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1.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 12-19, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229022

ABSTRACT

La pandemia del COVID-19 ha llevado a los países a adoptar severas y prolongadas medidas que —junto con el alto número de contagios y muertes y la continua información negativa— ha afectado la salud mental de las personas. Este estudio analiza el impacto de la crisis sanitaria del COVID-19 en España explorando el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida de las medidas de contención en la relación que establece la percepción del riesgo del COVID-19 con el estrés y la depresión. Un total de 478 adultos residentes en España (un 66.9% mujeres; Medad = 36.30, DT = 15.32) completaron un cuestionario con escalas concebidas para medir el riesgo percibido del COVID-19, la eficacia percibida de las medidas de protección, el estrés y la depresión entre el 16 de mayo y el 6 de junio de 2021. Los resultados confirmaron el rol moderador de la eficacia percibida, la cual actuó como un factor protector del estrés y la depresión al disminuir el impacto negativo que la percepción de riesgo del COVID-19 tiene en ambas variables relacionadas con el distrés mental. La percepción que tienen los individuos sobre la efectividad de las medidas de protección parece ser un factor protector relevante en relación con la salud mental durante una pandemia. Se subraya la relevancia de intervenciones psicológicas y de políticas gubernamentales que mejoren la comunicación positiva del riesgo y la información adecuada sobre la eficacia de las medidas de protección.(AU)


The pandemic situation caused by COVID-19 led countries to adopt harsh and prolonged (over time) measures that—along with the high number of infections and deaths and continuous negative information—have affected the mental health of individuals. In this study, the impact on mental health of the COVID-19 health crisis in Spain was explored through the perceived efficacy of pandemic containment measures as a moderator of the relationship that COVID-19 perceived risk establishes with stress and depression. A questionnaire composed of scales conceived to measure COVID-19 perceived risk, perceived efficacy of COVID-19 prevention measures, stress, and depression was completed by 478 adults living in Spain (66.9% females, Mage= 36.30, SD= 15.32) between May 16, 2021, and June 6, 2021. The results confirmed the moderating role of per-ceived efficacy. Perceived efficacy acted as a protective factor for stress and depression by decreasing the negative impact that perceived risk had on both variables related to mentaldistress. Also, the perception that par-ticipants had about the effectiveness of prevention measures appeared to be a relevant protective factor regarding mental health during the pandem-ic. This study highlights the relevance of psychological interventions and government policies that improve positive risk communication and pro-vide adequate information regarding the effectiveness of health-prevention measures.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , /prevention & control , Mental Health , Stress, Psychological , Depression , Security Measures , /psychology , Spain , Psychology , Psychology, Social , Surveys and Questionnaires
2.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 20-30, Ene-Abri, 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229023

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes y objetivos: Aunque se consideraba que los jóvenes estaban menos expuestos a contraer una forma severa de la infección, los efectos que ellos más resintieron fueron los psicosociales. El presente artículo se propone comprobar el papel mediador de los afectos negativos y de las estrategias evasivas, primero en la relación entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido, y luego entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés. Diseño: Se utilizó un diseño transversal. Métodos: Se empleó una muestra de 669 estudiantes de grado (18 - 28 años) durante la cuarta oleada de coronavirus, cuando la variante delta era la dominante. Resultados: Se observaron asociaciones positivas entre el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 y el estrés percibido (r = .485; p<.001), por un lado, y entre la amenaza percibida y el estrés (r = .283; p< .001), por otro lado. Los datos estadísticos demuestran que los afectos negativos y las estrategias evasivas actúan como mediadores seriales (efecto indirecto = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (efecto indirecto = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Consecuentemente, el impacto de la pandemia COVID-19 (β = .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) y la amenaza percibida (β = .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) aumentan el estrés no sólo de manera directa, sino también indirecta, intensificando los afectos negativos. Esto genera una propensión hacia el uso específico de estrategias evasivas de afrontamiento. Conclusiones: El estudio subraya algunos mecanismos explicativos en cuanto a las relaciones entre variables que afectan la salud mental durante la pandemia COVID-19.(AU)


Background and objectives:Although young adults were considered to face a lower risk of severe coronavirus infection, they were at higher risk for adverse psychosocial effects. The aim of this study was to test the me-diating roles of negative affect and avoidant coping, firstly in the relation-ship between COVID-19 impact and perceived stress, and then in the rela-tionship between perceived coronavirus threat and perceived stress. Design:Cross-sectional design. Methods: We conducted the study on a sample of 669 university students (aged between 18-28), during the critical fourth wave, when the delta variant was the dominant strain. Results: The results indicate significant positive associations between the impact of COVID-19 and perceived stress (r = .485; p<.001), and between perceived corona-virus threat and perceived stress (r= .283; p<.001). Our findings demon-strate that negative affect and avoidant coping serially mediate these rela-tionships (total indirect effect = .3349, 95% CI, [.2858; .3852] / (total indi-rect effect = .2072, 95% CI, [.1515; .2624]). Thus, the impact of COVID-19 (β= .137; 95% CI [.0019; .0045]) and perceived coronavirus threat (β= .069; 95% CI [.0007; .0046]) induce an increase in stress not only directly, but also indirectly, through amplified negative affect, which in turn in-creases the specific-oriented use of avoidant coping strategies. Conclusions:Our results highlighted some new explanatory relationships between varia-bles that affect mental health during the COVID-19 pandemic.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Stress, Psychological , /psychology , Psychosocial Impact , Mental Health , Student Health , Romania , Psychology , Psychology, Social , /epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies
3.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 69-75, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229028

ABSTRACT

Para frenar la propagación del COVID-19, el gobierno español aplicó medidas restrictivas, como el cierre escolar. Aunque los efectos de la pandemia en el bienestar emocional de los niños han sido estudiados, faltan estudios que examinen la adaptación escolar tras la pandemia y el papel que la infección ha tenido en el proceso de adaptación. El objetivo es analizar la relación entre los eventos estresantes relacionados con la escuela y la adaptación escolar después del confinamiento, incluyendo la ansiedad como mediadora. Los participantes fueron 219 padres de niños y adolescentes españoles de entre 3 y 18 años que completaron encuestas sobre la ansiedad de sus hijos (Spanish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children's Anxiety Scale), los eventos estresantes vividos relacionados con la escuela (Stressful Eventos relacionados con el Inventario de Pandemia), y la adaptación escolar (Escala de Ajuste de los Niños después del Cierre Escolar de la Pandemia). Los resultados mostraron mayor prevalencia en el evento estresante distancia social (87%). Tener COVID-19 y sufrir acoso escolar se relacionó directamente con una mayor ansiedad. Los niños que disminuyeron el contacto social y sufrieron acoso escolar mostraron peor adaptación escolar, siendo la ansiedad un mediador indirecto. Los hallazgos destacan la importancia de supervisar la adaptación escolar y promover estrategias para prevenir problemas emocionales en jóvenes expuestos a situaciones estresantes.(AU)


Aiming to mitigate the COVID-19 spread, the government of Spain applied restrictive measures, like schools’ closure. Although the ef-fects of the pandemic on children's emotional well-being have been stud-ied, there is a lack of studies examining school adjustment following the pandemic and the role that the infection has played in the adjustment pro-cess. The objective is to analyze the relationship between stressful events related to school experienced by children and their adjustment to school after the home confinement, including anxiety as a mediator variable. Par-ticipants were the parentsof 219 Spanish children and adolescents aged 3 and 18 years who completed a survey about their children’s anxiety (Span-ish Brief Child Version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale), the stress-ful events experienced related to school (Stressful Events related to Pan-demic Inventory), and the adjustment to school (Adjustment of Children after Pandemic School Closure Scale). Results showed that social distance was the most reported stressful event (87%). Having COVID-19 and expe-riencing bullying were directly related to a high level of anxiety. Children ́s who decreased social contact and experienced bullying showed a worse ad-justment to school. Anxiety was an indirect mediator of this relationship. Findings highlight the importance of supervising school adaptation and promoting strategies to prevent emotional problems when the youths are exposed to stressful situations.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , /psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Student Health , Stress, Psychological , Schools , Anxiety , /epidemiology , Psychology , Mental Health , Psychology, Social , Social Adjustment , Psychology, Educational
4.
An. psicol ; 40(1): 95-102, Ene-Abri, 2024. tab, ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229031

ABSTRACT

Encouraging and continuing inclusive learning environments is important to allow all students to be able to fully participate, engage, and learn. The online learning environment obliges educators to think creative-ly about how to achieve this goal. The aim was to investigate using virtual classroom for teaching special needs students in inclusive classrooms dur-ing and beyond Covid-19 from the perspectives of their teachers. Teachers of special education from integration schools in the middle stage in Mak-kah were targeted. A 15-item survey instrument was developed particular-ly for this research study . Quantitative research is carried out with the aim to investigate using virtual classroom(VC) for teaching special needs stu-dents in inclusive classrooms during and beyond Covid-19 from the per-spectives of their teachers. A survey method was used. Data were collected through a structured self-administered questionnaire, which was based on the technology acceptance model(TAM). Pearson correlation(R) and mul-tiple regression (MRA) were used to analyze data . Results indicated that the BI is positively affected by PU, PEOU. PU, PEOU yielded a coeffi-cient of multiple regression (R) and a multiple correlation square. This shows that a total variance in BI is accounted for by PU, PEOU. In con-clusion, the findings in this study contribute to the literature on TAM and its use in special education in particular.(AU)


Fomentar y continuar con los entornos de aprendizaje inclusivos es importante para permitir que todos los estudiantes puedan participar, comprometerse y aprender plenamente. El entorno de aprendizaje online obliga a los educadores a pensar de forma creativa sobre cómo lograr este objetivo. El objetivo era investigar el uso del aula virtual para enseñar a estudiantes con necesidades especiales en aulas inclusivas durante y después de la COVID-19 desde la perspectiva de sus docentes. La investigación cuantitativa se lleva a cabo con el objetivo de investigar el uso del aula virtual (VC) para enseñar a estudiantes con necesidades especiales en aulas inclusivas durante y después de Covid-19 desde las perspectivas de sus maestros. Se utilizó un método de encuesta. Las variables independientes son la utilidad percibida (PU), la facilidad de uso percibida (PEOU), mientras que la variable dependiente es la intención de comportamiento del estudiante (BI). Los datos fueron recolectados a través de un cuestionario estructurado autoadministrado, que se basó en el modelo de aceptación de tecnología (TAM). Se utilizaron la correlación de Pearson (r) y la regresión múltiple (MRA) para analizar los datos. Los resultados indicaron que el BI se ve afectado positivamente por PU, PEOU. PU, PEOU arrojaron un coeficiente de regresión múltiple (R) y un cuadrado de correlación múltiple. Esto muestra que PU, PEOU explican una variación total en BI.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Education, Distance , Students/psychology , Education, Special/methods , /epidemiology , Psychology, Educational , Psychology
5.
Int. j. clin. health psychol. (Internet) ; 24(1): [100429], Ene-Mar, 2024. ilus
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-230369

ABSTRACT

Individuals recovering from COVID-19 often present with persistent symptoms, particularly exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness. Put simply, the Wasserman gear system describes the interdependence of heart, lungs, and musculature as determinants of cardiorespiratory fitness. Based on this system, recent findings indicate a contribution of peripheral, cardiovascular, and lung diffusion limitations to persistent symptoms of exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness. The autonomic nervous system as an organ system involved in the pathophysiology of exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness, has received only little attention as of yet. Hence, our article discusses contribution of the autonomic nervous system through four potential pathways, namely alterations in (1) cerebral hemodynamics, (2) afferent and efferent signaling, (3) central hypersensitivity, and (4) appraisal and engagement in physical activity. These pathways are summarized in a psycho-pathophysiological model. Consequently, this article encourages a shift in perspective by examining the state of the pulmonary and cardiovascular system, the periphery, and auxiliary, the autonomic nervous system as potential underlying mechanisms for exercise intolerance and low cardiorespiratory fitness in patients with post-COVID-19.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Central Nervous System , Exercise , Paraneoplastic Syndromes, Nervous System , /complications , Pulmonary Heart Disease , Exercise Test , Neurology , Nervous System Diseases , Mental Health , /epidemiology
6.
Rev. bioét. derecho ; (60): 90-112, Mar. 2024.
Article in Portuguese | IBECS | ID: ibc-230474

ABSTRACT

Ci si è chiesti se la pandemia abbia modificato il modo in cui la morte e il morire vengano pensati. L’incontrollata diffusione del contagio e la mancanza di un’adeguata risposta organizzativa in termini di sanità pubblica ha determinato ben presto nelle TI una sproporzione tra domanda di assistenza (insufficienza respiratoria acuta) e risorse disponibili (personale formato, posti-letto, ventilatori meccanici). I clinici si sono così trovati nella condizione di dover decidere quali pazienti ammettere in TI e quali escludere. Sia in Italia che in Spagna si è fatto ricorso al triage: sono state elaborate alcune raccomandazioni che hanno destato perplessità e critiche nell’ambito medico ed etico-giuridico.(AU)


En aquest article es reflexiona sobre la forma en què la pandèmia derivada de la COVID-19 ha alterat determinats processos assistencials davant de la mort. La ràpida propagació incontrolada de la malaltia i la manca de resposta organitzativa en termes de salut pública aviat van conduir a una desproporció entre la demanda assistencial en cures intensives i els recursos humans imaterials per satisfer-la. En ocasions, els metges s'han vist en el dilema de decidir quins pacients tractar i quins excloure a les unitats de cures intensives. Tant a Espanya com a Itàlia s'ha fet servir el triatge i s'han publicat algunes recomanacions que han suscitat algunes crítiques en l'àmbit mèdic, ètic i legal. Es planteja el dubte de si aquestes mesures excepcionals es poden aplicar quan es recupera la normalitat sociosanitària.(AU)


En este artículo se reflexiona sobre la forma en que la pandemia derivada del COVID-19 ha alterado determinados procesos asistenciales frente a la muerte. La rápida propagación incontrolada de la enfermedad y la faltade respuesta organizativa en términos de salud pública pronto condujeron a una desproporción entre la demanda asistencial en cuidados intensivos y los recursos humanos y materiales para satisfacerla. En ocasiones, los médicos se han visto en el dilema de decidir qué pacientes tratar y cuales excluir en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Tanto en España como en Italia se ha usado el triaje y se han publicado algunas recomendaciones que han suscitado ciertas críticas en el ámbito médico, ético y legal. Se plantea el interrogante de que estas medidas excepcionales se puedan aplicar cuando se recupera la normalidad socio sanitaria.(AU)


This paper reflects on the way in which the pandemic derived from COVID-19 has altered certain care processes in the face of death. The rapid uncontrolled spread of the disease, and the lack of organizational response in terms of public health soon led to a disproportion between the demand for intensive care and the human and material resources to meet it. At times, doctors have been faced with the dilemma of deciding which patients to treat and which to exclude in intensive care units. Both in Spain and Italy triage has been used and some recommendations have been published that have provoked some criticism in the medical, ethical and legal field. The question arises whether these exceptional measures can be applied when socio-sanitary normality is restored.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Grief , /epidemiology , /mortality , Triage , Critical Care
7.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(1)Jan.-March. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229118

ABSTRACT

Purpose Myopia is a growing pandemic, especially in children, who risk low vision later in life. Home confinement during the COVID-19 pandemic may have increased myopia progression through increased screentime, decreased time outdoors and increased near work activities. The aim of this study is to compare progression of myopia in children during home confinement period in the COVID-19 pandemic with pre-COVID-19 progression. Methods On January 2023 PubMed, EMBASE and Cochrane were searched for relevant studies. Studies meeting the following criteria were eligible for inclusion: children (under 18 years), home confinement due to COVID-19, spherical equivalent refractive (SER) and axial length (AL) measurements and a follow-up period to measure progression. Quality appraisal was performed by two reviewers independently using the Joanna Briggs Institute tool for cohort studies. Outcomes for myopia were assessed through meta-analysis, analyzing SER (random effects) and AL (fixed effects). Results Hundred and two articles were identified in the search, of which five studies were included in the analysis. Risk of bias is moderate with a few critical flaws in the studies. Myopia progressed more rapidly during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the pre-COVID-19 period, both in terms of SER (-0.83D [95 %CI, −1.22, −0.43] and AL (0.36 mm [95 %CI, 0.13, 0.39]). Conclusion Progression of myopia during the COVID-19 pandemic accelerated more rapidly compared to the pre-COVID-19 period. Impact of home confinement on myopia may be considered when future lockdown measures are being contemplated. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Myopia/diagnosis , Myopia/prevention & control , Axial Length, Eye/growth & development , Axial Length, Eye/pathology , Pandemics , Quarantine
8.
J. optom. (Internet) ; 17(1)Jan.-March. 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229119

ABSTRACT

Purpose This review aimed to estimate the prevalence of computer vision syndrome (CVS) in the general population and subgroups. Methods A search was conducted in the following the databases: PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, and Web of Science until February 13, 2023. We included studies that assessed the prevalence of CVS in any population. The Joanna Briggs Institute's critical appraisal tool was used to evaluate the methodological quality. A meta-analysis of the prevalence of CVS was done using a random-effects model, assessing the sources of heterogeneity using subgroup and meta-regression analyses. Results A total of 103 cross-sectional studies with 66 577 participants were included. The prevalence of CVS was 69.0% (95% CI: 62.3 to 75.3; I2: 99.7%), ranging from 12.1 to 97.3% across studies. Point prevalence was higher in women than in men (71.4 vs. 61.8%), university students (76.1%), Africa (71.2%), Asia (69.9%), contact lens wearers (73.1% vs. 63.8%) in studies conducted before the COVID-19 pandemic (72.8%), and in those that did not use the CVS-Q questionnaire (75.4%). In meta-regression, using the CVS-Q scale was associated with a lower prevalence of CVS. Conclusion Seven out of ten people suffer from CVS. Preventive strategies and interventions are needed to decrease the prevalence of this condition which can affect productivity and quality of life. Future studies should standardize a definition of CVS. (AU)


Subject(s)
Prevalence , Vision Disorders , Occupational Health , Electrical Equipment and Supplies
9.
Eur. j. psychiatry ; 38(1): [100227], Jan.-Mar. 2024. graf
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229233

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives Suicide is a major public health concern, media can influence its awareness, contagion, and prevention. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between the COVID-19 pandemic and suicide in media coverage through Natural Language Processing analysis (NPL). Methods To study how suicide is depicted in news media, Artificial Intelligence and Big Data techniques were used to analyze news and tweets, to extract or classify the topic to which they belonged. Results A granger causality analysis showed with significant p-value that an increase in covid news at the beginning of the pandemic explains a later rise in suicide-related news. An analysis based on correlation and structural causal models show a strong relationship between the appearance of subjects “health” and “covid”, and also between “covid” and “suicide”. Conclusions Our analysis also uncovers that the inclusion of suicide-related news in the category health has grown since the outbreak of the pandemic. The COVID-19 pandemic has posed an inflection point in the way suicide-related news are reported. Our study found that the increased media attention on suicide during the COVID-19 pandemic may indicate rising social awareness of suicide and mental health, which could lead to the development of new prevention tools. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Public Health , Suicide , Big Data , Artificial Intelligence , Machine Learning , Communications Media , Social Networking , Electronic Data Processing
10.
Rehabilitación (Madr., Ed. impr.) ; 58(1): [100821], Ene-Mar, 2024. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229684

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El estudio tuvo como objetivo explorar la calidad de vida de las personas con enfermedad de Parkinson durante el confinamiento por la pandemia de coronavirus de 2019 (covid-19). Material y métodos: El estudio fue de carácter cuantitativo, descriptivo y correlacional. La muestra fue de 51 personas con enfermedad de Parkinson de la región de Magallanes y Antártica Chilena, y cuya información fue recogida desde la base de datos de la Corporación de Rehabilitación Club de Leones Cruz del Sur, a la cual pertenecen. Resultados: Los principales resultados muestran que el 51,6% de las personas manifiestan una calidad de vida «buena y muy buena» y que los principales dominios del Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) afectados son: malestar corporal, movilidad y bienestar emocional. Según el análisis de los rangos cualitativos del PDQ-39, las dimensiones que se mostraron más comprometidas durante el confinamiento por la pandemia por covid-19 fueron: comunicación, estigma y bienestar emocional. Además, las mujeres presentaron peor calidad de vida que los hombres. Por último, se demostró que la progresión de síntomas afecta la calidad de vida de las personas con enfermedad de Parkinson. Conclusiones: Durante el confinamiento por la pandemia por covid-19 las personas con enfermedad de Parkinson aumentaron los síntomas y presentaron una menor calidad de vida, sobre todo las de sexo femenino.(AU)


Introduction: The study was aimed to explore the quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease during confinement due to the coronavirus infectious disease 2019 (covid-19) pandemic. Material and methods: The study was quantitative, descriptive and correlational. The sample was 51 people with Parkinson's disease, from the region of Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica, and whose information was collected from the database of the Rehabilitation Corporation Club de Leones Cruz del Sur, to which they belong. Results: The main results show that 51.6% of people with Parkinson's disease report a «good and very good» quality of life and that the main domains of the Parkinson's Disease Questionnaire (PDQ-39) affected are: body discomfort, mobility and emotional well-being. According to the analysis of the qualitative ranges of the PDQ-39, the dimensions that were most compromised during the confinement by the covid-19 pandemic were: communication, stigma and emotional well-being. In addition, women had a poorer quality of life than men. Finally, it was shown that the progression of symptoms affects the quality of life of people with Parkinson's disease. Conclusions: In conclusion, during the confinement due to the covid-19 pandemic people with Parkinson's disease increased symptoms and presented a lower quality of life, especially women.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Parkinson Disease/rehabilitation , Quality of Life , /complications , Quarantine , Activities of Daily Living , Qualitative Research , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Correlation of Data , Chile/epidemiology , /epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Cross-Sectional Studies
11.
Rev. esp. patol ; 57(1): 42-47, ene.-mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-229921

ABSTRACT

Subsequent to mass vaccination programs against COVID-19, diverse side effects have been described, both at the injection site, such as pain, redness and swelling, and systemic effects such as fatigue, headache, muscle or joint pain. On rare occasions, a lymphadenopathic syndrome may develop, raising the clinical suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disorder. We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who developed self-limiting left axillary lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. To date, only seven similar cases with a complete clinicopathological description have been published, and fourteen cases have been notified to the European adverse events databases (Eudravigilance) in relationship with vaccination against COVID-19. It is important to be aware of this potential complication when a lymphadenopathic syndrome develops following vaccination, to avoid unnecessary treatment. (AU)


Tras la vacunación masiva frente a la COVID-19 se han comenzado a describir diversos efectos adversos incluyendo efectos locales en el lugar de la inyección, como dolor, enrojecimiento, hinchazón, etc., y efectos sistémicos como fatiga, dolor de cabeza, dolor muscular o articular. Más infrecuentemente se pueden desarrollar cuadros linfadenopáticos sospechosos clínicamente de proceso linfoproliferativo. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 30 años que desarrolló linfadenopatía axilar izquierda tras la vacunación contra la COVID-19 con hallazgos histopatológicos de linfadenopatía necrotizante de tipo Kikuchi y resolución espontánea. Hasta el momento se han publicado 7 casos con descripción clinicopatológica completa en la literatura y notificado 14 casos en la Red Europea de Farmacovigilancia en relación con la vacunación. Es importante tener en cuenta esta entidad en linfadenopatías sospechosas de procesos linfoproliferativos en este contexto, para evitar un tratamiento innecesario. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis
12.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 35(1): 35-44, ene.-mar. 2024. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-229932

ABSTRACT

Introducción La pandemia derivada de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 propició cambios en los cuidados tanto a familiares como a pacientes de cuidados intensivos durante las diferentes olas de incidencia del virus. La línea de humanización seguida por la mayoría de los hospitales se vio gravemente afectada por las restricciones aplicadas. Como objetivo, planteamos conocer las modificaciones experimentadas durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en España respecto a la política de visitas a los pacientes en UCI, el acompañamiento al final de la vida, y el uso de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación entre familiares, pacientes y profesionales. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal multicéntrico mediante encuesta a las UCI españolas desde febrero a abril de 2022. Se realizaron métodos de análisis estadísticos a los resultados según lo apropiado. El estudio fue avalado por la Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias. Resultados Respondieron un 29% de las unidades contactadas. Los minutos de visita diarios de los familiares se redujeron drásticamente de 135 (87,5-255) a 45 (25-60) en el 21,2% de las unidades que permitían su acceso, mejorando levemente con el paso de las olas. En el caso de duelo, la permisividad fue mayor, aumentando el uso de las nuevas tecnologías para la comunicación paciente-familia en el caso del 96,5% de las unidades. Conclusiones Las familias de los pacientes ingresados en UCI durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por COVID-19 han experimentado restricciones en las visitas y cambio de la presencialidad por técnicas virtuales de comunicación. Los tiempos de acceso se redujeron a niveles mínimos durante la primera ola, recuperándose con el avance de la pandemia pero sin llegar nunca a los niveles iniciales... (AU)


Introduction The pandemic derived from the SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in care for both relatives and intensive care patients during the different waves of incidence of the virus. The line of humanization followed by the majority of the hospitals was seriously affected by the restrictions applied. As an objective, we propose to know the modifications suffered during the different waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Spain regarding the policy of visits to patients in the ICU, monitoring at the end of life, and the use of new technologies of communication between family members, patients and professionals. Methods Multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study through a survey of Spanish ICUs from February to April 2022. Statistical analysis methods were performed on the results as appropriate. The study was endorsed by the Spanish Society of Intensive Nursing and Coronary Units. Results Twenty-nine percent of the units contacted responded. The daily visiting minutes of relatives dropped drastically from 135 (87.5-255) to 45 (25-60) in the 21.2% of units that allowed their access, improving slightly with the passing of the waves. In the case of bereavement, the permissiveness was greater, increasing the use of new technologies for patient-family communication in the case of 96.5% of the units. Conclusions The family of patients admitted to the ICU during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have suffered restrictions on visits and a change from face-to-face to virtual communication techniques. Access times were reduced to minimum levels during the first wave, recovering with the advance of the pandemic but never reaching initial levels. Despite the implemented solutions and virtual communication, efforts should be directed towards improving the protocols for the humanization of healthcare that allow caring for families and patients whatever the healthcare context. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/ethics , Humanization of Assistance , Critical Care/ethics , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation/ethics , Health Communication/ethics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Spain
13.
Rev. esp. patol ; 57(1): 42-47, ene.-mar. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-539

ABSTRACT

Subsequent to mass vaccination programs against COVID-19, diverse side effects have been described, both at the injection site, such as pain, redness and swelling, and systemic effects such as fatigue, headache, muscle or joint pain. On rare occasions, a lymphadenopathic syndrome may develop, raising the clinical suspicion of a lymphoproliferative disorder. We present the case of a 30-year-old woman who developed self-limiting left axillary lymphadenopathy following COVID-19 vaccination. To date, only seven similar cases with a complete clinicopathological description have been published, and fourteen cases have been notified to the European adverse events databases (Eudravigilance) in relationship with vaccination against COVID-19. It is important to be aware of this potential complication when a lymphadenopathic syndrome develops following vaccination, to avoid unnecessary treatment. (AU)


Tras la vacunación masiva frente a la COVID-19 se han comenzado a describir diversos efectos adversos incluyendo efectos locales en el lugar de la inyección, como dolor, enrojecimiento, hinchazón, etc., y efectos sistémicos como fatiga, dolor de cabeza, dolor muscular o articular. Más infrecuentemente se pueden desarrollar cuadros linfadenopáticos sospechosos clínicamente de proceso linfoproliferativo. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 30 años que desarrolló linfadenopatía axilar izquierda tras la vacunación contra la COVID-19 con hallazgos histopatológicos de linfadenopatía necrotizante de tipo Kikuchi y resolución espontánea. Hasta el momento se han publicado 7 casos con descripción clinicopatológica completa en la literatura y notificado 14 casos en la Red Europea de Farmacovigilancia en relación con la vacunación. Es importante tener en cuenta esta entidad en linfadenopatías sospechosas de procesos linfoproliferativos en este contexto, para evitar un tratamiento innecesario. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Mass Vaccination/adverse effects , Histiocytic Necrotizing Lymphadenitis
14.
Enferm. intensiva (Ed. impr.) ; 35(1): 35-44, ene.-mar. 2024. mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-EMG-552

ABSTRACT

Introducción La pandemia derivada de la infección por SARS-CoV-2 propició cambios en los cuidados tanto a familiares como a pacientes de cuidados intensivos durante las diferentes olas de incidencia del virus. La línea de humanización seguida por la mayoría de los hospitales se vio gravemente afectada por las restricciones aplicadas. Como objetivo, planteamos conocer las modificaciones experimentadas durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por SARS-CoV-2 en España respecto a la política de visitas a los pacientes en UCI, el acompañamiento al final de la vida, y el uso de las nuevas tecnologías de la comunicación entre familiares, pacientes y profesionales. Métodos Estudio descriptivo transversal multicéntrico mediante encuesta a las UCI españolas desde febrero a abril de 2022. Se realizaron métodos de análisis estadísticos a los resultados según lo apropiado. El estudio fue avalado por la Sociedad Española de Enfermería Intensiva y Unidades Coronarias. Resultados Respondieron un 29% de las unidades contactadas. Los minutos de visita diarios de los familiares se redujeron drásticamente de 135 (87,5-255) a 45 (25-60) en el 21,2% de las unidades que permitían su acceso, mejorando levemente con el paso de las olas. En el caso de duelo, la permisividad fue mayor, aumentando el uso de las nuevas tecnologías para la comunicación paciente-familia en el caso del 96,5% de las unidades. Conclusiones Las familias de los pacientes ingresados en UCI durante las diferentes olas de la pandemia por COVID-19 han experimentado restricciones en las visitas y cambio de la presencialidad por técnicas virtuales de comunicación. Los tiempos de acceso se redujeron a niveles mínimos durante la primera ola, recuperándose con el avance de la pandemia pero sin llegar nunca a los niveles iniciales... (AU)


Introduction The pandemic derived from the SARS-CoV-2 infection led to changes in care for both relatives and intensive care patients during the different waves of incidence of the virus. The line of humanization followed by the majority of the hospitals was seriously affected by the restrictions applied. As an objective, we propose to know the modifications suffered during the different waves of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic in Spain regarding the policy of visits to patients in the ICU, monitoring at the end of life, and the use of new technologies of communication between family members, patients and professionals. Methods Multicenter cross-sectional descriptive study through a survey of Spanish ICUs from February to April 2022. Statistical analysis methods were performed on the results as appropriate. The study was endorsed by the Spanish Society of Intensive Nursing and Coronary Units. Results Twenty-nine percent of the units contacted responded. The daily visiting minutes of relatives dropped drastically from 135 (87.5-255) to 45 (25-60) in the 21.2% of units that allowed their access, improving slightly with the passing of the waves. In the case of bereavement, the permissiveness was greater, increasing the use of new technologies for patient-family communication in the case of 96.5% of the units. Conclusions The family of patients admitted to the ICU during the different waves of the COVID-19 pandemic have suffered restrictions on visits and a change from face-to-face to virtual communication techniques. Access times were reduced to minimum levels during the first wave, recovering with the advance of the pandemic but never reaching initial levels. Despite the implemented solutions and virtual communication, efforts should be directed towards improving the protocols for the humanization of healthcare that allow caring for families and patients whatever the healthcare context. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/ethics , Humanization of Assistance , Critical Care/ethics , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Patient Isolation/ethics , Health Communication/ethics , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multicenter Studies as Topic , Spain
15.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb.07, 2024. 38 p. ilus.
Non-conventional in Spanish | BISSAL, LILACS | ID: biblio-1531308

ABSTRACT

El objetivo general de los presentes lineamientos es establecer las disposiciones técnicas para la realización de las acciones para continuar la vacunación de la población contra el SARS-CoV-2. La priorización vacunal es una estrategia para proteger poblaciones de riesgo, evitando caer en el error de no vacunar a otros grupos cuyo riesgo puede ser bajo, pero que pueden generar enfermedad severa, complicaciones, hospitalizaciones y muerte asociada a COVID-19. En razón de lo anterior se actualizan los esquemas de vacunación frente a COVID-19, a partir de priorización de grupos poblacionales


The general objective of these guidelines is to establish technical provisions for the implementation of actions to continue the vaccination of the population against SARS-CoV-2. Vaccine prioritization is a strategy to protect at-risk populations, avoiding the error of not vaccinating other groups whose risk may be low, but which can lead to severe disease, complications, hospitalizations and death associated with VOCID-19. In view of the foregoing, vaccination schemes against VOCID-19 are updated, based on the prioritization of population groups


Subject(s)
El Salvador
16.
Aten. prim. (Barc., Ed. impr.) ; 56(2): [102792], Feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-230389

ABSTRACT

Objective: To validate a questionnaire to analyze the perception of users of primary care (PC) with telephone consultation (TC), and to study the satisfaction with TC by users of PC services. Design: A two-phase study was conducted. Firstly, a questionnaire on satisfaction with telemedicine services was validated. Secondly, a cross-sectional study on satisfaction with TC was conducted. Setting: PC. Participants: 405 users of PC services in Zaragoza (Spain). Main outcome measure: Our main outcome was the satisfaction with telemedicine services PC services. Factor analysis was carried out using the exploratory factor analysis with Varimax rotation. The reliability of the dimensions obtained was analyzed using Cronbach's alpha. The inferential analysis was conducted using parametric tests. Results: The questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool (α>0.9) to assess the satisfaction of PC service users with telemedicine services. Before COVID-19, the satisfaction of the users with PC was adequate (mean=6111/10). However, during the COVID-19 the attention in PC centers became mostly telephone-based and satisfaction lowered as disappointing (mean=3555/10). Regarding the future of telemedicine, users considered it as unsatisfactory (mean=2977/10). Being a woman, being unemployed and belonging to an area of low vulnerability led to a worse perception of telemedicine. Conclusion: This questionnaire was a valid and reliable tool to assess the satisfaction of PC service users with telemedicine services. Perceptions of patient satisfaction decreased during COVID-19. Thus, TC seems to be a good option when the patients consider it to be a complementary rather than a substitute tool to follow-up their conditions.(AU)


Objetivo: Validar un cuestionario para analizar la percepción de los usuarios de atención primaria (AP) con la consulta telefónica (CT) y estudiar la satisfacción de la CT por parte de estos. Diseño: Estudio en dos fases. Se validó un cuestionario sobre satisfacción con los servicios de telemedicina. Después, se realizó un estudio transversal sobre la satisfacción con la CT. Emplazamiento: AP. Participantes: Un total de 405 usuarios de servicios de AP en Zaragoza (España). Medición principal: Satisfacción con los servicios de telemedicina de AP. El análisis factorial se realizó a través del exploratorio con rotación Varimax. La fiabilidad de las dimensiones se analizó con el alfa de Cronbach. El inferencial se efectuó mediante pruebas paramétricas. Resultados: El cuestionario resultó válido y fiable (α>0,9) para evaluar la satisfacción de los usuarios con la telemedicina. Antes de la COVID-19, esta era adecuada (media=6,111/10) con la AP. Durante la pandemia la atención en AP pasó a ser mayoritariamente telefónica y la satisfacción disminuyó (media=3,555/10). Con respecto al futuro de la telemedicina, los usuarios lo consideraron insatisfactorio (media=2,977/10). Ser mujer, estar en paro y pertenecer a una zona de baja vulnerabilidad conllevó una peor percepción de la telemedicina. Conclusiones: Nuestro cuestionario fue un instrumento válido y fiable para evaluar la satisfacción de los usuarios de servicios de AP con la telemedicina, la cual disminuyó durante la COVID-19. La CT es una buena opción cuando los pacientes la consideran una herramienta complementaria y no sustitutiva para el seguimiento de sus dolencias.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Telemedicine/trends , Remote Consultation , Quality of Health Care , Patient Satisfaction , /nursing , Spain , Primary Health Care , Surveys and Questionnaires , /epidemiology
18.
Rev. clín. esp. (Ed. impr.) ; 224(2): 86-95, feb. 2024. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | IBECS | ID: ibc-230400

ABSTRACT

Introducción y objetivo Desde su aparición en diciembre de 2019, la enfermedad por coronavirus causada por el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo coronavirus2 se ha convertido en una emergencia mundial, propagándose rápidamente por todo el mundo. En respuesta a la derivación temprana de estos pacientes a centros de salud ambulatorios, decidimos buscar tratamientos más eficaces en las primeras etapas de su derivación. Este estudio tiene como objetivo prevenir tanto la progresión como el deterioro de las condiciones físicas de los pacientes con COVID-19, reducir la tasa de derivaciones y mitigar los riesgos de hospitalización y de muerte. Material y métodos Realizado en el Centro Terapéutico Dibaj, ciudad de Hamadan, Irán, un ensayo controlado aleatorizado doble ciego abarcó 225 pacientes con COVID-19 de abril a septiembre de 2022. Se obtuvo la aprobación ética de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Hamadan (Aprobación n.° IR.UMSHA .REC.1400.957), con el protocolo registrado en el Registro Iraní de Ensayos Clínicos (Registro n.° IRCT20220302054167N1). Los pacientes cumplieron con el diagnóstico de COVID-19 a través de la presentación de síntomas y la confirmación por PCR, excluyendo aquellos con antecedentes de vacunas y afectación de órganos. Los pacientes con una saturación de oxígeno superior al 92% se asignaron a tres grupos: el grupoA recibió N-acetilcisteína, el grupoB recibió bromhexina y el grupoC recibió atención estándar. Los seguimientos de los niveles de oxígeno, los síntomas y las necesidades de hospitalización se realizaron los días7 y 14, con pacientes hospitalizados monitorizados durante un mes después de la hospitalización. Resultados El estudio encontró que tanto la N-acetilcisteína como la bromhexina pueden reducir efectivamente las tasas de hospitalización y la mortalidad y acortar la duración de la hospitalización... (AU)


Introduction and aim Since its emergence in December 2019, the coronavirus disease caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus2 has become a global emergency, spreading rapidly worldwide. In response to the early referral of these patients to outpatient health centers, we decided to seek more effective treatments in the early stages of their referral. This study aims to prevent both the progression and deterioration of the physical conditions of COVID-19 patients, reduce the rate of referrals, and mitigate the risks of hospitalization and death. Material and methods Conducted at Dibaj Therapeutic Center, Hamadan City, Iran, a double-blind randomized controlled trial encompassed 225 COVID-19 patients from April to September 2022. Ethical approval was obtained from Hamadan University of Medical Sciences (Approval No.: IR.UMSHA.REC.1400.957), with the protocol registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (Registration No.: IRCT20220302054167N1). In this study, we included patients who tested positive for COVID-19 PCR and were symptomatic, excluding those who were pregnant or had received a COVID-19 vaccine. Patients with oxygen saturation above 92% were allocated to three groups: GroupA received N-acetylcysteine, GroupB received Bromhexine, and GroupC received standard care. Follow-ups on oxygen levels, symptoms, and hospitalization needs were conducted on days 7 and 14, with hospitalized patients monitored for one month post-hospitalization. Results The study found that both N-acetylcysteine and Bromhexine can effectively reduce hospitalization rates and mortality and shorten the duration of hospitalization. The third visit of patients who received N-acetylcysteine showed an increase of 1.33% in oxygen saturation compared to their first visit, and in patients who received Bromhexine, this increase was 1.19%. The mortality rate was 9.33% in the control group and zero in both groups of patients who received medication... (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , /drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Bromhexine/pharmacology
19.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 37(1): 1-6, Feb. 2024. tab
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-230418

ABSTRACT

The incidence and recent trends of candidemia and the contribution of the COVID-19 pandemic to its evolution are not well documented. The catheter is a major focus of Candida spp. infections, but the methods used to confirm the origin of candidemia are still based on the data generated for bacterial infection. The presence of Candida spp. on the tip of a removed catheter is the gold standard for confirmation but it is not always possible to remove it. Conservative methods, without catheter removal, have not been specifically studied for microorganisms whose times of growth are different from those of bacteria and therefore these results are not applicable to candidemia. The different Candida species do not have a particular tropism for catheter colonization and fungal biomarkers have not yet been able to contribute to the determination of the origin of candidemia. Techniques such Candida T2 Magnetic Resonance (T2MR) has not yet been applied for this purpose. Finally, there is not yet a consensus of how to proceed when Candida spp. is isolated from an extracted catheter and blood cultures obtained from simultaneous peripheral veins are negative. In this lack of firm data, a group of experts has formulated a series of questions trying to answer them based on the literature, indicating the current deficiencies and offering their own opinion. All authors agree with the conclusions of the manuscript and offer it as a position and discussion paper. (AU)


La incidencia y las tendencias recientes de la candidemia y la contribución de la pandemia de COVID-19 a su evolución no están bien documentadas. El catéter es uno de los principales focos de infecciones por Candida spp., pero los métodos empleados para confirmar el origen de la candidemia siguen basándose en los datos generados para la infección bacteriana. La presencia de Candida spp. en la punta de un catéter retirado es el método de referencia para la confirmación, pero no siempre es posible proceder a dicha retirada. Los métodos conservadores, sin retirada del catéter, no han sido estudiados específicamente para microorganismos cuyos tiempos de crecimiento son diferentes a los de las bacterias y, por tanto, estos resultados no son aplicables a la candidemia. Las diferentes especies de Candida spp. no tienen un tropismo particular para la colonización del catéter y los biomarcadores fúngicos, aún no han podido contribuir a la determinación del origen de la candidemia. Técnicas como la resonancia magnética T2MR todavía no se ha empleado para este fin. Por último, todavía no existe un consenso sobre cómo proceder cuando se aísla Candida spp. en un catéter extraído y los hemocultivos obtenidos por venas periféricas simultáneas son negativos. Ante esta falta de datos firmes, un grupo de expertos ha formulado una serie de preguntas y ha tratado de responderlas en base a la literatura, indicando las carencias presentes y ofreciendo su propia opinión. Todos los autores están de acuerdo con las conclusiones del manuscrito y lo ofrecen como documento de posición y discusión. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Candidemia/diagnosis , Candidemia/drug therapy , Candidemia/therapy , Urinary Catheters/adverse effects
20.
Rev. esp. quimioter ; 37(1): 17-28, Feb. 2024.
Article in English | IBECS | ID: ibc-230419

ABSTRACT

Despite having emerged from pandemic status, the incidence of COVID-19 episodes has recently increased in Spain, including pediatric cases and admissions to Intensive Care Units. Several recombinant variants are circulating among us, particularly XBB arising from two Omicron BA.2 sublineages with mutations in the genes encoding the spicule proteins that could increase binding to the ACE2 receptor and be more prone to immune escape. Faced with these, 3 pharmaceutical companies have developed vaccines adapted to the XBB.1.5 sublineage that are already available for administration in our setting with risks that should not be different from those of previous mRNA vaccines and with clearly favorable benefit/risk ratios. They should be applied to patients with potential for poor COVID-19 evolution and to collectives that have a particular relationship of proximity with them. Their application should be understood not only from a perspective of individual convenience but also from that of collective responsibility. The most convenient seems to be a simultaneous immunization of COVID-19 and influenza in our environment. In the therapeutic aspect, there is little to expect right now from antisera, but the already known antiviral drugs are still available and indicated, although their efficacy will have to be reevaluated due to their impact on populations that are mostly immunized and with a better prognosis than in the past. In our opinion, it is necessary to continue to make a reasonable and timely use of masks and other non-pharmacological means of protection. (AU)


Pese a haber salido de la situación de pandemia, la incidencia de episodios de COVID-19 ha aumentado recientemente en España, incluidos los casos pediátricos y los ingresos en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos. Circulan entre nosotros diversas variantes recombinantes, particularmente la XBB surgidas de dos sublinajes Omicron BA.2 con mutaciones en los genes que codifican las proteínas de la espícula y que pudieran aumentar la unión al receptor ACE2 y ser más propensas al escape inmune. Frente a ellas, 3 empresas farmacéuticas han elaborado vacunas adaptadas al sublinaje XBB.1.5 que ya se encuentran disponibles para su administración en nuestro medio con riesgos que no deben ser diferentes a los de las vacunas mRNA previas y con relaciones beneficio/riesgos claramente favorables. Deben aplicarse a pacientes con potencial de mala evolución de COVID-19 y a los colectivos que tienen una particular relación de proximidad con ellos. Su aplicación debe ser entendida no sólo desde una perspectiva de conveniencia individual sino desde la de la responsabilidad colectiva. Lo más conveniente parece hacer una inmunización simultánea de COVID-19 y gripe en nuestro medio. En el aspecto terapéutico hay poco que esperar ahora mismo de los antisueros pero siguen estando disponibles e indicados los fármacos antivirales ya conocidos aunque su eficacia tendrá que reevaluarse por su impacto en poblaciones mayoritariamente inmunizadas y con pronóstico mejor que las de tiempos pasados. A nuestro juicio, es necesario seguir haciendo un uso razonable y puntual de mascarillas y otros medios no farmacológicos de protección. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , /prevention & control , /therapy , /instrumentation , /methods , Influenza Vaccines/administration & dosage , Influenza Vaccines/therapeutic use , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Masks , Vaccines/administration & dosage , Vaccines/supply & distribution , Vaccines/therapeutic use , Ritonavir
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