One (5.5%) patient developed penile curvature < 30 degrees. Thirteen (72.2%) patients developed penile nodules. No patient presented voiding complaints during follow-up. Conclusions: PF is a rare urologic emergency, especially with the non-sexual etiology. However, PF should always be considered when the clinical presentation is suggestive, regardless of the etiology. Penile manipulation and roll over in bed were the most common non-sexual causes. These cases are related to low-energy traumas, usually leading to unilateral rupture of corpus cavernosum. Urethral involvement is uncommon but may be present. Early treatment has good long-term clinical outcome, especially when performed in specialized centers with extensive experience in FP.

7.
Arch Virol ; 166(5): 1337-1344, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33683473

ABSTRACT

A reservoir of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) is present in pathogenic, commensal, and environmental bacteria as well as in mobile genetic elements, including bacteriophages. Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are considered hotspots for the spread of ARGs. The aim of this work was to analyze the diversity of the highly prevalent ARGs blaCTX-M and blaTEM in bacterial and bacteriophage fractions associated with human and animal environments through the study of urban waste and animal residues discharged into WWTPs to provide information about the composition and maintenance of the current resistome in Buenos Aires, Argentina. The results showed that a putative extended-spectrum variant of the blaTEM gene was the most frequently detected, with blaTEM-116 being the most prevalent, while a recently described type, blaTEM-229, was also found. In the bacteriophage fraction, we detected blaCTX-M genes from four out of the five clusters described. The detection of blaCTX- M-9-like and blaCTX-M-25-like genes was unexpected based on surveys of the ARGs from clinical pathogens circulating regionally. The finding of divergent blaCTX-M sequences associated with previously reported environmental genes argues in favor of the natural environment as a reservoir of resistance genes. ARGs were detected in bacteriophages as frequently as in bacterial communities, and furthermore, the blaCTX-M genes were more diverse in the bacteriophage fraction. Bacteriophages might therefore play a role in the spread of ARGs in the environment, but they might also be used as "reporters" for monitoring circulating ARGs.


Subject(s)
Bacteriophages/genetics , Waste Water/virology , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Animals , Argentina , Bacteria/genetics , Drug Resistance, Microbial/genetics , Genes, Bacterial/genetics , Genes, Viral/genetics , Genetic Variation , Humans , Phylogeny , Waste Water/microbiology , beta-Lactamases/classification
8.
Braz J Biol ; 82: e234471, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33681897

ABSTRACT

High doses of antibiotics used in hospitals can affect the microbial composition of sewers, selecting resistant bacteria. In this sense, we evaluated the antibiotic resistance profile and the multiresistant phenotype of bacteria isolated in sewage from a tertiary hospital in the interior São Paulo state, Brazil. For bacteria isolation, 10 µL of sewage samples were sown in selective culture media and the isolates were identified using VITEK-2 automatized system. The antibiotic sensitivity test was performed by disk diffusion. High percentages of resistance were found for amoxicillin, ampicillin, ceftazidime, clindamycin, vancomycin and the multidrug-resistant phenotype (MDR) was attributed to 60.7% of the isolates. Our results show bacteria classified as critical/high priority by WHO List of Priority Pathogens (Enterococcus and Staphylococcus aureus resistant to vancomycin and Enterobacteriaceae resistant to carbapenems) in hospital sewage. Therefore, the implementation of disinfection technologies for hospital sewage would reduce the bacterial load in the sewage that will reach urban wastewater treatment plants, minimizing superficial water contamination and bacterial resistance spread in the environment.


Subject(s)
Bacteria , Sewage , Bacteria/genetics , Brazil , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Phenotype , Tertiary Care Centers
9.
Waste Manag ; 124: 314-324, 2021 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33647557

ABSTRACT

Municipal solid waste (MSW) management is an important challenge in developing and emerging countries, where two realities co-exist. On the one hand, their metropolitan cities exhibit an integrated MSW system with a specialized fleet for the collection and landfills for the final disposal, concentrating on environmental initiatives such as municipal recycling programs. On the other hand, their regional cities show an MSW system based on adapted transports for collection and open dumps for final disposal. Besides, they face other environmental problems due to local conditions. This research proposes a life cycle assessment (LCA) approach to close the gap between these two realities. In particular, we study the city of Valdivia (Chile), one of the main regional capitals of South America, which shares similarities with other southern regional cities in the Global South. This city disposes 95% of its MSW in open dumps and presents one of the highest environmental pollution rates in Latin America. We analyze the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy performance of six scenarios, seeking a solution for these problems. The results obtained show that a waste-to-energy scenario would generate savings of GHG emission and particulate matter, reaching 11.3% and 21.8%, respectively. Using our LCA approach, we can provide environmental evidence to highlight the importance of improving MSW management in regional cities, closing the gap with MSW management in metropolitan cities, and contributing to national targets such as United Nations Sustainable Development Goals and Nationally-Determined Contributions.


Subject(s)
Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Animals , Cities , Developing Countries , Life Cycle Stages , Solid Waste/analysis , South America
10.
J Environ Manage ; 287: 112286, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33706091

ABSTRACT

This study aims to evaluate micropollutant occurrence and removal in a low-middle income country (LMIC) by investigating the occurrence of 28 chemicals from different classes (triclosan, 15 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), 4 estrogens and 8 polybrominated diphenyl ether (PBDE) congeners) in three technologically diverse full-scale Brazilian wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). These chemicals were detected at concentrations similar to those reported in other low-middle income countries (LMICs) and high-income countries (HICs) (0.1-49 µg/L) indicating their widespread use globally and the need for more studies in LMICs that are typically characterized by relatively inadequate wastewater treatment barriers. Among the three different WWTPs investigated for removal of these chemicals, the least energy intensive system, waste stabilization ponds (WSPs), was the most effective (95-99%) compared to the activated sludge (79-94%), and Up-flow sludge blanket reactor (UASB) with trickling filters system (89-95%). These results highlight the potential of WSPs for micropollutant removal-especially in warm climates. However, the effluent from all three WWTP could pose a risk to aquatic organisms when discharged into the receiving waters as the effluent concentrations of triclosan, some estrogens, PAHs and BDE 209 were above European environmental quality standards (EQS) or predicted no effect concentration (PNEC values), indicating that receiving water bodies could benefit from further treatment. In combination, these results help to further understand prevailing concentrations of micropollutants globally and fate in current wastewater treatment systems.


Subject(s)
Water Pollutants, Chemical , Water Purification , Anaerobiosis , Brazil , Sewage , Waste Disposal, Fluid , Waste Water , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis
11.
Sci Total Environ ; 771: 145436, 2021 Jun 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33736166

ABSTRACT

The emerging torque teno virus (TTV) has been identified as a biohazard marker of anthropocentric pollution and contamination in drinking water, natural water and wastewater systems (DWNWWS). Therefore, this study aimed at assessing prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS. The study systematically identified and meta-analyzed published studies on TTV prevalence in DWNWWS hosted in Dimensions, Google Scholar, PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus databases using a random-effects model and mixed-effects meta-regression model for sensitivity analysis. Furthermore, the meta-analysis was stratified to estimate water type-specific TTV prevalence. The study found a total of 58 articles, of which 13 articles subdivided into 31 studies with 374 TTV positive cases and 862 total sample sizes were systematically reviewed and meta-analyzed. The pooled prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS was 37.18% (95%CI: 23.76-55.55%). Prevalence of TTV was significantly different across water types and it was 56.67% (95%CI: 36.94-75.46%) in wastewater, 26.72% (95%CI: 6.87-52.56%) in river water, and 17.17% (95%CI: 0.54-45.39%) in drinking water. TTV incidence in seawater and groundwater was 0% and 25.0% respectively. Funnel plots constructed and associated statistics of rank correlation test and Egger's regression test in this study, show lack of publication bias in the pooled prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS. Although, sample type (QM(df = 1) = 6.9656, p = 0.0083) and concentration methods (QM(df = 1) = 3.8055, p = 0.0511) significantly moderated and accounted for 15.39% and 6.00% of heterogeneity in the prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS respectively. In conclusion, research focus/monitoring activities on TTV is generally inadequate and potential risk of TTV in DWNWWS is underappreciated in most nations; the analyzed studies were from 7 countries (USA, Japan, Italy, Iran, Germany, Egypt, and Brazil). Finally, inefficient concentration method severely influences the prevalence of TTV in DWNWWS and could give rise to underestimation of TTV and mar TTV-based source-tracking of anthropogenic pollutions.


Subject(s)
Drinking Water , Torque teno virus , Brazil , Egypt , Germany , Iran , Italy , Japan , Prevalence , Waste Water
12.
Sci Total Environ ; 779: 146279, 2021 Mar 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33743461

ABSTRACT

Investment in sanitation and drinking water infrastructure is essential for universal access to these services in developing countries. Universal coverage of water and sanitation services (WSS) can prevent the dissemination of waterborne diseases and mitigate their adverse effects. These diseases are responsible for many deaths worldwide, especially among the disadvantaged population and children. A causal effect can be established between WSS investment and hospital admissions due to waterborne diseases. Therefore, we considered an innovative network-DEA approach that models the link between serially connected subsystems (upstream investment and downstream hospitalizations). This approach allowed us: to measure the efficiency of both subsystems; estimate the amount of (efficient) investment necessary to universalize the access to proper WSS infrastructure; and mitigate hospital admissions due to waterborne diseases. We used the Brazil case study to test our model. On average, Brazilian states could increase the number of people not requiring hospitalizations due to waterborne diseases by 157 thousand per R$100 million invested in sanitation and 26 thousand per R$100 million invested in drinking water. Our results suggest that relatively small (efficient) investment in those two infrastructure types has a massive impact on hospitalizations. This impact would be more significant than the investment in WSS coverage. Therefore, if safely managed, WSS would cover all citizens, and Brazil would come closer to developed countries.

13.
Water Sci Technol ; 83(5): 1141-1151, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33724943

ABSTRACT

Increasing atmospheric N2O concentrations is of great environmental concern due to the role of this gas in climate change and stratospheric ozone destruction. Nitrogen-enriched lotic water bodies are significant sources of N2O. However, N2O emissions from rivers and streams, particularly those that receive untreated or insufficiently treated wastewater discharge, are poorly understood, especially in Brazil. The present study investigated the effects of the discharge of untreated or insufficiently treated wastewater on the spatial-temporal variability of N2O emissions from different streams in Ilha Grande, located within the Abraão hydrographic system, in southeastern Brazil. Estimated N2O fluxes determined in Abraão streams and upstream of the urbanized stretch ranged from 18.4 and 96.5 µg N m-2 h-1. Inside the urbanized stretch, estimated N2O fluxes ranged from 110 to 561 µg N m-2 h-1 under non-limited dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions and 133 to 2,229 µg N m-2 h-1 under hypoxic conditions (DO < 2 mg O2 L-1). High spatial and temporal variability in N2O emissions were noted, with the highest emissions in Abraão urban areas. Therefore, the differences observed between N2O fluxes from the studied streams at Abraão seem to be associated with different lotic water body conditions, such as availability of reactive N and DO.


Subject(s)
Nitrous Oxide , Waste Water , Brazil , Nitrogen/analysis , Nitrous Oxide/analysis , Rivers , Waste Water/analysis
14.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud; 20210300. 12 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERÚ | ID: biblio-1151993

ABSTRACT

El documento contiene las pautas y acciones para desarrollar y afianzar la coordinación y articulación funcional entre el Ministerio de Salud y los Gobiernos regionales para el cumplimiento de los lineamientos, objetivos, disposiciones y logro de resultados sanitarios establecidos por la Autoridad Nacional de Salud, en un marco de corresponsabilidad y complementariedad, frente a la emergencia sanitaria COVID-19 y otros riesgos sanitarios.


Subject(s)
Bathroom Equipment , Health , Guidelines as Topic , Coronavirus Infections , Equipment and Supplies
15.
Waste Manag ; 125: 98-102, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33677182

ABSTRACT

Solid waste management is a global challenge impacting the lives of thousands of people, among them the recyclable materials waste pickers, through the separation and sale of these materials, make a living for themselves. These workers face unhealthy working conditions and are exposed to various occupational risks, which predispose the prevalence of musculoskeletal as chronic back problems. METHOD: Exploratory cross-sectional study with a semi-structured questionnaire to investigate the prevalence of back pain and related risk factors. RESULTS: 1.025 waste pickers were interviewed, and 970 records of chronic back pain were detected. Among them, 660 were women (68.04%), 310 were men (31.96%), the average age of 40.21 years; 597 were single (61.92%); 629 (64.84%) had over 11 years of work; 942 (97.11%) worked exclusively in the open dump, 899 (92.68%) with bags, 922 (95.05%) on dayshift. We found significant associations between gender (p < 0.001); age (p < 0.001); time at work (p < 0.022) and place at work (p < 0.001). After adjusting, there were higher prevalence of chronic back pain women (OR = 1.7), older age (OR = 2.64); working more than 11 years (OR = 1.09); and working on the open dump (OR = 2.8). CONCLUSION: The prevalence of subjective symptoms of musculoskeletal disorders was high. Women, over 36 years old, who worked more than 11 h a day in the open dump were more exposed to suffer from chronic back problems. The importance of urgently addressing the labor impacts related to solid waste management in developing countries to protect these workers and, especially, women involved in this work is emphasized.


Subject(s)
Musculoskeletal Diseases , Refuse Disposal , Adult , Aged , Brazil/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Musculoskeletal Diseases/epidemiology , Prevalence , Recycling , Risk Factors
16.
Waste Manag ; 125: 235-248, 2021 Apr 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33711737

ABSTRACT

Municipal Solid Waste Management is yet to be eco-effectively performed, especially in developing countries. In Brazil, a considerable fraction of waste has been improperly landfilled, generating environmental, social and economic problems. In 2018, the government of the state of Paraná released a revised version of its waste management plan, defining improvement strategies to be gradually implemented until 2038. However, these strategies' eco-effectiveness has not been forecasted, nor the plan was deployed to the regional level. This research aims to fill this gap, downscaling the plan to the region of Norte Pioneiro, simulating its implementation and monitoring environmental and economic benefits. The dynamics of waste generation, collection and disposal are investigated using an agent-based model, considering the four population growth scenarios addressed in the plan. Targets for strategies of waste reduction, collection, source-separation and charging of waste fees are modelled. Multiple simulation runs were performed and outputs assessed and discussed. Results show that, if the plan is thoroughly implemented since 2020, at least 650 kilotons of avoided CO2eq emissions and US$ 40 million in avoided expenditures can be achieved in the most conservative scenario by 2038. Implications from the strategies proposed in the plan are highlighted, and recommendations to improve the plan's eco-effectiveness are outlined.


Subject(s)
Refuse Disposal , Waste Management , Brazil , Greenhouse Effect , Solid Waste , Systems Analysis
17.
PLoS Negl Trop Dis ; 15(3): e0009256, 2021 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33788864

ABSTRACT

Residents of urban slums suffer from a high burden of zoonotic diseases due to individual, socioeconomic, and environmental factors. We conducted a cross-sectional sero-survey in four urban slums in Salvador, Brazil, to characterize how poverty and sanitation contribute to the transmission of rat-borne leptospirosis. Sero-prevalence in the 1,318 participants ranged between 10.0 and 13.3%. We found that contact with environmental sources of contamination, rather than presence of rat reservoirs, is what leads to higher risk for residents living in areas with inadequate sanitation. Further, poorer residents may be exposed away from the household, and ongoing governmental interventions were not associated with lower transmission risk. Residents at higher risk were aware of their vulnerability, and their efforts improved the physical environment near their household, but did not reduce their infection chances. This study highlights the importance of understanding the socioeconomic and environmental determinants of risk, which ought to guide intervention efforts.

18.
An Acad Bras Cienc ; 93(1): e20200623, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33729295

ABSTRACT

In Brazil, there are about 2.5 million tubular wells in which 88% of them are illegal, extracting more than 17,580 Mm3/yr. This irregular use may cause sustainability issues that may be economic, social, or environmental (overexploitation, well losses and associated increases of water conflicts; aquifer contamination; and land subsidence). This paper aims to address the illegal wells in Brazil and discuss measures to minimize it. Conclusions indicate that users do not understand the aquifer dynamic and, therefore, do not have a proper understanding of problems such as loss of water quality and quantity caused by the excess of groundwater exploitation. This creates a false idea that there are no water conflicts among users, which causes a lack of engagement by society. Without groundwater users and stakeholder pressure, the government does not aim to control or close illegal wells, and the "vicious cycle" persists. The one way to break this "vicious cycle" would be programs of social communication and users' participation, coupled with improvements to the control apparatus and inspection from State institutions, making sure that there is correct management and not only legislations that are not applied.


Subject(s)
Groundwater , Water Pollutants, Chemical , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Water Pollutants, Chemical/analysis , Water Quality , Water Supply , Water Wells
19.
Braz J Microbiol ; 2021 Feb 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-33619697

ABSTRACT

Bacillus cereus is a relevant foodborne pathogen and biofilm producer which can contaminate and persist in the processing environment of both high and low water activity foods. Because of this, it is crucial to understand better the resistance of this pathogen biofilm to different sanitation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dry sanitizing treatments against B. cereus biofilm formed on stainless steel (SS) and polypropylene (PP). Biofilm formation was held through the static method at 25 °C. After 4 days of incubation, coupons were exposed for up to 30 min to UV-C light, dry heat, gaseous ozone, 70% ethanol, and a commercial sanitizer. Sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/l) was also tested in two different pH values (7 and 11) for comparison purposes. In general, the surface material did not influence (p > 0.05) the performance of the treatments. From 10 min of exposure, 70% ethanol and the commercial product caused the lowest reductions on both surfaces. In addition, dry heat exhibited a poor performance on PP, with reductions < 1 log CFU/cm2. UV-C light on SS and PP and ozone on PP achieved reductions around 2 log CFU/cm2 after 30 min. The same level of reduction was obtained after 5 or 10 min using sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/l). Therefore, the results showed that dry sanitizing methods are not as effective as sodium hypochlorite against B. cereus biofilms. Further studies to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of dry methods are necessary.

20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): 11-17, feb. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147054

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las infecciones por Staphylococcus aureus resistente a meticilina adquirido de la comunidad (SARM-AC) se han incrementado en los últimos años. Neumonías necrotizantes y empiemas por SARM-AC son cada vez más frecuentes en niños.Objetivos. Determinar la prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC y sus características clínico-epidemiológicas, en comparación con las neumonías por Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) en la misma población.Material y métodos. Estudio descriptivo, observacional, transversal, de pacientes internados con neumonía por SARM-AC en el Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (período: 1/2008-12/2017).Resultados. De 54 neumonías por Staphylococcus aureus, 46 (el 85 %) fueron SARM-AC. El índice de neumonías por SARM-AC varió de 4,9/10 000 (2008) a 10/10 000 egresos (2017). Presentaron sepsis/shock séptico el 41 %; empiema, el 96 %; neumotórax, el 35 %; requirieron drenaje pleural el 90 % y toilette quirúrgica el 55 %. Ingresaron a Terapia Intensiva el 65 %; la mitad necesitó asistencia respiratoria mecánica. Hubo dos muertes. Resistencia de las cepas: el 17 % a gentamicina, el 13 % a eritromicina, el 11 % a clindamicina. En las neumonías por SARM-AC vs. las neumonías por SP, se observó mayor riesgo de sepsis (IC 95 %; RR 7,38; 3,32-16,38) e ingreso a Terapia Intensiva (RR 4,29; 2,70-6,83). No hubo muertes por SP.Conclusiones. La prevalencia de neumonías por SARM-AC se duplicó durante la última década. Comparadas con las neumonías por SP, las neumonías por SARM-AC se acompañaron, más frecuentemente, de cuadros de sepsis y shockséptico, ingreso a Terapia Intensiva y asistencia respiratoria.


Introduction. Community-acquired methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (CA-MRSA) infections have increased in recent years. CA-MRSA necrotizing pneumonia and empyema are now more common in children.Objectives. To determine the prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia and its clinical and epidemiological characteristics compared to Streptococcus pneumoniae (SP) pneumonia in the same population.Material and methods. Descriptive, observational, cross-sectional study of patients hospitalized due to CA-MRSA pneumonia at Hospital de Niños Víctor J. Vilela (period: January 2008-December 2017).Results. Out of 54 Staphylococcus aureus pneumonia cases, 46 (85 %) corresponded to CA-MRSA. The rate of CA-MRSA pneumonia ranged from 4.9/10 000 (2008) to 10/10 000 hospital discharges (2017). Sepsis/septic shock was observed in 41 %; empyema, in 96 %; pneumothorax, in 35 %; 90 % of cases required pleural drainage and 55 %, surgical debridement. Also, 65 % of patients were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU); half of them required assisted mechanical ventilation. Two patients died. Strain resistance: 17 %, gentamicin; 13 %, erythromycin; and 11 %, clindamycin. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia showed a higher risk for sepsis (95 % confidence interval; relative risk: 7.38; 3.32-16.38) and admission to the ICU (RR: 4.29; 2.70-6.83). No patient died due to SP pneumonia.Conclusions. The prevalence of CA-MRSA pneumonia doubled in the past decade. Compared to SP pneumonia, CA-MRSA pneumonia was more commonly accompanied by sepsis and septic shock, admission to the ICU, and ventilatory support requirement


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Staphylococcal Infections/epidemiology , Community-Acquired Infections/epidemiology , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Argentina/epidemiology , Staphylococcal Infections/diagnosis , Staphylococcal Infections/microbiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Community-Acquired Infections/diagnosis , Community-Acquired Infections/microbiology , Hospitals, Pediatric
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