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Braz. j. biol ; 84: e254487, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS-Express | MEDLINE, LILACSEXPRESS, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1364508


Abstract Biological samples obtained from a small temporary pond of northern Colombia yielded the first record Coronatella undata Sousa, Elmoor-Loureiro and Santos, 2015 and of the male of C. monacantha (Sars, 1901) for Colombia. In this study, the morphology of female of Coronatella undata and female and male of C. monacantha was described and compared to other species within the genus. C. undata was originally described from Brazil and, among the species of the Coronatella monacantha complex, seems to be closely related to C. acuticostata (Sars, 1903). C. undata shows some similarities with C. monacantha, but it can be identified by important diagnostic characters such as: 1) posterior-ventral corner of valve with two denticles, 2) seta on exopodite of trunk limb II rudimentary, 3) filter comb of trunk limb II with six setae, 4) ODL seta of trunk limb I shorter than longest seta of IDL. C. monacantha is the most reported species in the Neotropical region and the male most resemble C. paulinae Sousa, Elmoor-Loureiro & Santos, 2015 in relation to (i), length/wide of postabdomen ratio (ii) basal spine almost straight and (iii)) long basal spine reaching the mid-length of basal spine. However, they can be separated by (i) number of lateral seta on the antennule, (ii) postanal angle, (iii) position of gonopore (iv) presence of a denticle on posterior-ventral corner of valve

Resumo Amostras biológicas obtidas de uma pequena lagoa temporária do norte da Colômbia proporcionaram o primeiro registro de Coronatella undata Sousa, Elmoor-Loureiro e Santos, 2015 e do macho de Coronatella monacantha (Sars, 1901) na Colômbia. Neste estudo, foi descrita a morfologia de fêmeas de C. undata e de fêmeas e machos de C. monacantha, comparando-a com outras espécies do gênero. Coronatella undata foi descrita originalmente no Brasil e, entre as espécies do complexo C. monacantha, parece estar intimamente relacionada com Coronatella acuticostata (Sars, 1903). Coronatella undata apresenta algumas semelhanças com C. monacantha, mas pode ser identificada por seus principais caracteres, tais como: 1) ângulo posterior ventral da valva com dois dentículos; 2) cerda rudimentar no exopodito do ramo do tronco II; 3) filtro da gnatobase do apêndice torácico II com seis cerdas; 4) cerda ODL do membro do tronco I mais curta que a cerda mais longa do IDL. Coronatella monacantha é a espécie mais relatada na região neotropical, e o macho se assemelha mais a Coronatella paulinae Sousa, Elmoor-Loureiro & Santos em relação à/ao: (i) razão comprimento / largura do pós-abdômen, (ii) espinho basal quase reto e (iii) espinho basal longo com a metade do comprimento do espinho basal. No entanto, eles podem ser separados pelo/pela: (i) número de cerdas laterais na antênula, (ii) ângulo postanal, (iii) posição do gonóporo e (iv) presença de dentículo no canto ventral posterior da valva.

Bioact Mater ; 19: 569-580, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35574062


The ongoing pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, is influencing global health. Moreover, there is a major threat of future coronaviruses affecting the entire world in a similar, or even more dreadful, manner. Therefore, effective and biocompatible therapeutic options against coronaviruses are urgently needed. To address this challenge, medical specialists require a well-informed and safe approach to treating human coronaviruses (HCoVs). Herein, an environmental friendly approach for viral inactivation, based on plasma technology, was considered. A microwave plasma system was employed for the generation of the high amount of gaseous nitric oxide to prepare nitric oxide enriched plasma-activated water (NO-PAW), the effects of which on coronaviruses, have not been reported to date. To determine these effects, alpha-HCoV-229E was used in an experimental model. We found that NO-PAW treatment effectively inhibited coronavirus infection in host lung cells, visualized by evaluating the cytopathic effect and expression level of spike proteins. Interestingly, NO-PAW showed minimal toxicity towards lung host cells, suggesting its potential for therapeutic application. Moreover, this new approach resulted in viral inactivation and greatly improved the gene levels involved in host antiviral responses. Together, our findings provide evidence of an initiation point for further progress toward the clinical development of antiviral treatments, including such coronaviruses.

Comput Stand Interfaces ; 83: 103643, 2023 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35400843


The COVID-19 pandemic has severely affected daily life and caused a great loss to the global economy. Due to the very urgent need for identifying close contacts of confirmed patients in the current situation, the development of automated contact tracing app for smart devices has attracted more attention all over the world. Compared with expensive manual tracing approach, automated contact tracing apps can offer fast and precise tracing service, however, over-pursing high efficiency would lead to the privacy-leaking issue for app users. By combing with the benign properties (e.g., anonymity, decentralization, and traceability) of blockchain, we propose an efficient privacy-preserving solution in automated tracing scenario. Our main technique is a combination of non-interactive zero-knowledge proof and multi-signature with public key aggregation. By means of aggregating multiple signatures from different contacts at the mutual commitment phase, we only need fewer zero-knowledge proofs to complete the task of identifying contacts. It inherently leads to the benefits of saving storage and consuming less time for running verification algorithm on blockchain. Furthermore, we perform an experimental comparison by timing the execution of signature verification with and without aggregate signature, respectively. It shows that our solution can actually preserve the full-fledged privacy protection property with a lower computational cost.

Braz. j. biol ; 83: e248281, 2023. tab
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1350304


Abstract The COVID-19 is a contagious viral disease, was first emerged in Wuhan, China in December 2019 and became the whole world on alert. The mortality rate in top most countries in Asia with special reference to Pakistan has been focused. Since February 26 to September 2020 the total confirmed cases and mortality rate was measured through Wikipedia and the notable journals. Iran is the only country having highest number of deaths (5.73%) followed by Indonesia (3.77%) while Saudi Arabia shows the lowest number of deaths as 1.39%. In Pakistan the first case was confirmed in 26th February, 2020. The nCov-19 has closely related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) hence SARS COV-2 was named. This virus is responsible for more than 33.9 million deaths in over all the world as of 20th September, 2020. The number of new cases is increasing time to time. Sindh province of Pakistan has reported the highest number of cases till September, 20, 2020 as compared to other parts of the country and has the highest number of death followed by Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Because of the person to person contact the disease is spreading rapidly. The individuals who has already infected with other diseases like cancer or diabetic etc. are vulnerable. The nCOV-19 is the most contagious due to its mode of transmission. There is still no vaccine is available for the treatment of disease caused by nCoV-2019. It is therefore the only option to control this pandemic is to adopt effective preventive measures.

Resumo A covid-19 é uma doença viral contagiosa, que surgiu pela primeira vez em Wuhan, China, em dezembro de 2019, e deixou o mundo todo em alerta. A taxa de mortalidade na maioria dos principais países da Ásia, com referência especial ao Paquistão, foi enfocada. De 26 de fevereiro a setembro de 2020, o total de casos confirmados e a taxa de mortalidade foram medidos por meio da Wikipedia e de periódicos notáveis. O Irã é o único país com maior número de mortes (5,73%), seguido pela Indonésia (3,77%), enquanto a Arábia Saudita mostra o menor número de mortes, 1,39%. No Paquistão, o primeiro caso foi confirmado em 26 de fevereiro de 2020. O nCov-19 está intimamente relacionado à síndrome respiratória aguda grave (SARS), daí o nome SARS COV-2. Esse vírus é responsável por mais de 33,9 milhões de mortes em todo o mundo em 20 de setembro de 2020. O número de novos casos está aumentando de tempos em tempos. A província de Sindh, no Paquistão, registrou o maior número de casos até 20 de setembro de 2020, em comparação com outras partes do país, e tem o maior número de mortes, seguida por Khyber Pakhtunkhwa. Por causa do contato pessoa a pessoa, a doença está se espalhando rapidamente. Indivíduos que já foram diagnosticados com outras doenças, como câncer ou diabetes, etc. são mais vulneráveis. O nCOV-19 é o mais contagioso devido ao seu modo de transmissão. Ainda não há vacina disponível para o tratamento da doença causada pelo nCoV-2019. Portanto, a única opção para controlar essa pandemia é a adoção de medidas preventivas eficazes.

Humans , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , China , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247237, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339386


Abstract Novel coronavirus (nCoV) namely "SARS-CoV-2" is being found responsible for current PANDEMIC commenced from Wuhan (China) since December 2019 and has been described with epidemiological linkage to China in about 221 countries and territories until now. In this study we have characterized the genetic lineage of SARS-CoV-2 and report the recombination within the genus and subgenus of coronaviruses. Phylogenetic relationship of thirty nine coronaviruses belonging to its four genera and five subgenera was analyzed by using the Neighbor-joining method using MEGA 6.0. Phylogenetic trees of full length genome, various proteins (spike, envelope, membrane and nucleocapsid) nucleotide sequences were constructed separately. Putative recombination was probed via RDP4. Our analysis describes that the "SARS-CoV-2" although shows great similarity to Bat-SARS-CoVs sequences through whole genome (giving sequence similarity 89%), exhibits conflicting grouping with the Bat-SARS-like coronavirus sequences (MG772933 and MG772934). Furthermore, seven recombination events were observed in SARS-CoV-2 (NC_045512) by RDP4. But not a single recombination event fulfills the high level of certainty. Recombination mostly housed in spike protein genes than rest of the genome indicating breakpoint cluster arises beyond the 95% and 99% breakpoint density intervals. Genetic similarity levels observed among "SARS-CoV-2" and Bat-SARS-CoVs advocated that the latter did not exhibit the specific variant that cause outbreak in humans, proposing a suggestion that "SARS-CoV-2" has originated possibly from bats. These genomic features and their probable association with virus characteristics along with virulence in humans require further consideration.

Resumo O novo coronavírus (nCoV), nomeadamente "SARS-CoV-2", foi considerado responsável pela pandemia atual iniciada em Wuhan (China) desde dezembro de 2019 e foi descrito com ligação epidemiológica à China em cerca de 221 países e territórios até agora. Neste estudo, caracterizamos a linhagem genética do SARS-CoV-2 e relatamos a recombinação dentro do gênero e subgênero dos coronavírus. A relação filogenética de 39 coronavírus pertencentes a seus quatro gêneros e cinco subgêneros foi analisada usando o método de Neighbour-joining usando MEGA 6.0. Árvores filogenéticas do genoma de comprimento total, várias proteínas (espícula, envelope, membrana e nucleocapsídeo), sequências de nucleotídeos foram construídas separadamente. A recombinação putativa foi testada via RDP4. Nossa análise descreve que o "SARS-CoV-2", embora mostre grande semelhança com as sequências de Bat-SARS-CoVs em todo o genoma (dando semelhança de sequência de 89%), exibe agrupamento conflitante com as sequências de coronavírus do tipo Bat-SARS (MG772933 e MG772934) Além disso, sete eventos de recombinação foram observados em SARS-CoV-2 (NC045512) por RDP4. Mas nem um único evento de recombinação preenche o alto nível de certeza. A recombinação está alojada mais em genes de proteína de pico, principalmente, do que no resto do genoma, indicando que o cluster de ponto de interrupção surge além dos intervalos de densidade de ponto de interrupção de 95% e 99%. Os níveis de similaridade genética observados entre "SARS-CoV-2" e Bat-SARS-CoVs defendem que o último não exibe a variante específica que causa surto em humanos, sugerindo que "SARS-CoV-2" tenha se originado possivelmente de morcegos. Essas características genômicas e sua provável associação com as características do vírus, juntamente com a virulência em humanos, requerem uma consideração mais aprofundada.

Humans , Animals , Chiroptera , COVID-19 , Phylogeny , Computer Simulation , Genome, Viral/genetics , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e247604, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339370


Abstract In the current report, we studied the possible inhibitors of COVID-19 from bioactive constituents of Centaurea jacea using a threefold approach consisting of quantum chemical, molecular docking and molecular dynamic techniques. Centaurea jacea is a perennial herb often used in folk medicines of dermatological complaints and fever. Moreover, anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial and antiviral properties of its bioactive compounds are also reported. The Mpro (Main proteases) was docked with different compounds of Centaurea jacea through molecular docking. All the studied compounds including apigenin, axillarin, Centaureidin, Cirsiliol, Eupatorin and Isokaempferide, show suitable binding affinities to the binding site of SARS-CoV-2 main protease with their binding energies -6.7 kcal/mol, -7.4 kcal/mol, -7.0 kcal/mol, -5.8 kcal/mol, -6.2 kcal/mol and -6.8 kcal/mol, respectively. Among all studied compounds, axillarin was found to have maximum inhibitor efficiency followed by Centaureidin, Isokaempferide, Apigenin, Eupatorin and Cirsiliol. Our results suggested that axillarin binds with the most crucial catalytic residues CYS145 and HIS41 of the Mpro, moreover axillarin shows 5 hydrogen bond interactions and 5 hydrophobic interactions with various residues of Mpro. Furthermore, the molecular dynamic calculations over 60 ns (6×106 femtosecond) time scale also shown significant insights into the binding effects of axillarin with Mpro of SARS-CoV-2 by imitating protein like aqueous environment. From molecular dynamic calculations, the RMSD and RMSF computations indicate the stability and dynamics of the best docked complex in aqueous environment. The ADME properties and toxicity prediction analysis of axillarin also recommended it as safe drug candidate. Further, in vivo and in vitro investigations are essential to ensure the anti SARS-CoV-2 activity of all bioactive compounds particularly axillarin to encourage preventive use of Centaurea jacea against COVID-19 infections.

Resumo No presente relatório, estudamos os possíveis inibidores de Covid-19 de constituintes bioativos de Centaurea jacea usando uma abordagem tripla que consiste em técnicas de química quântica, docking molecular e dinâmica molecular. Centaurea jacea é uma erva perene frequentemente usada em remédios populares de doenças dermatológicas e febre. Além disso, as propriedades anticâncer, antioxidante, antibacteriana e antiviral de seus compostos bioativos também são relatadas. A Mpro (proteases principais) foi acoplada a diferentes compostos de Centaurea jacea por meio de docking molecular. Todos os compostos estudados, incluindo apigenina, axilarina, Centaureidina, Cirsiliol, Eupatorina e Isokaempferide, mostram afinidades de ligação adequadas ao sítio de ligação da protease principal SARS-CoV-2 com suas energias de ligação -6,7 kcal / mol, -7,4 kcal / mol, - 7,0 kcal / mol, -5,8 kcal / mol, -6,2 kcal / mol e -6,8 kcal / mol, respectivamente. Dentre todos os compostos estudados, a axilarina apresentou eficiência máxima de inibidor, seguida pela Centaureidina, Isokaempferida, Apigenina, Eupatorina e Cirsiliol. Nossos resultados sugeriram que a axilarina se liga aos resíduos catalíticos mais cruciais CYS145 e HIS41 do Mpro, além disso a axilarina mostra 5 interações de ligações de hidrogênio e 5 interações hidrofóbicas com vários resíduos de Mpro. Além disso, os cálculos de dinâmica molecular em uma escala de tempo de 60 ns (6 × 106 femtossegundos) também mostraram percepções significativas sobre os efeitos de ligação da axilarina com Mpro de SARS-CoV-2 por imitação de proteínas como o ambiente aquoso. A partir de cálculos de dinâmica molecular, os cálculos RMSD e RMSF indicam a estabilidade e dinâmica do melhor complexo ancorado em ambiente aquoso. As propriedades ADME e a análise de previsão de toxicidade da axilarina também a recomendaram como um candidato a medicamento seguro. Além disso, as investigações in vivo e in vitro são essenciais para garantir a atividade anti-SARS-CoV-2 de todos os compostos bioativos, particularmente a axilarina, para encorajar o uso preventivo de Centaurea jacea contra infecções por Covid-19.

Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Centaurea , COVID-19 , Protease Inhibitors , Molecular Dynamics Simulation , Molecular Docking Simulation , SARS-CoV-2
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e250235, 2023. graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339353


Abstract The Neotropical freshwater cladoceran Bergamina lineolata (Sars, 1901) was found in a small temporal pond in the Magdalena department. Hitherto, it has been reported in Brazil and El Salvador. It was originally described as Alonella lineolata by Sars, 1901 from Brazil and then placed to the genus Bergamina by Elmoor-Loureiro et al. (2013). This is the first record of this species in Colombia. B. lineolata can be identified by a unique combination of characters including: 1) a remarkably large and oblong postabdomen, with three denticles on distal corner; 2) basal spine of the claw very short, length less than the half claw diameter at base; 3) IDL with two setae shorter than ODL seta, armed with fine setules unilaterally in terminal half; 4) endite 1 of trunk limb I with a long smooth seta between endites 1 and 2.

Resumo O cladócero neotropical de água doce Bergamina lineolata (Sars, 1901) foi encontrado em uma pequena lagoa temporária no departamento de Magdalena, na Colômbia. Até o momento, havia sido relatado no Brasil e em El Salvador. Foi originalmente descrito como Alonella lineolata por Sars, 1901 no Brasil, e, em seguida, colocado no gênero Bergamina por Elmoor-Loureiro et al. (2013). Esse é o primeiro registro dessa espécie na Colômbia. B. lineolata pode ser identificada por uma combinação única de caracteres, incluindo: 1) um pós-abdômen notavelmente grande e oblongo, com três dentículos no ângulo distal; 2) espinho basal da garra muito curto, comprimento menor que o diâmetro da metade da garra na base; 3) IDL com duas cerdas mais curtas que cerdas ODL, armadas com sétulas finas unilateralmente na metade terminal; e 4) endito 1 do toracópodo I com uma longa cerda lisa entre os enditos 1 e 2.

Animals , Cladocera , Brazil , Colombia , Body Size , Animal Distribution
Braz. j. biol ; 83: e249125, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339338


Abstract COVID-19 is reported as an extremely contagious disease with common symptoms of fever, dry cough, sore throat, and tiredness. The published literature on incidence and gender-wise prevalence of COVID-19 is scarce in Pakistan. Therefore, the present study was designed to compare the distribution, incubation period and mortality rate of COVID-19 among the male and female population of district Attock. The data were collected between 01 April 2020 and 07 December 2020 from the population of district Attock, Pakistan. A total of 22,962 individuals were screened and 843 were found positive for RT-qPCR for SARS-CoV-2. The confirmed positive cases were monitored carefully. Among the positive cases, the incidence of COVID-19 was 61.7% among males and 38.2% among females. The average recovery period of males was 18.89±7.75 days and females were 19±8.40 days from SARS-CoV-2. The overall mortality rate was 8.06%. The death rate of male patients was significantly higher (P<0.05) compared to female patients. Also, the mortality rate was higher (P<0.05) in male patients of 40-60 years of age compared to female patients of the same age group. Moreover, the mortality rate significantly increased (P<0.05) with the increase of age irrespective of gender. In conclusion, the incidence and mortality rate of COVID-19 is higher in males compared to the female population. Moreover, irrespective of gender the mortality rate was significantly lower among patients aged <40 years.

Resumo Covid-19 é relatada como uma doença extremamente contagiosa com sintomas comuns de febre, tosse seca, dor de garganta e cansaço. A literatura publicada sobre incidência e prevalência de Covid-19 com base no gênero é escassa no Paquistão. Portanto, o presente estudo teve como objetivo comparar a distribuição, o período de incubação e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 entre a população masculina e feminina do distrito de Attock. Os dados foram coletados entre 1 de abril de 2020 e 7 de dezembro de 2020 da população do distrito de Attock, Paquistão. Um total de 22.962 indivíduos foi selecionado, e 843 foram considerados positivos para RT-qPCR para SARS-CoV-2. Os casos positivos confirmados foram monitorados cuidadosamente. Entre os casos positivos, a incidência de Covid-19 foi de 61,7% no sexo masculino e 38,2% no feminino. O período médio de recuperação dos homens foi de 18,89 ± 7,75 dias e das mulheres 19 ± 8,40 dias do SARS-CoV-2. A mortalidade geral foi de 8,06%. A taxa de mortalidade de pacientes do sexo masculino foi significativamente maior (P < 0,05) em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade foi maior (P < 0,05) em pacientes do sexo masculino com 40-60 anos de idade em comparação com pacientes do sexo feminino da mesma faixa etária. Além disso, a taxa de mortalidade aumentou significativamente (P < 0,05) com o aumento da idade, independentemente do sexo. Em conclusão, a incidência e a taxa de mortalidade de Covid-19 são maiores no sexo masculino em comparação com a população feminina. E também, independentemente do sexo, a taxa de mortalidade foi significativamente menor entre os pacientes com idade < 40 anos.

Humans , Male , Female , COVID-19 , Pakistan/epidemiology , Incidence , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 5241, 2022 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35347208


Serosurveillance helps establish reopening guidelines and determine the immunity levels in different populations to reach herd immunity. Then, there is an urgent need to estimate seroprevalence population wide. In Mexico, information about COVID-19 cases and related deaths is scarce. Also, there is no official serosurveillance, limiting our knowledge of the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Here, we report the prevalence of anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in 522,690 unvaccinated people from July 5th to December 31st, 2020. The overall seroprevalence was 32.8% and highest in adults aged 30-39 years (38.5%) than people under 20 years (33.0%) or older (28.9%). Moreover, in a cohort of 1655 individuals confirmed COVID-19 by PCR, we found that symptomatic people (HR = 2.56) increased seroconversion than presymptomatic. Also, we identified that the most discriminative symptoms for COVID-19 that could predict seroconversion were anosmia and ageusia (HR = 1.70), fever, myalgia/arthralgia, and cough (HR = 1.75). Finally, we found that obese people had lower seroconversion (HR = 0.53) than healthy people, but the opposite happens in diabetic people (HR = 1.39). These findings reveal that around one-third of Mexican outpatients had anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies before vaccination. Also, some symptoms improve empirically COVID-19 diagnosis and seroconversion. This information could help fine-tune vaccination schemes and the reopening and back-to-work algorithms.

COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Mexico/epidemiology , Seroconversion , Seroepidemiologic Studies
Urban Transform ; 4(1): 4, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35368739


Platform urbanism has emerged in recent years as an area of research into the ways in which digital platforms are increasingly central to the governance, economy, experience, and understanding of the city. In the paper, we argue that platform urbanism is an evolution of the smart city, constituted by novel, digitally-enabled socio-technical assemblages that enable new forms of social, economic and political intermediation. We offer a typological framework for a better conceptualization of platform urbanism and its complex socio-economic relationships. We further outline several directions for future research on platform urbanism, specifically: a.) the need to critically investigate new power geometries of corporate, legal and regulatory alignments; b.) how platform urbanism may be expressed in, and affect, cities in the Global South; c.) how it may need to be critically engaged with in regard to its development in response to emergent events such as the Covid-19 pandemic; and d.) how it may shape visions of the current and future city.

J Natl Med Assoc ; 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35365355


The COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) Pandemic has revealed multiple structural inequities within the United States (US), with high social vulnerability index communities shouldering the brunt of death and disability of this pandemic. BIPOC/Latinx people have undergone hospitalizations and death at magnitudes greater than White people in the US. The untold second casualties are health care workers that are suffering from increased risk of infection, death, and mental health crisis. Many health care workers are abandoning the profession all together. Although Crisis Standards of Care (CSC) mean to guide the ethical allocation of scare resources, they frequently use scoring systems that are inherently biased. This raises concern for the application of equity in CSC. Data examining the impact of these protocols on health equity is scarce. Structural maltreatment in healthcare and inequities have led to cumulative harms, physiologic weathering and structural adversities for residents of the US. We propose the use of Restorative Justice (RJ) practices to develop CSC rooted in inclusion and equity. The RJ framework utilizes capacity building, circle process, and conferences to convene groups in a respectful environment for dialogue, healing, accountability, and action plan creation. A phased, non-faith-based facilitated RJ approach for CSC development (or revision) that fosters ethically equitable resource distribution, authentic community engagement, and accountability is shared. This opportunity for local, inclusive decision making and problem solving will both reflect the needs and give agency to community members while supporting the dismantling of structural racism and oppressive, exclusive policies. The authors are asking legislative and health system policy makers to adopt Restorative Justice practices for Crisis Standards of Care development. The US cannot afford to have additional reductions in inhabitant lifespan or the talent pool within healthcare.

J Card Surg ; 37(5): 1161-1167, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35218243


BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has been and will continue to be a challenge to the healthcare system worldwide. In this context, we aimed to discuss the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis, timing, and prognosis of surgical treatment for active infective endocarditis (IE) during the pandemic and share our coping strategy. METHODS: A total of 39 patients were admitted for active IE in the year 2020. The number of the same period last year was 50. Medical information of these two groups was extracted from our surgical database. Data were compared between the two groups and differences with or without statistical significance were discussed. RESULTS: In the pandemic year, we admitted fewer transferred patients (64.1% vs. 80%, p = .094). Timespan for diagnosis were prolonged (60 vs. 34.5 days, p = .081). More patients were admitted in emergency (41% vs. 20%, p = .030) More patients had heart failure (74.4% vs. 40%, p = .001), sepsis (69.2% vs. 42.0%, p = .018), or cardiogenic shock (25.6% vs. 8.0%, p = .038). Overall surgical risk (EuroSCORE II) was higher (4.15% vs. 3.24%, p = .019) and more commando surgery was performed (7.7% vs. 2.0%, p = .441). However, we did not see more postoperative complications, and early mortality was not worse either (0 vs. 4%, p = .502). CONCLUSIONS: The negative impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the clinical practice of surgical treatment for active IE was multifaceted. However, with the preservation of the effectiveness of multidisciplinary IE surgical team, the early outcomes were comparable with those in the normal years.

COVID-19 , Endocarditis, Bacterial , Endocarditis , Endocarditis/surgery , Endocarditis, Bacterial/surgery , Humans , Pandemics , Postoperative Complications/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
Artif Organs ; 46(4): 688-696, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34694655


BACKGROUND: Veno-venous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (V-V ECMO) support is increasingly used in the management of COVID-19-related acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). However, the clinical decision-making to initiate V-V ECMO for severe COVID-19 still remains unclear. In order to determine the optimal timing and patient selection, we investigated the outcomes of both COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 patients undergoing V-V ECMO support. METHODS: Overall, 138 patients were included in this study. Patients were stratified into two cohorts: those with COVID-19 and non-COVID-19 ARDS. RESULTS: The survival in patients with COVID-19 was statistically similar to non-COVID-19 patients (p = .16). However, the COVID-19 group demonstrated higher rates of bleeding (p = .03) and thrombotic complications (p < .001). The duration of V-V ECMO support was longer in COVID-19 patients compared to non-COVID-19 patients (29.0 ± 27.5 vs 15.9 ± 19.6 days, p < .01). Most notably, in contrast to the non-COVID-19 group, we found that COVID-19 patients who had been on a ventilator for longer than 7 days prior to ECMO had 100% mortality without a lung transplant. CONCLUSIONS: These findings suggest that COVID-19-associated ARDS was not associated with a higher post-ECMO mortality than non-COVID-19-associated ARDS patients, despite longer duration of extracorporeal support. Early initiation of V-V ECMO is important for improved ECMO outcomes in COVID-19 ARDS patients. Since late initiation of ECMO was associated with extremely high mortality related to lack of pulmonary recovery, it should be used judiciously or as a bridge to lung transplantation.

COVID-19 , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation/adverse effects , Hemorrhage/etiology , Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Time Factors
J Nerv Ment Dis ; 210(4): 257-263, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35212665


ABSTRACT: We aimed to explore the prevalence and determinants of severe COVID-19 disease and mortality in patients with schizophrenia in this study. We conducted a retrospective observational study of 1620 patients with schizophrenia. Of the 1620 patients, 52 (3.2%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-19. Among SARS-CoV-2-positive patients, 40 patients were hospitalized, and 17 patients required intensive care unit admission due to COVID-19 (76.9% and 32.7%, respectively). Severe COVID-19 disease was noted in 17 patients (32.7%) requiring intubation. In the logistic regression analysis, antipsychotic dose, and comorbidity score were independently associated with a greater risk of severe COVID-19 disease in patients with schizophrenia. Our study suggests that factors such as age, sex, comorbidities, and a daily antipsychotic dose may have effects on the poor outcome of SARS-CoV-2 disease in schizophrenia patients. In addition, the current findings propose that mortality may be associated with an older age, comorbidity score, and a longer duration of psychiatric disease among the SARS-CoV-2-positive patients with schizophrenia. However, the findings of our study should be verified in prospective and larger sample studies.

COVID-19 , Schizophrenia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Demography , Hospitalization , Humans , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Schizophrenia/epidemiology
Blood ; 139(12): 1903-1907, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35113987


Vaccine-induced thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is triggered by vaccination against COVID-19 with adenovirus vector vaccines (ChAdOx1 nCoV-19; Ad26.COV2-S). In this observational study, we followed VITT patients for changes in their reactivity of platelet-activating antiplatelet factor 4 (PF4) immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibodies by an anti-PF4/heparin IgG enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and a functional test for PF4-dependent, platelet-activating antibodies, and new thrombotic complications. Sixty-five VITT patients (41 females; median, 51 years; range, 18-80 years) were followed for a median of 25 weeks (range, 3-36 weeks). In 48/65 patients (73.8%; CI, 62.0% to 83.0%) the functional assay became negative. The median time to negative functional test result was 15.5 weeks (range, 5-28 weeks). In parallel, EIA optical density (OD) values decreased from median 3.12 to 1.52 (P < .0001), but seroreversion to a negative result was seen in only 14 (21.5%) patients. Five (7.5%) patients showed persistent platelet-activating antibodies and high EIA ODs for >11 weeks. None of the 29 VITT patients who received a second vaccination dose with an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine developed new thromboses or relevant increase in anti-PF4/heparin IgG EIA OD, regardless of whether PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies were still present. PF4-dependent platelet-activating antibodies are transient in most patients with VITT. VITT patients can safely receive a second COVID-19 mRNA-vaccine shot.

COVID-19 , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Female , Heparin/adverse effects , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Platelet Factor 4 , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Vaccines/adverse effects
Front Psychol ; 13: 739898, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35369246


The COVID-19 pandemic cropping up at the end of 2019 started to pose a threat to millions of people's health and life after a few weeks. Nevertheless, the COVID-19 pandemic gave rise to social and economic problems that have changed the progress steps of individuals and the whole nation. In this study, the work conditions for employees from Taiwan, Malaysia, and the Chinese mainland are explored and compared, and the relationship between support mechanisms and innovation behaviors (IB) is evaluated with a view of the social cognitive career theory. This study adopts the cross-sectional survey and purposive sampling to collect questionnaires. A total of 623 copies of a questionnaire from Taiwanese, 440 copies from Malaysians, and 513 copies from mainlanders were collected in this study to compare the three groups in developing employees' IBs. Smart-partial least squares for partial least squares structural equation modeling was applied in the structural model to conduct a verification of the hypotheses and comparative analysis in this study. According to the findings, compared with employees from the Chinese mainland, the Taiwanese and Malaysian samples show more significant paths regarding employee employability, IB, prior knowledge, perceived organizational support, self-efficacy, and job performance. Our results will offer more insights and advice concerning theories of human resource.

Subst Use Misuse ; 57(5): 730-741, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-35193461


Background: Rates of cannabis use appear to be highest among emerging adults (EA). Evidence suggests that cannabis smoking, as well as alternate methods of cannabis use (e.g., vaping, edibles) have become a prevalent mode of consumption among this population. Substance use or misuse peaks during emerging adulthood and may be influenced by extreme economic, social and community developments, such as policy changes, public health concerns, and significant global events such as pandemics. For instance, it is highly likely that cannabis consumption trends among at-risk populations were influenced by the legalization of recreational cannabis in Canada, the declaration of the "e-cigarette or vaping product use associated lung injury" or "EVALI" outbreak, and the "COVID-19" pandemic. ObjectivesWe aimed to examine self-reported changes in frequency of cannabis use among EA in Canada (N = 312): pre-legalization, post-legalization; pre-EVALI, post-EVALI; pre-COVID-19, since-COVID-19. ResultsThere was a gradual increase in average frequency of smoking and vaping cannabis across the six different time intervals from the pre-legalization period (2018) to the COVID-19 pandemic period (2020). Males reported higher frequencies of cannabis smoking and vaping compared to females. ConclusionsDespite health concerns and expectations that EVALI and COVID-19 events would lead to decreased consumption, our results suggest an average increase in smoking and vaping cannabis, although the most notable increase was after legalization. There are important sex differences in behavioral factors of cannabis use in EA, though it appears that the "gender-gap" in cannabis consumption is closing. These findings may facilitate the development of intervention programs for policy measures to address cannabis-attributable outcomes in the face of contextual factors that promote use, such as public emergencies or changes in policy landscapes.

COVID-19 , Cannabis , Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Policy , Public Health
Am Psychol ; 77(1): 111-123, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: mdl-34941313


Controlling the spread of an infectious disease depends critically on the general public's adoption of preventive measures. Theories of health behavior suggest that risk perceptions motivate preventive behavior. The supporting evidence for this causal link is, however, of questionable validity. The COVID-19 pandemic provides a rare opportunity to examine how risk perceptions, preventive behavior, and the link between them develop in a fast-changing risky environment. In a 4-wave longitudinal study conducted in the United States and China, we found that for Chinese participants, there was little relationship between risk perceptions and preventive behavior. This may be a result of the Chinese government's strict control and containment policies and a collectivistic culture that encourages conforming to norms-both of which limit individuals' nonconformist behavior. For U.S. participants, risk perceptions did motivate preventive behavior in the early stage of the pandemic; however, as time went by and the risk of COVID-19 persisted, preventive behavior also led to perception of higher infection risk, which in turn further motivated preventive behavior. Thus, instead of the presumed unidirectional influence from perception to behavior, our results indicate that the two could mutually reinforce each other. Overall, our findings suggest that risk perceptions-at least in the context of a dynamic health hazard-may only motivate preventive behavior at specific stages and under specific conditions. They also highlight the importance of early interventions in promoting preventive behavior. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

COVID-19 , Pandemics , COVID-19/prevention & control , China , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perception , SARS-CoV-2 , United States